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LESSON 2967 Fri 20 Apr 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Free Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
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112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org https://www.tipitaka.org/stp-pali-eng-parallel.shtml
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LESSON 2967 Fri 20 Apr 2019

Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness
Tipitaka is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for
welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta —
Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight
Net -Free Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
in
112
CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya
Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

https://www.tipitaka.org/stp-pali-eng-parallel.shtml

Home > English Publications > Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna
Sutta
The Great Discourse
on the Establishing of Awareness
Visayasūcī
Contents
Note on the Pronunciation of Pāli
Vedanā in the Practice of Satipaṭṭhāna

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta

The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Awareness

1. Uddeso

1. Introduction

2. Kāyānupassanā

2. The Observation of Body

A. Ānāpānapabbaṃ

B. Iriyāpathapabbaṃ

C. Sampajānapabbaṃ

D. Paṭikūlamanasikārapabbaṃ

E. Dhātumanasikārapabbaṃ

F. Navasivathikapabbaṃ

A. Section on Respiration

B. Section on Postures

C. Section on Constant Thorough Understanding of Impermanence

D. Section on Reflections on Repulsiveness

E. Section on the Reflections on the Material Elements

F. Section on the Nine Charnel-ground Observations

3. Vedanānupassanā

3. The Observation of Sensations

4. Cittānupassanā

4. The Observation of Mind

5. Dhammānupassanā

5. The Observation of Mental Contents

A. Nīvaraṇapabbaṃ

B. Khandhapabbaṃ

C. Āyatanapabbaṃ

D. Bojjhaṅgapabbaṃ

E. Saccapabbaṃ

Dukkhasaccaniddeso

Samudayasaccaniddeso

Nirodhasaccaniddeso

Maggasaccaniddeso

A. Section on the Hindrances

B. Section on the Aggregates

C. Section on the Sense Spheres

D. Section on the Factors of Enlightenment

E. Section on the Noble Truths

Exposition of the Truth of Suffering

Exposition of the Truth of the Arising of Suffering

Exposition of the Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

Exposition of the Truth of the Path

6. Satipaṭṭhānabhāvanānisaṃso

6. The Results of Practising the Establishing of Awareness

Notes (subscript numbers are explained in the endnotes to this book)

Note on the Pronunciation of Pāli
Pāli was a spoken language of northern India in the time of Gotama the
Buddha. It was written in the Brāhmī script in India in the time of
Emperor Aśoka and has been preserved in the scripts of the various
countries where the language has been maintained. In Roman script the
following set of diacritical marks are used to indicate the proper
pronunciation.

The alphabet consists of forty-one characters: eight vowels and thirty-three consonants.

Vowels: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o

Consonants:

Velar: k kh g gh ṅ

Palatal: c ch j jh ñ

Retroflex: ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ

Dental: t th d dh n

Labial: p ph b bh m

Miscellaneous: y, r, l, v, s, h, ḷ, ṃ

The vowels a, i, u are short; ā, ī, ū are long; e and o are
pronounced long except before double consonants: deva, mettā; loka,
phoṭṭhabbā.

a is pronounced like ‘a’ in ‘about’; ā like ‘a’ in ‘father’;

i is pronounced like ‘i’ in ‘mint’; ī like ‘ee’ in ‘see’;

u is pronounced like ‘u’ in ‘put’; ū like ‘oo’ in ‘pool’.

The consonant c is pronounced as in the ‘ch’ in ‘church’. All the
aspirated consonants are pronounced with an audible expulsion of breath
following the normal unaspirated sound. Therefore th is not as in
‘three’ but more like the sound in ‘Thailand’, and ph is not as in
‘photo’ but rather is pronounced ‘p’ accompanied by an expulsion of
breath.

The retroflex consonants, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ are pronounced with the
tip of the tongue turned back, whereas in the dentals, t, th, d, dh, n,
it touches the upper front teeth.

The palatal nasal, ñ, is the same as the Spanish ‘ñ’, as in señor.
The velar nasal, ṅ, is pronounced like ‘ng’ in ‘singer’ but occurs only
with the other consonants in its group: ṅk, ṅkh,ṅg, ṅgh. The
pronunciation of ṃ is similar to ṅ but occurs most commonly as a
terminal nasalization: ‘evaṃ me sutaṃ’. The Pāli v is a soft ‘v’ or ‘w’
and ḷ, produced with the tongue retroflexed, is almost a combined ‘rl’
sound.

Vedanā in the Practice of Satipaṭṭhāna
Vipassana Research Institute

The practice of the four-fold satipaṭṭhāna, the establishing of
awareness, was highly praised by the Buddha in the suttas. Mentioning
its importance in the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, the Buddha called it
ekāyano maggo - the only way for the purification of beings, for
overcoming sorrow, for extinguishing suffering, for walking on the path
of truth and for realising nibbāna (liberation).1

In this sutta, the Buddha presented a practical method for
developing self-knowledge by means of kāyānupassanā (observation of the
body), vedanānupassanā (observation of sensations), cittānupassanā
(observation of the mind), and dhammānupassanā (observation of the
contents of the mind).2

To explore the truth about ourselves, we must examine what we are:
body and mind. We must learn to observe these directly within ourselves.
Accordingly, we must keep three points in mind: 1) The reality of the
body may be imagined by contemplation, but to experience it directly one
must work with vedanā (body sensations) arising within it. 2)
Similarly, the actual experience of the mind is attained by working with
the contents of the mind. Therefore, in the same way as body and
sensations cannot be experienced separately, the mind cannot be observed
apart from the contents of the mind. 3) Mind and matter are so closely
inter-related that the contents of the mind always manifest themselves
as sensations in the body. For this reason the Buddha said:

Vedanā-samosaraṇā sabbe dhammā.3
Everything that arises in the mind flows together with sensations.

Therefore, observation of sensations offers a means - indeed the
only means - to examine the totality of our being, physical as well as
mental.

Broadly speaking, the Buddha refers to five types of vedanā:

Sukhā vedanā - pleasant sensations
Dukkhā vedanā - unpleasant sensations
Somanassa vedanā - pleasant mental feeling
Domanassa vedanā - unpleasant mental feeling
Adukkhamasukhā vedanā - neither unpleasant nor pleasant sensations.
In all references to vedanā in the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta the Buddha speaks
of sukhā vedanā, dukkhā vedanā, i.e., the body sensations; or
adukkhamasukhā vedanā, which in this context also clearly denotes
neutral body sensations.

The strong emphasis is on body sensations because they work as a
direct avenue for the attainment of fruition (nibbāna) by means of
“strong dependence condition” (upanissaya-paccayena paccayo), i.e., the
nearest dependent condition for our liberation. This fact is succinctly
highlighted in the Paṭṭhāna, the seventh text of Abhidhamma Piṭaka under
the Pakatūpanissaya, where it is stated:

Kāyikaṃ sukhaṃ kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.

Kāyikaṃ dukkhaṃ kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.

Utu kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.

Bhojanaṃ kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.

Senāsanaṃ kāyikassa sukhassa, kāyikassa dukkhassa, phalasamāpattiyā upanissayapaccayena paccayo.4

Pleasant body sensation is related to pleasant sensation of the
body, unpleasant sensation of the body, and attainment of fruition
(nibbāna) by strong dependence condition.

Unpleasant body sensation is related to pleasant sensation of the
body, unpleasant sensation of the body, and attainment of fruition by
strong dependence condition.

The season (or surrounding environment) is related to pleasant
sensation of the body, unpleasant sensation of the body, and attainment
of fruition by strong dependence condition.

Food is related to pleasant sensation of the body, unpleasant
sensation of the body, and attainment of fruition by strong dependence
condition.

Lying down and sitting (i.e., the mattress and cushions, or the
position of lying, sitting, etc.) is related to pleasant sensation of
the body, unpleasant sensation of the body, and attainment of fruition
by strong dependence condition.

From the above statement it is clear how important vedanā,
sensation, is on the path of liberation. The pleasant and unpleasant
body sensations, the surrounding environment (utu), the food we eat
(bhojanaṃ), and the sleeping and sitting position, the mattress or
cushions used, etc. (senāsanaṃ) are all responsible for ongoing body
sensations of one type or another. When the sensations are experienced
properly, as the Buddha explained in Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, these
become the nearest dependent condition for our liberation.

There are four dimensions to our nature: the body and its
sensations, and the mind and its contents. These provide four avenues
for the establishing of awareness in satipaṭṭhāna. In order that the
observation be complete, we must experience every facet, which we can
only do by means of vedanā. This exploration of truth will remove the
delusions we have about ourselves.

In the same way, to come out of the delusion about the world
outside, we must explore how the outside world interacts with our own
mind-and-matter phenomenon, our own self. The outside world comes in
contact with the individual only at the six sense doors: the eye, ear,
nose, tongue, body and mind. Since all these sense doors are contained
in the body, every contact of the outside world is at the body level.

The traditional spiritual teachers of India, before the Buddha, in
his day and afterwards, expressed the view that craving causes suffering
and that to remove suffering one must abstain from the objects of
craving. This belief led to various practices of penance and extreme
abstinence from external stimuli. In order to develop detachment, the
Buddha took a different approach. Having learned to examine the depths
of his own mind, he realized that between the external object and the
mental reflex of craving is a missing link: vedanā. Whenever we
encounter an object through the five physical senses or the mind, a
sensation arises; and based on the sensation, taṇhā (craving) arises. If
the sensation is pleasant we crave to prolong it, if it is unpleasant
we crave to be rid of it. It is in the chain of Dependent Origination
(paṭiccasamuppāda) that the Buddha expressed his profound discovery:

Saḷāyatana-paccayā phasso
Phassa-paccayā vedanā
Vedanā-paccayā taṇhā.5

Dependent on the six sense-spheres, contact arises.
Dependent on contact, sensation arises.
Dependent on sensation, craving arises.

The immediate cause for the arising of craving and, consequently, of
suffering is not something outside of us but rather the sensations that
occur within us.

Therefore, just as the understanding of vedanā is absolutely
essential to understand the interaction between mind and matter within
ourselves, the same understanding of vedanā is essential to understand
the interaction of the outside world with the individual.

If this exploration of truth were to be attempted by contemplation
or intellectualization, we could easily ignore the importance of vedanā.
However, the crux of the Buddha’s teaching is the necessity of
understanding the truth not merely at the intellectual level, but by
direct experience. For this reason vedanā is defined as follows:

Yā vedeti ti vedanā, sā vediyati lakkhaṇā, anubhavanarasā…6

That which feels the object is vedanā; its characteristic is to feel, it is the essential taste of experience…

However, merely to feel the sensations within is not enough to
remove our delusions. Instead, it is essential to understand the
ti-lakkhaṇā (three characteristics) of all phenomena. We must directly
experience anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering), and anatta
(selflessness) within ourselves. Of these three, the Buddha always
stressed the importance of anicca because the realization of the other
two will easily follow when we experience deeply the characteristic of
impermanence. In the Meghiya Sutta of the Udāna he said:

Aniccasaññino hi, Meghiya, anattasaññā saṇṭhāti, anattasaññī asmimānasamugghātaṃ pāpuṇāti diṭṭheva dhamme nibbānaṃ.7

In one, Meghiya, who perceives impermanence, the perception of
selflessness is established. One who perceives what is selfless wins the
uprooting of the pride of egotism in this very life, and thus realizes
nibbāna.

Therefore, in the practice of satipaṭṭhāna, the experience of
anicca, arising and passing away, plays a crucial role. This experience
of anicca as it manifests in the mind and body is also called vipassanā.
The practice of Vipassana is the same as the practice of satipaṭṭhāna.

The Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta begins with the observation of the body.
Here several different starting points are explained: observing
respiration, giving attention to bodily movements, etc. It is from these
points that we can progressively develop vedanānupassanā,
cittānupassanā and dhammānupassanā. However, no matter from which point
the journey starts, stages come which everyone must pass through on the
way to the final goal. These are described in important sentences
repeated not only at the end of each section of kāyānupassanā but also
at the end of vedanānupassanā, cittānupassanā and each section of
dhammānupassanā. They are:

Samudaya-dhammānupassī vā viharati.
Vaya-dhammānupassī vā viharati.
Samudaya-vaya-dhammānupassī vā viharati.8
One dwells observing the phenomenon of arising.
One dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away.
One dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away.
These sentences reveal the essence of the practice of satipaṭṭhāna.
Unless these three levels of anicca are experienced, we will not develop
paññā (wisdom) - the equanimity based on the experience of
impermanence - which leads to detachment and liberation. Therefore, in
order to practise any of the four-fold satipaṭṭhānā we have to develop
the constant thorough understanding of impermanence which in Pāli is
known as sampajañña.

Sampajañña has been often misunderstood. In the colloquial language
of the day, it also had the meaning of “knowingly.” For example, the
Buddha has spoken of sampajānamusā bhāsitā,9 and sampajāna musāvāda10
which means “consciously, or knowingly, to speak falsely.” This
superficial meaning of the term is sufficient in an ordinary context.
But whenever the Buddha speaks of vipassanā, of the practice leading to
purification, to nibbāna, as here in this sutta, then sampajañña has a
specific, technical significance.

To remain sampajāno (the adjective form of sampajañña), one must
meditate on the impermanence of phenomena (anicca-bodha), objectively
observing mind and matter without reaction. The understanding of
samudaya-vaya-dhammā (the nature of arising and passing away) cannot be
by contemplation, which is merely a process of thinking, or by
imagination or even by believing; it must be performed with paccanubhoti
11 (direct experience), which is yathābhūta-ñāṇa-dassana 12
(experiential knowledge of the reality as it is). Here the observation
of vedanā plays its vital role, because with vedanā a meditator very
clearly and tangibly experiences samudaya-vaya (arising and passing
away). Sampajañña, in fact, is directly perceiving the arising and
passing away of vedanā, wherein all four facets of our being are
included.

It is for this reason that the three essential qualities - to remain
ātāpī (ardent), sampajāno, and satimā (aware) - are invariably repeated
for each of the four satipaṭṭhānas. And as the Buddha explained,
sampajañña is observing the arising and passing away of vedanā.13 Hence
the part played by vedanā in the practice of satipaṭṭhāna should not be
ignored or this practice of satipaṭṭhāna will not be complete.

In the words of the Buddha:

Tisso imā, bhikkhave, vedanā. Katamā tisso? Sukhā vedanā, dukkhā vedanā, adukkhamasukhā vedanā.
Imā kho, bhikkhave, tisso vedanā. Imāsaṃ kho, bhikkhave, tissannaṃ vedanānaṃ pariññāya cattāro satipaṭṭhānā bhāvetabbā.14

Meditators, there are three types of body sensations. What are the
three? Pleasant sensations, unpleasant sensations and neutral
sensations. Practise, meditators, the four-fold satipaṭṭhānā for the
complete understanding of these three sensations.

The practice of satipaṭṭhāna, which is the practice of Vipassana, is
complete only when one directly experiences impermanence. Sensations
provide the nexus where the entire mind and body are tangibly revealed
as impermanent phenomena, leading to liberation.

References

1. Dīgha-nikāya: VRI II. 373; PTS II. 290

2. Loc. cit.

3. Aṅguttara-nikāya, VRI II, 58; PTS V, 107

4. Paṭṭhāna, Vol. I, Kusalatika: VRI, 324

5. Vinaya, Mahāvagga: VRI, 1; PTS 2

6. Abhidhammattha-saṅgaho, Hindi translation and commentary by Ven.
Dr. U Rewata Dhamma, Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishva-vidyalaya, Varanasi,
Vol. I p. 101. By using the term anubhavanarasā, the commentator is
pointing to the fact that the essence of experience itself is vedanā,
the sensations on the body.

7. Udāna: VRI, 31; PTS, 37

8. Dīgha-nikāya: VRI II. 374-404; PTS II. 292-314

9. Dīgha-nikāya: VRI III. 62; PTS III 45. Aṅguttara-nikāya : VRI I, Tikanipāta, 28; PTS I. 128

10. Vinaya, Pācittiya: VRI, 3; PTS 2

11. Majjhima-nikāya: VRI I. 455; PTS I. 295; Saṃyutta-nikāya: VRI III. 512, 823 ff., 839 ff.; PTS V. 217, 264ff., 286 ff.

12. Aṅguttara-nikāya: VRI II, Pañcakanipāta, 24, 168, Sattakanipāta,
65, VRI III, Aṭṭhakanipāta, 81; PTS III, 19, 200; IV, 99, 336

13. Saṃyutta-nikāya: VRI III. 401; PTS V. 180

14. Ibid.: VRI III. 415; PTS V. 180

_____________________________

Note: Pāli references are from the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana edition of the
Tipiṭaka, published by the Vipassana Research Institute (VRI), giving
book and paragraph number, followed by the Pali Text Society (PTS)
edition, giving book and page number.

Namo Tassa

Bhagavato Arahato

Sammāsambuddhassa

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
The Great Discourse on the Establishing of Awareness
Evaṃ me sutaṃ.

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kurūsu viharati kammāsadhammaṃ nāma kurūnaṃ
nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi, ‘Bhikkhavo’1 ti. ‘Bhaddante’
ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca:

Thus have I heard:

At one time the Enlightened One was staying among the Kurus at
Kammāsadhamma, a market town of the Kuru people. There the Enlightened
One addressed the monks thus: “Monks,”1 and they replied, “Venerable
Sir!” Then the Enlightened One spoke as follows:

1. Uddeso

1. Introduction

Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, sokaparidevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā.2

This is the one and only way, monks, for the purification of beings,
for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the extinguishing of
suffering and grief, for walking on the path of truth, for the
realisation of nibbāna: that is to say, the fourfold establishing of
awareness.2

Katame cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno3 satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.4

Which four? Here, monks, a monk dwells ardent with awareness and
constant thorough understanding of impermanence, 3 observing body in
body, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and
matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough
understanding of impermanence, observing sensations in sensations,
having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and
matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough
understanding of impermanence, observing mind in mind, having removed
craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells
ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of
impermanence, observing mental contents in mental contents, having
removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and matter].4

2. Kāyānupassanā

2. The Observation of Body

A. Ānāpānapabbaṃ

A. Section on Respiration

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati?

And how, monks, does a monk dwell observing body in body?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā
suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā, ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya,
parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato va assasati, sato va passasati.
Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti,5 dīghaṃ vā passasanto
‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti. Rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’
ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti.
‘Sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati, ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī
passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati. ‘Passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.

Here a monk, having gone into the forest, or to the foot of a tree,
or to an empty room, sits down cross-legged, keeps his body upright and
fixes his awareness in the area around the mouth. With this awareness,
he breathes in, with this awareness, he breathes out. Breathing in a
deep breath, he understands properly:5 “I am breathing in a deep
breath.” Breathing out a deep breath, he understands properly: “I am
breathing out a deep breath.” Breathing in a shallow breath, he
understands properly: “I am breathing in a shallow breath.” Breathing
out a shallow breath, he understands properly: “I am breathing out a
shallow breath.” In this way he trains himself: “Feeling the whole body,
I shall breathe in.” “Feeling the whole body, I shall breathe out,”
thus he trains himself. “With the bodily activities calmed, I shall
breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “With the bodily activities calmed,
I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself.

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho bhamakāro vā bhamakārantevāsī vā
dīghaṃ vā añchanto ‘dīghaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā añchanto
‘rassaṃ añchāmī’ ti pajānāti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dīghaṃ vā
assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ ti pajānāti, dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ
passasāmī’ ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ ti
pajānāti, rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ ti pajānāti.
‘Sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ ti sikkhati, ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī
passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ ti
sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ ti sikkhati.

Just as a skilful turner or a turner’s apprentice, while making a
long turn understands properly: “I am making a long turn,” and while
making a short turn, understands properly: “I am making a short turn,”
just so, the monk, breathing in a deep breath, understands properly: “I
am breathing in a deep breath.” Breathing in a shallow breath, he
understands properly: “I am breathing in a shallow breath.” Breathing
out a deep breath, he understands properly: “I am breathing out a deep
breath.” Breathing out a shallow breath, he understands properly: “I am
breathing out a shallow breath.” In this way he trains himself: “Feeling
the whole body, I shall breathe in.” “Feeling the whole body, I shall
breathe out,” thus he trains himself. “With the bodily activities
calmed, I shall breathe in,” thus he trains himself. “With the bodily
activities calmed, I shall breathe out,” thus he trains himself.

Iti6 ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā7 vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’8 ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva
ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya9 anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke
upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus6 he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally.7 Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!”8 Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness.9 In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

B. Iriyāpathapabbaṃ

B. Section on Postures

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu gacchanto vā ‘gacchāmī’ ti
pajānāti, ṭhito vā ‘ṭhitomhī’ ti pajānāti, nisinno vā ‘nisinnomhī’ ti
pajānāti, sayāno vā ‘sayānomhī’ ti pajānāti. Yathā yathā vā panassa kāyo
paṇihito hoti, tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti.10

Again, monks, a monk while he is walking, understands properly: “I
am walking”; while he is standing, he understands properly: “I am
standing”; while he is sitting, he understands properly: “I am sitting”;
while he is lying down, he understands properly: “I am lying down.” In
whichever position he disposes his body, he understands it properly.10

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

C. Sampajānapabbaṃ

C. Section on Constant Thorough Understanding of Impermanence

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti,11 ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.

Again, monks, a monk, while going forward or backward, he does so
with constant thorough understanding of impermanence;11 whether he is
looking straight ahead or looking sideways, he does so with constant
thorough understanding of impermanence; while he is bending or
stretching, he does so with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence; whether wearing his robes or carrying his bowl, he does so
with constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether he is
eating, drinking, chewing or savouring, he does so with constant
thorough understanding of impermanence; while attending to the calls of
nature, he does so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence;
whether he is walking, standing, sitting, sleeping or waking, speaking
or in silence, he does so with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

D. Paṭikūlamanasikārapabbaṃ

D. Section on Reflections on Repulsiveness

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho
kesamatthakā, tacapariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ
nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ
papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ
sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, that is covered
with skin and full of impurities of all kinds from the soles of the feet
upwards and from the hair of the head downwards, considering thus: “In
this body, there are hairs of the head, hairs of the skin, nails, teeth,
skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney, heart, liver, pleura,
spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, faeces,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal
mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ubhatomukhā putoḷi pūrā nānāvihitassa
dhaññassa, seyyathidaṃ sālīnaṃ vīhīnaṃ muggānaṃ māsānaṃ tilānaṃ
taṇḍulānaṃ. Tamenaṃ cakkhumā puriso muñcitvā paccavekkheyya: ‘Ime sālī
ime vīhī, ime muggā, ime māsā, ime tilā, ime taṇḍulā’ ti; evameva kho,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ, uddhaṃ pādatalā adho kesamatthakā,
tacapariyantaṃ pūraṃ nānappakārassa asucino paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi
imasmiṃ kāye kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ
vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ
udariyaṃ karīsaṃ pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo
siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ’ ti.

Just as if there were a double-mouthed provision bag, full of
various kinds of grains and seeds, such as hill-paddy, paddy,
mung-beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice, and as if there were
a man with discerning eyes, who, after having opened that bag would
examine the contents, saying: “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, these
are mung-beans, these are cow-peas, these are sesame seeds and this is
husked rice”; in this same way, monks, a monk reflects on this very
body, that is covered with skin and full of impurities of all kinds from
the soles of the feet upwards and from the hair of the head downwards,
considering thus: “In this body, there are hairs of the head, hairs of
the skin, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney,
heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with
its contents, faeces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears,
grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

E. Dhātumanasikārapabbaṃ

E. Section on the Reflections on the Material Elements

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ
yathāpaṇihitaṃ dhātuso paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu
āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, however it is
placed or disposed, considering it according to the characteristic of
each element: “In this body, there is the earth-element, the
water-element, the fire-element and the air-element.”

Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho goghātako vā goghātakantevāsī vā gāviṃ
vadhitvā catumahāpathe bilaso vibhajitvā nisinno assa; evameva kho,
bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ yathāṭhitaṃ yathāpaṇihitaṃ dhātuso
paccavekkhati: ‘Atthi imasmiṃ kāye pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu
vāyodhātū’ ti.

Just as if, monks, a skilful cow-butcher or his apprentice, after
having slaughtered a cow and having divided it into portions, would sit
down at the junction of four roads; in the same way, monks, a monk
reflects on this very body, however it is placed or disposed,
considering the material elements: “In this body, there is the
earth-element, the water-element, the fire-element and the air-element.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

F. Navasivathikapabbaṃ

F. Section on the Nine Charnel-ground Observations

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ ekāhamataṃ vā dvīhamataṃ vā tīhamataṃ vā
uddhumātakaṃ vinīlakaṃ vipubbakajātaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati:
‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, dead for one, two or three days, swollen, blue and
festering, regarding his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this body is
of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ kākehi vā khajjamānaṃ kulalehi vā khajjamānaṃ
gijjhehi vā khajjamānaṃ kaṅkehi vā khajjamānaṃ sunakhehi vā khajjamānaṃ
byagghehi vā khajjamānaṃ dīpīhi vā khajjamānaṃ siṅgālehi vā khajjamānaṃ
vividhehi vā pāṇakajātehi khajjamānaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati:
‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by vultures,
being eaten by falcons, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs,
being eaten by tigers, being eaten by leopards, being eaten by jackals
and being eaten by different kinds of creatures, regarding his own body
considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become
like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ samaṃsalohitaṃ nhārusambandhaṃ.
So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī
evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to a skeleton with some flesh and blood
attached to it and held together by tendons, regarding his own body
considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become
like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ nimaṃsalohitamakkhitaṃ
nhārusambandhaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to a skeleton without any flesh but smeared
with blood and held together by tendons, regarding his own body
considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become
like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikasaṅkhalikaṃ apagatamaṃsalohitaṃ
nhārusambandhaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo
evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to a skeleton without any flesh or blood,
held together by tendons, regarding his own body considers thus:
“Indeed, this body is of the same nature, it will become like that and
cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni apagatasambandhāni disā vidisā
vikkhittāni, aññena hatthaṭṭhikaṃ aññena pādaṭṭhikaṃ aññena
gopphakaṭṭhikaṃ aññena jaṅghaṭṭhikaṃ aññena ūruṭṭhikaṃ aññena
kaṭiṭṭhikaṃ aññena phāsukaṭṭhikaṃ aññena piṭṭhiṭṭhikaṃ aññena
khandhaṭṭhikaṃ aññena gīvaṭṭhikaṃ aññena hanukaṭṭhikaṃ aññena
dantaṭṭhikaṃ aññena sīsakaṭāhaṃ. So imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi
kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to disconnected bones, scattered in all
directions, here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot, here a
bone of the ankle, there a bone of the knee, here a bone of the thigh
and there a bone of the pelvis, here a bone of the spine, there a bone
of the back, again there a bone of the shoulder, here a bone of the
throat, there a bone of the chin, here a bone of the teeth and there a
bone of the skull, regarding his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this
body is of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape
it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni setāni saṅkhavaṇṇapaṭibhāgāni. So
imameva kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī
evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, reduced to bleached bones of conch-like colour,
regarding his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same
nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni puñjakitāni terovassikāni. So imameva
kāyaṃ upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’
ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, of bones that are piled up in a heap more than a
year old, regarding his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this body is
of the same nature, it will become like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu seyyathāpi passeyya sarīraṃ
sivathikāya chaḍḍitaṃ aṭṭhikāni pūtīni cuṇṇakajātāni. So imameva kāyaṃ
upasaṃharati: ‘ayaṃ pi kho kāyo evaṃdhammo evaṃbhāvī evaṃanatīto’ ti.

Again, monks, a monk, when he sees a dead body that has been thrown
in a charnel-ground, the bones having rotted away to powder, regarding
his own body considers thus: “Indeed, this body is of the same nature,
it will become like that and cannot escape it.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā kāye
kāyānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā kāye kāyānupassī viharati,
samudayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati, vayadhammānupassī vā
kāyasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā kāyasmiṃ viharati,
‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya
paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ
pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati.

Thus he dwells observing body in body internally, or he dwells
observing body in body externally, or he dwells observing body in body
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
passing away in the body, thus he dwells observing the phenomenon of
arising and passing away in the body. Now his awareness is established:
“This is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that
there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he
dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind
and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing body in body.

3. Vedanānupassanā

3. The Observation of Sensations

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati?

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing sensations in sensations?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; dukkhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘dukkhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; adukkhamasukhaṃ vā vedanaṃ vedayamāno
‘adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ
vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti;
nirāmisaṃ vā sukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ
dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayamāno ‘nirāmisaṃ dukkhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti. Sāmisaṃ vā
adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno ‘sāmisaṃ adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ
vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti; nirāmisaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayamāno
‘nirāmisaṃ adukkhamasukhaṃ vedanaṃ vedayāmī’ ti pajānāti.12

Here, monks, a monk, while experiencing a pleasant sensation,
understands properly, “I am experiencing a pleasant sensation”; while
experiencing an unpleasant sensation, he understands properly, “I am
experiencing an unpleasant sensation”; while experiencing a
neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation, he understands properly, “I
am experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation.” While he
is experiencing a pleasant sensation with attachment, he understands
properly, “I am experiencing a pleasant sensation with attachment”;
while he is experiencing a pleasant sensation without attachment, he
understands properly, “I am experiencing a pleasant sensation without
attachment”; while experiencing an unpleasant sensation with attachment,
he understands properly, “I am experiencing an unpleasant sensation
with attachment”; while experiencing an unpleasant sensation without
attachment, he understands properly, “I am experiencing an unpleasant
sensation without attachment”; while experiencing a
neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation with attachment, he
understands properly, “I am experiencing a
neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation with attachment”; while
experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation without
attachment, he understands properly, “I am experiencing a
neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant sensation without attachment.”12

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, bahiddhā13 vā
vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā vedanāsu
vedanānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā vedanāsu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
vedanāsu viharati, ‘atthi vedanā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedanāsu vedanānupassī
viharati.

Thus he dwells observing sensations in sensations internally, or he
dwells observing sensations in sensations externally,13 or he dwells
observing sensations in sensations both internally and externally. Thus
he dwells observing the phenomenon of arising in sensations, thus he
dwells observing the phenomenon of passing away in sensations, thus he
dwells observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in
sensations. Now his awareness is established: “This is sensation!” Thus
he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing sensations in sensations.

4. Cittānupassanā

4. The Observation of Mind

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte14 cittānupassī viharati?

Again, monks, how does a monk dwell, observing mind in mind?14

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sarāgaṃ cittaṃ’ ti
pajānāti, vītarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vītarāgaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, sadosaṃ vā
cittaṃ ‘sadosaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vītadosaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vītadosaṃ
cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, samohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘samohaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti,
vītamohaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vītamohaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ
‘saṅkhittaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, vikkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vikkhittaṃ
cittaṃ’15 ti pajānāti, mahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘mahaggataṃ cittaṃ’ ti
pajānāti, amahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ ‘amahaggataṃ cittaṃ’16 ti pajānāti,
sa-uttaraṃ vā cittaṃ ‘sa-uttaraṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, anuttaraṃ vā
cittaṃ ‘anuttaraṃ cittaṃ’17 ti pajānāti, samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘samāhitaṃ
cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘asamāhitaṃ cittaṃ’18 ti
pajānāti, vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ ‘vimuttaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti, avimuttaṃ vā
cittaṃ ‘avimuttaṃ cittaṃ’ ti pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk understands properly mind with craving as mind
with craving, he understands properly mind free from craving as mind
free from craving, he understands properly mind with aversion as mind
with aversion, he understands properly mind free from aversion as mind
free from aversion, he understands properly mind with delusion as mind
with delusion, he understands properly mind free from delusion as mind
free from delusion, he understands properly collected mind as collected
mind, he understands properly a scattered mind as scattered mind,15 he
understands properly expanded mind as expanded mind, he understands
properly unexpanded mind as unexpanded mind,16 he understands properly
surpassable mind as surpassable mind, he understands properly
unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable mind,17 he understands properly
concentrated mind as concentrated mind, he understands properly
unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated mind,18 he understands properly
freed mind as freed mind, he understands properly not freed mind as not
freed mind.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā citte cittānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā citte
cittānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī
viharati,19 samudayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā cittasmiṃ viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
cittasmiṃ viharati, ‘atthi cittaṃ’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā
hoti. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca
kiñci loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu citte cittānupassī
viharati.

Thus he dwells observing mind in mind internally, or he dwells
observing mind in mind externally, or he dwells observing mind in mind
both internally and externally.19 Thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of arising in the mind, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mind, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mind. Now his awareness is
established: “This is mind!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an
extent that there is mere understanding along with mere awareness. In
this way he dwells detached, without clinging towards anything in the
world [of mind and matter]. This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing
mind in mind.

5. Dhammānupassanā

5. The Observation of Mental Contents

A. Nīvaraṇapabbaṃ

A. The Section on the Hindrances

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati?

Again, monks, how does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati - pañcasu nīvaraṇesu.

Here, monks, a monk dwells, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five hindrances.

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati - pañcasu nīvaraṇesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five hindrances?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ kāmacchandaṃ ‘atthi me
ajjhattaṃ kāmacchando’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ kāmacchandaṃ
‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ kāmacchando’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa
kāmacchandassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa
kāmacchandassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa
kāmacchandassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk, whenever sense desire is present in him, he
understands properly that, “Sense desire is present in me.” Whenever
sense desire is absent from him, he understands properly that, “Sense
desire is absent from me.” He understands properly, how sense desire
that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly,
how sense desire that has now arisen in him, gets eradicated. He
understands properly, how sense desire that has now been eradicated,
will in future no longer arise in him.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ byāpādaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ byāpādo’ ti
pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ byāpādaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ byāpādo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa byāpādassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti,
yathā ca uppannassa byāpādassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
pahīnassa byāpādassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

Whenever aversion is present in him, he understands properly that,
“Aversion is present in me.” Whenever aversion is absent from him, he
understands properly that, “Aversion is absent from me.” He understands
properly, how aversion that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise.
He understands properly, how aversion that has now arisen in him, gets
eradicated. He understands properly, how aversion that has now been
eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ thinamiddhaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ thinamiddhaṃ’
ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ thinamiddhaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ
thinamiddhaṃ’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa thinamiddhassa uppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa thinamiddhassa pahānaṃ hoti
taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa thinamiddhassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti
taṃ ca pajānāti.

Whenever sloth and torpor are present in him, he understands
properly that, “Sloth and torpor are present in me.” Whenever sloth and
torpor are absent from him, he understands properly that, “Sloth and
torpor are absent from me.” He understands properly, how sloth and
torpor that have not yet arisen in him, come to arise. He understands
properly, how sloth and torpor that have now arisen in him, get
eradicated. He understands properly, how sloth and torpor that have now
been eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkuccaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
uddhaccakukkuccaṃ’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkuccaṃ
‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ uddhaccakukkuccaṃ’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca
anuppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
uppannassa uddhaccakukkuccassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
pahīnassa uddhaccakukkuccassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

Whenever agitation and remorse are present in him, he understands
properly that, “Agitation and remorse are present in me.” Whenever
agitation and remorse are absent from him, he understands properly that,
“Agitation and remorse are absent from me.” He understands properly,
how agitation and remorse that have not yet arisen in him, come to
arise. He understands properly, how agitation and remorse that have now
arisen in him, get eradicated. He understands properly, how agitation
and remorse that have now been eradicated, will in future no longer
arise in him.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vicikicchaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ vicikicchā’ ti
pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vicikicchaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ
vicikicchā’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannāya vicikicchāya uppādo hoti
taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannāya vicikicchāya pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca
pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnāya vicikicchāya āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca
pajānāti.

Whenever doubt is present in him, he understands properly that,
“Doubt is present in me.” Whenever doubt is absent from him, he
understands properly that, “Doubt is absent from me.” He understands
properly, how doubt that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He
understands properly, how doubt that has now arisen in him, gets
eradicated. He understands properly, how doubt that has now been
eradicated, will in future no longer arise in him.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati pañcasu nīvaraṇesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the five hindrances.

B. Khandhapabbaṃ

B. The Section on the Aggregates

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu.20

Again, monks, a monk dwells, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five aggregates of clinging.20

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the five aggregates of clinging?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu, ‘iti rūpaṃ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti
rūpassa atthaṅgamo; iti vedanā, iti vedanāya samudayo, iti vedanāya
atthaṅgamo; iti saññā, iti saññāya samudayo, iti saññāya atthaṅgamo; iti
saṅkhārā, iti saṅkhārānaṃ samudayo, iti saṅkhārānaṃ atthaṅgamo; iti
viññāṇaṃ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ ti.

Here, monks, a monk [understands properly]: “Such is matter, such is
the arising of matter, such is the passing away of matter; such are
sensations, such is the arising of sensations, such is the passing away
of sensations; such is perception, such is the arising of perception,
such is the passing away of perception; such are reactions, such is the
arising of reactions, such is the passing away of reactions; such is
consciousness, such is the arising of consciousness, such is the passing
away of consciousness.”

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the five aggregates of clinging.

C. Āyatanapabbaṃ

C. The Section on the Sense Spheres

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu.

Again, monks, a monk dwells, observing mental contents in mental
contents, as regards the six internal and external sense spheres.

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell, observing mental contents in mental
contents, as regards the six internal and external sense spheres?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhuṃ ca pajānāti, rūpe ca pajānāti, yaṃ
ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
anuppannassa saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa
saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk understands properly the eye, he understands
properly the visible object and he understands properly the bondage that
arises dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage
that has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the
bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly
how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer
arise.

Sotaṃ ca pajānāti, sadde ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa
uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the ear, he understands properly sound and
he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two.
He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes
to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen,
gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now
been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

Ghānaṃ ca pajānāti, gandhe ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa
uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the nose, he understands properly smell and
he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two.
He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes
to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen,
gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now
been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

Jivhaṃ ca pajānāti, rase ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa
uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the tongue, he understands properly taste
and he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these
two. He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen,
comes to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now
arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that
has now been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

Kāyaṃ ca pajānāti, phoṭṭhabbe ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa
saṃyojanassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa
saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa
saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the body, he understands properly touch and
he understands properly the bondage that arises dependent on these two.
He understands properly how the bondage that has not yet arisen, comes
to arise. He understands properly how the bondage that has now arisen,
gets eradicated. He understands properly how that bondage that has now
been eradicated, will in future no longer arise.

Manaṃ ca pajānāti, dhamme ca pajānāti, yaṃ ca tadubhayaṃ paṭicca
uppajjati saṃyojanaṃ taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa saṃyojanassa
uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa saṃyojanassa pahānaṃ
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca pahīnassa saṃyojanassa āyatiṃ anuppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

He understands properly the mind, he understands properly the
contents of the mind and he understands properly the bondage that arises
dependent on these two. He understands properly how the bondage that
has not yet arisen, comes to arise. He understands properly how the
bondage that has now arisen, gets eradicated. He understands properly
how that bondage that has now been eradicated, will in future no longer
arise.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati chasu ajjhattikabāhiresu āyatanesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the six internal and external sense spheres.

D. Bojjhaṅgapabbaṃ

D. The Section on the Factors of Enlightenment

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu.

Again, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the seven factors of enlightenment.

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the seven factors of enlightenment?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgaṃ
‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
satisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ satisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti,
yathā ca anuppannassa satisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti,
yathā ca uppannassa satisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca
pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk understands properly that, when the factor of
enlightenment, awareness, is present within him, “The factor of
enlightenment, awareness, is present in me.” He understands properly
that, when the factor of enlightenment, awareness, is absent from him,
“The factor of enlightenment, awareness, is absent from me.” He
understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, awareness, that
has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how
the factor of enlightenment, awareness, that has now arisen, is
developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ21 ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo’
ti pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa uppādo
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgassa
bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma,21 is
present in him, he understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment,
investigation of Dhamma, is present in me.” He understands properly
that, when the factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma, is
absent from him, “The factor of enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma,
is absent from me.” He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma that has not yet arisen in him,
comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, investigation of Dhamma, that has now arisen, is
developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
vīriyasambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ vīriyasambojjhaṅgo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca
pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī
hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, effort, is present in him, he
understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, effort, is present
in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment,
effort, is absent from him, “The factor of enlightenment, effort, is
absent from me.” He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, effort, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise.
He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, that has now
arisen, is developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ22 ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
pītisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ
‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ pītisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, yathā ca
anuppannassa pītisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ ca pajānāti, yathā ca
uppannassa pītisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, rapture,22 is present in him, he
understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, rapture, is present
in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of enlightenment,
rapture, is absent from him, “The factor of enlightenment, rapture, is
absent from me.” He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, rapture, that has not yet arisen in him, comes to arise.
He understands properly, how the factor of enlightenment, rapture, that
has now arisen, is developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ23 ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
passaddhisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ passaddhisambojjhaṅgo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ
ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya
pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, tranquillity,23 is present in him,
he understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, tranquillity, is
present in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of
enlightenment, tranquillity, is absent from him, “The factor of
enlightenment, tranquillity is absent from me.” He understands properly,
how the factor of enlightenment, tranquillity, that has not yet arisen
in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, tranquillity, that has now arisen, is developed and
perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
samādhisambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ samādhisambojjhaṅgo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa samādhisambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ
ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa samādhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya
pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, concentration, is present in him,
he understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, concentration, is
present in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of
enlightenment, concentration, is absent from him, “The factor of
enlightenment, concentration, is absent from me.” He understands
properly, how the factor of enlightenment, concentration, that has not
yet arisen in him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the
factor of enlightenment, concentration, that has now arisen, is
developed and perfected.

Santaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘atthi me ajjhattaṃ
upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo’ ti pajānāti, asantaṃ vā ajjhattaṃ
upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ ‘natthi me ajjhattaṃ upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo’ ti
pajānāti, yathā ca anuppannassa upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa uppādo hoti taṃ
ca pajānāti, yathā ca uppannassa upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya
pāripūrī hoti taṃ ca pajānāti.

When the factor of enlightenment, equanimity, is present in him, he
understands properly, “The factor of enlightenment, equanimity, is
present in me.” He understands properly that, when the factor of
enlightenment, equanimity, is absent from him, “The factor of
enlightenment, equanimity, is absent from me.” He understands properly,
how the factor of enlightenment, equanimity, that has not yet arisen in
him, comes to arise. He understands properly, how the factor of
enlightenment, equanimity, that has now arisen, is developed and
perfected.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati sattasu bojjhaṅgesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the seven factors of enlightenment.

E. Saccapabbaṃ

E. The Section on the Noble Truths

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu.

Again, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the four noble truths.

Kathaṃ ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu?

How, monks, does a monk dwell observing mental contents in mental contents, as regards the four noble truths?

Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘idaṃ dukkhaṃ’ ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti,
‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ ti
yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ ti yathābhūtaṃ
pajānāti.

Here, monks, a monk understands properly as it is, “This is
suffering”; he understands properly as it is, “This is the arising of
suffering”; he understands properly as it is, “This is the cessation of
suffering”; he understands properly as it is, “This is the path leading
to the cessation of suffering.”

Dukkhasaccaniddeso

Exposition of the Truth of Suffering

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ?

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering?

Jāti pi dukkhā, jarā pi dukkhā, (byādhi pi dukkhā,)24 maraṇaṃ pi
dukkhaṃ, sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā pi dukkhā, appiyehi sampayogo
pi dukkho, piyehi vippayogo pi dukkho, yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi
dukkhaṃ, saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.

Birth is suffering, old age is suffering, (sickness is suffering),24
death is suffering, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress are
suffering, the association with something that one does not like is
suffering, the disassociation with something that one does like is
suffering, not to get what one desires is suffering; in short, the
clinging to the five aggregates is suffering.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, jāti? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi
sattanikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti abhinibbatti khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo
āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, jāti.

And what, monks, is birth? If there is birth for all kinds of beings
in whatever kind of existence, their conception, their being born,
their becoming, the coming into manifestation of their aggregates, the
acquisition of their sense faculties - this, monks, is called birth.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, jarā? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi
sattanikāye jarā jīraṇatā khaṇḍiccaṃ pāliccaṃ valittacatā āyuno saṃhāni
indriyānaṃ paripāko, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, jarā.

And what, monks, is old age? If there is old age for all kinds of
beings in whatever kind of existence, their getting frail and decrepit,
the breaking [of their teeth], their becoming grey and wrinkled, the
running down of their life span, the deterioration of their sense
faculties - this, monks, is called old age.

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, maraṇaṃ? Yaṃ tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhā tamhā
sattanikāyā cuti cavanatā bhedo antaradhānaṃ maccu maraṇaṃ kālakiriyā
khandhānaṃ bhedo kaḷevarassa nikkhepo jīvitindriyassupacchedo, idaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, maraṇaṃ.

And what, monks, is death? If there is vanishing and passing away
for all kinds of beings in whatever kind of existence, their
disintegration, their disappearance, their dying, their death, the
completion of their life span, the dissolution of the aggregates, the
discarding of the body, the destruction of their vitality - this, monks,
is called death.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, soko? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena
byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa
soko socanā socitattaṃ antosoko antoparisoko, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
soko.

And what, monks, is sorrow? Whenever one, monks, is affected by
various kinds of loss and misfortune, that are followed by this or that
kind of painful state of mind, by sorrow, by mourning, by sorrowfulness,
by inward grief, and by deep inward woe - this, monks, is called
sorrow.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paridevo? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena
byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa
ādevo paridevo ādevanā paridevanā ādevitattaṃ paridevitattaṃ, ayaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, paridevo.

And what, monks, is lamentation? Whenever one, monks, is affected by
various kinds of loss and misfortune, that are followed by this or that
kind of painful state of mind, by wailing and crying, by lamentation,
by deep wailing, by deep lamentation, by the state of deep wailing and
deep lamentation - this, monks, is called lamentation.

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ?25 Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, kāyikaṃ
dukkhaṃ kāyikaṃ asātaṃ kāyasamphassajaṃ dukkhaṃ asātaṃ vedayitaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ.

And what, monks, is pain?25 If there is, monks, any kind of bodily
pain, any kind of bodily unpleasantness or any kind of painful or
unpleasant sensation as a result of bodily contact - this, monks, is
called pain.

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, domanassaṃ?25 Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, cetasikaṃ
dukkhaṃ cetasikaṃ asātaṃ manosamphassajaṃ dukkhaṃ asātaṃ vedayitaṃ, idaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, domanassaṃ.

And what, monks, is grief?25 If there is, monks, any kind of mental
pain, any kind of mental unpleasantness or any kind of painful or
unpleasant sensation as a result of mental contact - this, monks, is
called grief.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, upāyāso? Yo kho, bhikkhave, aññataraññatarena
byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa
āyāso upāyāso āyāsitattaṃ upāyāsitattaṃ, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
upāyāso.

And what, monks, is distress? Whenever one, monks, is affected by
various kinds of loss and misfortune, that are followed by this or that
kind of painful state of mind, by tribulation, by distress, affliction
with distress and affliction with great distress - this, monks, is
called distress.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti
aniṭṭhā akantā amanāpā rūpā saddā gandhā rasā phoṭṭhabbā dhammā, ye vā
panassa te honti anatthakāmā ahitakāmā aphāsukakāmā ayogakkhemakāmā, yā
tehi saddhiṃ saṅgati samāgamo samodhānaṃ missībhāvo, ayaṃ vuccati,
bhikkhave, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho.

And what, monks, is the suffering of being associated with what one
does not like? Wherever and whenever one finds unpleasant, disagreeable
or disliked objects of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch or of the mind,
or, whenever and wherever one finds that there are wishers of one’s own
misfortune, harm, difficulties or of one’s own insecurity; if one gets
associated, one meets, one comes into contact or gets combined with them
- this, monks, is called the suffering of being associated with what
one does not like.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho? Idha yassa te honti
iṭṭhā kantā manāpā rūpā saddā gandhā rasā phoṭṭhabbā dhammā, ye vā
panassa te honti atthakāmā hitakāmā phāsukakāmā yogakkhemakāmā mātā vā
pitā vā bhātā vā bhaginī vā mittā vā amaccā vā ñātisālohitā vā, yā tehi
saddhiṃ asaṅgati asamāgamo asamodhānaṃ amissībhāvo, ayaṃ vuccati,
bhikkhave, piyehi vippayogo dukkho.

And what, monks, is the suffering of being disassociated with what
one does like? Wherever and whenever one finds pleasant, agreeable or
liked objects of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch or of the mind, or,
whenever and wherever one finds that there are wishers of one’s own
fortune, prosperity, comfort or of one’s own security, like mother and
father, like brother and sister, like friends and colleagues or
relatives; if one gets disassociated, one does not meet, one does not
come into contact or does not get combined with them - this, monks, is
called the suffering of being disassociated with what one does like.

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi dukkhaṃ?
Jātidhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata mayaṃ
na jātidhammā assāma na ca vata no jāti āgaccheyyā’ ti. Na kho panetaṃ
icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi dukkhaṃ.

And what, monks, is not getting what one desires? In beings, monks,
who are subject to birth the desire arises: “Oh, truly, that we were not
subject to birth! Oh, truly, may there be no new birth for us!” But
this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what one wants is
suffering.

Jarādhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata
mayaṃ na jarādhammā assāma, na ca vata no jarā āgaccheyyā’ ti. Na kho
panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi dukkhaṃ.

In beings, monks, who are subject to old age the desire arises: “Oh,
truly, that we were not subject to old age! Oh, truly, may we not be
subject to old age!” But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not
to get what one wants is suffering.

Byādhidhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata
mayaṃ na byādhidhammā assāma, na ca vata no byādhi āgaccheyyā’ ti. Na
kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi
dukkhaṃ.

In beings, monks, who are subject to sickness the desire arises:
“Oh, truly, that we were not subject to sickness! Oh, truly, may there
be no sickness for us!” But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and
not to get what one wants is suffering.

Maraṇadhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata
mayaṃ na maraṇadhammā assāma, na ca vata no maraṇaṃ āgaccheyyā’ ti. Na
kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi
dukkhaṃ.

In beings, monks, who are subject to death the desire arises: “Oh,
truly, that we were not subject to death! Oh, truly, may we never have
to die!” But this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what
one wants is suffering.

Sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammānaṃ, bhikkhave, sattānaṃ evaṃ
icchā uppajjati: ‘aho vata mayaṃ na
sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammā assāma, na ca vata no
sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammā āgaccheyyuṃ’ ti. Na kho panetaṃ
icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idaṃ pi yampicchaṃ na labhati taṃ pi dukkhaṃ.

In beings, monks, who are subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain,
grief and distress the desire arises: “Oh, truly, that we were not
subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress! Oh, truly, may
we not suffer from sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and distress!” But
this cannot be obtained by mere desire; and not to get what one wants is
suffering.

Katame ca, bhikkhave, saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā?
Seyyathidaṃ - rūpupādānakkhandho vedanupādānakkhandho
saññupādānakkhandho saṅkhārupādānakkhandho viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Ime
vuccanti, bhikkhave, saṅkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.

And how, monks, in short, is clinging to the five aggregates
suffering? It is as follows - clinging to the aggregate of matter is
suffering, clinging to the aggregate of sensation is suffering, clinging
to the aggregate of perception is suffering, clinging to the aggregate
of reaction is suffering, clinging to the aggregate of consciousness is
suffering. This, monks, in short, is called suffering because of
clinging to these five aggregates.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering.

Samudayasaccaniddeso

Exposition of the Truth of the Arising of Suffering

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccaṃ?

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering?

Yāyaṃ taṇhā ponobbhavikā nandīrāgasahagatā tatratatrābhinandinī, seyyathidaṃ, kāmataṇhā bhavataṇhā vibhavataṇhā.

It is this craving that occurs again and again and is bound up with
pleasure and lust and finds delight now here, now there. That is, the
craving for sensual pleasures, the craving for repeated rebirth and the
craving for annihilation.

Sā kho panesā, bhikkhave, taṇhā kattha uppajjamānā uppajjati, kattha nivisamānā nivisati?

But where does this craving, monks, arise and where does it get established?

Yaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Wherever in the world [of mind and matter] there is something
enticing and pleasurable, there this craving arises and gets
established.

Kiñca loke26 piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ? Cakkhu loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Sotaṃ
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Ghānaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Jivhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Kayo loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Mano loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

But what in the world26 [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable? The eye in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The ear …
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The nose … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The tongue … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. The body … is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
mind in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established.

Rūpā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati,
ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Gandhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Rasā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Dhammā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

Visible objects, material forms in the world [of mind and matter],
are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. Sounds … are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. Smells … are enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. Tastes … are enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. Touch …
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The contents of the mind in the world [of mind and matter]
are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established.

Cakkhuviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Sotaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Ghānaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Jivhāviññāṇaṃ loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Kāyaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Manoviññāṇaṃ
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The eye consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The ear
consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises
and gets established. The nose consciousness … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The tongue
consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises
and gets established. The body consciousness … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mind
consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

Cakkhusamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Sotasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Ghānasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Jivhāsamphasso loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Kāyasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Manosamphasso
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The eye contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
ear-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and
gets established. The nose-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there
this craving arises and gets established. The tongue-contact … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The body-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established. The mind-contact in the world [of
mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises
and gets established.

Cakkhusamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Sotasamphassajā vedanā
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Ghānasamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.
Jivhāsamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Kāyasamphassajā vedanā
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Manosamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

The sensation arising from the eye-contact in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The sensation arising from the ear-contact … is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
sensation arising from the nose-contact … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. The sensation arising
from the tongue-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established. The sensation arising from the
body-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises
and gets established. The sensation arising from the mind-contact in the
world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established.

Rūpasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasasaññā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Dhammasaññā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The perception of visible objects, of material forms, in the world
[of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The perception of sounds … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
perception of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The perception of tastes … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
perception of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The perception of mental contents in the
world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established.

Rūpasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasasañcetanā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.
Dhammasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati.

The mental reaction to visible objects in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The mental reaction to sounds … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The mental
reaction to smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The mental reaction to tastes … is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The
mental reaction to touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established. The mental reaction to mind
objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established.

Rūpataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasataṇhā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Dhammataṇhā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The craving after visible objects in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The craving after sounds … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. The craving after smells
… is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The craving after tastes … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving arises and gets established. The craving after touch …
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The craving after mind objects, mental contents in the
world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving arises and gets established.

Rūpavitakko27 loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasavitakko loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Dhammavitakko
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The thought conception27 of visible objects in the world [of mind
and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and
gets established. The thought conception of sounds … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The thought
conception of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The thought conception of tastes … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The thought conception of touch … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The thought
conception of mind objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established.

Rūpavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā
uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Saddavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā
nivisati. Gandhavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Rasavicāro loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati. Phoṭṭhabbavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha nivisamānā nivisati. Dhammavicāro
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati, ettha
nivisamānā nivisati.

The rolling in thoughts of visible objects in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The rolling in thoughts of sounds … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The rolling
in thoughts of smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
arises and gets established. The rolling in thoughts of tastes … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established. The rolling in thoughts of touch … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets established. The rolling
in thoughts of mind objects, mental contents in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving arises and gets
established.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering.

Nirodhasaccaniddeso

Exposition of the Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ?

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering?

Yo tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti
anālayo. Sā kho panesā, bhikkhave, taṇhā kattha pahīyamānā pahīyati,
kattha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati? Yaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

It is the complete fading away and cessation of this very craving,
forsaking it and giving it up; the liberation from it, leaving no place
for it. But where may this craving, monks, be eradicated; where may it
be extinguished? Wherever in the world [of mind and matter] there is
something enticing and pleasurable: there this craving may be eradicated
and extinguished.

Kiñca loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ? Cakkhu loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotaṃ
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Ghānaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Kāyo loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Mano loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

But what in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable? The eye in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
ear … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated
and extinguished. The nose … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The tongue … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
body … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The mind in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished.

Rūpā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Gandhā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Dhammā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The objects of sight, the material forms in the world [of mind and
matter], are enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sounds … are enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The smells … are
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The tastes … are enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. Touch … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
contents of the mind in the world [of mind and matter] are enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Cakkhuviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Ghānaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhāviññāṇaṃ loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Kāyaviññāṇaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Manoviññāṇaṃ
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The eye-consciousness in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.
The ear-consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
may be eradicated and extinguished. The nose-consciousness … is enticing
and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.
The tongue-consciousness … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The body-consciousness … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The mind-consciousness in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished.

Cakkhusamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Ghānasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Jivhāsamphasso loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Kāyasamphasso loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Manosamphasso
loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The eye-contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
ear-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The nose-contact … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
tongue-contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The body-contact … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
mind-contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Cakkhusamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Sotasamphassajā
vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Ghānasamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Jivhāsamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā
taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Kāyasamphassajā vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Manosamphassajā
vedanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The sensation that arises from the eye contact in the world [of mind
and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the ear
contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the nose
contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the tongue
contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the body
contact … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The sensation that arises from the mind
contact in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasasaññā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammasaññā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The perception of visible objects in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The perception of sounds … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The perception of
smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The perception of tastes … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
perception of touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
may be eradicated and extinguished. The perception of mental contents in
the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasasañcetanā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammasañcetanā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The mental reaction towards visible objects in the world [of mind
and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards sounds … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The mental reaction towards smells … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
mental reaction towards tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards
touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The mental reaction towards mental contents
in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there
this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasataṇhā loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammataṇhā loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati,
ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The craving after visible objects in the world [of mind and matter]
is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The craving after sounds … is enticing and pleasurable;
there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The craving after
smells … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The craving after tastes … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
craving after touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving
may be eradicated and extinguished. The craving after mental contents in
the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasavitakko loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammavitakko loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The thought conception of visible objects in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of sounds … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The thought conception of smells … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
thought conception of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of
touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The thought conception of mental contents
in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there
this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Rūpavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Saddavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ
sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā
nirujjhati. Gandhavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā
pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Rasavicāro loke
piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha
nirujjhamānā nirujjhati. Phoṭṭhabbavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ,
etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.
Dhammavicāro loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, etthesā taṇhā pahīyamānā
pahīyati, ettha nirujjhamānā nirujjhati.

The rolling in thoughts of visible objects in the world [of mind and
matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of sounds … is
enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and
extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of smells … is enticing and
pleasurable; there this craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The
rolling in thoughts of tastes … is enticing and pleasurable; there this
craving may be eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of
touch … is enticing and pleasurable; there this craving may be
eradicated and extinguished. The rolling in thoughts of mental contents
in the world [of mind and matter] is enticing and pleasurable; there
this craving may be eradicated and extinguished.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.

Maggasaccaniddeso

Exposition of the Truth of the Path

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ?
Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathidaṃ, sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo,
sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati,
sammāsamādhi.

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the
Cessation of Suffering? It is this, the Noble Eightfold Path, namely:
right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right
livelihood, right effort, right awareness and right concentration.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi? Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, dukkhe ñāṇaṃ,
dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā
paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi.

And what, monks, is Right Understanding? It is this, monks: the
knowledge of suffering, the knowledge of the arising of suffering, the
knowledge of the cessation of suffering, the knowledge of the path
leading to the cessation of suffering. This, monks, is called Right
Understanding.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo? Nekkhammasaṅkappo,
abyāpādasaṅkappo, avihiṃsāsaṅkappo. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
sammāsaṅkappo.

And what, monks, is Right Thought? Thoughts of renunciation,
thoughts that are free from aversion and thoughts that are free from
violence. This, monks, is called Right Thought.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāvācā? Musāvādā veramaṇī, pisuṇāya vācāya
veramaṇī, pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī, samphappalāpā veramaṇī. Ayaṃ
vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāvācā.

And what, monks, is Right Speech? Abstaining from lying, abstaining
from slander and backbiting, abstaining from harsh words and abstaining
from frivolous talk. This, monks, is called Right Speech.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammākammanto? Pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā
veramaṇī, kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
sammākammanto.

And what, monks, is Right Action? Abstaining from killing,
abstaining from taking what has not been given and abstaining from
sexual misconduct. This, monks, is called Right Action.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammā-ājīvo? Idha, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako
micchā-ājīvaṃ pahāya sammā-ājīvena jīvitaṃ kappeti. Ayaṃ vuccati,
bhikkhave, sammā-ājīvo.

And what, monks, is Right Livelihood? Here, monks, a noble disciple
having given up wrong ways of livelihood earns his livelihood by right
means. This, monks, is called Right Livelihood.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāvāyāmo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti
vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ
pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ
ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ
uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti
padahati; uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya
bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati
vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
sammāvāyāmo.

And what, monks, is Right Effort? Here, monks, a monk generates the
will to prevent the arising of unarisen evil unwholesome mental states;
he makes strong effort, stirs up his energy, applies his mind to it and
strives. To eradicate those evil unwholesome mental states that have
arisen in him, he generates the will, makes strong effort, stirs up his
energy, applies his mind to it and strives. To develop wholesome mental
states that have not yet arisen in him, he generates will, makes strong
effort, stirs up his energy, applies his mind to it and strives. To
maintain wholesome mental states that have arisen in him, not to let
them fade away, to multiply them and bring them to full maturity and to
full development, he generates will, makes strong effort, stirs up his
energy, applies his mind to it and strives. This, monks, is called Right
Effort.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāsati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhādomanassaṃ, vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ, citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ, dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsati.

And what, monks, is Right Awareness? Here, monks, a monk dwells
ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of
impermanence, observing body in body, having removed craving and
aversion towards the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with
awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing
sensations in sensations, having removed craving and aversion towards
the world [of mind and matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and
constant thorough understanding of impermanence, observing mind in mind,
having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind and
matter]; he dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough
understanding of impermanence, observing mental contents in mental
contents, having removed craving and aversion towards the world [of mind
and matter]. This, monks, is called Right Awareness.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ27
vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati,
vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ
avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja
viharati, pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno
sukhaṃ ca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti: ‘upekkhako
satimā sukhavihārī’ ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati, sukhassa ca
pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā
adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja
viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi.

And what, monks, is right concentration? Here monks, a monk,
detached from craving, detached from unwholesome mental states, enters
into the first absorption, born of detachment, accompanied by initial
and sustained application of the mind27 and filled with rapture and
bliss and he dwells therein. With the subsiding of initial and sustained
application of the mind and gaining inner tranquillity and oneness of
mind he enters into the second absorption, born of concentration, free
from initial and sustained application of the mind, filled with rapture
and bliss and he dwells therein. After the fading away of rapture he
dwells in equanimity, aware with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence, and he experiences in his body the bliss of which the
noble ones say: “That bliss is experienced by one with equanimity and
awareness.” Thus he enters the third absorption and dwells therein.
After the eradication of pleasure and pain and with joy and grief having
previously passed away, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and
pain, the fourth absorption, that is totally purified by equanimity and
awareness and he dwells therein. This, monks, is called Right
Concentration.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ.

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering.

Iti ajjhattaṃ vā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā vā
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhattabahiddhā vā dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati, samudayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati,
vayadhammānupassī vā dhammesu viharati, samudayavayadhammānupassī vā
dhammesu viharati, ‘atthi dhammā’ ti vā panassa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti.
Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya anissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci
loke upādiyati. Evaṃ pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī
viharati catūsu ariyasaccesu.

Thus he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
internally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
externally, or he dwells observing mental contents in mental contents
both internally and externally. Thus he dwells observing the phenomenon
of arising in the mental contents, thus he dwells observing the
phenomenon of passing away in the mental contents, thus he dwells
observing the phenomenon of arising and passing away in the mental
contents. Now his awareness is established: “These are mental contents!”
Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there is mere
understanding along with mere awareness. In this way he dwells detached,
without clinging towards anything in the world [of mind and matter].
This is how, monks, a monk dwells observing mental contents in mental
contents as regards the Four Noble Truths.

6. Satipaṭṭhānabhāvanānisaṃso

6. The Results of the Establishing of Awareness

Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ28 bhāveyya
sattavassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ:
diṭṭheva dhamme aññā,29 sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.30

Indeed, monks, whoever practises this fourfold establishing of
awareness in this manner28 for seven years, he may expect one of two
results: in this very life highest wisdom29 or, if a substratum of
aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.30

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, sattavassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime
cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cha vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ
aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese
anāgāmitā.

Let alone seven years, monks. Should any person practise this
fourfold establishing of awareness in this manner for six years, one of
two results may be expected in him: in this very life highest wisdom or,
if a substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cha vassāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, pañca vassāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cattāri vassāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, tīṇi vassāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, dve vassāni..pe.

Tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, ekaṃ vassaṃ. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro
satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya sattamāsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ
aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese
anāgāmitā.

Let alone six years, monks…

Let alone five years, monks…

Let alone four years, monks…

Let alone three years, monks…

Let alone two years, monks…

Let alone one year, monks. Should any person practise this fourfold
establishing of awareness in this manner for seven months, one of two
results may be expected in him: in this very life highest wisdom or, if a
substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, satta māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cha māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, pañca māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cattāri māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, tīṇi māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, dve māsāni…pe.

Tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, ekaṃ māsaṃ…pe.

Tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, aḍḍhamāsaṃ…pe.

Tiṭṭhatu, bhikkhave, aḍḍhamāso. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro
satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya sattāhaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ
phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati vā upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone seven months, monks…

Let alone six months, monks…

Let alone five months, monks…

Let alone four months, monks…

Let alone three months, monks…

Let alone two months, monks…

Let alone one month, monks…

Let alone half a month, monks…

Let alone half a month, monks. Should any person practise this
fourfold establishing of awareness in this manner for seven days, one of
two results may be expected in him: in this very life highest wisdom
or, if a substratum of aggregates remains, the stage of non-returner.

‘Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, sokaparidevānaṃ
samatikkamāya, dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya,
nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā’ ti. Iti yaṃ taṃ
vuttaṃ, idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ ti.

It is for this reason that it was said: “This is the one and only
way, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow
and lamentation, for the extinguishing of suffering and grief, for
walking on the path of truth, for the realisation of nibbāna: that is to
say, the fourfold establishing of awareness.”

Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinanduṃ ti

Thus the Enlightened One spoke. Glad in heart, the monks welcomed the words of the Enlightened One.

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna-suttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ.

The End of the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta

Notes
N.B. For clarity, the footnoted passage will be indicated in the notes
by Pāli in italics followed immediately by the English translation in
square brackets, e.g. sati [awareness]. Other Pāli words used in the
notes will be followed by their equivalent terms in parentheses where
appropriate, e.g. anicca (impermanence).

1. The word bhikkhū [monks] was used to address all the people who
listened to the discourses given by the Buddha. Thus every meditator,
everyone who is walking on the path of Dhamma, though not literally a
bhikkhu, can benefit by following the instructions given here.

2. Satipaṭṭhāna [establishing of awareness] Sati means “awareness.”
Satipaṭṭhāna implies that the meditator has to work diligently and
constantly to become firmly established in awareness or mindfulness.
Therefore we have used “the establishing of awareness,” to convey the
sense that one actively strives to maintain continuous awareness of mind
and body at the level of sensations, as will become clear from the rest
of the discourse.

There are certain passages in the Buddha’s discourses where sati has
the meaning of “memory.” (Dīgha-nikāya: VRI I. 411; II. 374; PTS I.
180; II. 292). This is especially true when he refers to the special
ability of remembering past lives which is developed by means of the
practice of the jhānas (deep absorption concentration). But in the
context of Satipaṭṭhāna, the practice of Vipassana, leading not to the
jhānas but to purification of mind, sati can only be understood to mean
awareness of the present moment rather than a memory of the past (or a
dream of the future).

3. The Buddha always included the term sampajañña [constant thorough
understanding of impermanence] or sampajāno (the adjective form of
sampajañña) whenever he was asked to explain sati (awareness). (See, for
example, the definition of sammāsati in the Chapter on the Four Noble
Truths: Truth of the Path.) As a result of the frequent association of
these words, sampajañña has often been defined as nearly synonymous with
sati - as “full awareness,” or “clear comprehension” - or as an
exhortation to remain mindful. Another traditional translation of
sampajañña, which is closer to the full meaning is “thorough
understanding.”

In the Sutta Piṭaka the Buddha gave two explanations of the term. In
the Saṃyutta-nikāya (VRI III. 401; PTS V, 180-1) he defines it as
follows:

Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha bhikkhave,
bhikkhuno viditā vedanā uppajjanti, viditā upaṭṭhahanti, viditā
abbhatthaṃ gacchanti; viditā saññā uppajjanti, viditā upaṭṭhahanti,
viditā abbhatthaṃ gacchanti; viditā vitakkā uppajjanti, viditā
upaṭṭhahanti, viditā abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
sampajāno hoti.

And how, monks, does a monk understand thoroughly? Here, monks, a
monk experiences sensations arising in him, experiences their
persisting, and experiences their vanishing; he experiences perceptions
arising in him, experiences their persisting, and experiences their
vanishing; he experiences each initial application of the mind [on an
object] arising in him, experiences its persisting, and experiences its
vanishing. This, monks, is how a monk understands thoroughly.

In the above statement it is clear that one is sampajāno only when
one understands the characteristic of impermanence (arising, persisting
and vanishing). This understanding must be based on sensation (viditā
vedanā). If the characteristic of impermanence is not experienced at the
level of vedanā, then one’s understanding is merely an
intellectualization, since it is only through sensation that direct
experience occurs. The statement further indicates that sampajañña lies
in the experience of the impermanence of saññā and vitakkā. Here we
should note that impermanence understood at the level of vedanā actually
covers all three cases since according to the Buddha’s teaching in the
Aṅguttara-nikāya (VRI III. Dasakanipāta, 58; PTS V. 107):

Vedanā-samosaraṇā sabbe dhammā.

Everything that arises in the mind flows together with sensations.

The second explanation of sampajañña given by the Buddha emphasizes
that it must be continuous. In several places he repeats the words of
the Sampajānapabbaṃ of Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, as in this passage from
the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (Dīgha-nikāya II: VRI. 160; PTS 95):

Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu
abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite
sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti,
saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite
sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite
nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti.

And how, monks, does a monk understand thoroughly? Here, monks, a
monk, while going forward or backward, he does so with constant thorough
understanding of impermanence; whether he is looking straight ahead or
looking sideways, he does so with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence; while he is bending or stretching, he does so with
constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether wearing his
robes or carrying his bowl, he does so with constant thorough
understanding of impermanence; whether he is eating, drinking, chewing
or savouring, he does so with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence; while attending to the calls of nature, he does so with
constant thorough understanding of impermanence; whether he is walking,
standing, sitting, sleeping or waking, speaking or in silence, he does
so with constant thorough understanding of impermanence.

With proper understanding of the teaching of the Buddha, it becomes
clear that if this continuous sampajañña consists only of the thorough
understanding of the external processes of walking, eating, and other
activities of the body, then what is being practised is merely sati. If,
however, the constant thorough understanding includes the
characteristic of the arising and passing away of vedanā while the
meditator is performing these activities, then sampajāno satimā is being
practised, paññā (wisdom) is being developed.

The Buddha describes this more specifically in this passage from the
Aṅguttara-nikāya (VRI I. Catukkanipāta, 12; PTS II 15) in words
reminiscent of Sampajānapabbaṃ:

Yataṃ care yataṃ tiṭṭhe, yataṃ acche yataṃ saye
yataṃ samiñjaye bhikkhu, yatamenaṃ pasāraye
uddhaṃ tiriyaṃ apācīnaṃ, yāvatā jagato gati,
samavekkhitā ca dhammānaṃ, khandhānaṃ udayabbayaṃ.

Whether the monk walks or stands or sits or lies,
whether he bends or stretches, above, across, backwards,
whatever his course in the world,
he observes the arising and passing away of the aggregates.

The Buddha clearly emphasized the thorough understanding of anicca
(impermanence) in all bodily and mental activities. Therefore, since the
proper understanding of this technical term, sampajañña, is so critical
for an understanding of this sutta, we have translated it as “the
constant thorough understanding of impermanence,” even though this
definition is less concise than the traditional “thorough
understanding.”

4. In this introductory paragraph the Buddha repeats a basic verbal
formula reminding us that we must continuously observe “body in body,”
or “sensations in sensations,” or “mind in mind,” or “mental contents in
mental contents.” Though these verbal constructs may seem unusual, they
refer to the fact that this observation has to be directly experiential
rather than dealing only with thought, imagination or contemplation of
the object.

The Buddha emphasizes this point in the Ānāpānasati Sutta
(Mājjhima-nikāya III: VRI. 149; PTS 83-4), where he describes the
progressive stages of the practice of ānāpāna meditation. In the section
where he explains how the four satipaṭṭhānā are brought to perfection
by ānāpāna he says:

…kāyesu kāyaññatarāhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ vadāmi yadidaṃ
assāsapassāsā. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, kāye kāyānupassī tasmiṃ samaye
bhikkhu viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

…Monks, when I say, ‘inhalation-exhalation,’ it is like another body
in the body. Observing body in body in this way, monks, at that time a
monk dwells ardent with awareness and constant thorough understanding of
impermanence, having removed craving and aversion towards this world
[of mind and matter].

This indicates that practising ānāpāna meditation leads directly to
experiencing the body, which means feeling sensations in the body. The
sensations may be related to the breath, the oxygen flowing in the
blood, etc. but those details are not important. The body-in-body
experience is not imagined or contemplated but felt throughout the body.
More specifically, he continues:

…vedanāsu vedanāññatarāhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ vadāmi yadidaṃ
assāsapassāsānaṃ sādhukaṃ manasikāraṃ. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, vedanāsu
vedanānupassī tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā
vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

…monks, when I say, ‘by proper attention to inhalation-exhalation,’
it is like other sensations in the sensations. Observing sensations in
sensations in this way, monks, at that time a monk dwells ardent with
awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence, having
removed craving and aversion towards this world [of mind and matter].

By equating the observation of the breath with experiencing
sensations the Buddha is pointing to the critical importance of the body
and the sensations in proper practice of meditation. It is the
awareness of these sensations by direct experience throughout the body,
while maintaining equanimity with the understanding of impermanence,
that perfects the four satipaṭṭhānas.

It is instructive that in Ānāpānasati Sutta he describes the
experience of body-in-body and sensations-in-sensations as one observes
the breath but when he turns to the observation of mind he does not
continue with the same verbal formula. Instead, he again directs our
attention to the importance of sampajañña:

…citte cittānupassī, bhikkhave, tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu viharati ātāpī
sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave,
muṭṭhassatissa asampajānassa ānāpānassatiṃ vadāmi.

…observing mind in mind, monks, at that time a monk dwells ardent
with awareness and constant thorough understanding of impermanence,
having removed craving and aversion towards this world [of mind and
matter]. I say, monks, one who is inattentive, who is not constantly
aware of impermanence, he is not one doing ānāpāna.

Beginning with ānāpāna as a starting point the practice described
has led directly to Vipassana, i.e., to the practice of the four
satipaṭṭhānas. And here we see how emphatically the Buddha states that,
even while observing the mind, one is not practising properly unless
there is awareness of impermanence with the direct experience of the
sensations.

5. Pajānāti [understands properly] means, “to understand, to know
deeply or intently with wisdom.” It is the result of the intensification
of the verb jānāti (he or she knows) by the addition of the prefix pa-,
from paññā (wisdom).

6. Iti ajjhattaṃ…kāye kāyānupassī viharati. [Thus he dwells…dwells
observing body in body.] This paragraph is repeated twenty-one times
throughout the Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta, with variations according to
which section of the four satipaṭṭhānas one has reached: body,
sensations, mind or mental contents.

In this key paragraph the Buddha describes the common steps in
Vipassana that all meditators must pass through no matter what section
of the sutta one begins with. In each repetition, this paragraph focuses
our attention on the essential fact that, no matter if one is observing
body, sensations, mind or mental contents, one must understand the
fundamental characteristic of arising and passing away. This
understanding of impermanence then leads directly to the total
detachment from the world of mind and matter which takes us to nibbāna
(liberation).

7. Bahiddhā [externally] is sometimes translated as “outer things”
or “observing another’s body.” In the following section, on the
observation of sensations, it has sometimes been taken to mean “feeling
the sensations of others.” While such an experience is not impossible,
it would be practised only at a very high stage of development.
According to the sutta, the meditator is asked to sit alone somewhere in
a forest, under a tree or in an empty room, and start practising. In
such a situation observing others would be meaningless, and the
sensations of someone or something else would be of no use. For a
meditator, therefore, “externally,” meaning the surface of the body, is
the most practical definition of bahiddhā.

See also note no. 19.

8. The Pāli atthi kāyo [this is body] indicates that the meditator
at this stage clearly understands experientially, at the level of
sensations, “body” in its true nature: its characteristic of arising and
passing away. Therefore the meditator neither makes any identification
of “body” as male or female, young or old, beautiful or ugly, etc., nor
has any attachment towards “I,” “me,” or “mine.”

In the other three sections of the sutta, the sensations, mind and
mental contents are each identified similarly in their corresponding
paragraphs: “This is sensation,” “This is mind,” “These are mental
contents,” to indicate the lack of identification of the meditator with
the object, and his or her understanding of the object in its true
characteristic of anicca (impermanence).

9. Yāvadeva ñāṇamattāya paṭissatimattāya [Thus he develops his
awareness to such an extent that there is mere understanding along with
mere awareness.] The mind of the meditator at this stage is absorbed in
the wisdom of anicca (the arising and passing away of sensations), with
no identification beyond this awareness. With the base of this awareness
he develops understanding with his own experience. This is paññā
(wisdom). With his awareness thus established in anicca, there is no
attraction to the world of mind and matter.

10. This includes the changing of position as well as the four basic
postures of the body. Whatever one does, an ardent meditator is always
aware with wisdom: yathā yathā vā…tathā tathā naṃ pajānāti (whatever he
does…that he understands properly).

11. Sampajānakārī hoti [does so with constant thorough understanding
of impermanence] literally means: “He is doing (all the time)
sampajañña.” It is helpful to follow the progression of the Buddha’s
words in Pāli: he uses “jānāti” (he knows), “pajānāti” (understands
properly - intently or deeply with wisdom), and “sampajānāti” (he
constantly and thoroughly understands the impermanent nature of his
experience). Each word indicates a progressive step, that the meditator
takes by following the instructions given in the sutta. Thus he proceeds
from simple experience, to understanding based on direct experience, up
to thorough and constant understanding of the impermanence, at the
level of sensations, of each and every experience.

12. Sāmisa [with attachment] literally means: sa-āmisa (with-flesh);
nirāmisa [without attachment]: means nir-āmisa (without-flesh). They
can also be rendered as: “impure” and “pure,” “material” and
“immaterial” or, “sensual” and “nonsensual.” A common interpretation is
that a sensation which is sāmisa is related to the world of sensual
pleasures and a nirāmisa sensation is a sensation related to the higher
meditational realms.

In this context, related to the observation of sensations without
any reaction of craving or aversion by the meditator, we have used “with
attachment” and “without attachment.” These terms seem clearest insofar
as they relate to the practice.

13. See note no. 7.

14. Citta [mind], in this context, is correctly translated as
“mind.” The meditator experiences different states of mind and observes
them in an objective and detached manner. It might be misleading to
translate citta here as “thought.”

Citte cittānupassī [mind in mind] refers to the experiential nature of the observation required (see note no. 4).

15. Saṅkhittaṃ [collected] and vikkhittaṃ [scattered] correspond to
mental states either scattered because of the pañca nīvaraṇā, the “five
hindrances,” or collected when the hindrances are not manifesting their
respective effects. (See the following Section 5A, The Hindrances.)

16. Mahaggataṃ cittaṃ [expanded mind] means literally: “mind having
become great;” i.e., by the practice and development of the jhānas (the
practice of absorption samādhi). It refers to a mind expanded by the
practice of these deep samādhis, rather than the stage transcending mind
and matter. Amahaggataṃ cittaṃ [unexpanded mind] thus means a mind not
having become expanded in this way.

17. Sa-uttaraṃ [surpassable] means: “having something higher than
that” or “not superior.” This type of mind is still connected with the
mundane field. Anuttaraṃ [unsurpassable], correspondingly, is a mind
that has reached a very high stage of meditation, where nothing is
superior. Therefore “surpassable” and “unsurpassable,” though not very
precise, seem to be the nearest translations.

18. Samāhitaṃ [concentrated] and asamāhitaṃ [unconcentrated] are
related to the type of samādhi (concentration) that one has gained;
states of concentration that are called: upacāra (neighbourhood
concentration, i.e. approaching a level of absorption) and appanā
samādhi (absorption, or attainment, concentration). Asamāhitaṃ cittaṃ
therefore describes a mental state without that depth of concentration.

19. Iti ajjhattaṃ…bahiddhā…ajjhattabahiddhā vā citte cittānupassī
viharati [Thus he dwells observing mind in mind internally…
externally…both internally and externally]. Applied to the mind (and in
the next section, the mental contents) this sentence has sometimes been
interpreted to mean that the meditator observes his own mind
(internally) and the mind of others (externally). This can be done only
by a very highly developed meditator, therefore it is not a practical
instruction for most people.

In this section the meditator is asked to experience directly the
mind in mind (citte cittānupassī). This can be done only by observing
whatever arises in the mind. As the body was experienced by means of
what arises on the body (i.e., sensation); the mind is experienced only
when something arises in the mind (i.e., the mental contents). When the
mind is observing the internal objects - its own internal mental states -
it is observing the mind in mind internally.

To observe the mind and mental contents externally means to observe
experientially that any object which comes in contact with the mind-body
through any of the six sense doors (that is, an external stimulus)
causes an internal reaction. Any sight, sound, taste, smell, touch or
thought results in a sensation and the mind feels it. Of course,
internal mental states and sensation resulting from contact with
external objects will all mix and flow together.

Therefore, again, we see the importance of the Buddha’s statement:

Vedanā-samosaraṇā sabbe dhammā.

Everything that arises in the mind flows together with sensations. (Aṅguttara-nikāya: VRI III. Dasakanipāta, 58; PTS V. 107)

Whether the object is internal or external, if the mind remains
within the body observing the sensations, then it is directly
experiencing the mind and mental contents in a tangible way that easily
allows the meditator to experience the impermanent nature of the entire
mind-matter phenomenon.

20. Pañca upādānakkhandhā [the five aggregates of clinging] consist
of: rūpakkhandha (the material aggregate) connected with kāya (body) and
the four nāmakkhandhā (aggregates of mind), which are: viññāṇakkhandha
(the aggregate of consciousness);
saññākkhandha (the aggregate of perception);
vedanākkhandha (the aggregate of feeling of sensations on the body)
saṅkhārakkhandha (the aggregate of reaction).

The pañca upādānakkhandhā are aggregates of clinging, or attachment,
in two ways. They are the basic objects to which we cling because of
our illusion that the five together make up “I,” “me.” In addition, the
continual arising of the aggregates - with the attendant suffering that
goes with the cycle of becoming - is due to the clinging toward this
illusory “I.” Aggregates and clinging always go together, except in the
case of an arahant, who has pañca khandhā, the five aggregates, but no
clinging towards them; no upādāna (attachment or clinging) is possible
for such a person.

21. Here dhamma has to be understood as the law of nature, the
nature of the law in its totality. At a superficial level dhammavicaya
[investigation of Dhamma] can be understood to mean intellectual
investigation of the law. But to become a factor of enlightenment
dhammavicaya must become an experiential investigation - direct
experience of the phenomenon of arising and passing away at the level of
sensations.

22. Pīti [rapture] is difficult to translate into English. It is
often translated as: “joy,” “delight,” “bliss” or “thrill.” Each of
these words conveys at least partially the meaning of mental and
physical pleasantness. For pīti to become a factor of enlightenment it
must be experienced in its true nature as ephemeral, arising and passing
away. Only then can the meditator avoid the danger of becoming attached
to the pleasantness of this stage.

23. As with the previous factor of enlightenment, passaddhi
[tranquillity], becomes a factor of enlightenment only when it is
experienced as impermanent, anicca - arising and passing away. The
danger for the meditator here is that this stage of deep tranquillity
might be mistaken for the final goal of nibbāna. This deep illusion
(moha) is removed by the experience of anicca as one experiences this
tranquillity.

24. In the texts byādhi [sickness] is sometimes included, sometimes omitted.

25. Here it is very clear that the word dukkha [pain] is related to
the body, and domanassa [grief] to the mind. Correspondingly, sukha
(bodily pleasure) is related to the body, somanassa (mental pleasure) to
the mind and adukkhamasukha (neither painful nor pleasant) as neutral,
to both body and mind.

26. The word loke [world] has a wide spectrum of meaning:
“universe,” “world,” “region,” “people.” In this entire section it is
used in connection with everything that one experiences at any of the
six senses, and the entire process of the contact between the senses and
their respective objects. So in this context loke is to be understood
as the “world” of the mind-body phenomenon. Therefore the entire “world”
can be directly experienced at the level of the sensations in the body
that result from any of these interactions.

27. Vitakko [thought conception] refers to the initial application
of the mind to an object. This is contrasted with vicāro [rolling in
thoughts] in the next paragraph, which refers to a sustained application
of the mind on an object.

In the later section, dealing with the jhānas (see pp. 72,73), the
translation reflects this relationship more directly since the context
is one of deep absorption in the object of meditation rather than one
where mental impurities are arising.

28. Evaṃ [in this manner], as explained throughout the entire sutta,
is ātāpī sampajāno satimā (ardent with awareness of mind and body at
the level of sensations and with constant thorough understanding of
impermanence). In order to achieve these guaranteed results the
continuity should be sampajaññaṃ na riñcati ([the meditator] does not
lose the constant thorough understanding of impermanence even for a
moment).

29. The final stage of liberation of an arahant.

30. The stage of an anāgāmī [non-returner] is the third and next-to-last stage of liberation.

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Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

Murderers of democratic institutions and Master of diluting institutions (Modi) is
Fake OBC own mother’s flesh eater striving as a stooge, slave, chamcha,
chela, bootlicker, for just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number
one terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching,
lunatic,mentally retarded, foreigners of Bend Israel chitpavan brahmins
of Rakshasa Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS) full of hatred, anger, jealousy,
delusion, stupidity which are defilemnt of the mind requiring mental
treatment at mental asylums in Bend Israel. He gobbled
Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs.

In Mainpuri, Mayawati and Mulayam bury the hatchet
Rare gathering:Akhilesh Yadav, Mulayam Singh andMayawati at a rally in Mainpuri on Friday.Rajeev BhattThe Hindu
Omar Rashid
MAINPURI, APRIL 20, 2019 00:00 IST
UPDATED: APRIL 20, 2019 06:21 IST
BSP leader leads campaign for SP founder after over two decades of acrimony

Overcoming more than two decades of political and personal acrimony,
Bahujan Samaj Party chief Mayawati on Friday sought votes for Samajwadi
Party patron Mulayam Singh Yadav in his turf Mainpuri, hailing him as
the “real and true leader” of the backward classes.

As the two former Chief Ministers and sworn rivals shared the stage
at a SP-BSP rally, there was plenty of bonhomie on display, with both
sharing kind words about the other, marking a remarkable shift in Uttar
Pradesh politics.

SP chief Akhilesh Yadav, who was on stage, said it was a “historic” moment that Ms. Mayawati was seeking votes for his father.

Mr. Mulayam Singh, who spoke first, appealed to the mammoth crowd at
the Christian College grounds to “honour” Ms. Mayawati and said he
would “never forget” her gesture of coming to campaign for him.

The SP patron underscored the sentiment and asked an SP leader, who
had bent to touch his feet, to accord the same respect to Ms. Mayawati
who was seated beside him.

In her speech, Ms. Mayawati justified the SP-BSP alliance.

She said she had come to campaign for the SP founder despite the
June 2, 1995 guesthouse incident, when she was allegedly attacked by SP
legislators, as “hard decisions” needed to be taken sometimes in the
interest of the people, the nation and the party’s movement considering
the present situation.

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