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LESSON 3053 & 3054 Sun & Mon 7 & 8 Jul 2019 MAHABODHI RESEARCH CENTER ( Affiliated to Karntaka Samskrit University, Bengaluru) No. 14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru -560009) Term-End Examination Diploma Course in Theravada Buddhist Studies Exam, July 2019
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 7:31 pm

LESSON 3053 &  3054  Sun & Mon  7 & 8 Jul 2019

https://www.learnreligions.com/the-pali-canon-450130


The  Pāli Canon

Words of the Historical Buddha

More than two millennia ago, some of the oldest scriptures of Buddhism were gathered into a mighty collection. The collection was called (in Sanskrit) “Tripitaka,” or (in Pali) “Tipitaka,” which means “three baskets,” because it is organized into three major sections.





This particular collection of scriptures also is called the “Pali
Canon” because it is preserved in a language called Pali, which is a
variation of Sanskrit. Note that there are actually three primary canons
of Buddhist scripture, called after the languages in which they were
preserved — the Pali Canon, the Chinese Canon, and the Tibetan Canon, and many of the same texts are preserved in more than one canon.





The Pali Canon or Pali Tipitaka is the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism, and much of it is believed to be the recorded words of the historical Buddha.
The collection is so vast that, it is said, it would fill thousands of
pages and several volumes if translated into English and published. The
sutta (sutra) section alone, I’m told, contains more than 10,000
separate texts.





The Tipitaka was not, however, written during the life of the Buddha,
in the late 5th century BCE, but in the 1st century BCE. The texts were
kept alive through the years, according to legend, by being memorized
and chanted by generations of monks.





Much about early Buddhist history is not well understood, but here is
the story generally accepted by Buddhists about how the Pali Tipitaka
originated.





The First Buddhist Council



About three months after the death of the historical Buddha, ca. 480 BCE, 500 of his disciples
gathered in Rajagaha, in what is now northeast India. This gathering
came to be called the First Buddhist Council. The purpose of the Council
was to review the Buddha’s teachings and take steps to preserve them.





The Council was convened by Mahakasyapa,
an outstanding student of the Buddha who became the leader of the
sangha after the Buddha’s death. Mahakasyapa had heard a monk remark
that the death of the Buddha meant monks could abandon the rules of
discipline and do as they liked. So, the Council’s first order of
business was to review the rules of discipline for monks and nuns.





A venerable monk named Upali was acknowledged to have the most
complete knowledge of the Buddha’s rules of monastic conduct. Upali
presented all of the Buddha’s rules of monastic discipline to the
assembly, and his understanding was questioned and discussed by the 500
monks. The assembled monks eventually agreed that Upali’s recitation of
the rules was correct, and the rules as Upali remembered them were
adopted by the Council.





Then Mahakasyapa called on Ananda,
a cousin of the Buddha who had been the Buddha’s closest companion.
Ananda was famous for his prodigious memory. Ananda recited all of the
Buddha’s sermons from memory, a feat that surely took several weeks.
(Ananda began all of his recitations with the words “Thus I have heard,”
and so nearly all Buddhist sutras begin with those words.) The Council
agreed that Ananda’s recitation was accurate, and the collection of
sutras Ananda recited was adopted by the Council.





Two of Three Baskets



It was from the presentations of Upali and Ananda at the First
Buddhist Council that the first two sections, or “baskets,” came into
being:





  • The Vinaya-pitaka, “Basket of Discipline.”
    This section is attributed to the recitation of Upali. It is a
    collection of texts concerning the rules of discipline and conduct for
    monks and nuns. The Vinaya-pitaka not only lists rules but also explains
    the circumstances that caused the Buddha to make many of the rules.
    These stories show us much about how the original sangha lived.
  • The Sutta-pitaka,”Basket of Sutras.” This section is attributed to the recitation of Ananda. It contains thousands of sermons and discourses — sutras (Sanskrit) or suttas (Pali) — attributed to the Buddha and a few of his disciples. This “basket” is further subdivided into five nikayas, or “collections.” Some of the nikayas are further divided into vaggas, or “divisions.”




Although Ananda is said to have recited all of the Buddha’s sermons,
some parts of the Khuddaka Nikaya — “collection of little texts” —
were not incorporated into the canon until the Third Buddhist Council.





The Third Buddhist Council



According to some accounts, the Third Buddhist Council
was convened about 250 BCE to clarify Buddhist doctrine and stop the
spread of heresies. (Note that other accounts preserved in some schools
record an entirely different Third Buddhist Council.) It was at this
council that the entire Pali Canon version of the Tripitaka was recited
and adopted in final form, including the third basket. Which is…





  • The Abhidhamma-pitaka, “Basket of Special Teachings.”
    This section, also called the Abhidharma-pitaka in Sanskrit, contains
    commentaries and analyses of the sutras. The Abhidhamma-pitaka explores
    the psychological and spiritual phenomena described in the suttas and
    provides a theoretical foundation for understanding them.




Where did the Abhidhamma-pitaka come from? According to legend, the Buddha spent the first few days after his enlightenment
formulating the contents of the third basket. Seven years later he
preached the teachings of the third section to devas (gods). The only
human who heard these teachings was his disciple Sariputra, who passed the teachings on to other monks. These teachings were preserved by chanting and memory, as were the sutras and the rules of discipline.





Historians, of course, think the Abhidhamma was written by one or more anonymous authors sometime later.





Again, note that the Pali “pitakas” are not the only versions. There
were other chanting traditions preserving the sutras, the Vinaya and the
Abhidharma in Sanskrit. What we have of these today were mostly
preserved in Chinese and Tibetan translations and can be found in the
Tibetan Canon and Chinese Canon of Mahayana Buddhism.





The Pali Canon appears to be the most complete version of these early
texts, although it’s a matter of contention how much the current Pali
Canon actually dates to the time of the historical Buddha.





The Tipitaka: Written, at Last



The various histories of Buddhism record two Fourth Buddhist Councils, and at one of these, convened in Sri Lanka in
the 1st century BCE, the Tripitaka was written out on palm leaves.
After centuries of being memorized and chanted, the Pali Canon finally
existed as written text.





And Then Came Historians



Today, it may be safe to say that no two historians agree on how
much, if any, of the story of how the Tipitaka originated, is true.
However, the truth of the teachings has been confirmed and re-confirmed
by the many generations of Buddhists who have studied and practiced
them.





Buddhism is not a “revealed” religion. Agnosticism/Atheism expert, Austin Cline, defines revealed religion this way:





“Revealed Religions are those which find their symbolic center in
some set of revelations handed down by a god or gods. These revelations
are normally contained in the religion’s holy scriptures which, in
turn, have been transmitted to the rest of us by specially revered
prophets of the god or gods.”





The historical Buddha was a man who challenged his followers to
discover the truth for themselves. The sacred writings of Buddhism
provide valuable guidance to seekers of truth, but merely believing in
what the scriptures say is not the point of Buddhism. As long as the
teachings in the Pali Canon are useful, in a way it’s not so important
how it came to be written.




2. Decline all cases (noun form) in Neuter gender with all ending (a, ce, i, e, u, p, o)

Declension of neuter nouns in -a (ex: rūpa)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative rūpaṃ rūpā / rūpāni
Vocative rūpa rūpā / rūpāni
Accusative rūpaṃ rūpe / rūpāni
Genitive rūpassa rūpānaṃ
Locative rūpe / rūpasmiṃ / rūpamhi rūpesu
Dative rūpassa / rūpāya rūpānaṃ
Ablative rūpā / rūpasmā / rūpamhā / rūpato rūpehi / rūpebhi
Instrumental rūpena rūpehi / rūpebhi

Declension of masculine nouns in -a (ex: deva)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative devo devā
Vocative deva / devā devā
Accusative devaṃ deve
Genitive devassa devānaṃ
Locative deve / devasmiṃ / devamhi devesu
Dative devassa / devāya devānaṃ
Ablative devā / devasmā / devamhā / devato devebhi
Instrumental devena devehi / devebhi


Declension of feminine nouns in -ā (ex: vijjā - science)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative vijjā vijjā / vijjāyo / jatyo / jacco
Vocative vijjā / vijje vijjā / vijjāyo
Accusative vijjaṃ vijjā / vijjāyo
Genitive vijjāya vijjānaṃ
Locative vijjāya/ vijjāyaṃ vijjāsu
Dative vijjāya vijjānaṃ
Ablative vijjāya / vijjatoā vijjāhi / vijjābhi
Instrumental vijjāya vijjāhi / vijjābhi


http://www.buddha-vacana.org/toolbox/noundec.html


Declension of Nouns


Here you can look up the declension of most Pali nouns, in order
to ascertain the grammatical function of a noun in a particular
sentence. For that you will need to know first the gender of that noun.
Use the dictionary to find it out.


Contents


Declensions in short
signification of declension cases

words ending with -a

1. masculine: deva

2. neuter: rūpa

words ending with -i

1. masculine: kapi

2. neuter: vāri

3. feminine: jāti

words ending with -u

1. masculine: bhikkhu

2. neuter: cakkhu

3. feminine: dhātu


words ending with -ā

feminine: vijjā


words ending with -ī

1. masculine: daṇḍī

2. feminine: nadī


words ending with -ū

1. masculine: vidū

2. feminine: vadhū



Consonantal declensions
declensions of word ending with a consonant (less frequent)


Declensions in short



- The stem or base of a noun is that noun as it stands before any suffix has been added to it.


- Declension is the adding to the stems of Nouns and Adjectives
certain suffixes which vary according to case, gender and number.


- Pāli has three genders: the Masculine, the Feminine and the Neuter.


There are eight declension cases:


1. Nominative, showing the subject of the sentence.


2. Vocative, used in addressing persons.


3. Accusative, this is the object of the sentence.


4. Genitive, showing possession (of/’s).


5. Locative, showing place (in, on, at, upon, etc.).


6. Dative, showing the object or person to or for whom something is given or done.


7. Ablative, generally showing separation, expressed by from.


8. Instrumentive, shows the object or person with or by whom something is performed.

General pattern for declensions
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative -s -yo
Vocative identical to nominative identical to nominative
Accusative -aṃ -yo
Genitive -ssa -naṃ
Locative -smiṃ -su
Dative -ssa -naṃ
Ablative -smā -hi
Instrumental -hi

note: this table has been made up for the sake of generalization,
but in practice the suffixes differ considerably. The actual suffixes
will be given with each declension.

Bodhi leaf


words ending with -a

remark: they are either masculine or neuter


Declension of masculine nouns in -a (ex: deva)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative devo devā
Vocative deva / devā devā
Accusative devaṃ deve
Genitive devassa devānaṃ
Locative deve / devasmiṃ / devamhi devesu
Dative devassa / devāya devānaṃ
Ablative devā / devasmā / devamhā / devato devebhi
Instrumental devena devehi / devebhi

<

Declension of neuter nouns in -a (ex: rūpa)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative rūpaṃ rūpā / rūpāni
Vocative rūpa rūpā / rūpāni
Accusative rūpaṃ rūpe / rūpāni
Genitive rūpassa rūpānaṃ
Locative rūpe / rūpasmiṃ / rūpamhi rūpesu
Dative rūpassa / rūpāya rūpānaṃ
Ablative rūpā / rūpasmā / rūpamhā / rūpato rūpehi / rūpebhi
Instrumental rūpena rūpehi / rūpebhi

Bodhi leaf


words ending with -ā

remark: they are always feminine


Declension of feminine nouns in -ā (ex: vijjā - science)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative vijjā vijjā / vijjāyo / jatyo / jacco
Vocative vijjā / vijje vijjā / vijjāyo
Accusative vijjaṃ vijjā / vijjāyo
Genitive vijjāya vijjānaṃ
Locative vijjāya/ vijjāyaṃ vijjāsu
Dative vijjāya vijjānaṃ
Ablative vijjāya / vijjatoā vijjāhi / vijjābhi
Instrumental vijjāya vijjāhi / vijjābhi

Bodhi leaf


words ending with -i


Declension of masculine nouns in -i (ex: kapi - monkey)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative kapi kapī / kapayo
Vocative kapi kapī / kapayo
Accusative kapiṃ kapī / kapayo
Genitive kapissa / kapino kapīnaṃ
Locative kapismiṃ / kapimhi kapīsu
Dative kapissa / kapino kapīnaṃ
Ablative kapinā / kapismā / kapimhā kapīhi / kapībhi
Instrumental kapinā kapīhi / kapībhi


Declension of neuter nouns in -i (ex: vāri - water)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative vāri vārī / vārini
Vocative vāri vārī / vārini
Accusative vāriṃ vārī / vārini
Genitive vārissa / vārino vārinaṃ (?) vārīnaṃ
Locative vārismiṃ / vārimhi / vārini vārīsu
Dative vārissa / vārino vārinaṃ (?) vārīnaṃ
Ablative vārinā / vārismā / vārimhā vārīhi / vārībhi
Instrumental vārinā vārīhi / vārībhi


Declension of feminine nouns in -i (ex: jāti - birth)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative jāti jātī / jātiyo / jatyo / jacco
Vocative jāti jātī / jātiyo / jatyo / jacco
Accusative jātiṃ jātī / jātiyo / jatyo / jacco
Genitive jātiyā / jātayā / jaccā jātīnaṃ
Locative jātiyā / jātayā / jaccā / jātiyaṃ / jatyaṃ / jaccaṃ jātīsu
Dative jātiyā / jātayā / jaccā jātīnaṃ
Ablative jātiyā / jātayā / jaccā jātīhi / jātībhi
Instrumental jātiyā / jātayā / jaccā jātīhi / jātībhi

Bodhi leaf


words ending with -ī

remark: they are either masculine or feminine, but never neuter


Declension of masculine nouns in -ī (ex: daṇḍī - mendicant)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative daṇḍī daṇḍī / daṇḍino
Vocative daṇḍī daṇḍī / daṇḍino
Accusative daṇḍiṃ / daṇḍinaṃ daṇḍī / daṇḍino
Genitive daṇḍissa / daṇḍino daṇḍinaṃ (?) daṇḍīnaṃ
Locative daṇḍismiṃ / daṇḍimhi / daṇḍini daṇḍīsu
Dative daṇḍissa / daṇḍino daṇḍinaṃ
Ablative daṇḍinā / daṇḍismā / daṇḍimhā daṇḍīhi / daṇḍībhi
Instrumental daṇḍinā daṇḍīhi / daṇḍībhi


Declension of feminine nouns in -ī (ex: nadī - river)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative nadī nadī / nadiyo / najjo
Vocative nadī nadī / nadiyo / najjo
Accusative nadiṃ nadī / nadiyo / najjo
Genitive nadiyā / nad / najjā nadinaṃ (?) nadīnaṃ
Locative nadiyā / nad / najjā / nadiyaṃ / nadyaṃ / najjaṃ nadīsu
Dative nadiyā / nad / najjā nadinaṃ (?) nadīnaṃ
Ablative nadiyā / nad / najjā nadīhi / nadībhi
Instrumental nadiyā / nad / najjā nadīhi / nadībhi

Bodhi leaf


words ending with -u


Declension of masculine nouns in -u (ex: bhikkhu)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative bhikkhu bhikkhū / bhikkhavo
Vocative bhikkhu bhikkhū / bhikkhave / bhikkhavo
Accusative bhikkhu / bhikkhuṃ bhikkhū / bhikkhavo
Genitive bhikkhussa / bhikkhuno bhikkhūnaṃ
Locative bhikkhumhi / bhikkhusmiṃ bhikkhūsu
Dative bhikkhussa / bhikkhuno bhikkhūnaṃ
Ablative bhikkhunā / bhikkhusmā / bhikkhumhā bhikkhūhi / bhikkhūbhi
Instrumental bhikkhunā bhikkhūhi / bhikkhūbhi


Declension of neuter nouns in -u (ex: cakkhu - eye)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative cakkhu cakkhū / cakkhūni
Vocative cakkhu cakkhū / cakkhūni
Accusative cakkhuṃ cakkhū / cakkhūni
Genitive cakkhussa / cakkhuno cakkhūnaṃ / cakkhuno
Locative cakkhumhi / cakkhusmiṃ cakkhūsu
Dative cakkhussa / cakkhuno cakkhūnaṃ
Ablative cakkhunā / cakkhusmā / cakkhumhā cakkhūhi / cakkhūbhi
Instrumental cakkhunā cakkhūhi / cakkhūbhi


Declension of feminine nouns in -u (ex: dhātu - element)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative dhātu dhātū / dhātuyo
Vocative dhātu (?) dhātū dhātū / dhātuyo
Accusative dhātuṃ dhātū / dhātuyo
Genitive dhātuyā dhātūnaṃ
Locative dhātuyā/ dhātuyaṃ dhātūsu
Dative dhātuyā dhātūnaṃ
Ablative dhātuyā dhātūhi / dhātūbhi
Instrumental dhātuyā dhātūhi / dhātūbhi

Bodhi leaf


words ending with -ū

remark: they are either masculine or feminine, but never neuter


Declension of masculine nouns in -ū (ex: vidū - wise man)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative vidū vidū / viduvo (?) viduno
Vocative vidū vidū / viduvo (?) viduno
Accusative viduṃ vidū / viduvo (?) viduno
Genitive vidussa / viduno vidūnaṃ
Locative vidumhi / vidusmiṃ vidū (?) vidūsu
Dative vidussa / viduno vidūnaṃ
Ablative vidunā / vidusmā / vidumhā vidūhi / vidūbhi
Instrumental vidunā vidūhi / vidūbhi


Declension of feminine nouns in -ū (ex: vadhū - widow)
case SINGULAR PLURAL
Nominative vadhū vadhū / vadhuyo
Vocative vadhū vadhū / vadhuyo
Accusative vadhuṃ vadhū / vadhuyo
Genitive vadhuyā vadhūnaṃ
Locative vadhuyā / vadhuyaṃ vadhūsu
Dative vadhuyā vadhūnaṃ
Ablative vadhuyā vadhūhi / vadhūbhi
Instrumental vadhuyā vadhūhi / vadhūbhi

Bodhi leaf


a. Nominative case

b. Accusative case

c. Instrumental case

d. Genitive case

e. Locative case

f. Ablative case

3. Decline all cases (noun form) in Masculine gender with all ending (a, ce, i, e, u, p, o)


g. Nominative case

h. Accusative case

i. Instrumental case

j. Genitive case

k. Locative case

l. Ablative case



4. Decline all cases (noun form) in feminine gender with all ending (ce, i, e, u, p,)


m. Nominative case

n. Accusative case

o. Instrumental case

p. Genitive case

q. Locative case

r. Ablative case


5. Explain contribution of Dhammasoka in the speading of Dhamma.


https://www.dhammasokatoursandtravels.com/
Dhammasoka Tours and Travels
Jay bhim to all ……..

We
the boys from Chembur Mumbai have jumped in to the business of Tours
and Travels with the sole intention of reviving Buddhist Culture lost to
India

After
learning Pali and the teachings of ‘THE BUDDHA’, after visiting the
sites and studying the history, we friends decided to walk on the path
of ‘DHAMMA’ by making more and more people know the glory of ‘Ancient
Buddhist India’.
Kanheri Caves


Being
in Mumbai how many of you have visited Kanheri Leni/Caves or Sopara
Stupa which are the standing testimony to the rich Buddhist Art,
Architecture and Culture.

How
many of you have venerated the Stupa of ‘SARIPUTTA’ and ‘ARAHATS’ at
Kanheri and also the ‘DHATU of THE BUDDHA at Global Pagoda.


People all over the world visit Ajanta-Ellora but have you ever been to Ajanta-Ellora to appreciate the donation of our ancestors to create world famous paintings and sculptures of Bodhisatta’s ; and circumambulated the stupa to take inspiration from as is expected from you

How many of you know that ‘DHAMMA YATRA’ was done by ‘DHAMMA ASOKA’ (Emperor Asoka) and erected pillars all over the places.

How
to follow the Dhamma by visiting these place where The Buddha is born,
got Enlightened and gave Dhammacakkapavattana and attained
MahaParinibbana.

Do you know how to venerate the Stupa, give Sanghadana do Bodhipuja and share the merits.

If you are keen on all learning……….. Join us.



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