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LESSON 3052 Sat 6 Jul 2019 Diploma Course in Theravada Buddhist Studies Exam, July 2019 06/07/2019 Paper -6: Abhidhamma Pitaka
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LESSON 3052 Sat 6 Jul 2019

Diploma Course in Theravada Buddhist Studies Exam, July 2019

06/07/2019 Paper -5 Abhidhamma Pitaka

Pure Dhamma

A Quest to Recover Buddha’s True Teachings


Lobha, Dosa and Moha

Lobha  Greed, or avarice, an impediment to awakenment in  Buddhism. Lobha is also one of the five sins (akuśala)

Three poisons or the three unwholesome roots (Pāli: akusala-mūla), three root kleshas of ignorance, attachment, and aversion. These three poisons are considered to be the cause of suffering ( dukkha).

Wikipedia English The Free Encyclopedia
Raga (Buddhism)
Raga Pali lobha; Tibetan: ‘dod chags)
- is translated as
“passion”, or “desire”.

It is defined
as hankering after things within the three realms of existence; it
produces frustration. Raga (lobha) is identified in the following
contexts within the Buddhist teachings:.
  • One of the three unwholesome roots within the Theravada Buddhist tradition
  • One of the fourteen unwholesome mental factors within the Theravada Abhidhamma teachings
  • Three poisons (Buddhism)
    Wikipedia English The Free Encyclopedia
    Three poisons
    The three poisons or the three unwholesome roots (Pāli: akusala-mūla), in Buddhism, refer to the three root kleshas of ignorance, attachment, and aversion. These three poisons are considered to be the cause of suffering ( dukkha).…/abhidhamma-in-da…/d/doc2711.html
    The Characteristic Of Dosa

    Dosa has many degrees; it can be a slight aversion or it
    can be more coarse, such as anger. We can recognize dosa when it is
    coarse, but do we realize that we have dosa when it is more subtle?
    Through the study of the Abhidhamma we learn more about the
    characteristic of dosa. Dosa is an akusala cetasika (mental factor)
    arising with an akusala citta. A citta rooted in dosa is called in Pali:
    dosa-mula.citta. The characteristic of dosa is different from the
    characteristic of lobha. When there is lobha, the citta likes the object
    which it experiences at that moment, whereas when there is dosa, the
    citta has aversion towards the object it experiences. We can recognize
    dosa when we are angry with someone and when we speak disagreeable
    words to him. But when we are afraid of something it is dosa as well,
    because one has aversion towards the object one is afraid of. There are
    so many things in life we are afraid of: one is afraid of the future, of
    diseases, of accidents, of death. One looks for many means in order to
    be cured of anguish, but the only way is the development of the wisdom
    which eradicates the latent tendency of dosa.

    Dosa is conditioned
    by lobha: we do not want to lose what is dear to us and when this
    actually happens we are sad. Sadness is dosa, it is akusala. If we do
    not know things as they are, we believe that people and things last.
    However, people and things are only phenomena which arise and fall away
    immediately. The next moment they have changed already. If we can see
    things as they are we will be less overwhelmed by sadness. It makes no
    sense to be sad about what has happened already.

    Just like lobha, dosa,

  • moha have various levels, alobha, adosa, amoha also have different levels.
    For example, as dosa decreases from mere adosa, metta, karuna, mudita
    increase. As lobha decreases from mere alobha, one’s tendency to give
    (dana) and help out others increases. One will also start acting with
    amoha more and more, and as one learns Dhamma, one’s panna (wisdom) will
    grow. Of course, amoha is greatly reduced when one removes ten types of
    mica ditthi, and panna will start growing drastically when one starts
    comprehending Tilakkhana.

    It is important to realize that acting with panna (wisdom) is much more than acting with amoha.
    Amoha just means acting without moha (i.e., acting with amoha). One has
    to learn Dhamma to act with panna. And panna grows exponentially when
    one starts comprehending Tilakkhana.

    Mind and Consciousness

    What is Mind? How do we Experience the Outside World?

    What is Consciousness?

    1. Thoughts (Citta), Consciousness (Vinnana), and Mind (Hadaya Vatthu) – Introduction

    2. Vinnana (Consciousness) can be of Many Different Types and Forms

    3. Vinnana, Thoughts, and the Subconscious

    What is Mind? How do we Experience the Outside World?

    Revised January 17, 2019

    1. Everything that we experience comes through six “doors” or “āyatana”
    we have to the outside worlds: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and the
    mind. Through those six doors we can see pictures, hear sounds, smell
    odors, taste food, feel things physically by touch, and be aware of
    concepts (say, mundane things like remembering past events or make plans
    about future events, or think about a black hole in the middle of the
    universe or a mathematical concept).

    The six sense faculties
    (and the corresponding six external “āyatana” which are rupa, sadda,
    gandha, rasa, pottabba, dhamma or visuals, sounds, smells, tastes,
    touches, and concepts) are what the Buddha called “sabba“, or
    “everything”. These are 12 āyatana (6 internal and 6 external).

    2. All those sense experiences are done with citta or thoughts. But this
    is probably not a good translation. We normally associate a “thought”
    with an idea or one visual event, etc., a moment of “experience”. But
    citta is very fast and no one can experience a single citta which lasts a
    billionth of a second or less; see, “Citta and Cetasika – How Viññāna
    (Consciousness) Arises“.

    Don’t be fooled by the title of that
    post. It has a simple description of how the “mind” puts together all
    six sense inputs to give the illusion that we see, hear, smell, taste,
    touch, and think all at the same time (at least start reading at #3
    It is a good idea to also read the posts, “Amazingly
    Fast Time Evolution of a Thought (Citta)” and “Viññāna – What It Really
    Means” first.

    5. When we look at an object, the “eye” generates
    visual consciousness (cakkhu viññāna): Comprehending what is seen is
    accomplished via a series of very fast thought processes. There are
    billions of thoughts per second, so each citta or thought moment is
    billionth of a second. Let us see how the mind “sees” an object in a
    series of very fast “snapshots” alternating between the “eye” and the

    The “eye” captures a snapshot of the object and the
    brain transfers that captured information to mind: that process takes 17
    thought moments or cittas (let us abbreviate it as TM); this series of
    TM is called a “sense input citta vithi” (or pancadvāra citta vithi).
    Next the mind analyzes that “imprint” with three citta vithi that
    involve only the mind. These latter “mind-only citta vithi” (manōdvāra
    citta vithi) are shorter, around ten TM, and try to discern what the
    object is. It may first try to discern the color of the object for
    Then the “eye” takes another snapshot and transfers
    that “imprint” to the mind, which in turn receives it in a pancadvāra
    citta vithi containing 17 TM, analyzes that in 3 more manōdvāra citta
    vithi containing about 10 TM, and makes better sense of the color. This
    “back and forth” process goes on until the object is determined.

    This process is slowed down only due to the time needed for the brain
    to put together the information captured by one of the five sense
    faculties (pancadvāra), for example, the eyes. This time is of the order
    of 10 milliseconds; see, “What is a Thought?“. Thus there can only be
    about 100 (600 if they are processed in parallel) or so “sense events”
    per second; since science show that the brain has different regions for
    processing different sense inputs, the latter number (600) is probably

    6. Since these citta vithi run very fast, once the brain
    sends an “information packet” to the mind it is processed very quickly,
    within billionth of a second. Thus the process is slowed down only by
    the brain. Still, everything about the object is grasped in a small
    fraction of a second.

    Now, many of you may be thinking, “this
    looks like some far off theory made up by someone”. The Buddha said he
    experienced everything that he taught. Phenomena in this fast time scale
    are discernible only to a Buddha.
    Once the Buddha explained the
    key aspects to Ven. Sariputta, it was Ven. Sariputta and his group of
    Bhikkhus that developed the Abhidhamma, where all these details were
    worked out. It took generations of bhikkhus to develop the Abhidhamma to
    the final form that was recited at the Third Sangāyanā (Buddhist
    Council) and was written down in the Tipitaka in 29 BCE (we know that
    there were many Arahants before 100-200 CE; see the timeline in
    “Incorrect Thēravada Interpretations – Historical Timeline“). For us,
    the truth of these minute details become apparent as all observable
    phenomena are EXPLAINED using all three forms of Dhamma in the Tipitaka:
    Sutta, Vinaya, and Abhidhamma).

    7. As all this information comes
    in, the mind recognizes the object; this is saññā or perception. Based
    on that recognition feelings (vēdanā) are generated (for example when we
    see a friend we generate a happy feeling; if it is someone we don’t
    like, it is a unhappy feeling, etc).

    Once everything about
    the object is grasped, then if it is an “interesting object”, the mind
    may start its own “wheeling around” process: the “pati +iccha
    sama+uppāda” or Paticca Samuppāda process leading to the accumulation of
    sankhāra: see, “Paticca Samuppāda – Introduction“, “Nibbana – Stopping
    Sansaric Vehicle, Ariya“, “Sankhara, Kamma, Kamma Beeja, Kamma Vipaka“,
    and other related posts. All these tie up together, but one needs to be a
    bit patient since there are many inter-coupled concepts.

    8. Thus
    experiencing a visual object in the above example generates all kinds
    of mental phenomena: vēdanā, saññā, sankhāra, and during this whole
    process we have the viññāna or citta flowing. Viññāna is the momentary
    consciousness, a citta. In the above example, it alternates between
    visual consciousness (cakkhu viññāna) and the mind consciousness (mano

    The baseline state of a citta, i.e., when the mind
    is not looking at an external object or thinking about it, is called
    “bhavanga“. Here we do not “feel” anything, for example when we are in
    deep sleep. The mind falls back to the bhavanga state even in between
    pancadvāra citta vithi.

    9. Same kind of process happens with any
    of the five physical senses (the “back and forth switching” between the
    sense faculty and the mind). When someone is just remembering a past
    event or planning something, those are exclusively mind processes (only
    manōdvāra citta vithi take place).

    Now let us look at some
    details on how the mind processes all the “signals” from the real world
    where multiple “signals” come in.

    When we watch a movie, what
    happens is the projector projects about 30-50 static pictures per
    second on the screen; a movie is a series of static pictures. When the
    projection rate is above 30 frames a second or so, our eyes see a
    continuous movie, not individual frames. Thus even though cittas run at
    billions per second, we do not “experience” them individually, not even
    This fast rate of citta vithis (which, as we saw above
    run at about 100 citta vithis per second) also make it possible to
    perceive all six inputs from the outside world “simultaneously”; at
    least we experience them as “simultaneous”. For example, we can be
    watching a movie and enjoying some popcorn; so we see and hear the
    movie, and taste popcorn and feel the popcorn cup, and also may be
    thinking about something related to the scene on the screen; all at the
    “same time”.
    Citta vithi just alternate among the six sense
    inputs; it is possible only because there are hundreds of citta vithi
    per second. Since it happens so fast, we experience them all as
    “simultaneous”, just like the static pictures projected at a fast rate
    on a movie screen are perceived as a continuous “movie”.
    only that, but the mind can ignore a multitude of “signals” that are of
    no interest to one’s own habits (“gathi“) or cravings (“āsavās“). And
    those depend on the individual. Two friends could be walking on the
    street, and one (woman) stops abruptly and starts looking at a dress on a
    shop window. The other (man) looks at it, shrugs, and wants to move on;
    he would not have even noticed it.

    10. As we saw, information to
    the mind comes via the brain. All five physical sense inputs (vision,
    hearing, smell, taste, touch) come through the brain. Thinking about
    concepts involves the brain too (those involve only the manōdvāra citta
    vithi), and that happens much faster compared to the processes
    associated with the five physical senses; we will discuss that later.

    When someone gets old, the brain starts functioning less
    efficiently; see, “Manomaya Kaya and Out-of-Body Experience (OBE)“. Or,
    the brain may get damaged due to a kamma vipāka; for example, getting
    Alzheimer’s disease is a kamma vipāka.
    As the body gets old,
    various other body parts also start functioning less efficiently and are
    also vulnerable for many kamma vipāka to come to fruition. Kamma vipāka
    are not deterministic; they come to bear fruit only when conditions
    become suitable (see, “Sankhara, Kamma, Kamma Beeja, Kamma Vipaka“).
    Thus meditation and regular exercise help keep both the body and the
    mind (through an efficiently working brain) in good condition.

    11. In any case, the mind goes to the “baseline or dormant state” called
    “bhavanga” even in between these citta vithi. When the mind is fairly
    inactive, say when someone is dozing off, the mind is mostly in the
    bhavanga state. When someone is unconscious or in deep sleep, it is in
    the bhavanga state for the whole duration. When seeing a dream, the mind
    is active.

    Even when citta vithis run at a fast rate of
    about 600 per second (say, while watching a movie or while playing a
    competitive sport), the mind drops to the bhavanga state while the brain
    is processing those “10 millisecond information packets”, as discussed
    The above discussion is all about receiving information
    from the outside world and then getting attached to “things” (“tanhā“),
    generating mano sankhāra, etc.

    12. Based on that process, we may
    decide to take further action too, either verbally or bodily, thus
    generating vaci sankhāra and kaya sankhāra: We may speak or do some
    physical activity. All those are done with the mind too, and each action
    done with thought process or citta vithi.

    This is why the
    Buddha said, “manō pubbangamā dhammā, ,,,,”, i.e., “mind precedes
    everything that we do…”. We cannot even lift a finger without generating
    a citta vithi, i.e., without the initiation by the mind. The physical
    body, with the brain acting as a “sophisticated control center”, helps
    the mind to achieve whatever physical activity it wishes; see,
    “Neuroscience says there is no Free Will? – That is a

    Further reading: “A Comprehensive Manual of
    Abhidhamma”, by Bhikkhu Bodhi (2010). This book has summarized citta and
    cetasika very well. But discussions on Paticca Samuppāda or anicca,
    dukkha, anatta are not correct.

    Next, “What is Consciousness?“, …….

    What is Consciousness?

    1. Philosophers through the ages have struggled to figure out how
    consciousness arises in a human being. For “materialists” everything
    that makes a human being originates in the body, and they have been
    trying to explain consciousness in terms of something that comes out
    from the workings of the brain.

    For the “dualists”
    consciousness is totally distinct from the material body, and falls into
    the realm of theistic religion (related to a “soul”).
    to the Buddha, consciousness, together with the body, are two of the
    five “aggregates” that a human being consists of. And Consciousness does
    not arise from the body, but arises with the body at the conception.

    2. First of all, let us define consciousness.

    The Buddha said that being conscious is “being aware”, but with
    feelings and perceptions, and the ability to “recall the past”.

    There are several definitions of consciousness in modern science, but
    the general consensus among the scientists and philosophers is that the
    state of being conscious is a condition of being aware of one’s
    surroundings as well as one’s own existence (or self-awareness).
    Therefore, we could say that science and Buddhism are attributing similar meaning to the word “consciousness”.
    However, the Buddha’s definition of consciousness takes into
    account the critical roles played by the vedana (feelings), sanna
    (perceptions), and the manasikara cetasika among 52 other mental factors
    (cetasika), which combine to produce the vinnana which can be roughly
    translated as consciousness.

    3. As to the origins of consciousness, we have three “theories”:

    Contemporary science is totally matter-based: the universe started
    with the “big-bang” which created all existing matter, and all living
    beings “evolved” from this inert matter, and thus consciousness also
    evolved by some (yet unknown) manner.
    The theistic religions
    believe, of course, that humans were created with built-in consciousness
    by an Almighty-God and animals were also created (sans consciousness).
    The Buddha’s is different from both above: It states that living
    beings (humans and animals) with built-in consciousness are different
    from inert matter, but they were not created. Rather, there is no
    traceable beginning to life; life always existed, and it will exist
    forever (until Nibbana is attained). Everything has a cause, so does

    4. Consciousness is more than registration of a visual
    event, or an auditory event, for example. It has associated a variety of
    mental factors such as sanna (perception) and vedana (feelings).

    A camera captures an image of a cat, but it is not aware of the
    presence of the cat. On the other hand, a dog sees a cat and becomes
    aware of its presence. It not only sees the cat, but knows exactly where
    it is and can try to catch it.
    Have you ever thought about how
    we can not only see things, but know exactly where they are? Without
    this ability, we can not even walk without bumping into things. How do
    we know that the person in front of us is only a few feet away?
    Consciousness is associated with a sentient being with a MIND. Science
    cannot yet explain this capability.

    5. There is also the issue of
    the phenomenal quality of the conscious experience: qualia, subjective
    feelings, the redness of red, the warmness of warmth, etc. How do these
    arise in a being made up of inert atoms? There are basically two
    approaches to solve this problem in modern philosophy and science:

    One is that it arises as an emergent property in the neuronal
    activities in the brain. The other is the proposal of duality by Rene
    Descartes in the 17th century that persist to the present; see, for
    example, David Chalmers, “The Character of Consciousness”, (2010).

    A subset of these scientists believe that consciousness is associated
    with the microtubules in a cell (for example, see “The Emerging Physics
    of Consciousness” Ed. by Jack A. Tuszynski (2006) and John Smythies,
    “Brain and Consciousness: The Ghost in the Machines”, Journal of
    Scientific Exploration, vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 37-50, (2009)). Despite much
    research, the question of how qualia and subjective feelings arise from
    dead matter remains a mystery.
    Just because a cell responds
    that does not necessarily mean it has consciousness; the cell can expand
    and contract (chemical reactions) in response to environmental stimuli.
    In a way, something similar happens when a plant turns towards
    sunlight; of course, plant life is not sentient. Thus, just because an
    entity responses to outside influence does not necessarily mean the
    entity is “mentally aware” of the outside influence, i.e., that it is

    6. Therefore, all these scientists and philosophers
    are long way off of solving the issue of the four mental aggregates of
    feelings, perceptions, volitional formations (sankhara), and
    consciousness that make up the mental aspects of a human being. They are
    mainly focusing on consciousness and perception at this early stage,
    and even then are totally disregarding the intrinsic mental nature. It
    will be interesting to see what progress they can make by just taking a
    totally materialistic approach.

    7. There is evidence, though,
    that some leading scientists are beginning to suspect that a complete
    “world view” cannot be achieved without taking into account the mental
    aspects. This trend started with the invent of quantum mechanics at the
    beginning of the 20th century, and is gaining traction slowly. Some
    interesting ideas are discussed in a number of books including
    “Wholeness and the Implicate Order” (by David Bohm, 1980), “Quantum
    Enigma” (by Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner, 2006), “Biocentrism” (by
    Robert Lanza, 2009).

    However, attempts to explain the mind as
    a manifestation of quantum phenomena will also fail, because it is the
    mind that precedes matter; see, “The Double Slit Experiment –
    Correlation between Mind and Matter?“.

    8. Consciousness (vinnana)
    discussed in this section does NOT take account the fact that
    consciousness of any living being (other than an Arahant) is
    contaminated by defilements. This our awareness is not pure; it is like
    looking though a foggy window. This is discussed in the “Viññāna
    (Consciousness)” and “Expanding Consciousness by Purifying the Mind“.

    Next, “1. Thoughts (Citta), Consciousness (Vinnana), and Mind (Hadaya Vatthu) – Introduction“, ………….

    1. Thoughts (Citta), Consciousness (Vinnana), and Mind (Hadaya Vatthu) – Introduction

    It will be beneficial to read this post even if one is not interested in learning Abhidhamma.

    1. After writing a few posts in the Abhidhamma section, I realized that
    it is a good idea to write introductory posts on English meanings of
    some Pali key words related to the mind. In the end, words do not matter
    and what matters is grasping of the concepts involved. But conveying
    the concept correctly REQUIRES the use of right words.

    is a bit of a problem because there are no words in English that truly
    conveys the meaning of some Pali key words when talking about the mind
    (like mano and vinnana). Thus what I need to do is to write several
    introductory posts describing such keywords (like what I did for anicca,
    dukkha, anatta).
    More details will be given in the Abhidhamma section, but the posts that appear in this section provide just the basics.

    2. A Citta (pronounced “chiththa”) is widely translated as a “thought”,
    vinnana as “consciousness” and mano as “mind”. I am going to keep using
    the former two, but am going to use “hadaya vatthu” as the Pali word
    for mind. Let us first discuss the reason for using this term for the

    Hadaya vatthu is where citta (thoughts) arise; thus it
    is appropriate to call it the mind or even more appropriately “seat of
    the mind”. Hadaya vatthu is the “link” between the “mano loka” (mind
    plane) and the “material plane” whether it is in kama loka, rupa loka or
    arupa loka (i.e., anywhere in the 31 realms). Mind or the hadaya vatthu
    is a very fine rupa (matter); in technical terms, hadaya vatthu is
    formed at patisandhi as a vatthu dasaka.
    By the way this hadaya
    vatthu is the only trace of matter associated with a living being in the
    arupa loka. It is much smaller than an atom; only a form of
    “suddhashtaka” in the form of a “dasaka“.
    For example, if a
    cuti-patisandhi transition occurs from a cat to a human, then the “cat
    hadaya vatthu” dies and a “human hadaya vatthu” is formed and the very
    next citta arises in the “human hadaya vatthu” or the “human mind” in
    the “human gandhabba”; see, “Cuti-Patsandhi Transition – Abhidhamma
    Description”. With that in mind, let us discuss the ultimate “primary

    3. In the absolute sense (paramatta), there are four
    entities: citta, cetasika (pronounced “chetasika”), rupa (pronounced
    “rüpa”), and Nibbana. The last one, Nibbana,does not belong to “this
    world” of 31 realms. Therefore, there are only citta, cetasika, and rupa
    that are in anything and everything in this world.

    Citta and cetasika are “nama” and all tangible things are made of “rupa”.
    There are 89 (or 121) types of citta; 52 kinds of cetasika, and 28
    kinds of rupa. These are all listed in the “Tables and Summaries”

    4. A citta (thought) does not arise by itself, but
    arises with a number of cetasika (mental factors). There are 7 cetasika
    that arise with ANY citta, and normally there are other cetasika that
    arise in addition to those seven. This is discussed in “Cetasika (Mental

    There are “good” and “bad” cetasika. The familiar
    ones are lobha, dosa, moha and alobha, adosa, but there are many
    others. These determine whether a given citta is a “good” (kusala) citta
    or a “bad” (akusala) citta. There are only good or bad cetasika in a
    given citta; they do not mix.

    5. Even though a citta arises and
    perishes within less than billionth of a second, it gets contaminated
    during its lifetime. Starting as a “pure citta” (“pabasvara citta” which
    is also called “prabhasvara citta” in Sanskrit) with those 7 universal
    cetasika, it gradually degrades by incorporating many other cetasika
    into a “contaminated citta” or vinnana. Without going into details, the
    nine steps are:

    citta, mano, manasan, hadayan, pandaran, mana
    indriyan, manayatan, vinnana, vinnanakkhandhö. But this happens during
    the life of the citta itself (in billionth of a second) according to the
    “gathi” that we have. This is why we cannot control our initial
    thoughts; but as those initial thoughts turn to speech and bodily
    actions, we may have time to control them.
    But we still use the
    term “citta” to denote the final outcome; in order to differentiate the
    one that the sequences started off, we call it a “pure citta” or a
    “pabasvara citta“.
    What we end up is basically what we call
    vinnanakhandha, and all this happens within a billionth of a second.
    This “contamination process” cannot be controlled willfully at that
    early stage; it happens automatically based on one’s “gathi“. The only
    thing we can do is to change our “gathi“.

    6. We can use the
    following analogy: If we start off with a glass of pure water that can
    be compared to a pure citta with just the 7 universal cetasika. If we
    add a bit of sugar (mano), salt (manasan) it gets a bit contaminated but
    we cannot see the contamination. Now we add a bit of brown sugar and we
    can see the water turning to brown; this is like the hadayan stage.
    Then we keep adding chocolate, milk, etc, the water gets really
    contaminated; but it is still mostly water. A contaminated citta is like
    at the vinnana stage; it is a citta that is contaminated.

    The citta of an Arahant does not contaminate beyond the masanan stage
    (While in the “Arahant phala samapatti” enjoying Nibbanic bliss, an
    Arahant has the pabasvara citta or the pure citta). All others get to
    the vinnana stage, but of course the “level of contamination” is much
    lower even by the time one gets to the Sotapanna stage, because one has
    gotten rid of any “gathi” associated with the apayas.
    As we can
    see, it is not possible to control such a fast process by sheer will
    power; it is a matter of “cleansing the mind” progressively of the
    contaminants of greed, hate, and ignorance.
    Now we can see why
    “mano” cannot be the mind. “Mano” is just a bit “contaminated” citta. It
    gets progressively contaminated and by the time it comes to the
    “vinnana” step it has captured all relevant cetasika for that arammana
    or the “thought object”.
    At the last step, a very profound thing
    happens. The manasikara cetasika brings in to play all relevant past
    vinnana (which are fixed as “nama gotta”) as well as one’s “hopes and
    dreams” for the future that are relevant to the “event in question”. For
    example, if the thought occurs due to seeing a nice house, one may
    compare that house with houses like that one has seen before AND one’s
    “dream house” that one is hoping to build one day. Therefore, in the
    “final version”, a citta is a very complex entity that reflects not only
    the “nature of the object seen” but also one’s own likes/dislikes for
    This last stage of the citta or Vinnana is the “composite
    awareness” for that particular event, which also has one’s own likings,
    dislikings, etc for that particular event; see, “Citta, Manō, Viññāna –
    Stages of a Thought“.

    7. And we do not, and cannot, just perceive
    a single or even a few vinnanakkandhö; rather what we “feel” as a
    “thought” is the sum of many such vinnanakkandhö, and we still call that
    a “citta” or a “thought”; see, “What is a Thought?” and “Citta and
    Cetasika – How Vinnana (Consciousness) Arises”.

    We also alternatively call such sense experiences “citta“, “thoughts”, “consciousness”, and “vinnana“.
    Thus it is critical to understand that what we mean by vinnana in
    general is the sum total of many cittas; in paticca samuppada, at the
    “avijja paccaya vinnana“, vinnana means this sum total of many cittas or
    even more accurately the sum total of many of vinnanakkhandhö.

    8. Now I would like to point out a few important conventions:

    It is important to remember that a thought can have many meanings even in English:
    Normally “citta” is used to denote a thought, and “vinnana” is used
    to denote the “awareness” associated with a thought. It is fine to do
    that most of the time, but if a discussion gets technical one could come
    back to this post and refresh memory as to the details.
    And as
    you can imagine, such an “average of thoughts” may have many type of
    cognitions and underlying “awarenesses”, and we will talk about the
    different types of vinnana in the next post, “2. Vinnana (Consciousness)
    can be of Many Different Types and Forms”.

    2. Vinnana (Consciousness) can be of Many Different Types and Forms

    1. Vinnana is unique to sentient beings. Plants are alive but have no
    vinnana; they respond to the environments but are not capable of
    “thinking”. Sentient beings are aware that they are alive and just that
    basic awareness of “being alive” is not really a vinnana.

    This purest level of vinnana (the awareness of being alive) is called the “citta” (pronounced “chiththa”) stage.
    A citta arises with 7 concomitant “mental factors” (cetasika,
    pronounced “chetasika”), and this is described in “Citta and Cetasika –
    How Vinnana (Consciousness) Arises”. To emphasize, a pure citta arises
    with those universal cetasika; a citta always has those 7 cetasika.

    However, the citta of a sentient being gets “contaminated” by other
    cetasika as soon as it arises. Within the lifetime of a citta (which is
    less than a billionth of a second), it progressively gets contaminated
    by “good” or “bad” cetasika, and this happens in nine stages! This was
    discussed in the previous post: “Thoughts (Citta), Consciousness
    (Vinnana), and Mind (Hadaya Vatthu) – Introduction“.

    2. As
    discussed in “Citta and Cetasika – How Vinnana (Consciousness) Arises”,
    it is those additional cetasika that provide “color” to a citta: if a
    set of “good cetasika” arise with the citta it becomes a “good thought”
    or a “good vinnana”; if it is a set of “bad cetasika” , then the thought
    or the vinnana is bad (those cetasika do not mix). Also, there are
    neutral thoughts or neutral vinnana that are neither good nor bad.

    Vinnana can be experienced in many different ways; since it is hard
    to come up with different names for each case, they are all bundled
    together as vinnana. Words like citta, vinnana, mano, as well as cakkhu
    vinnana, sota vinnana, etc and vipaka vinnana are used in different
    contexts and that can be confusing to many regardless of whether their
    native language is English, Chinese, or even Sinhala, which is the
    closest language to Pali. But each term has its own “subtle identity”
    and as we discuss more, those subtle differences will become clear.

    3. Vinnana is often translated as “consciousness” but vinnana can be
    used in many different contexts like “subconscious” or “layers of

    The same problem is encountered by those who
    speak Sinhala, because there the word “sitha” is used in many occasions
    to represent the Pali words citta, mano, and vinnana. Similarly, in
    Sinhala “yati sitha” is used to denote the subconscious.
    “subconscious” in English (as introduced by Sigmund Freud) or “yati
    sitha” in Sinhala is not a separate citta (there can be only one citta
    at a time). But, each citta can have “layers of consciousness”; the
    manasikara cetasika plays a big role here.
    For example, at a
    given time we may have several “subconscious” vinnana: we may have plans
    to buy a certain car, getting ready to go on a trip next week, in the
    process of building a house, etc; all these are in the subconscious, and
    in each citta. If we see a car on the road that looks like the car we
    are interested in, the vinnana alerts you to it, and you take a good
    look at it.
    As the Buddha advised bhikkhus, what really matters
    is to convey the meaning. Just like in the case of paticca samuppada or
    tanha, it is best to use the Pali words and comprehend their meanings;
    those key words convey deep meanings that may take several words or even
    sentences in any other language to get the idea across.

    Types of Vinnana associated with Kamma and the Sense Doors

    Vinnana is complex and can be presented in various different types and
    forms. We will start by looking at “two categories” of vinnana.

    1. First, we can categorize them according to kamma (or sankhara)
    associated with the vinnana: Kamma vinnana, vipaka vinnana, and kiriya
    (or kriya) vinnana.

    Let us describe in plain English what these terms mean.

    We can put vinnana into three categories in relation to kamma:
    Those vinnana that arise while doing a kamma (sankhara) is called a
    kamma vinnana. For example, when one steals something, one has an
    awareness of that; that is the “vinnana that one is stealing”.

    Then there are those that arise as kamma vipaka, and thus we do not have
    much control over them; they just happen to us and are called avyakata
    vinnana or vipaka vinnana. I like the term vipaka vinnana than avyakata
    vinnana because then it is easy to differentiate those two kinds. For
    example, when one is walking on the road and sees something valuable on
    the roadside; that is a cakkhu vinnana (seeing something) and also a
    vipaka vinnana (due to a kamma vipaka).
    The third type in this
    category are called kiriya (kriya) vinnana, and they are not connected
    to kamma. When we think, talk, or do something that does not involve
    kammically “good” or “bad”, those are done with kiriya vinnana. For
    example, when we think about the cleaning chores for the day, or ask
    someone what time it is, or walk to the kitchen to get a drink, all
    those are done with kiriya vinnana.

    2. When we are travelling by a
    vehicle and are looking out of a window, we see many different things
    out there. But most of it we do not pay any attention, even though we
    are “aware” that we are seeing things. Those are vipaka vinnana, they
    are “presented to us”, but most of them may not interest us.

    Then all of a sudden we see something that “piques our interest”, say a
    nice house by the roadside. Then we fix our attention on that and even
    may keep looking at until it moves out of our range. That is a vipaka
    vinnana that triggered a “gathi” in us; it was of interest. And it could
    put us in a position to acquire more kamma by initiating a kamma
    For example, if we really got interested in that house,
    we may start thinking about how nice would it be if we could build and
    live in a house like that. Now we are making sankhara (i.e., generating
    kamma) based on that “seeing event”. Thus such thoughts (or vinnana)
    that followed the initial vipaka vinnana of “seeing the house” are kamma
    Our life experiences belong to basically one of those three categories.

    3. All those vinnana may also be described in another totally different
    form; they can be differentiated into six categories, this time based
    on the sense door: thus we have cakkhu vinnana (vision consciousness),
    and sota (sound), ghana (smell), jivha (taste), kaya (touch), and mano
    (mind) vinnana (consciousnesses).

    In the previous example,
    the three types of vinnana were all initiated by cakkhu vinnana, a
    “seeing event or consciousness”. At the kamma vinnana stage, they became
    mano vinnana, because those thoughts about acquiring a house originated
    in our minds.
    Then if another passenger touched us, we would
    turn and look at that person, because now we had a kaya vinnana (which
    was also a vipaka vinnana).
    If that touching turned out to be
    done by accident, we just let go of it, and it was just a neutral event
    of seeing someone (kiriya vinnana).
    However, if it was someone
    with whom we had a romantic relationship in the past, then we may start
    generating kamma vinnana (mano vinnana). In the same way, if it was
    someone with whom we have had a bad relationship, we may start
    generating another type of kamma vinnana (mano vinnana).
    Thus if
    you contemplate a bit on this, you can see that ALL our experiences can
    be put into either of those two “divisions”, i.e., we can analyze them
    to be in vipaka vinnana, kamma vinnana, and kiriya vinnana categories or
    the sense consciousness categories.

    4. There are other types of
    vinnana that we will talk about later, but for now let us discuss
    something that is really important to paticca samuppada.

    paticca samuppada cycle starts with “avijja paccaya sankhara”, and
    “sankhara paccaya vinnana”. This vinnana is NOT a vipaka vinnana or a
    kiriya vinnana, but only a kamma vinnana.
    When we see something,
    hear something, etc., those are things that HAPPEN to us. Thus there is
    no avijja (or ignorance) initiating that consciousness. There is no
    paticca samuppada cycle associated with such a consciousness (vinnana).
    However, if we now decide to act on it (say, take another look at
    it because we like it), then we may be initiating a sankhara (kamma)
    event: now this new event initiates a (pavutti) paticca samuppada cycle
    with “avijja paccaya sankhara”, which leads to, “sankhara paccaya
    vinnana”, i.e., this vinnana was initiated by a sankhara; thus it is a
    kamma vinnana.

    5. Usually, what happens in our lives is that we
    are bombarded with sense inputs via all six senses. We tend to turn our
    attention to as many as we can because we are afraid that “we may miss
    out on something”. This is the root cause for the lack of “peace” in our
    minds, because we are constantly moving our attention among the six
    senses, going back and forth. If we have too many “likings” our mind
    will be pulled in all different directions trying to follow all those
    sense inputs.

    By avoiding busy environments (i.e., by going
    to a secluded place) we can reduce this effect. But, we still cannot
    “turn off the sixth sense input”, i.e., the mind, unless we purify our
    minds. This is the key to meditation. It is not possible to have a
    “peace of mind” if the mind is burdened with greed, hate, and ignorance
    (wrong vision or micca ditthi).

    6. Thus an Arahant can have a peaceful mind even when in the busiest place. A Sotapanna can do that to a certain extent too.

    Even before any of the “magga phala” are attained, one can easily
    get to samadhi and then to jhanas, by gradually getting rid of the
    defilements associated with “wrong vision” just by learning Dhamma
    (mainly anicca, dukkha, anatta).
    Then the number of different
    types of vinnana going through the mind will be reduced (“Sounds like my
    neighbor’s car leaving, I wonder whether she is going to the mall?”, “I
    wonder what (my enemy) is up to today?”, “I wish I could have a body
    like that!”, “How come I don’t have a nice house like that?”; these are
    all types of vinnana that we burden our minds with unnecessarily.

    And it is important to realize that it is not easy to just turn those
    off; they WILL BE turned off automatically when we purify our minds
    first by learning Dhamma (“What is the use of thinking about unnecessary
    things? There are better things to think about that provide lasting

    Next, “3. Vinnana, Thoughts, and the Subconscious“, ……………….

    3. Vinnana, Thoughts, and the Subconscious

    1. A thought (citta; pronounced “chiththa”) is on a specific thought
    object, say thinking about buying a car or going for a walk. There is
    only one citta at a time, but each lasts less than a billionth of a
    second and what we experience is vinnanakkhadha which encompases
    multiple cittas. One can NEVER experience a single citta. Therefore,
    what we call a “thought” is the result of many of cittas or more
    correctly the result of many citta vithi, bundled up as vinnanakkhadha.

    Each citta has many cetasika (mental factors) in it, including the
    all important sanna, phassa, manasikara cetasika. Then there are “good”
    and “bad” cetasika in a citta that describe the “mood” of the citta.
    When someone is angry most cittas at that time will have the hate
    (patigha and/or dosa cetasika. When the same person is feeding a hungry
    person his/her cittas at that time will have the benevolence and/or
    loving kindness cetasikas. The good and bad cetasika do not mix, i.e.,
    one either has a good thought or a bad thought. For discussion on
    cetasika, see, “Cetasika (Mental Factors)“.

    2. The manasikara and
    sanna cetasika is in each and every citta, and they carry all past
    memories, habits (gathi) and cravings (asavas) in them. The gathi and
    asavas may not be displayed in each citta; rather, they lie dormant,
    waiting for a “trigger” to come up. Gathi and asavas are carried from
    citta to citta (until they are removed), and new habits and cravings can
    be added at any time.

    3. Vinnana is not a thought but it is in
    thoughts. Vinnana represents the overall experience of cittas, and is
    largely described by the cetasika in those cittas. Of course no one
    experience a vinnana due to a single citta; rather what one experiences
    is the average of millions or billions of cittas. A bunch or a heap is
    called khandha in Pali or Sinhala. Thus what we experience is a
    vinnanakkhandha, or the averaged value over a bunch or a heap of cittas.

    Vinnana is complex and multi-faceted. We may have vinnana of
    different types at the same time. Even though we are directly aware of
    one type of vinnana at a given time, there may be many types hiding
    beneath the surface. This is what Sigmund Freud called the

    4. A thought is what is occupying the mind at a
    given moment. When I am paying for my groceries, my thoughts are focused
    on that transaction. But there can be many types of vinnana working “in
    the background”. I may be building a house, studying for an exam,
    planning a trip, planning a birthday party for my child, etc. and all
    those “vinnana” are working in the background even though I am not
    thinking about any of them at the time I am paying for my groceries.

    However, any of those, and even some things that I had not been
    thinking about for a long time could be there further down in the
    “subconscious”. But there is no separate “subconscious” as such. All
    these different types of vinnana are there in a single thought (citta),
    and there is only one citta at a time; see, “What is a Thought?”. Then
    how is it possible for many types of vinnana to be lurking in the

    5. It is those mental factors (cetasika) that makes
    it all possible. Several key such mental factors play key roles
    including memory (manasikara), contact (phassa), and perception(sanna).
    These key “universal cetasika” are in all the citta and embody all our
    desires as well as everything that has happened to us in them. Of course
    things happened recently are “closer to the top” compared to something
    that had happened a long time ago. And it also depends on how
    significant a certain event was. Some special events, even if they had
    happened a long time ago, are easier to remember.

    are fixed even though we may not remember all of them; all our memories
    are kept intact as our nama gotta, in the mind plane; see, “Recent
    Evidence for Unbroken Memory Records (HSAM)“. Of course what we can
    recall is limited by many factors including the state of the brain. As
    we get older the ability to recall gets weaker.

    6. Vinnana is a sort of the “end result” of many memories as well as our gathi and asavas.

    The more one does something repeatedly, there starts a vinnana for
    that particular event or behavior. For example, when one starts smoking,
    a vinnana starts building, and the more one smokes, the stronger the
    vinnana gets. This is called “feeding the vinnana” by doing it again and
    again. In other words, habits are formed via repeatedly feeding the
    vinnana for that habit.
    When a certain vinnana is pleasing to
    the mind, that vinnana tries to get fed frequently. When someone has the
    habit of smoking the vinnana for that tries to deviate his/her
    attention to smoking at every possible opportunity. For example, if a
    smoker sees an advertisement for smoking, that “triggers” the liking or
    the vinnana for smoking that was in the subconscious.

    7. But it
    works the same way for a vinnana that got initiated with a dislike also.
    For example, if someone did something really awful to you in the past,
    the hearing of his/her name will bring back that vinnana. This is why we
    get “attached” to things we like as well for things we dislike, and is
    the meaning of tanha (get bonded via greed or hate); see, “Tanha – How
    We Attach Via Greed, Hate, and Ignorance“.

    8. Not all vinnana
    keep accumulating in the background. Those weaker ones, especially if
    don’t get fed, diminish and disappear. For example, suppose I had
    planned an overseas trip, and had been making preparations for it. The
    more preparations I make and more thoughts I have of the trip, those are
    “food for that vinnana”, and it grows. If I see a new article with that
    country’s name, I would immediately read the article. But suppose, a
    major war breaks out in that country before my trip; then I would cancel
    that trip right away. I will no longer be planning for the trip and my
    mind will “not be interested” in it anymore. Since that vinnana for
    “visiting that country” is not going to get fed anymore, it will be gone
    in a short time.

    We don’t even need to actually physically
    do the activity to “feed the vinnana” or make a habit stronger. There
    are studies that show that one could improve the game of basketball, for
    example, by just visualize practising, and getting the ball in
    mentally. These are called “mano sancetana”. Focusing the attention on a
    given task can be very powerful.

    9. This is why chanda, citta,
    viriya, vimansa (satara iddhipada or the four bases of mental power) are
    critical for achieving goals. When one forms a strong liking (chanda)
    for a goal, one starts thinking often about it (citta), making effort
    (viriya), and constantly analyzing and trying to find related facts
    (vimansa) about how to accomplish that goal; see, “ The Four Bases of
    Mental Power (Satara Iddhipada)“.

    10. Our minds are very complex
    and powerful. And there are many different ways to analyze and examine
    concepts that are closely related. This is why there are so many
    different ways Buddha Dhamma can analyze a given situation and come to
    the same conclusion. It is a all self-consistent.

    example, suppose I thought about buying a silver car of model X several
    weeks ago; I have been thinking about it reading reviews and so on. I
    may be driving on the road just focusing on the road and driving with my
    thoughts and consciousness (vinnana) focused on driving. But now if I
    see a silver-colored car of model X, then immediately that will trigger
    my vinnana about “buying the car” and I may compare the silver-colored
    car with the car that I had in mind. The mind likes to “feed the
    vinnana” that we have and the more it gets fed, it gets stronger. The
    more I think about the car, the stronger my intentions get about buying

    11. There could be several such vinnana “in the background”
    or “in the subconscious” at any given time. For example, our vinnana
    keeps shifting as we keep moving from one task to another. But
    underneath, there may be several vinnana waiting for an opportunity to
    come up to the conscious level. Thus it can be “triggered” by a related

    12. A built-up vinnana can form a habit; as the habit gets
    stronger, it can be carried over to the next life, possibly in two
    ways: a really strong habit could lead to a “patisandhi vinnana” at the
    dying moment and can lead to a corresponding “bhava”, and thus one could
    be born in the corresponding “jati”. For example, an extremely greedy
    person, may acquire a “peta bhava” at the dying moment and be born as a
    “peta” or a hungry ghost.

    On the other hand, if the same
    person had time left in the “human bhava” then that person will be
    feeding the “pavutti vinnana” of greed, and will always be looking out
    to acquire more “stuff” even at the expense of other people. Thus a
    “greedy vinnana” will grow as one keeps feeding that vinnana. He/she
    will never be satisfied even if what has been acquired is more than

    13. Thus vinnana is very complex; it is not just the
    “awareness”. It also has one’s “hopes and dreams” as well as “likes,
    dislikes, and habits”. It is a complex combination of the 52 cetasikas;
    of course not all cetasikas are involved in a given citta or in our
    Mind and Consciousness according to Abhidhamma are discussed in several posts.

  • There is a very basic fact that comes from Abhidhamma, and one does need to have a good knowledge of Abhidhamma to see this point. There are 7 universal mental factors (cetasika) that arise with ANY citta (thought) of ANY living being: vedana, sanna, cetana, manasikara, phassa, jivitindriya, and ekaggata.

    When we are angry with other people we harm ourselves by our anger. The
    Buddha pointed out the adverse effects of anger (dosa). We read in the
    ‘Gradual Sayings’ (Book of the Sevens, Ch.VI, par. 10, Anger) about the
    ills a rival wishes his rival to have and which are actually the ills
    coming upon an angry woman or man. The sutta states:

    …Monks, there is the case of the rival, who wishes
    thus of a rival: ‘Would that he were ugly!’. And why?
    A rival, monks, does not like a handsome rival. Monks,
    this sort of person, being angry, is overwhelmed by
    anger; he is subverted by anger: and however well
    he be bathed, anointed, trimmed as to the hair and
    beard, clad in spotless linen; yet for all that he is ugly,
    being overwhelmed by anger. Monks, this is the first
    condition, fostered by rivals, causing rivals, which comes
    upon an angry woman or man.

    Again, there is the case of the rival, who wishes
    thus of a rival: ‘Would that he might sleep badly!’ And
    why? A rival, monks, does not like a rival to sleep
    well. Monks, this sort of person, being angry, is
    overwhelmed by anger… and in spite of his lying on
    a couch, spread with a fleecy cover, spread with a
    white blanket, spread with a woollen coverlet, flower
    embroidered, covered with rugs of antelope skins, with
    awnings above; or on a sofa, with crimson cushions
    at either end; yet for all that he lies in discomfort,
    being overwhelmed by anger. Monks, this is the second

    We then read about other ills a rival wishes for his rival, which come
    upon an angry woman or man. We read that a rival wishes his rival to be
    without prosperity, wealth and fame. Further we read that a rival wishes
    a rival to be without friends and this happens to someone who is an
    angry person.

    The text states:

    ‘Monks, this sort of person, being angry… whatever
    friends, intimates, relations and kinsmen he may have,
    they will avoid him and keep far away from him, because
    he is overwhelmed by anger…’

    A rival wishes his rival to have an unhappy rebirth
    and this can happen to an angry person. We read:

    ‘…..Monks, this sort of person, being angry… he
    misconducts himself in deed, in word and thought; so
    living, so speaking and so thinking, on the breaking
    up of the body after death he is reborn in the untoward
    way, the ill way, the abyss, hell….’

    We would like to live in a world of harmony and unity among nations and
    we are disturbed when people commit acts of violence. We should
    consider what is the real cause of war and discord between people: it is
    the defilements which people have accumulated. When we have aversion we
    think that other people or unpleasant situations are the cause of our
    aversion. However, our accumulation of dosa is the real cause that
    aversion arises time and again. If we want to have less dosa we should
    know the characteristic of dosa and we should be aware of it when it

    Dosa has many degrees; it can be a slight aversion or it
    can be more coarse, such as anger. We can recognize dosa when it is
    coarse, but do we realize that we have dosa when it is more subtle?
    Through the study of the Abhidhamma we learn more about the
    characteristic of dosa. Dosa is an akusala cetasika (mental factor)
    arising with an akusala citta. A citta rooted in dosa is called in Pali:
    dosa-mula.citta. The characteristic of dosa is different from the
    characteristic of lobha. When there is lobha, the citta likes the object
    which it experiences at that moment, whereas when there is dosa, the
    citta has aversion towards the object it experiences. We can recognize
    dosa when we are angry with someone and when we speak disagreeable
    words to him. But when we are afraid of something it is dosa as well,
    because one has aversion towards the object one is afraid of. There are
    so many things in life we are afraid of: one is afraid of the future, of
    diseases, of accidents, of death. One looks for many means in order to
    be cured of anguish, but the only way is the development of the wisdom
    which eradicates the latent tendency of dosa.

    Dosa is conditioned
    by lobha: we do not want to lose what is dear to us and when this
    actually happens we are sad. Sadness is dosa, it is akusala. If we do
    not know things as they are, we believe that people and things last.
    However, people and things are only phenomena which arise and fall away
    immediately. The next moment they have changed already. If we can see
    things as they are we will be less overwhelmed by sadness. It makes no
    sense to be sad about what has happened already.

    In the ‘Psalms
    of the Sisters’ (Therigatha, 33) we read that the king’s wife Ubbiri
    mourned the loss of her daughter Jiva. Every day she went to the
    cemetery. She met the Buddha who told her that in that cemetery about
    eighty-four thousand of her daughters (in past lives) had been burnt.

    The Buddha said to her:

    ‘O, Ubbiri, who wails in the wood
    Crying, O Jiva! O my daughter dear!
    Come to yourself! See, in this burying-ground
    Are burnt full many a thousand daughters dear,
    And all of them were named like unto her.
    Now which of all those Jivas do you mourn?’

    After Ubbiri pondered over the Dhamma thus taught by the Buddha she
    developed insight and saw things as they really are; she even attained

    There are other akusala cetasikas which can arise
    with cittas rooted in dosa. Regret or worry, in Pali: kukkucca, is an
    akusala cetasika which arises with dosa-mula-citta at the moment we
    regret something bad we did or something good we did not do. When there
    is regret we are thinking of the past instead of knowing the present
    moment. When we have done something wrong it is of no use having

    Envy (issa) is another cetasika which can arise with
    dosa-mula-citta. There is envy when we do not like someone else to enjoy
    pleasant things. At that moment the citta does not like the object it
    experiences. We should find out how often envy arises, even when it is
    more subtle. This is a way to know whether we really care for someone
    else or whether we only think of ourselves when we associate with

    Stinginess (macchariya) is another akusala cetasika which
    may with dosa-mula-citta. When we are stingy there is dosa as well. At
    that moment we do not like someone else to share in our good fortune.

    Dosa always arises with an unpleasant feeling (domanassa vedana). Most
    people do not like to have dosa because they do not like to have an
    unpleasant feeling. As we develop more understanding of realities we
    want to eradicate dosa not so much because we dislike unpleasant feeling
    but rather because we realize the adverse effects of akusala.

    The doorways through which dosa can arise are the five sense-doors and
    the mind-door. It can arise when we see ugly sights, hear harsh sounds,
    smell unpleasant odours, taste unappetizing food, receive painful bodily
    impressions and think of disagreeable things. Whenever there is a
    feeling of uneasiness, no matter how slight, it is a sign that there is
    dosa. Dosa may often arise when there are unpleasant impressions through
    the senses, for example, when the temperature is too hot or too cold.
    Whenever there is a slightly unpleasant bodily sensation dosa may arise,
    be it only of a lesser degree

    Dosa arises when there are
    conditions for it. It arises so long as there is still attachment to the
    objects which can be experienced through the five senses. Everybody
    would like to experience only pleasant things and when we do not have
    them any more, dosa can arise.

    Another condition for dosa is
    ignorance of Dhamma. If we are ignorant of kamma and vipaka, cause and
    result., dosa may arise very easily on account of an unpleasant
    experience through one of the senses and thus dosa is accumulated time
    and again. An unpleasant experience through one of the senses is akusala
    vipaka caused by an unwholesome deed we perforrned. When we, for
    example, hear unpleasant words from someone else we may be angry with
    that person. Those who have studied Dhamma know that hearing something
    unpleasant is akusala vipaka which is not caused by someone else but by
    an unwholesome deed we performed ourselves. A moment of vipaka falls
    away immediately, it does not stay. Are we not inclined to keep on
    thinking about an unpleasant experience? If there is more awareness of
    the present moment one will be less inclined to think with aversion
    about one’s akusala vipaka.

    When we study the Abhidhamma we learn
    that there are two types of dosa-mula-citta; one is asarikharika
    (unprompted) and one is sasankharika (prompted). Dosa is sasankharika
    prompted) when, for example, one becomes angry after having been
    reminded of the disagreeable actions of someone else. When dosa is
    sankharika (unprompted) it is more intense than when it is sasankharika.
    Dosa-mula-cittas are called patigha.sampayutta, or accompanied by
    patigha, which is another word for dosa. Dosa.mula-cittas are always
    accompanied by domanassa (unpleasant feeling). The two
    type of dosa-mula-citta are:

    Accompanied by unpleasant feeling, arising with anger, unprompted
    (Domanassa-sahagatam, patigha-sampayuttam, asankharikam ekam)
    Accompanied by unpleasant feeling, arising with anger, prompted
    (Domanassa-sahagatam, patigha-sampayuttam, sasankharikam ekam)

    As we have seen, there are many degrees of dosa; it may be coarse or
    more subtle. When dosa is coarse, it causes akusala kamma-patha
    (unwholesome deeds) through body, speech or mind. Two kinds of akusala
    kamma-patha through the body can be performed with dosa-mula-citta:
    killing and stealing. If we want less violence in the world we should
    try not to kill. When we kill we accumulate a great deal of dosa. The
    monk’s life is a life of non-violence; he does not hurt any living being
    in the world. However, not everyone is able to live like the monks.
    Defilements are anatta (not self); they arise because of conditions. The
    purpose of the Buddha’s teachings is not to lay down rules which forbid
    people to commit ill deeds, but to help people to develop the wisdom
    which eradicates defilements.

    As regards stealing, this can
    either be performed with lobha-mula-citta or with dosa-mula-citta. It is
    done with dosa-mula-citta when there is the intention to harm someone
    else. Doing damage to someone else’s possessions is included in this

    Four kinds of akusala kamma-patha through speech are
    performed with dosa-mula-citta: lying, slandering, rude speech and
    frivolous talk. Lying, slandering and frivolous talk can either be done
    with lobha-mula-citta or with dosa-mula-citta. Slandering, for example,
    is done with dosa-mula-citta when there is the intention to cause damage
    to someone else, such as doing harm to his good name and causing him to
    be looked down upon by others. Most people think that the use of
    weapons is to be avoided, but they forget that the tongue can be a
    weapon as well, which can badly wound. Evil speech does a great deal of
    harm in the world; it causes discord between people. When we speak evil
    we harm ourselves, because at such moments akusala kamma is accumulated
    and it is capable of producing akusala vipaka. We read in the ‘Sutta
    Nipata’ (the Great Chapter, ‘Khuddaka Nikava’):

    Truly to every person born
    An axe is born within his mouth
    Wherewith the fool cuts himself
    When he speaks evil.

    As regards akusala kamma-patha through the mind performed with
    dosa-mula-citta, this is the intention to hurt or harm someone else.

    People often speak about violence and the ways to cure It. Who of us
    can say that he is free from dosa and that he will never kill? We do not
    know how much dosa we have accumulated in the course of many lives.
    When the conditions are there we might commit an act of violence we did
    not realize we were capable of. When we understand how ugly dosa and to
    what deeds it can lead we want to eradicate it.

    In doing kind
    deeds to others we cannot eradicate the latent tendency of dosa, but at
    least at those moments we do not accumulate more dosa. The Buddha
    exhorted people to cultivate lovingkindness (metta). We read in the
    ‘Karaniya Metta-sutta’ (Sutta Nipata, vs. 143-152 : I am using the
    translation by Nanamoli Thera, Buddhist Publicafion Society, Kandv, Sri
    Lanka.) what one should do in order to gain the ’state of peace’. One
    should have thought of love for all living beings:

    . …In safety and in bliss
    May creatures all be of a blissful heart.
    Whatever breathing beings there may be,
    No matter whether they are frail or firm,
    With none excepted, be they long or big
    Or middle-sized, or be they short or small
    Or thick, as well as those seen or unseen,
    Or whether they are dwelling far or near,
    Existing or yet seeking to exist,
    May creatures all be of a blissful heart.
    Let no one work another one’s undoing
    Or even slight him at all anywhere;
    And never let them wish each other ill
    Through provocation or resentful thought.

    And just as might a mother with her life
    Protect the son that was her only child,
    So let him then for every living thing
    Maintain unbounded consciousness in being,
    And let him too with love for all the world
    Maintain unbounded consciousness in being
    Above, below, and all around in between,
    Untroubled, with no enemy or foe….

    The Buddha taught us not to be angry with those who are unpleasant to
    us. We read in the Vinaya (Mahavagga X, 349 : Translation by Nanamoli
    Thera.) that the Buddha said to the monks:

    They who (in thought) belabour this: That man
    has me abused, has hurt, has worsted me,
    has me despoiled: in these wrath is not allayed.
    They who do not belabour this: That man
    has me abused, has hurt, has wosted me,
    has me despoiled: in them wrath is allayed.
    Nay, not by wrath are wrathful moods allayed here
    (and) at any time,
    but by not-wrath are they allayed: this is an (ageless)
    endless rule….

    At times it seems impossible for us to have metta instead of dosa. For
    example, when people treat us badly we may feel very unhappy and we keep
    on pondering over our misery. When dosa has not been eradicated there
    are still conditions for it to arise. In being mindful of all realities
    which appear the wisdom is developed which can eradicate dosa.

    Dosa can only be eradicated stage by stage. The sotapanna (who has
    attained the first stage of enlightenment) has not yet eradicated dosa.
    At the subsequent stage of enlightenment, the stage of the sakadagami
    (once-returner), dosa is not yet eradicate completely. The anagami
    (non-returner, who has attained the third stage of enlightenment) has
    eradicated dosa completely; he has no more latent tendency of dosa.

    We have not eradicated dosa, but when dosa appears, we can be mindful
    of its characteristic in order to know it as a type of nama, arising
    because of conditions. When there is no mindfulness of dosa when it
    appears, dosa seems to last and we take it for self; neither do we
    notice other namas and rupas presenting themselves. Through mindfulness
    of namas and rupas which present themselves one at a time, we will learn
    that there are different characteristics of nama and rupa, none of
    which stays; and we will also know the characteristic of dosa as only a
    type of nama, not self.

    When a clearer understanding of realities
    is developed we will be less inclined to ponder for a long time over an
    unpleasant experience, since it is only a type of nama which does not
    last. We will attend more to the present moment instead of thinking
    about the past or the future. We will also be less inclined to tell
    other people about unpleasant things which have happened to us, since
    that may be a condition both for ourselves and for others to accumulate
    more dosa. When someone is angry with us we will have more

    understanding of his conditions; he may be tired or not feeling well.
    Those who treat us badly deserve compassion because they actually make
    themselves unhappy.

    Right understanding of realities will help us
    most of all to have more lovingkindness and compassion towards others
    instead of dosa.


    Why is lobha a condition for dosa?
    Lying, slandering and frivolous talk are akusala kamma-patha
    through speech which can be performed either with lobha-mula-citta or
    with dosa-mula-citta. When are they performed with dosa-mula-citta?
    Is there akusala kamma-patha through the mind performed with dosa-mula-citta?

    we are angry with other people we harm ourselves by our anger. The
    Buddha pointed out the adverse effects of anger (dosa). We read in the

Pure Dhamma

A Quest to Recover Buddha’s True Teachings


Lobha, dosa, moha are the deepest levels of greed, hate, and
ignorance. As one follows the Path, they are gradually reduced; see:
Lobha,Dosa, Moha versus Raga, Patigha, Avijja

A clear break to raga, patigha, avijja occurs at the Sotapanna stage.
One of the three types of raga (kama raga) and patigha are reduced at
the Sakadagami stage, and removed at the Anagami stage. The other two
types of raga (bhava and vibhava raga) and avijja completely removed at
the Arahant stage.
When one acts without lobha, dosa, moha, one is acting with alobha,
adosa, amoha. Even the most immoral person may act with alobha, adosa,
amoha sometimes. As one follows the Path one will act with less and less
moha, dosa, moha.

Just like lobha, dosa, moha have various levels, alobha, adosa, amoha also have different levels.
For example, as dosa decreases from mere adosa, metta, karuna, mudita
increase. As lobha decreases from mere alobha, one’s tendency to give
(dana) and help out others increases. One will also start acting with
amoha more and more, and as one learns Dhamma, one’s panna (wisdom) will
grow. Of course, amoha is greatly reduced when one removes ten types of
mica ditthi, and panna will start growing drastically when one starts
comprehending Tilakkhana.

It is important to realize that acting with panna (wisdom) is much more than acting with amoha.
Amoha just means acting without moha (i.e., acting with amoha). One has
to learn Dhamma to act with panna. And panna grows exponentially when
one starts comprehending Tilakkhana.

There is a very basic fact that comes from Abhidhamma, and one does need to have a good knowledge of Abhidhamma to see this point. There are 7 universal mental factors (cetasika) that arise with ANY citta (thought) of ANY living being: vedana, sanna, cetana, manasikara, phassa, jivitindriya, and ekaggata.

The key point relevant to the question is that not only
puppies but all animals (down to fish and ants and amoeba) have feelings
(vedana) and perceptions (sanna) at their own levels.
They all feel suffering, especially bodily suffering. As part of their strong kamma,
the animals cannot show their emotions, so one would even not have pity
on them. For example, fish cannot cry (or laugh); their bodies are not
designed by kamma to do that. So, just because we cannot see
them crying, does not mean they don’t feel pain. At least in fish, the
suffering is quite clear: they writhe with pain dangling by those hooks;
see, “It’s Official: Fish Feel Pain“.

And they also have sanna (perceptions) about their
experience. Obviously the dogs and cats recognize their owners, and as
you pointed out, remember those who have harmed them.

The most precious thing for EACH living being is their life. When
someone takes care of them, they appreciate it and show it in whatever
form they can. Even though some dogs show a trace of “smiling”, some
others can show their appreciation only by body language, mostly by
wagging their tails. And when get threatened, they show their
displeasure by whatever form they can: dogs bark and bit; cats scratch,

The only significant thing animals cannot do is to make plans to make
their lives better. My daughter’s dog very much likes to sun bathe in
her cot, but when the Sun moves away from her cot she does not realize
that she can pull it to the right place easily. We have to do that for
– While birds have been building nests for billions of years, their “designs” have not changed at all.

So, the bottom line is that animals do have lobha,dosa, moha. But they are mostly robots, even those some higher animals have minor planning capabilities.
– But they can kill out of anger, greed, and of course moha
too. Especially “higher animals” can show those when they fight for
food, territory, mates, etc. But lower animals like amoeba “just have to
take much of the sufferings come their way”. Of course, those in the niraya (hell) have no options at all. They just suffer without having any ability to respond or to lessen the suffering.
Abhidhamma Lecture (English) September 4, 2015 (About Process of Mind - Part 1)

Streamed live on Sep 4, 2015

word ‘Vīthi’ means a road, a street, a line, a series. Here it means a
series of, a line of Cittas, a line of moments of consciousness.
A thought process consists of several thought moments. The rapidity of
the succession of such thought moments is said that within the brief
duration of a flash of lightening, or in the twinkling of an eye,
billions of thought-moments may arise and pass away.
Materi Abhidhamma Made Easy - Citta / Kesadaran : Day 2

Published on Nov 4, 2011

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The Pali canon is a vast body of literature: in English translation the
texts add up Abhidhamma Pitaka: The collection of texts in which the
underlying doctrinal. Note that, although no English translation of the
“The Book of Pairs” Most of the abhidhamma pitaka has been translated by
the PTS. Tipitaka >> Abhidhamma Pitaka The Abhidhamma Pitaka is
the last of the three sources & make it available to the mankind
(again) & in English for everyone.

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I think the scans are kicking around; scribd. Please note that
abhidhamma pitaka english editors may make some formatting changes or
correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any
clarifications are needed. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Help
us improve this article!

[abhidhamma pitaka english]

Muhammad is traditionally said to have…. It lists human characteristics
encountered on the stages of a Buddhist path. The Pali version is a
strictly Theravada collection and has abhidhamma pitaka english in
common with the…. These identifications are mostly consistent with what
is pitaja from other sources about the doctrines of abhidhamma pitaka
english schools.
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Abhidhamma Pitaka Pali Buddhist texts.
Tipitaka English

For example, the first chapter deals with the five aggregates. The
Central Philosophy of Buddhism. By using abhidhamma pitaka english site,
you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. All accuracy disputes
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one of the most important of the pitska, the Kathavatthu is a series of
questions from a heretical i. As stated by Buddha, Abhidhamma is to
disappear abgidhamma in times of evil on earth, and it almost did for a
long time.

Retrieved from ” http: Abhidhamma pitaka english
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. By using our site, englisg acknowledge
that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand
our Terms of Service. The first five books and part of the seventh of
the Abhidhamma Pitaka have been translated by the Pali Text Abhidhamma
pitaka englishwhich offers an option to order them through their

[abhidhamma pitaka english]

I wonder if there is
an English version of the Abhidhamma, in its entirety? Structure of the
Tipitaka. You can browse their website to see how they work, abhidhamma
pitaka english is their vision and which texts has been already
translated into English.

Many of these classifications are not exhaustive, and some are not even
exclusive. The Abhidhammattha-sangaha was composed in India or in
Myanmar Burmathe chief centre for…. Thank You for Your Abhidhamma pitaka
english The questions are heretical in nature, and are answered in such
a way as to refute them.

Abhidhamma Pitaka is divided into seven books.
Tipitaka English

Any text you add should be original, not copied engkish other sources.
Retrieved from ” https: You have successfully englisy this. In the
Theravadin Abhidhamma Pitaka, unlike the Abhidharma Pitaka of the
Sarvastivada school, ontological theorizing is absent, and the question
of ontological status of dharmas remains a moot point. The only one that
is missing abhidhamma pitaka english the Yamaka, abhidhamma pitaka
english which I see there are a couple of partial translations as
mentioned in another answer.

The Sutta s, which contain both
prose and verse, include sermons; stories about the Buddha, monks and
nuns, and others contemporary with….
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volumes and 57 Sinhala Tipitaka pdf, Tripitaka Pali to Sinhala
translation by Sri Lankan Bhikkhu Sangha; Vinaya, Sutta, Abhidhamma Pit
aka books. Abhidhamma Pitaka 5, Indriyavibhaṅga, Pali, English, Sinhala.
6, Paṭiccasamuppādavibhaṅga, Pali, English, Sinhala. 7,
Satipaṭṭhānavibhaṅga , Pali. 6 May However, Varigapurnikava does not
mention how much of the Abhidhamma Pitaka as known at present was taught
to Arhant Rathnavali Therin.

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he realizes the state of arahatship abhidhamma pitaka sinhala without
coming into the possession of the supernormal powers, he confesses to
the Buddha the ulterior motive with which he had joined the order, and
begs to be pardoned for such evil intentions.


similar statement can be found on pages and The millionaire has now
exhausted the good as well abhidhamma pitaka sinhala the bad effects of
his thoughts and actions with regard to the offering of food to the
paccekabuddha. The offences for which penalties are laid down may be
classified under seven categories depending on their sinhla. The Buddha
explained that feelings of liking, disliking or of indifference that
arise from conditioned phenomena could be soon eliminated by the
practice of Vipassana meditation.

he lives in security and abhidhamma pitaka sinhala of liberation and
calm, he keeps alert and mindful, ever ready to cope with any emergency
that may arise through lack of mindfulness.

by such unworthy thoughts his volition is only of an inferior grade.
Progressing still further by developing abhidhamma pitaka sinhala
applying frequently the seven factors of enlightenment he ultimately
attains arahatship. Citta introduces him to the leading bhikkhus and
helps him to get admission into the order.

Right click the book title and select save abhidhamma pitaka sinhala as
and save the PDF file on to your hard disc for reading on the computer
screen or to get it printed later. It may be seen from the above list of
the eighteen categories that they may be divided into three separate

Let you not be the person with whom my tradition ends. Precise
procedures are laid down for the sinala of disputes and the handling of
matters of jurisprudence, for the formation of Sangha courts and the
appointment of well-qualified Sangha judges. In these pdf files original
Pali version of Tripitaka is located abhidhamma pitaka sinhala the left
and the Sinhala abhidhamma pitaka sinhala can be found on the right.

Dhammasangani Index

This abgidhamma deals with eleven factors, the failure to fulfil
which would contribute to the downfall and ruin of the teaching. Then
standing on a spot where three big clods of earth meet, the skylark
derisively invites the falcon, “Come and ahbidhamma me, you big brute.
The Buddha points out the fallacy in the abhidhhamma abhidhamma pitaka
sinhala, one contradicting the other.

But if the uninstructed common worldling remains unperceiving and
abhidhamma pitaka sinhala in spite of very enlightening discourses, how
can I help? This is a discourse on evil results arising from evil
action, giving details of suffering in realms of misery and woe.

It cannot be said that the Bhikkus of Sinhala Buddhism were the most
pious people who lived on this earth, and the educated who want to
confine the Bhikkus to pansukula, pirith and dana want to see the
downfall of Sinhala Buddhism abhudhamma the instructions they have got
from the English very often indirectly.

The stories of petas are abhidhamma pitaka sinhala accounts of the
miserable beings who abhidhamma pitaka sinhala been reborn in unhappy
abhidhamma pitaka sinhala as a consequence of their evil deeds. The
Buddha said that noble tradition did not lead to calm, to higher
knowledge. The Buddha then taught him the essential dhammas in which one
must become accomplished before one could claim arahatship.

A typical chapter consists of three parts. Majjima Nikaya Part 2. The
Vibhanga Division or Classification [1] consists of 18 chapters, each
dealing with a different topic. Even abhidhamma pitaka sinhala Buddhas
cannot render abuidhamma they can only show the way and guide; a man
must strive for himself.

Abhidhamma Pitaka

The Buddha explained to Vekhanasa, the wandering ascetic, how
happiness accruing from sinala attainments was superior to that derived
from sensuous pleasures. A separate section deals with the kathina
ceremonies where annual making abhidhamma pitaka sinhala offering of
abhidhamma pitaka sinhala take place. The Buddha said he had also once
thought in a similar manner, and recounted the whole story of his
renunciation, his struggles with wrong practices, his frantic search for
the truth, and his ultimate enlightenment.

In the opening suttas it is pointed out how friendship with the good
and association with the virtuous is of immense help for the attainment
of the path and perfection. The so-called professionals and not the
politicians are powerful in many areas and very often the ministers
become helpless abhidhammma the public knows only to blame the

Warder and Peter Harvey both suggested sibhala dates for the matikas
on which most of the Abidhamma books abhidhamma pitaka sinhala based.

In Andra Pradesh and other areas in ancient Bharat no form of
Buddhism including Abhidhamma pitaka sinhala versions could survive
especially after the challenge of Sankaracharya in the sixth century. In
the first watch of the night, when the principle of the origin of the
abhidhamma pitaka sinhala mass of suffering was thoroughly grasped in a
detailed manner in the order of arising, the Buddha uttered this first
stanza of joy:.

In time, he too became accomplished in higher knowledge and attained
arahatship. The final blessing is on the development of the mind which
is unruffled by the vagaries of fortune, unaffected by sorrow, cleansed
of defilements and which thus gains liberation-the mind of an arahat.
Warder and Peter Harvey both suggested early dates for the matikas on
which most of the Abidhamma books are based. My energy is the ox, and my
concentration is the rope with which I put the ox to the yoke.

Abhidhamma pitaka sinhala parable of the falcon and the skylark illustrates this point.

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