KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA -PATH TO ATTAIN ETERNAL BLISS AS FINAL GOAL
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 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India Do good. Purify mind -‘The gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts – sabba danam dhamma danam to attain NIBBANA as Final Goal
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LESSON 3125 Thu 19 Sep 2019 DO GOOD BE MINDFUL Propagate TIPITAKA BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA Suttas word by word and the Constitution of our Country - Complete Course on our Dhamma and Polity for the welfare, happiness and peace of all Awakened Aboriginal Societies and for their Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. When a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit) language known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language)/Classical Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural languages for communication. 111 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com Mahāvedalla Sutta-Two Types of Conversion-Natural Human Language in 97) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk, Buddha Quotes in 11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى *SMARANANJALI* We the president and members of Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru invite you with family and friends to share merits and participate in the programs marking the 6th death anniversary of our beloved and respected teacher Bada Bhanteji *Most Ven. Dr. Acharya Buddharakkhita* The founder-president of Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru and its sister organisations on *21st, 22nd and 23rd September 2019 (Saturday, Sunday and Monday)*
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 3:51 pm

LESSON 3125 Thu 19 Sep 2019 DO GOOD BE MINDFUL Propagate TIPITAKA BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA Suttas word by word and the Constitution of our Country - Complete Course on our Dhamma and Polity for the welfare, happiness and peace of all Awakened Aboriginal Societies and for their Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

When a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit) language known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit/Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language)/Classical Pali which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7111 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other living spieces have their own natural languages for communication. 111 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com

Mahāvedalla Sutta-Two Types of Conversion-Natural Human Language in 97) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk, Buddha Quotes in 11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى


*SMARANANJALI*

We
the president and members of Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru invite you
with family and friends to share merits and participate in the programs
marking the 6th death anniversary of our beloved and respected teacher
Bada Bhanteji

*Most Ven. Dr. Acharya Buddharakkhita*



The founder-president of Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru and its sister organisations
on *21st, 22nd and 23rd September 2019 (Saturday, Sunday and Monday)*

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/majjhima/mn043.html



MN 43 (M i 292)

Mahāvedalla Sutta

{excerpt}

— Greater series of questions —
[mahā-vedalla]

Sāriputta answers various interesting questions asked by āyasmā
Mahākoṭṭhika, and in this excerpt, he explains that Vedanā, Saññā and
Viññāṇa are not clearly delineated but deeply interwoven.




Note: info·bubbles on every Pali word




Pāḷi



English








c·āvuso, vedanā ca saññā ya·ñca viññāṇaṃ: ime dhammā saṃsaṭṭhā udāhu visaṃsaṭṭhā? Labbhā ca pan·imesaṃ dhammānaṃ vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṃ paññāpetu nti?


Friend, as to Vedanā Saññā and Viññāṇa: are these dhammas conjoined or disjoined? And is it possible, having separated them one from another to point out the difference between them?


c·āvuso, vedanā ca saññā ya·ñca viññāṇaṃ: ime dhammā saṃsaṭṭhā, no visaṃsaṭṭhā. Na ca labbhā imesaṃ dhammānaṃ vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṃ paññāpetuṃ. Yaṃ h·āvuso, vedeti taṃ sañjānāti, yaṃ sañjānāti taṃ vijānāti. Tasmā ime dhammā saṃsaṭṭhā, no visaṃsaṭṭhā. Na ca labbhā imesaṃ dhammānaṃ vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṃ paññāpetu nti.


Friend, as to Vedanā Saññā and Viññāṇa: these dhammas
are conjoined, not disjoined. It is not possible, having separated them
one from another, to point out the difference between them. For
whatever one feels, friend, that one perceives, and whatever one
perceives, that one cognizes. Therefore these dhammas
are conjoined, not disjoined. It is not possible, having separated them
one from another, to point out the difference between them.






- நண்பரே, வேதனா சா மற்றும் வினாவைப் பொறுத்தவரை: இந்த தம்மங்கள் ஒன்றிணைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளனவா? அவற்றுக்கிடையேயான வித்தியாசத்தை சுட்டிக்காட்டுவதற்கு, ஒன்றையொன்று பிரித்து வைத்திருப்பது சாத்தியமா?

- நண்பரே, வேதனா சா மற்றும் வினாவைப் பொறுத்தவரை: இந்த தம்மங்கள் ஒன்றிணைக்கப்படுகின்றன, ஒத்துப்போகவில்லை. அவற்றுக்கு இடையேயான வித்தியாசத்தை சுட்டிக்காட்டுவது, ஒன்றையொன்று பிரித்து வைத்திருப்பது சாத்தியமில்லை. ஒருவன் எதை உணர்ந்தாலும், நண்பரே, ஒருவர் உணருகிறார், ஒருவர் உணர்ந்தாலும், ஒருவர் அறிவார். எனவே இந்த தம்மங்கள் ஒன்றிணைக்கப்படுகின்றன, ஒத்திசைக்கப்படவில்லை. அவற்றுக்கு இடையேயான வித்தியாசத்தை சுட்டிக்காட்டுவது, ஒன்றையொன்று பிரித்து வைத்திருப்பது சாத்தியமில்லை.


Bodhi leaf




Translation suggested by the webmaster,
with the support of Thanissaro Bhikkhu’s translation.

Two Types of Conversion

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00ambedkar/ambedkar_buddha/02_1.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-mwajuWyLo&t=1023s
Dr Ambedkar India’s Buddhist Revival

Anthony Elmore
9.39K subscribers
This video was uploaded by Anthony “Amp” Elmore who is President and
Founder of the Proud Black Buddhist World Association. We use the word
Black as a synonym for the word “indigenous.” Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was a
Dalit or Untouchables in India who are closely related to “indigenous”
population”. Dr. Ambedkar who in the video was selected as India’s most
revered Indian in Modern History taught that the Buddha Shakyamuni
Buddha’s heritage is from the Dalit or Indigenous population. Elmore
who lives in Memphis, Tennessee U.S.A. has been a Nichiren Buddhist for
40 years. Elmore has fought with his Japanese Buddhist Teachers who
notes that the Buddha was Aryan or they disregard the importance
teaching Black Buddhist History to Black people. Whether they are Dalits
in India or Black in America we are speaking of the same people whose
“Black Heritage” cause them to face racism and discrimination. Anthony
“Amp” Elmore connects Dr. Martin Luther King who in Memphis and Dr.
Ambedkar as the same family. Buddhism is a religion that promotes not
only social equality, but Buddhism is a tool for “Black Liberation.”
Whether one is a Black in America or a Dalit in India we both suffer
from racism and discrimination. We hold that Buddhism is the key to not
only “Black Liberation but Buddhism is the key to “Human Liberation.”
This video encourages Buddhist to join together. The Proud Black
Buddhist World Association brings Bodhisattvas Ambedkar and King
together. We posted this video so others can see the greatness of Dr.
Ambedkar and understand why we at the Proud Black Buddhist World
Association added prayers for Dr. Ambedkar in our daily Buddhist
prayers. We also seek to join with Ambedkar Buddhist worldwide. For
more information : http://www.proudblackbuddhist.org/
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http://www.columbia.edu/…/00ambed…/ambedkar_buddha/02_1.html

§ 3. Two Types of Conversion

1. In the Buddha’s scheme of things conversion has two meanings.
2. Conversion to the Order of Bhikkus, called Sangh.
3. Secondly, it means conversion of a householder as an Upasaka, or lay follower of the Buddha’s Dhamma.
4. Except on four points, there is no difference in the way of life of the Bhikku and the Upasaka.
5. An Upasaka remains a householder. A Bhikku becomes a homeless wanderer.
6. Both the Upasakas and the Bhikkus must observe in their life certain rules.
7. Here again to the Bhikku they are vows, the breach of which ends
in punishment. To the Upasaka they are precepts. They must be observed
to the best of his ability.
8. An Upasaka can have property. A Bhikku cannot have.
9. To become an Upasaka, there is no ceremony.
10. To become a Bhikku, he must undergo a ceremony called Upasampada.
11.The Buddha converted those who came to him according to their wish, either as Bhikku or as Upasaka.
12. An Upasaka could become a Bhikku whenever he felt like it.
13. And a Bhikku had to cease to be a Bhikku when he committed a
breach of the major vows, or whenever he wished to give up his
membership of the Order.
14. It must not be understood that the Buddha converted only those whose names occur in the following pages.
15. The instances are chosen only to show that he did not observe
any distinction as to caste or sex in admitting persons to his Sangh or
preaching his Dhamma.


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Learn about living and working in Sweden.

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97) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Klassisk svensk-klassisk svensk,


När ett nyfött barn hålls isolerat utan att någon kommunicerar med
barnet, kommer det efter några dagar att tala som ett klassiskt
Chandaso-språk / Magadhi Prakrit / Klassisk Hela Basa Klassiska Pali som
är desamma. Buddha talade i Magadhi. Alla 7111 språk och dialekter är
utanför det klassiska Magahi Magadhi. Därför är alla klassiska i naturen
(precis som alla andra levande hastigheter har sina egna naturliga
språk för kommunikation).


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لا تنسوا الاشتراك فضلا وليس امرا


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11) اللغة العربية الفصحى- اللغة العربية الفصحى

http://wisdomquotes.com/buddha-quotes/

150 اقتباسات بوذا التي سوف تجعلك أكثر حكمة (سريع)

يقتبس بوذا هناك خوف على من لا يملأ عقله برغبات الحكمة

لا خوف على من لا يملأ ذهنه بالرغبات. بوذا

يقتبس بوذا العمل على الخلاص الخاص بك لا يعتمد على حكمة الآخرين

العمل خلاصكم. لا تعتمد على الآخرين. بوذا انقر لتغريد

بوذا يقتبس أي شيء يستحق القيام به مع حكمة الموقد الخاص بك

إذا كان أي شيء يستحق القيام به ، فقم بذلك من كل قلبك. بوذا انقر لتغريد


يقتبس بوذا من أن الرجل لا يطلق عليه الحكمة لأنه يتحدث ويتحدث مرة أخرى
ولكن إذا كان محبًا سلميًا وخوفًا فهو في الحقيقة يقتبس من الحكمة الحكيمة

لا يُطلق على الرجل الحكمة لأنه يتحدث ويتحدث مجددًا ؛ ولكن إذا كان مسالمًا ومحبًا وخائفًا فهو في الحقيقة يدعى بالحكمة. بوذا

يقتبس بوذا لا تبحث عن أي شخص إلا الحرم الذاتي الخاص بك

لا تبحث عن ملاذ في أي شخص باستثناء نفسك. بوذا

بوذا يقتبس لا أحد ينقذنا ولكن يمكن أن أنفسنا قد يجب أن نسير في طريق الحكمة

لا أحد ينقذنا إلا أنفسنا. لن يستطيع اي شخص ولن يتمكن حتى .. نحن أنفسنا يجب أن نسير في الطريق. بوذا انقر لتغريد

بوذا يقتبس يعيش حياة غير أنانية نقية يجب على المرء أن يحسب أي شيء يمتلك حكمة وفرة وسط

لكي يعيش المرء حياة غير أنانية ، لا يجب اعتبار أي شيء كأنه شخص في خضم الوفرة. بوذا انقر لتغريد

يقتبس بوذا كل ما نحن عليه هو نتيجة ما اعتقدنا يقتبس الحكمة

كل ما نحن عليه هو نتيجة لما فكرنا فيه. بوذا انقر لتغريد

يقتبس بوذا تفشل في الاعتناء بالآخرين عندما يحتاجون إلى مساعدة سوف يعتنون بنا الحكمة

إذا فشلنا في رعاية الآخرين عندما يحتاجون إلى مساعدة ، فمن الذي سيعتني بنا؟ بوذا

بوذا يقتبس من يتصرف بالحقيقة سعيد هذا العالم بعد الحكمة

الشخص الذي يتصرف على الحقيقة سعيد في هذا العالم وخارجه. بوذا

ونقلت أفضل بوذا

أعط ، حتى لو كان لديك سوى القليل.

حتى الموت لا يخاف من قبل شخص عاش بحكمة.

قناة مياه الري flletchers تصويب السهام. نجارون يثنون الخشب ؛ السيد الحكيم أنفسهم.

قطرة قطرة هو وعاء الماء شغلها. وبالمثل ، فإن الرجل الحكيم ، الذي يجمعها شيئًا فشيئًا ، يملأ نفسه بالخير.

أعظم هدية هي إعطاء الناس التنوير الخاص بك ، لمشاركتها. يجب أن يكون أعظم.

إذا كنت تعرف ما أعرفه عن قوة العطاء ، فلن تدع وجبة واحدة تمر دون مشاركتها بطريقة أو بأخرى.

جذر المعاناة هو التعلق.

صمت الرجل الغاضب مع الحب. صمت رجل سوء الطمع مع اللطف. صمت البخيل مع الكرم. صمت الكذاب مع الحقيقة.

الناس مع الآراء فقط يذهبون عناء بعضهم البعض.

حتى عندما لا تهتز الريح صخرة صلبة ، فإن الحكيمة لا تهتز بالثناء أو اللوم.

أنت نفسك يجب أن تسعى. البوذا يشير فقط الطريق. انقر لتغرد

لا شيء يمكن أن يؤذيك بقدر ما أفكارك دون حراسة.

التأمل … لا تتأخر ، خشية أن تندم عليه لاحقًا.

أفضل من ألف كلمة جوفاء ، هي كلمة واحدة تجلب السلام.

التفاهم هو قلب الكلمات المنطوقة.

التوقف عن فعل الشر ، وتنمية الخير ، وتنقية القلب: هذا هو تعليم بوذا.

فرحة في التأمل والعزلة. اصنع نفسك ، كن سعيدًا. أنت طالب.

القيام بحماسة اليوم ما يجب القيام به. من تعرف؟ غدا يأتي الموت.

ما أنت عليه هو ما كنت عليه. ما ستكون عليه هو ما تفعله الآن.

إذا كنت تقترح التحدث دائمًا اسأل نفسك ، هل هذا صحيح ، هل هو ضروري ، هل هو لطيف.


إذا لم تجد أحداً يدعمك على الطريق الروحي ، فقم بالسير بمفردك. (هذا
أحد اقتباسات بوذا المفضلة. اترك ردًا واسمحوا لي أن أعرف ما هو لك!)

الجزء 2. ونقلت بوذا التي هي …
ونقلت بوذا ملهمة

قف قف. لا تتكلم. الحقيقة المطلقة ليست حتى في التفكير. انقر لتغرد

نحن ما نفكر به. كل ما نشأ مع أفكارنا. بأفكارنا ، نصنع العالم.

كما أن المحيط العظيم له طعم واحد ، طعم الملح ، وكذلك هذا التعليم والانضباط له طعم واحد ، طعم التحرير.

الشخص الذي لم يعد له الرغبة والعطش الذي يديم أن يصبح ؛ كيف يمكنك تتبع هذا اليقظة واحد ، لا تتبع ، ومجموعة لا حدود لها.

القدرة على التحمل هي واحدة من أصعب التخصصات ، ولكن لمن يتحمل النصر النهائي.

طول الليل مستيقظا. طوله ميل من تعب. هي الحياة للحماقة الذين لا يعرفون القانون الحقيقي.

مهما كانت الجوهرة الثمينة الموجودة في العوالم السماوية ، فلا يوجد شيء يضاهي الشخص المستيقظ.

حياتنا تتشكل بعقلنا. نصبح ما نفكر به. الفرح يتبع الفكر الخالص مثل الظل الذي لا يترك.

مثل زهرة جميلة ، جميلة أن ننظر إليها ولكن من دون رائحة ، والكلمات الجميلة ليست مثمرة في رجل لا يتصرف وفقا لها.

نظرياتنا الأبدية هي ذات قيمة مثل تلك النظريات التي قد يشكلها الفرخ الذي لم يخترق طريقه من خلال قشرته من العالم الخارجي.

تعتبر الفكرة التي تم تطويرها وتنفيذها أكثر أهمية من الفكرة الموجودة فقط كفكرة.


بغض النظر عن العديد من الكلمات المقدسة التي تقرأها ، مهما كانت
الكلمات التي تتحدث عنها ، فما فائدة إرادتك إذا لم تتصرف عليها؟

الفوضى متأصلة في كل الأشياء المركبة. السعي مع الاجتهاد.

ونقلت بوذا قصيرة

مرفق يؤدي إلى المعاناة.

قد يكون لجميع الكائنات عقول سعيدة.

ولد من الاهتمام لجميع البشر.

أنا المعجزة.

إبريق يملأ إسقاط قطرة.

كل إنسان هو صاحب صحته أو مرضه.

اللسان مثل سكين حاد … يقتل دون سحب الدم.

الطريق ليست في السماء. الطريق في القلب. انقر لتغرد

ونقلت بوذا عن الحياة والأسرة والصداقة

عش كل فعل بشكل كامل ، كما لو كان آخر حدث لك. انقر لتغرد

الفضيلة مضطهده من قبل الأشرار أكثر مما يحبها الخير.

لا يوجد شيء على الإطلاق بمفرده ؛ كل شيء يتعلق بكل شيء آخر.

الطهارة أو النجاسة يعتمد على نفسه. لا أحد يستطيع أن يطهر الآخر.

لدعم الأم والأب ، والاعتزاز الزوجة والطفل والحصول على سبل العيش البسيطة ؛ هذا هو التوفيق.

لحظة واحدة يمكن أن تتغير في يوم ، يوم واحد يمكن أن تغير حياة وحياة واحدة يمكن أن تغير العالم.

هي التي تعرف تدفقات الحياة ، لا تشعر بارتداء أو تمزق ، لا تحتاج إلى إصلاح أو إصلاح.

الصديق المخلص والشر هو الخوف أكثر من الوحش البري ؛ قد يجرح الوحش الوحشي جسمك ، لكن الصديق الشرير سيجرح عقلك.

أيا كانت الكلمات التي يجب أن نختارها بعناية مع الاهتمام بالناس سوف تسمعها وتتأثر بها للخير أو سوء.

أن تكون خاملاً طريق قصير للموت وأن تكون مجتهداً هي وسيلة للحياة ؛ الناس الحمقى خاملين ، والناس الحكيمون مجتهدون.

إذا لم يجد الباحث رفيقًا أفضل أو متساوٍ ، فدعهم يتابعون بحزم مسارًا انفراديًا.

إذا تمكنا من رؤية معجزة زهرة واحدة بوضوح ، فإن حياتنا كلها تتغير.

ونقلت بوذا على الحب والشكر

يولد الحب الحقيقي من التفاهم.

تشع الحب بلا حدود نحو العالم بأسره.

أنت ، بنفسك ، مثل أي شخص في الكون بأسره ، تستحق حبك وعاطفتك.

الطموح هو مثل الحب ، بفارغ الصبر من التأخير والخصوم.

الحب هو هبة من روح الشخص الداخلية لآخر حتى يكون كلاهما كاملاً.

دع الأفكار الشاملة لجميع البشر تكون لك.


سنقوم بتطوير وتحرير تحرير العقل عن طريق المحبة ، وجعله سيارتنا ،
وجعله أساسنا ، ونثبت استقراره ، ونمارس أنفسنا فيه ، ونكمله تمامًا.

الكراهية لا تتوقف عن طريق الكراهية في أي وقت. الكراهية تتوقف عن طريق الحب. هذا هو قانون غير قابل للتغيير.

من يحب 50 شخصا لديه 50 مشاكل. من لا يحب أحدا ليس له مشاكل.

يجب أن يصبح اللطف الطريقة الطبيعية للحياة وليس الاستثناء.

التحدث فقط خطاب التحبيب ، والكلام الذي هو موضع ترحيب. الكلام ، عندما لا يجلب الشر للآخرين ، هو أمر ممتع.

لا يُسمى الشخص النبيل الذي يؤذي الكائنات الحية. من خلال عدم إيذاء الكائنات الحية ، يُطلق على الفرد اسم النبيل.

كونك متعلمة ومهارة بعمق ، وأن تكون مدربة تدريباً جيداً وأن تستخدم كلمات منطوقة: فهذا حظ سعيد

كما أن الأم ستحمي طفلها الوحيد في حياتها ، مع ذلك دع المرء يزرع حبًا لا حدود له تجاه جميع الكائنات.

في من لا يتعاطف مع الكائنات الحية: تعرف عليه باعتباره منبوذاً.


دعونا ننهض ونكون شاكرين ، لأنه إذا لم نتعلم الكثير اليوم ، على
الأقل لقد تعلمنا قليلاً ، وإذا لم نتعلم قليلاً ، على الأقل ، لم مرضنا ،
وإذا مرضنا ، على الأقل لم نموت ؛ لذلك ، دعونا نكون جميعا شاكرين.

ونقلت بوذا على العقل واتقان نفسك

هو قادر الذي يعتقد أنه قادر.

إنه عقل الرجل نفسه ، وليس عدوه أو عدوه ، الذي يجذبه إلى طرق شريرة.

فرحة في الاهتمام حارس جيدا أفكارك!


كل شيء يعتمد على العقل ، ويقوده العقل ، هو الذي يصممه العقل. إذا
كنت تتحدث وتتصرف بعقل ملوث ، فستتبعك المعاناة ، حيث تتبع عجلات عربة
الثيران خطى الثور.

لا يوجد شيء غير مطيع كعقل غير منضبط ، ولا يوجد شيء مطيع مثل العقل المنضبط.

عقل لا يزعزعه تقلبات الثروة ، من الحزن المحررة ، من الأضرار المطهرة ، من الخوف المحرّر - هذه هي أعظم نعمة.


تعرف من الأنهار في الشقوق وفي الشقوق: تلك الموجودة في القنوات
الصغيرة تتدفق صاخبة ، تدفق كبير صامت. كل ما ليس ممتلئًا يحدث ضوضاء. كل
ما هو ممتلئ هادئ.

أنت طالب. فرحة في التمكن من يديك وقدميك ، من كلماتك وأفكارك.


أراهم ، وهم يتخبطون في إحساسهم بالألغام ، مثل الأسماك الموجودة في برك
مجرى جاف - ورؤية هذا ، يمكنك العيش بدون لي ، ولا تشكل ارتباطًا لحالات أن
تصبح.

‘كما أنا كذلك. كما هي الحال ، أنا أيضًا “ارسم الموازي لنفسك ، لا تقتل ولا تجعل الآخرين يقتلون.

تسبق كل التجارب عن طريق العقل ، وبعد أن العقل اعتبارها سيدهم ، التي تم إنشاؤها بواسطة العقل.


للتمتع بصحة جيدة ، ولجلب السعادة الحقيقية لعائلة الفرد ، ولإحلال
السلام للجميع ، يجب على المرء أولاً الانضباط والتحكم في عقله. إذا تمكن
الإنسان من التحكم في ذهنه ، فيمكنه إيجاد طريق إلى التنوير ، وستأتي إليه
كل الحكمة والفضيلة بشكل طبيعي.

كل سوء التصرف ينشأ بسبب العقل. إذا تحول العقل هل يمكن أن يظل الخطأ في الفعل؟

ما نحن عليه اليوم يأتي من أفكارنا بالأمس ، وأفكارنا الحالية تبني حياتنا من الغد: حياتنا هي خلق أذهاننا.

الشخص الذي غزا نفسه هو بطل أكبر بكثير من الذي هزم ألف مرة ألف رجل.


يرتفع الذكاء التجاوزي عندما يصل العقل الفكري إلى الحد الأقصى ، وإذا
أريد أن تتحقق الأشياء بطبيعتها الحقيقية والضرورية ، فيجب أن تتجاوز
عمليات تفكيرها نداء إلى بعض أعضاء هيئة الإدراك العليا.

لن أنظر إلى نية صحن الآخرين في العثور على خطأ: تدريب يجب مراعاته.


العالم الخارجي ليس سوى مظهر من مظاهر أنشطة العقل نفسه ، والعقل
يدركه كعالم خارجي ببساطة بسبب عادة التمييز والتفكير الخاطئ. يجب أن يدخل
التلميذ في العادة في النظر إلى الأشياء بصدق.

العقل يسبق كل الحالات الذهنية. العقل هو رئيسهم. انهم جميعا العقل.

إذا كان الشخص يتكلم أو يتصرف بعقل خالص ، فإن السعادة تتبعه مثل ظله الذي لا يغادر.

ونقلت بوذا عن السعادة والفرح

لا يوجد طريق إلى السعادة: السعادة هي الطريق. انقر لتغرد

تأتي السعادة عندما يكون عملك وكلماتك مفيدة لك وللآخرين.

يجب على الشخص المستنير ، المصمم على غانا ، أن يجد فرحة في الغابة ، وأن يمارس مهنا في سفح شجرة ، لينال رضاه.

يمكن إشعال آلاف الشموع من شمعة واحدة ، ولن يتم تقصير عمر الشمعة. السعادة أبدا يقلل من يجري تقاسمها.

في طبيعة الأشياء ينشأ الفرح في شخص خالٍ من الندم.

ضع قلبك على فعل الخير. افعل ذلك مرارًا وتكرارًا ، وستملأ بالبهجة.

لا تسكن في الماضي ، لا تحلم بالمستقبل ، ركز الذهن على اللحظة الراهنة. انظر أيضًا: 10 نصائح لبدء العيش في الوقت الحاضر

إذا قام شخص ما بعمل جيد ، فدعه يفعل ذلك مرارًا وتكرارًا. دعه يجد السعادة فيه ، لأن السعادة هي تراكم الخير.


نحن شكلت وتشكلت أفكارنا. أولئك الذين تتشكل عقولهم بأفكار نكران
الذات يفرحون عندما يتكلمون أو يتصرفون. يتبعهم الفرح كظل لا يتركهم أبداً.

ونقلت من قبل بوذا على التأمل والروحانية

مثلما لا يمكن أن تحترق الشمعة بدون نار ، لا يمكن للناس أن يعيشوا بدون حياة روحية. انقر لتغرد

إذا نظرنا بعمق إلى الحياة كما هي في هذه اللحظة بالذات ، فإن المتأمل يفكر في الاستقرار والحرية.


التأمل يجلب الحكمة. عدم وجود وساطة يترك الجهل. تعرف جيدًا ما الذي
يدفعك إلى الأمام وما الذي يعيقك ، واختر المسار الذي يؤدي إلى الحكمة.

ومهما استمر الراهب في متابعة تفكيره وتفكيره ، يصبح ذلك ميلًا لوعيه.

ونقلت من قبل بوذا على السلام ، والتسامح والرحيل

تدريب بحزم نفسك لتحقيق السلام. انقر لتغرد


في الواقع ، فإن الحكيم الذي تطفأ بالكامل يستريح بكل سهولة ؛ تلتزم
رغبة لا معنى له بتبردت نيرانها وحرمت من الوقود. تم قطع جميع الملحقات ،
وتم قلب القلب بعيدا عن الألم. الهدوء ، وقال انه يرتاح بكل سهولة. لقد وجد
العقل طريقه إلى السلام.

من يجلس بمفرده ، وينام وحيدا ، ويمشي بمفرده ، وهو شاق ويخضع نفسه بمفرده ، سيجد فرحة في عزلة الغابة.

لا تتجاهل ما يعطيك ، ولا تتواصل مع ما يعطى للآخرين ، خشية أن تزعج هدوئك.

أولئك الذين يخلو من الأفكار الساخطة يجدون السلام بالتأكيد. انقر لتغرد

ونقلت من قبل بوذا على الحكمة والفضائل

أحمق الذي يعرف أنه أحمق هو أكثر حكمة بكثير. انقر لتغرد

كل ما لديه طبيعة الناشئة لديه طبيعة التوقف.

لا يمكن إلا أن تتجلى الوحدة من قبل ثنائي. الوحدة نفسها وفكرة الوحدة هما بالفعل.


ما هو السلوك المناسب لرجل أو امرأة في خضم هذا العالم ، حيث يتمسك كل
شخص بقطعة من بقائه؟ ما هو التحية الصحيحة بين الناس أثناء مرورهم في هذا
الطوفان؟

عندما تراقب نفسك ، تشاهد بعد الآخرين. عند المشاهدة بعد الآخرين ، تشاهد نفسك.


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دع لا أحد يجد خطأ مع الآخرين ؛ دعونا لا نرى أي إغفال ولجان الآخرين.
ولكن دع المرء يرى أفعاله الخاصة ، يتم القيام به والتراجع عنه.

السيد الحقيقي يعيش في الحقيقة ، في الخير وضبط النفس ، اللاعنف ، الاعتدال ، والنقاء.


الإساءة في كلمة ولا عمل. أكل مع الاعتدال. تعيش في قلبك. تسعى إلى
أعلى الوعي. اتقن نفسك وفقا للقانون. هذا هو تعليم بسيط لليقظ.


الحياة تشبه سلسلة القيثارة ، إذا كانت مشدودة للغاية ، فلن تلعب ، وإذا
كانت معلقة جدًا ، فإن التوتر الذي ينتج الصوت الجميل يكمن في الوسط.


لا تؤمن بأي شيء لمجرد أنك سمعت به. لا تؤمن بأي شيء لمجرد أنه يتحدث
بها ويشاع الكثيرون. لا تؤمن بأي شيء لمجرد أنه موجود في كتبك الدينية. لا
تؤمن بأي شيء بمجرد سلطة أساتذتك وشيوخك. لا تؤمن بالتقاليد نظرًا لتوارثها
لعدة أجيال. لكن بعد الملاحظة والتحليل ، عندما تجد أن أي شيء يتفق مع
العقل ويؤدي إلى الخير والمنفعة من الجميع ، ثم قبولها والوفاء بها.


مثلما يتم اكتشاف الكنوز من الأرض ، تظهر الفضيلة من الأعمال الصالحة ،
وتظهر الحكمة من عقل خالص وسلمي. للمشي بأمان عبر متاهة الحياة البشرية ،
يحتاج المرء إلى نور الحكمة وإرشاد الفضيلة.

فالأشخاص الحكيمون صاغوا خطابًا بفكرهم ، فخلّصوه عندما تنخل الحبوب من غربال.

الفضائل ، مثل Muses ، تُرى دائمًا في مجموعات. لم يتم العثور على مبدأ جيد في الحبس الانفرادي.

ونقلت من قبل بوذا على الكرمة ونيبانا


يجب على الشخص الذي انطلق في مركبة بوديساتفا أن يقرر “يجب أن أقود
جميع الكائنات إلى السكينة ، إلى عالم السكينة الذي لا يترك شيئًا خلفي”.
ما هو عالم السكينة الذي لا يترك شيئًا وراءه؟

ونقلت من قبل بوذا على التغيير والفشل والمعاناة

لا شيء إلى الأبد إلا التغيير.

لا يوجد نار مثل العاطفة ، وليس هناك سمكة قرش مثل الكراهية ، ولا يوجد كمين مثل الحماقة ، ولا يوجد سيل مثل الجشع.

في السابق والحالي ، هي فقط معاناة أصفها ، ووقف للمعاناة.


هو الذي يستطيع كبح غضبه بمجرد ظهوره ، حيث سيتحقق الترياق في الوقت
المناسب من سم الثعبان الذي ينتشر بسرعة كبيرة ، - مثل هذا الراهب يتخلى عن
هنا وما بعده ، تمامًا كما يلقي الثعبان جلده البالي.

أتمنى أن تنقذ كل هذه الحياة من المعاناة.


من السهل رؤية أخطاء الآخرين ، ولكن يصعب رؤية عيوبهم. يُظهر أحدها
أخطاء الآخرين مثل القشر الذي يذوب في مهب الريح ، لكن المرء يخفي عيوبه
بينما يخفي مقامر ماكر نرده.

ونقلت بوذا على الخوف

هؤلاء المرتبطون بمفهوم “أنا” والآراء يجوبون العالم وهم يسيئون إلى الناس. انقر لتغرد


لا يوجد شيء أكثر فظاعة من عادة الشك. الشك يفصل الناس. إنه سم يفسد
الصداقات ويفكك العلاقات الممتعة. إنه شوكة تهيج وتؤلم. إنه سيف يقتل.

الرجال ، مدفوعين بالعطش ، يركضون وكأنهم أرنب. فلنخرج العطش من العطش بالسعي بعد الغياب لنفسه.


عندما يشعر المرء بالكراهية للشر ، وعندما يشعر المرء بالهدوء ، يجد
المرء متعة في الاستماع إلى التعاليم الصالحة ؛ عندما يشعر المرء بهذه
المشاعر ويقدرها ، يكون المرء خالياً من الخوف.

في اللحظة التي نشعر فيها بالغضب ، توقفنا بالفعل عن السعي من أجل الحقيقة ، وبدأنا نناضل من أجل أنفسنا.

ونقلت بوذا على الغضب والغيرة

لن تعاقب على غضبك ، بل ستعاقب على غضبك. انقر لتغرد

ارتدي الأنا مثل ملابس فضفاضة.

البعض لا يفهم أننا يجب أن نموت ، لكن أولئك الذين يدركون هذا يستقرون في مشاجراتهم.

الكراهية لا تسترضي أبدًا الكراهية في هذا العالم. من غير الكراهية وحدها هي استرضاء الكراهية. هذا هو القانون الأبدي.

جميع يرتعدون من العنف. كل الخوف الموت. وضع نفسه في مكان آخر ، لا ينبغي للمرء أن يقتل أو يتسبب في قتل آخر.

أنا لا أعارض العالم ؛ بل هو العالم الذي يتنازع معي.


إنهم يلومون أولئك الذين يظلون صامتين ، ويلومون أولئك الذين يتحدثون
كثيرًا ، ويلومون أولئك الذين يتحدثون باعتدال. لا يوجد أحد في العالم لا
يلوم.

أولئك الذين يتمسكون بتصوراتهم ووجهات نظرهم يتجولون في العالم يسيئون إلى الناس.

كل من لا يتوهج مع شخص غاضب يفوز في معركة صعبة للفوز.

لن يختفي الغضب أبدًا ما دامت أفكار الاستياء في العقل. سوف يختفي الغضب بمجرد نسيان أفكار الاستياء.

لا تبالغ في ما تلقيته ، ولا تحسد الآخرين. من يحسد الآخرين لا ينال راحة البال.

§ 15. عرض النفي

1. في اليوم التالي ، دعا سيناباتي إلى اجتماع آخر لساكيا سانغ ، للنظر في خطته للتعبئة من قبل سانغ.
2. عندما التقى سانغ ، اقترح السماح له بإصدار أمر يدعو إلى التسلح ،
للحرب ضد القلييات ، كل ساقية تتراوح أعمارهم بين 20 و 50 عامًا.
3 - حضر الاجتماع كلا الطرفين - أولئك الذين صوتوا في الاجتماع السابق لسانغي لصالح إعلان الحرب ، وكذلك أولئك الذين صوتوا ضده.
4. بالنسبة لأولئك الذين صوتوا لصالح ، لم يكن هناك صعوبة في قبول اقتراح Senapati. لقد كانت نتيجة طبيعية لقرارهم السابق.
5. لكن الأقلية التي صوتت ضدها كانت تواجه مشكلة. كانت مشكلتهم - تقديم أو عدم الخضوع لقرار الأغلبية.
6. الأقلية مصممة على عدم الخضوع للأغلبية. هذا هو السبب في أنهم
قرروا أن يكونوا حاضرين في الاجتماع. لسوء الحظ ، لم يكن لدى أي منهم
الشجاعة ليقول ذلك بصراحة. ربما كانوا يعرفون عواقب معارضة الأغلبية.

7. نظرًا لوقوف أنصاره في صمتهم ، قال سيدهارث ، ومخاطبة سانغ ، قال:
“الأصدقاء! يمكنك أن تفعل ما تريد. لديك أغلبية في صفك ، لكنني آسف أن أقول
أنني سأعارض قرارك في لصالح التعبئة. لن أنضم إلى جيشك ولن أشارك في الحرب
“.
8. قال Senapati ، رداً على Siddharth Gautama ، “هل تتذكر
الوعود التي اتخذتها عندما تم قبولك في عضوية Sangh؟ إذا قمت بكسر أي منها ،
فسوف تعرض نفسك للعار العام.”
أجاب السيد سيدهارث: “نعم ، لقد
تعهدت بحماية مصالح الصقيا من خلال جسدي وعقلي وأموالي. لكنني لا أعتقد أن
هذه الحرب تصب في مصلحة الصقيا. ما هو عار على لي قبل مصالح الصقيا؟ “

10. شرع سيدهارث في تحذير سانغ من خلال تذكيره لكيفية تحول السكيا إلى
[ملك] ملك كوصال بسبب مشاجراتهم مع كولياس. وقال “ليس من الصعب تخيل أن هذه
الحرب ستمنحه قبضة أكبر لتقليص حرية الساقية”.
11. غضب Senapati
وقال مخاطبة Siddharth ، “بلاغك لن يساعدك. يجب أن تطيع قرار الأغلبية من
Sangh. أنت ربما تعتمد على حقيقة أن Sangh لا تملك سلطة أن تأمر الجاني
شنقه أو نفيه دون موافقة ملك كوسالاس ، وأن ملك كوسالاس لن يمنح إذنًا إذا
أصدر سانغ أيًا من الجملتين “.
12. “لكن تذكر ، أن Sangh لديه طرق
أخرى لمعاقبتك. يمكن Sangh أن يعلن مقاطعة اجتماعية ضد عائلتك ، ويمكن
Sangh مصادرة أراضي عائلتك. لهذا ليس على Sangh الحصول على إذن من ملك و
Kosalas. “
13. أدرك سيدهارث العواقب التي ستتبع إذا واصل معارضته
لسانغي في خطته للحرب ضد كولياس. كان لديه ثلاثة بدائل للنظر - الانضمام
إلى القوات والمشاركة في الحرب ؛ الموافقة على شنقهم أو نفيهم ؛ والسماح
لأفراد أسرته بالحكم على المقاطعة الاجتماعية ومصادرة الممتلكات.

14. كان حازما في عدم قبول الأول. أما بالنسبة للثالث ، فقد شعر أنه لا
يمكن تصوره. في ظل هذه الظروف ، شعر أن البديل الثاني هو الأفضل.

15. تبعا لذلك ، تحدث سيدهارث إلى سانغ. “من فضلك لا تعاقب عائلتي. لا
تضعهم في محنة عن طريق إخضاعهم لمقاطعة اجتماعية. لا تجعلهم معدمين من خلال
مصادرة أرضهم ، وهي وسيلة رزقهم الوحيدة. إنهم أبرياء. أنا الشخص المذنب.
دعني وحدي أعاني من أخطائي ، وحكم علي بالموت أو النفي ، أينما تريد ،
وسأقبل ذلك عن طيب خاطر ، وأعدك بألا أطلب من ملك كوسالاس “.
ونقلت بوذا على النجاح والصبر والقوة

لا النار ولا الرياح ، ولادة ولا موت يمكن أن تمحو أعمالنا الصالحة. انقر لتغرد

إذا وجدت ناقدًا حكيمًا لتوضيح أخطائك ، فاتبعه كما تفعل مع دليل الكنز الخفي.

كفيل في ساحة المعركة يقاوم السهام التي تم إطلاقها من الأقواس في كل مكان ، على الرغم من ذلك سأتحمل الإساءة.


الثناء واللوم ، والربح والخسارة ، والسرور والحزن تأتي وتذهب مثل
الريح. لكي تكون سعيدًا ، استرح مثل شجرة عملاقة في وسطها جميعًا.

في الانفصال يكمن أعظم البؤس في العالم. في التعاطف تكمن القوة الحقيقية في العالم.

كن مصباحًا لأنفسكم. كن ملاذك الخاص. البحث عن لا شيء آخر. كل الأشياء يجب أن تمر. نسعى جاهدين. لا تستسلم

من الأفضل أن تعيش يومًا ما في رؤية صعود وسقوط الأشياء بدلاً من أن تعيش مائة عام دون أن ترى صعودًا وسقوطًا.

إذا لم تقم بتغيير الاتجاه ، فقد ينتهي بك الأمر إلى حيث تتجه.

ونقلت بوذا على الصحة

الصحة هي أعظم هدية ، والرضا أعظم ثروة ، والإخلاص أفضل علاقة. بوذا

الحفاظ على صحة الجسم هو واجب … وإلا فلن نكون قادرين على الحفاظ على أذهاننا قوية وواضحة.

بدون صحة الحياة ليست الحياة. إنها ليست سوى حالة من حالات السقوط والمعاناة - صورة الموت.


سر الصحة للعقل والجسم على حد سواء ليس في الحداد على الماضي ، وليس
للقلق بشأن المستقبل ، وليس لتوقع المستقبل ، ولكن للعيش في الوقت الحاضر
بحكمة وجدية.

ونقلت بوذا على الحقيقة

أولئك الذين فشلوا في العمل من أجل الحقيقة قد غابوا عن غرض المعيشة. انقر لتغرد

علِّم هذه الحقيقة الثلاثية للجميع: إن القلب السخي والكلام الطيب وحياة الخدمة والرحمة هي الأشياء التي تجدد البشرية.

هناك خطأان يمكن للمرء ارتكابهما على طول الطريق إلى الحقيقة … عدم السير على طول الطريق ، وليس البدء.


يقول المهدئ أن ما هو جيد الكلام هو الأفضل. ثانياً ، أن يقول المرء
ما هو صحيح ، وليس خاطئاً ؛ ثالثًا ، ما هو السرور ، وليس الاستياء ؛
الرابعة ، ما هو صحيح ، وليس خطأ.

قهر الغاضب من خلال عدم الغضب ؛ قهر الأشرار بالخير. قهر بخيلة بالكرم ، والكذاب من خلال قول الحقيقة.

لا يمكن إخفاء ثلاثة أشياء: الشمس والقمر والحقيقة.


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*SMARANANJALI*6th death anniversary of our beloved and respected teacher
Bada Bhanteji
*Most Ven. Dr. Acharya Buddharakkhita*-
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Namo Buddhaya
🙏🏼🙏🏼🙏🏼

*SMARANANJALI*

We
the president and members of Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru invite you
with family and friends to share merits and participate in the programs
marking the 6th death anniversary of our beloved and respected teacher
Bada Bhanteji

*Most Ven. Dr. Acharya Buddharakkhita*

The founder-president of Maha Bodhi Society, Bengaluru and its sister organisations
on *21st, 22nd and 23rd September 2019 (Saturday, Sunday and Monday)*


*OUR COMPASSIONATE TEACHER BADA BHANTEJI*
Today
on the occasion of our teacher and Dhamma father’s death anniversary,
it is necessary for all us to remember his dedicated service to the
Buddha Sasana. Bada Bhanteji frequently used to say in his talks, *it is
the greatest honour for him if he could be Buddhadasana humble servant
to the Buddha or Buddha’s dispensation.* Bada Bhantejis’s life was a
teaching showing once again the path of Dhamma to us. It is our
responsibility to take forward his legacy to revive and give this
beautiful Dhamma to those who needs it, starting with you.



You are welcome to contribute and be part of this meritorious program. You may kindly send your donations to

*Account Name: Maha Bodhi Society
Account No: 353102010000137
IFSC CODE: UBIN 0535311
MICR CODE: 560026005
Union Bank of India, Gandhingar, Bengaluru- 560009, India.*

We thank all the donors who have generously helped us to make these programs successful.

Address for correspondence and donations

Maha Bodhi Society
14, Kalidasa Road, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru- 560009, India
MOBILE: 9731635108, EMAIL:info@mahabodhi.info
WEBSITE: www.mahabodhi.info

Thank you

ALL ARE WELCOME
🌺🌺🌺

http://www.dsbcproject.org/


title

title
  • (626) 571-8811 ext.321
  • sanskrit@uwest.edu



MAIN INTRODUCTION

The University of the West is
engaged in a ground-breaking project to gather, digitize and distribute
the original Sanskrit scriptures of the Buddhist faith. Although
Buddhism disappeared from its Indian homeland about eight centuries ago,
many of its sacred texts are still preserved in Nepal. Since 2003, with
the collaboration of Kathmandu’s Nagarjuna Institute, these texts are
again being brought to the world. The …

Read More



MANUSCRIPT

List of Manuscript Gallery


https://www.britannica.com/biography/Maha-Maya

Buddha


founder of Buddhism




Alternative Titles:
Śākyamuni, Gautama Buddha, Gotama Buddha, Sage of the Śākyas, Shaka, Shaka Nyorai, Shakyamuni, Siddhartha Gautama, Siddhattha


Buddha, (Sanskrit: “Awakened One”)clan name (Sanskrit) Gautama or (Pali) Gotama, personal name (Sanskrit) Siddhartha or (Pali) Siddhatta, (born c. 6th–4th century bce, Lumbini, near Kapilavastu, Shakya republic, Kosala kingdom [now in Nepal]—died, Kusinara, Malla republic, Magadha kingdom [now Kasia, India]), the founder of Buddhism, one of the major religions and philosophical systems of southern and eastern Asia and of the world. Buddha is one of the many epithets of a teacher who lived in northern India sometime between the 6th and the 4th century before the Common Era.

His followers, known as Buddhists, propagated the religion that is known today as Buddhism. The title buddha
was used by a number of religious groups in ancient India and had a
range of meanings, but it came to be associated most strongly with the
tradition of Buddhism and to mean an enlightened
being, one who has awakened from the sleep of ignorance and achieved
freedom from suffering. According to the various traditions of Buddhism,
there have been buddhas in the past and there will be buddhas in the
future. Some forms of Buddhism hold that there is only one buddha for
each historical age; others hold that all beings will eventually become
buddhas because they possess the buddha nature (tathagatagarbha).

All
forms of Buddhism celebrate various events in the life of the Buddha
Gautama, including his birth, enlightenment, and passage into nirvana. In some countries the three events are observed on the same day, which is called Wesak in Southeast Asia.
In other regions the festivals are held on different days and
incorporate a variety of rituals and practices. The birth of the Buddha
is celebrated in April or May, depending upon the lunar date, in these
countries. In Japan, which does not use a lunar calendar, the Buddha’s birth is celebrated on April 8. The celebration there has merged with a native Shintō ceremony into the flower festival known as Hanamatsuri.

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General considerations

The clan name of the historical figure referred to as the Buddha (whose life is known largely through legend) was Gautama (in Sanskrit) or Gotama (in Pali), and his given name was Siddhartha (Sanskrit: “he who achieves his aim”) or Siddhatta (in Pali). He is frequently called Shakyamuni,
“the sage of the Shakya clan.” In Buddhist texts, he is most commonly
addressed as Bhagavat (often translated as “Lord”), and he refers to
himself as the Tathagata,
which can mean either “one who has thus come” or “one who has thus
gone.” Information about his life derives largely from Buddhist texts,
the earliest of which were not committed to writing until shortly before
the beginning of the Common Era, several centuries after his death. The
events of his life set forth in these texts cannot be regarded with
confidence as historical, although his historical existence is accepted
by scholars. He is said to have lived for 80 years, but there is
considerable uncertainty concerning the date of his death. Traditional
sources on the date of his death or, in the language of the tradition,
“passage into nirvana,” range from 2420 bce to 290 bce.
Scholarship in the 20th century limited this range considerably, with
opinion generally divided between those who placed his death about 480 bce and those who placed it as much as a century later.



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Historical context

The Buddha was born in Lumbini (Rummin-dei), near Kapilavastu (Kapilbastu) on the northern edge of the Ganges River basin, an area on the periphery of the civilization of North India, in what is today southern Nepal. Scholars speculate that during the late Vedic period
the peoples of the region were organized into tribal republics, ruled
by a council of elders or an elected leader; the grand palaces described
in the traditional accounts of the life of the Buddha are not evident
among the archaeological remains. It is unclear to what extent these
groups at the periphery of the social order of the Ganges basin were
incorporated into the caste system, but the Buddha’s family is said to have belonged to the warrior (Kshatriya) caste. The central Ganges basin was organized into some 16 city-states, ruled by kings, often at war with each other.

The rise of these cities of central India, with their courts and
their commerce, brought social, political, and economic changes that are
often identified as key factors in the rise of Buddhism and other
religious movements of the 6th and 5th centuries bce. Buddhist texts identify a variety of itinerant teachers who attracted groups of disciples. Some of these taught forms of meditation, Yoga, and asceticism and set forth philosophical views, focusing often on the nature of the person and the question of whether human actions (karma)
have future effects. Although the Buddha would become one of these
teachers, Buddhists view him as quite different from the others. His
place within the tradition, therefore, cannot be understood by focusing
exclusively on the events of his life and times (even to the extent that
they are available). Instead, he must be viewed within the context of Buddhist theories of time and history.

According to Buddhist doctrine, the universe is the product of karma, the law of the cause and effect
of actions, according to which virtuous actions create pleasure in the
future and nonvirtuous actions create pain. The beings of the universe
are reborn without beginning in six realms: as gods, demigods, humans,
animals, ghosts, and hell beings. The actions of these beings create not
only their individual experiences but the domains in which they dwell.
The cycle of rebirth, called samsara
(literally “wandering”), is regarded as a domain of suffering, and the
ultimate goal of Buddhist practice is to escape from that suffering. The
means of escape remains unknown until, over the course of millions of
lifetimes, a person perfects himself, ultimately gaining the power to
discover the path out of samsara and then compassionately revealing that
path to the world.

A
person who has set out on the long journey to discover the path to
freedom from suffering, and then to teach it to others, is called a bodhisattva.
A person who has discovered that path, followed it to its end, and
taught it to the world is called a buddha. Buddhas are not reborn after
they die but enter a state beyond suffering called nirvana (literally
“passing away”). Because buddhas appear so rarely over the course of
time and because only they reveal the path to liberation (moksha) from suffering (dukkha), the appearance of a buddha in the world is considered a momentous event in the history of the universe.

The story of a particular buddha begins before his birth and extends beyond his death. It encompasses
the millions of lives spent on the bodhisattva path before the
achievement of buddhahood and the persistence of the buddha, in the form
of both his teachings and his relics, after he has passed into nirvana.
The historical Buddha is regarded as neither the first nor the last
buddha to appear in the world. According to some traditions he is the
7th buddha; according to another he is the 25th; according to yet
another he is the 4th. The next buddha, named Maitreya,
will appear after Shakyamuni’s teachings and relics have disappeared
from the world. The traditional accounts of the events in the life of
the Buddha must be considered from this perspective.



Sources of the life of the Buddha

Accounts of the life of the Buddha appear in many forms. Perhaps the earliest are those found in the collections of sutras (Pali: suttas),
discourses traditionally attributed to the Buddha. In the sutras, the
Buddha recounts individual events in his life that occurred from the
time that he renounced his life as a prince until he achieved
enlightenment six years later. Several accounts of his enlightenment
also appear in the sutras. One Pali text, the Mahaparinibbana-sutta
(“Discourse on the Final Nirvana”), describes the Buddha’s last days,
his passage into nirvana, his funeral, and the distribution of his
relics. Biographical accounts in the early sutras provide little detail
about the Buddha’s birth and childhood, although some sutras contain a
detailed account of the life of a prehistoric buddha, Vipashyin.

Another category of early Buddhist literature, the vinaya (concerned ostensibly with the rules of monastic discipline),
contains accounts of numerous incidents from the Buddha’s life but
rarely in the form of a continuous narrative; biographical sections that
do occur often conclude with the conversion of one of his early
disciples, Shariputra.
While the sutras focus on the person of the Buddha (his previous lives,
his practice of austerities, his enlightenment, and his passage into
nirvana), the vinaya literature tends to emphasize his career as a teacher and the conversion of his early disciples. The sutras and vinaya
texts, thus, reflect concerns with both the Buddha’s life and his
teachings, concerns that often are interdependent; early biographical
accounts appear in doctrinal discourses, and points of doctrine and
places of pilgrimage are legitimated through their connection to the life of the Buddha.

Near the beginning of the Common Era, independent accounts of the
life of the Buddha were composed. They do not recount his life from
birth to death, often ending with his triumphant return to his native
city of Kapilavastu (Pali: Kapilavatthu),
which is said to have taken place either one year or six years after his
enlightenment. The partial biographies add stories that were to become
well-known, such as the child prince’s meditation under a rose-apple
tree and his four momentous chariot rides outside the city.

These accounts typically make frequent reference to events from the
previous lives of the Buddha. Indeed, collections of stories of the
Buddha’s past lives, called Jatakas, form one of the early categories of Buddhist literature. Here, an event reminds the Buddha of an event in a past life. He relates that story in order to illustrate a moral
maxim, and, returning to the present, he identifies various members of
his audience as the present incarnations of characters in his past-life
tale, with himself as the main character.

The Jataka stories (one Pali collection contains 547 of
them) have remained among the most popular forms of Buddhist literature.
They are the source of some 32 stone carvings at the 2nd-century bce stupa at Bharhut in northeastern Madhya Pradesh
state; 15 stupa carvings depict the last life of the Buddha. Indeed,
stone carvings in India provide an important source for identifying
which events in the lives of the Buddha were considered most important
by the community. The Jataka stories are also well-known beyond India; in Southeast Asia, the story of Prince Vessantara (the Buddha’s penultimate
reincarnation)—who demonstrates his dedication to the virtue of charity
by giving away his sacred elephant, his children, and finally his
wife—is as well-known as that of his last lifetime.

Lives of the Buddha that trace events from his birth to his death appeared in the 2nd century ce. One of the most famous is the Sanskrit poem Buddhacharita (“Acts of the Buddha”) by Ashvaghosa. Texts such as the Mulasarvastivada Vinaya (probably dating from the 4th or 5th century ce)
attempt to gather the many stories of the Buddha into a single
chronological account. The purpose of these biographies in many cases is
less to detail the unique deeds of Shakyamuni’s life than to
demonstrate the ways in which the events of his life conform to a
pattern that all buddhas of the past have followed. According to some,
all past buddhas had left the life of the householder after observing
the four sights, all had practiced austerities, all had achieved
enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, all had preached in the deer park at Sarnath, and so on.

The life of the Buddha was written and rewritten in India and across
the Buddhist world, elements added and subtracted as necessary. Sites
that became important pilgrimage places but that had not been mentioned
in previous accounts would be retrospectively sanctified by the addition
of a story about the Buddha’s presence there. Regions that Buddhism
entered long after his death—such as Sri Lanka, Kashmir, and Burma (now Myanmar)—added narratives of his magical visitations to accounts of his life.

No single version of the life of the Buddha would be accepted by all
Buddhist traditions. For more than a century, scholars have focused on
the life of the Buddha, with the earliest investigations attempting to
isolate and identify historical elements amid the many legends. Because of the centuries that had passed between the actual life and the composition
of what might be termed a full biography, most scholars abandoned this
line of inquiry as unfruitful. Instead they began to study the
processes—social, political, institutional, and doctrinal—responsible
for the regional differences among the narratives of the Buddha. The
various uses made of the life of the Buddha are another topic of
interest. In short, the efforts of scholars have shifted from an attempt
to derive authentic information about the life of the Buddha to an
effort to trace stages in and the motivations for the development of his
biography.

It is important to reiterate
that the motivation to create a single life of the Buddha, beginning
with his previous births and ending with his passage into nirvana,
occurred rather late in the history of Buddhism. Instead, the
biographical tradition of the Buddha developed through the synthesis of a
number of earlier and independent fragments. And biographies of the
Buddha have continued to be composed over the centuries and around the
world. During the modern period, for example, biographies have been
written that seek to demythologize the Buddha and to emphasize his role
in presaging modern ethical
systems, social movements, or scientific discoveries. What follows is
an account of the life of the Buddha that is well-known, yet synthetic,
bringing together some of the more famous events from various accounts
of his life, which often describe and interpret these events
differently.


Previous lives

Many biographies of the Buddha begin not with his birth in his last
lifetime but in a lifetime millions of years before, when he first made
the vow to become a buddha. According to a well-known version, many
aeons ago there lived a Brahman named (in some accounts) Sumedha, who realized that life is characterized by suffering and then set out to find a state beyond death.
He retired to the mountains, where he became a hermit, practiced
meditation, and gained yogic powers. While flying through the air one
day, he noticed a great crowd around a teacher, whom Sumedha learned was
the buddha Dipamkara. When he heard the word buddha he was
overcome with joy. Upon Dipamkara’s approach, Sumedha loosened his
yogin’s matted locks and laid himself down to make a passage across the
mud for the Buddha. Sumedha reflected that were he to practice the
teachings of Dipamkara he could free himself from future rebirth in that
very lifetime. But he concluded that it would be better to delay his
liberation in order to traverse
the longer path to buddhahood; as a buddha he could lead others across
the ocean of suffering to the farther shore. Dipamkara paused before
Sumedha and predicted that many aeons hence this yogin with matted locks
would become a buddha. He also prophesied Sumedha’s name in his last
lifetime (Gautama) and the names of his parents and chief disciples and described the tree under which the future Buddha would sit on the night of his enlightenment.

Over the subsequent aeons, the bodhisattva would renew his vow in the presence of each of the buddhas who came after Dipamkara, before becoming the buddha Shakyamuni himself. Over the course of his lifetimes as a bodhisattva, he accumulated merit (punya) through the practice of 6 (or 10) virtues. After his death as Prince Vessantara, he was born in the Tusita Heaven, whence he surveyed the world to locate the proper site of his final birth.



Birth and early life

He determined that he should be born the son of the king Shuddhodana of the Shakya clan, whose capital was Kapilavastu. Shortly thereafter, his mother, the queen Maha Maya, dreamed that a white elephant had entered her womb. Ten lunar months later, as she strolled in the garden of Lumbini,
the child emerged from under her right arm. He was able to walk and
talk immediately. A lotus flower blossomed under his foot at each step,
and he announced that this would be his last lifetime. The king summoned
the court astrologers to predict the boy’s future. Seven agreed that he
would become either a universal monarch (chakravartin)
or a buddha; one astrologer said that there was no doubt, the child
would become a buddha. His mother died seven days after his birth, and
so he was reared by his mother’s sister, Mahaprajapati.
As a young child, the prince was once left unattended during a
festival. Later in the day he was discovered seated in meditation under a
tree, whose shadow had remained motionless throughout the day to
protect him from the sun.

The prince enjoyed an opulent life; his father shielded him from exposure to the ills of the world, including old age,
sickness, and death, and provided him with palaces for summer, winter,
and the rainy season, as well as all manner of enjoyments (including in
some accounts 40,000 female attendants). At age 16 he married the
beautiful princess Yashodhara. When the prince was 29, however, his life
underwent a profound change. He asked to be taken on a ride through the
city in his chariot. The king gave his permission but first had all the
sick and old people removed from the route. One old man escaped notice.
Not knowing what stood before him, the prince was told that this was an
old man. He was informed, also, that this was not the only old man in
the world; everyone—the prince, his father, his wife, and his
kinsmen—would all one day grow old. The first trip was followed by three
more excursions beyond the palace walls. On these trips he saw first a
sick person, then a corpse being carried to the cremation ground, and
finally a mendicant
seated in meditation beneath a tree. Having been exposed to the various
ills of human life, and the existence of those who seek a state beyond
them, he asked the king for permission to leave the city and retire to
the forest. The father offered his son anything if he would stay. The
prince asked that his father ensure that he would never die, become ill,
grow old, or lose his fortune. His father replied that he could not.
The prince retired to his chambers, where he was entertained by
beautiful women. Unmoved by the women, the prince resolved to go forth
that night in search of a state beyond birth and death.

When he had been informed seven days earlier that his wife had given
birth to a son, he said, “A fetter has arisen.” The child was named Rahula,
meaning “fetter.” Before the prince left the palace, he went into his
wife’s chamber to look upon his sleeping wife and infant son. In another
version of the story, Rahula had not yet been born on the night of the
departure from the palace. Instead, the prince’s final act was to
conceive his son, whose gestation period extended over the six years of
his father’s search for enlightenment. According to these sources,
Rahula was born on the night that his father achieved buddhahood.

The prince left Kapilavastu and the royal life behind and entered the
forest, where he cut off his hair and exchanged his royal robes for the
simple dress of a hunter. From that point on he ate whatever was placed
in his begging bowl. Early in his wanderings he encountered Bimbisara, the king of Magadha and eventual patron of the Buddha, who, upon learning that the ascetic
was a prince, asked him to share his kingdom. The prince declined but
agreed to return when he had achieved enlightenment. Over the next six
years, the prince studied meditation and learned to achieve deep states
of blissful concentration. But he quickly matched the attainments of his
teachers and concluded that despite their achievements, they would be
reborn after their death. He next joined a group of five ascetics
who had devoted themselves to the practice of extreme forms of
self-mortification. The prince also became adept at their practices,
eventually reducing his daily meal to one pea. Buddhist art often
represents him seated in the meditative posture in an emaciated form,
with sunken eyes and protruding ribs. He concluded that mortification of
the flesh is not the path to liberation from suffering and rebirth and
accepted a dish of rice and cream from a young woman.



The enlightenment

His companions remained convinced of the efficacy of asceticism
and abandoned the prince. Now without companions or a teacher, the
prince vowed that he would sit under a tree and not rise until he had
found the state beyond birth and death. On the full moon of May, six
years after he had left his palace, he meditated until dawn. Mara,
the god of desire, who knew that the prince was seeking to put an end
to desire and thereby free himself from Mara’s control, attacked him
with wind, rain, rocks, weapons, hot coals, burning ashes, sand, mud,
and darkness. The prince remained unmoved and meditated on love, thus
transforming the hail of fury into a shower of blossoms. Mara then sent
his three beautiful daughters, Lust, Thirst, and Discontent, to tempt
the prince, but he remained impassive. In desperation, Mara challenged
the prince’s right to occupy the spot of earth upon which he sat,
claiming that it belonged to him instead. Then, in a scene that would
become the most famous depiction of the Buddha in Asian art, the prince,
seated in the meditative posture, stretched out his right hand and
touched the earth. By touching the earth, he was asking the goddess of
the earth to confirm that a great gift that he had made as Prince
Vessantara in his previous life had earned him the right to sit beneath
the tree. She assented with a tremor, and Mara departed.

The prince sat in meditation through the night. During the first
watch of the night, he had a vision of all of his past lives,
recollecting his place of birth, name, caste, and even the food he had
eaten. During the second watch of the night, he saw how beings rise and
fall through the cycle of rebirth as a consequence of their past deeds.
In the third watch of the night, the hours before dawn, he was
liberated. Accounts differ as to precisely what it was that he
understood. According to some versions it was the four truths: of
suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the
path to the cessation of suffering. According to others it was the
sequence of dependent origination: how ignorance leads to action and
eventually to birth, aging, and death, and how when ignorance is
destroyed, so also are birth, aging, and death. Regardless of their
differences, all accounts agree that on this night he became a buddha,
an awakened one who had roused himself from the slumber of ignorance and
extended his knowledge throughout the universe.

The experience of that night was sufficiently profound that the
prince, now the Buddha, remained in the vicinity of the tree up to seven
weeks, savouring his enlightenment. One of those weeks was rainy, and
the serpent king came and spread his hood above the Buddha to protect
him from the storm, a scene commonly depicted in Buddhist art. At the
end of seven weeks, two merchants approached him and offered him honey
and cakes. Knowing that it was improper for a buddha to receive food in
his hands, the gods of the four directions each offered him a bowl. The
Buddha magically collapsed the four bowls into one and received the gift
of food. In return, the Buddha plucked some hairs from his head and
gave them to the merchants.


The first disciples

He was unsure as to what to do next, since he knew that what he had
understood was so profound that it would be difficult for others to
fathom. The god Brahma
descended from his heaven and asked him to teach, pointing out that
humans are at different levels of development, and some of them would
benefit from his teaching. Consequently, the Buddha concluded that the
most suitable students would be his first teachers of meditation, but he
was informed by a deity that they had died. He thought next of his five
former comrades in the practice of asceticism. The Buddha determined through his clairvoyance that they were residing in a deer park in Sarnath, outside Varanasi (Banaras). He set out on foot, meeting along the way a wandering ascetic with whom he exchanged greetings. When he explained to the man that he was enlightened and so was unsurpassed even by the gods, the man responded with indifference.

Reclining Buddha, Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.

Read More on This Topic
Buddhism
…from the teachings of the
Buddha (Sanskrit: “Awakened One”), a teacher who lived in northern India between the mid-6th…

Although the five ascetics had agreed to ignore the Buddha because he had given up self-mortification, they were compelled by his charisma
to rise and greet him. They asked the Buddha what he had understood
since they left him. He responded by teaching them, or, in the language
of the tradition, he “set the wheel of the dharma in motion.” (Dharma
has a wide range of meanings, but here it refers to the doctrine or
teaching of the buddhas.) In his first sermon, the Buddha spoke of the
middle way between the extremes of self-indulgence and
self-mortification and described both as fruitless. He next turned to
what have come to be known as the “Four Noble Truths,”
perhaps more accurately rendered as “four truths for the [spiritually]
noble.” As elaborated more fully in other discourses, the first is the
truth of suffering, which holds that existence in all the realms of
rebirth is characterized by suffering. The sufferings particular to
humans are birth, aging, sickness, death, losing friends, encountering
enemies, not finding what one wants, finding what one does not want. The
second truth identifies the cause of this suffering as nonvirtue,
negative deeds of body, speech, and mind that produce the karma that
fructifies in the future as physical and mental pain. These deeds are
motivated by negative mental states, called klesha (afflictions), which include desire, hatred, and ignorance, the false belief that there is a permanent and autonomous self amidst the impermanent constituents of mind and body. The third truth is the truth of cessation, the postulation of a state beyond suffering, called nirvana.
If the ignorance that motivates desire and hatred can be eliminated,
negative deeds will not be performed and future suffering will not be
produced. Although such reasoning would allow for the prevention of
future negative deeds, it does not seem to account for the vast store of
negative karma accumulated in previous lifetimes that is yet to bear
fruit. However, the insight into the absence of self, when cultivated
at a high level of concentration, is said to be so powerful that it
also destroys all seeds for future lifetimes. Cessation entails the
realization of both the destruction of the causes of suffering and the
impossibility of future suffering. The presence of such a state,
however, remains hypothetical without a method for attaining it, and the fourth truth, the path, is that method. The path was delineated in a number of ways, often as the three trainings in ethics, meditation, and wisdom. In his first sermon, the Buddha described the Eightfold Path
of correct view, correct attitude, correct speech, correct action,
correct livelihood, correct effort, correct mindfulness, and correct
meditation. A few days after the first sermon, the Buddha set forth the
doctrine of no-self (anatman), at which point the five ascetics became arhats, those who have achieved liberation from rebirth and will enter nirvana upon death. They became the first members of the sangha, the community of monks.



The post-enlightenment period

The Buddha soon attracted more disciples,
sometimes converting other teachers along with their followers. As a
result, his fame began to spread. When the Buddha’s father heard that
his son had not died following his great renunciation but had become a
buddha, the king sent nine successive delegations to his son to invite
him to return home to Kapilavastu. But instead of conveying the
invitation, they joined the disciples of the Buddha and became arhats.
The Buddha was persuaded by the 10th courier (who also became an arhat)
to return to the city, where he was greeted with disrespect by clan
elders. The Buddha, therefore, rose into the air, and fire and water
issued simultaneously from his body. This act caused his relatives to
respond with reverence. Because they did not know that they should
invite him for the noon meal, the Buddha went begging from door to door
instead of going to his father’s palace. This caused his father great chagrin, but the Buddha explained that this was the practice of the buddhas of the past.

His wife Yashodhara had remained faithful to him in his absence. She
would not go out to greet him when he returned to the palace, however,
saying that the Buddha should come to her in recognition of her virtue.
The Buddha did so, and, in a scene often recounted, she bowed before him
and placed her head on his feet. She eventually entered the order of
nuns and became an arhat. She sent their young son Rahula to his father
to ask for his patrimony, and the Buddha responded by having him
ordained as a monk. This dismayed the Buddha’s father, and he explained
to the Buddha the great pain that he had felt when the young prince had
renounced the world. He asked, therefore, that in the future a son be
ordained only with the permission of his parents. The Buddha made this
one of the rules of the monastic order.

The Buddha spent the 45 years after his enlightenment traveling with a group of disciples across northeastern India,
teaching the dharma to those who would listen, occasionally debating
with (and, according to the Buddhist sources, always defeating) masters
from other sects, and gaining followers from all social classes. To some
he taught the practice of refuge; to some he taught the five precepts
(not to kill humans, steal, engage in sexual misconduct, lie, or use
intoxicants); and to some he taught the practice of meditation. The
majority of the Buddha’s followers did not renounce the world, however,
and remained in lay life. Those who decided to go forth from the
household and become his disciples joined the sangha, the community of
monks. At the request of his widowed stepmother, Mahaprajapati, and
women whose husbands had become monks, the Buddha also established an
order of nuns. The monks were sent out to teach the dharma
for the benefit of gods and humans. The Buddha did the same: each day
and night he surveyed the world with his omniscient eye to locate those
that he might benefit, often traveling to them by means of his
supernormal powers.

It is said that in the early years the Buddha and his monks wandered
during all seasons, but eventually they adopted the practice of
remaining in one place during the rainy season (in northern India,
mid-July to mid-October). Patrons built shelters for their use, and the
end of the rainy season came to mark a special occasion for making
offerings of food and provisions (especially cloth for robes) to monks.
These shelters evolved into monasteries that were inhabited throughout
the year. The monastery of Jetavana in the city of Shravasti
(Savatthi), where the Buddha spent much of his time and delivered many
of the discourses, was donated to the Buddha by the wealthy banker
Anathapindada (Pali: Anathapindika).

The Buddha’s authority, even among his followers, did not go
unchallenged. A dispute arose over the degree of asceticism required of
monks. The Buddha’s cousin, Devadatta, led a faction that favoured more rigorous discipline than that counseled
by the Buddha, requiring, for example, that monks live in the open and
never eat meat. When the Buddha refused to name Devadatta as his
successor, Devadatta attempted to kill him three times. He first hired
assassins to eliminate the Buddha. Devadatta later rolled a boulder down
upon him, but the rock only grazed the Buddha’s toe. He also sent a
wild elephant to trample him, but the elephant stopped in his charge and
bowed at the Buddha’s feet. Another schism arose between monks of a
monastery over a minor infraction of lavatory etiquette. Unable to
settle the dispute, the Buddha retired to the forest to live with
elephants for an entire rainy season.



The death of the Buddha

Shortly before his death, the Buddha remarked to his attendant Ananda on three separate occasions that a buddha can, if requested, extend his life span for an aeon. Mara
then appeared and reminded the Buddha of his promise to him, made
shortly after his enlightenment, to pass into nirvana when his teaching
was complete. The Buddha agreed to pass away three months hence, at
which point the earth quaked. When Ananda asked the reason for the
tremor, the Buddha told him that there are eight occasions for an
earthquake, one of which was when a buddha relinquishes the will to
live. Ananda begged him not to do so, but the Buddha explained that the
time for such requests had passed; had he asked earlier, the Buddha
would have consented.

At age 80 the Buddha, weak from old age and illness,
accepted a meal (it is difficult to identify from the texts what the
meal consisted of, but many scholars believe it was pork) from a smith
named Chunda, instructing the smith to serve
him alone and bury the rest of the meal without offering it to the other
monks. The Buddha became severely ill shortly thereafter, and at a
place called Kusinara (also spelled Kushinagar; modern Kasia) lay down
on his right side between two trees, which immediately blossomed out of
season. He instructed the monk who was fanning him to step to one side,
explaining that he was blocking the view of the deities who had
assembled to witness his passing. After he provided instructions for his
funeral, he said that lay people should make pilgrimages to the place
of his birth, the place of his enlightenment, the place of his first
teaching, and the place of his passage into nirvana. Those who venerate
shrines erected at these places will be reborn as gods. The Buddha then
explained to the monks that after he was gone the dharma and the vinaya
(code of monastic conduct) should be their teacher. He also gave
permission to the monks to abolish the minor precepts (because Ananda
failed to ask which ones, it was later decided not to do so). Finally,
the Buddha asked the 500 disciples who had assembled whether they had
any last question or doubt. When they remained silent, he asked two more
times and then declared that none of them had any doubt or confusion
and were destined to achieve nirvana. According to one account, he then
opened his robe and instructed the monks to behold the body of a buddha,
which appears in the world so rarely. Finally, he declared that all
conditioned things are transient
and exhorted the monks to strive with diligence. These were his last
words. The Buddha then entered into meditative absorption, passing from
the lowest level to the highest, then from the highest to the lowest,
before entering the fourth level of concentration, whence he passed into
nirvana.


The Buddha’s relics

The Buddha had instructed his followers to cremate his body as the
body of a universal monarch would be cremated and then to distribute the
relics among various groups of his lay followers, who were to enshrine
them in hemispherical reliquaries called stupas. His body lay in a
coffin for seven days before being placed on a funeral pyre and was set
ablaze by the Buddha’s chief disciple,
Mahakashyapa, who had been absent at the time of the Buddha’s death.
After the Buddha’s cremation, his relics were entrusted to a group of
lay disciples,
but armed men arrived from seven other regions and demanded the relics.
In order to avert bloodshed, a monk divided the relics into eight
portions. According to tradition, 10 sets of relics were enshrined, 8
from portions of the Buddha’s remains, 1 from the pyre’s ashes, and 1
from the bucket used to divide the remains. The relics were subsequently
collected and enshrined in a single stupa. More than a century later, King Ashoka is said to have redistributed the relics in 84,000 stupas.

The stupa would become a reference point denoting the Buddha’s
presence in the landscape of Asia. Early texts and the archeological
record link stupa worship with the Buddha’s life and the key sites in
his career. Eight shrines are typically recommended for pilgrimage and
veneration. They are located at the place of his birth, his
enlightenment, his first turning of the wheel of dharma,
and his death, as well as sites in four cities where he performed
miracles. A stupa in Samkashya, for example, marked the site where the
Buddha descended to the world after teaching the dharma to his mother
(who died seven days after his birth) abiding in the Heaven of the Thirty-three Gods.

The importance given to the stupa suggests the persistence of the Buddha in the world despite his apparent passage into nirvana.
Two types of nirvana are commonly described. The first is called the
“nirvana with remainder,” which the Buddha achieved under the Bo tree,
when he destroyed all the seeds for future rebirth. This first nirvana
is therefore also called the final nirvana (or passing away) of the afflictions.
But the karma that had created his present life was still functioning
and would do so until his death. Thus, his mind and body during the rest
of his life were what was left over, the remainder, after he realized
nirvana. The second type of nirvana occurred at his death and is called
the “final nirvana of the aggregates (skandha)
of mind and body” or the “nirvana without remainder” because nothing
remained to be reborn after his death. Something, in fact, did remain:
the relics found in the ashes of the funeral pyre. A third nirvana,
therefore, is sometimes mentioned. According to Buddhist belief, there
will come a time in the far distant future when the teachings of Shakyamuni
Buddha will disappear from the world and the relics will no longer be
honoured. It is then that the relics that have been enshrined in stupas
around the world will break out of their reliquaries and magically
return to Bodh Gaya,
where they will assemble into the resplendent body of the Buddha,
seated in the lotus posture under the Bo tree, emitting rays of light
that illuminate
10,000 worlds. They will be worshiped by the gods one last time and
then will burst into flame and disappear into the sky. This third
nirvana is called the “final nirvana of the relics.” Until that time,
the relics of the Buddha are to be regarded as his living presence,
infused with all of his marvelous qualities. Epigraphic and literary
evidence from India
suggests that the Buddha, in the form of his stupas, not only was a
bestower of blessings, but was regarded as a legal person and an owner
of property. The relics of the Buddha were, essentially, the Buddha.



Images of the Buddha

The Buddha also remains in the world in the form of the texts that
contain his words and statues that depict his form. There is no
historical evidence of images of the Buddha being made during his
lifetime. Indeed, scholars of Indian art
have long been intrigued by the absence of an image of the Buddha on a
number of early stone carvings at Buddhist sites. The carvings depict
scenes in which obeisance is being paid, for example, to the footprints
of the Buddha. One scene, considered to depict the Buddha’s departure
from the palace, shows a riderless horse. Such works have led to the
theory that early Buddhism
prohibited depiction of the Buddha in bodily form but allowed
representation by certain symbols. The theory is based in part on the
lack of any instructions for depicting the Buddha in early texts. This
view has been challenged by those who suggest instead that the carvings
are not depictions of events from the life of the Buddha but rather
represent pilgrimages to and worship of important sites from the life of
the Buddha, such as the Bo tree.

Consecrated
images of the Buddha are central to Buddhist practice, and there are
many tales of their miraculous powers. A number of famous images, such
as the statue of Mahamuni
in Mandalay, Myanmar, derive their sanctity from the belief that the
Buddha posed for them. The consecration of an image of the Buddha often
requires elaborate rituals in which the Buddha is asked to enter the
image or the story of the Buddha’s life is told in its presence.
Epigraphic evidence from the 4th or 5th century indicates that Indian
monasteries usually had a room called the “perfumed chamber” that housed
an image of the Buddha and was regarded as the Buddha’s residence, with
its own contingent of monks.



The Mahayana tradition and the reconception of the Buddha

Some four centuries after the Buddha’s death, movements arose in
India, many of them centred on newly written texts (such as the Lotus Sutra) or new genres of texts (such as the Prajnaparamita
or Perfection of Wisdom sutras) that purported to be the word of the
Buddha. These movements would come to be designated by their adherents
as the Mahayana,
the “Great Vehicle” to enlightenment, in contradistinction to the
earlier Buddhist schools that did not accept the new sutras as authoritative (that is, as the word of the Buddha).

The Mahayana sutras offer different conceptions
of the Buddha. It is not that the Mahayana schools saw the Buddha as a
magical being whereas non-Mahayana schools did not. Accounts of the
Buddha’s wondrous powers abound throughout the literature. For example,
the Buddha is said to have hesitated before deciding to teach after his
enlightenment and only decides to do so after being implored by Brahma.
In a Mahayana sutra, however, the Buddha has no indecision at all, but
rather pretends to be swayed by Brahma’s request in order that all those
who worship Brahma will take refuge in the Buddha. Elsewhere, it was
explained that when the Buddha would complain of a headache or a
backache, he did so only to convert others to the dharma; because his
body was not made of flesh and blood, it was in fact impossible for him
to experience pain.

One of the most important Mahayana sutras for a new conception of the Buddha is the Lotus Sutra (Saddharmapundarika-sutra),
in which the Buddha denies that he left the royal palace in search of
freedom from suffering and that he found that freedom six years later
while meditating under a tree. He explains instead that he achieved
enlightenment innumerable billions of aeons ago and has been preaching
the dharma in this world and simultaneously in myriad
other worlds ever since. Because his life span is inconceivable to
those of little intelligence, he has resorted to the use of skillful
methods (upuya), pretending to renounce his princely life, practice austerities, and attain unsurpassed enlightenment. In fact, he was enlightened
all the while yet feigned these deeds to inspire the world. Moreover,
because he recognizes that his continued presence in the world might
cause those of little virtue to become complacent
about putting his teachings into practice, he declares that he is soon
to pass into nirvana. But this also is not true, because his life span
will not be exhausted for many more billions of aeons. He tells the
story of a physician who returns home to find his children ill from
having taken poison during his absence. He prescribes a cure, but only
some take it. He therefore leaves home again and spreads the rumour that
he has died. Those children who had not taken the antidote
then do so out of deference to their departed father and are cured. The
father then returns. In the same way, the Buddha pretends to enter
nirvana to create a sense of urgency in his disciples even though his
life span is limitless.


The doctrine of the three bodies

Such a view of the identity of the Buddha is codified in the doctrine of the three bodies (trikaya)
of the Buddha. Early scholastics speak of the Buddha as having a
physical body and a second body, called a “mind-made body” or an
“emanation body,” in which he performs miraculous feats such as visiting
his departed mother in the Heaven of the Thirty-three Gods and teaching
her the dharma. The question also was raised as to whom precisely the Buddhist should pay homage when honouring the Buddha. A term, dharmakaya,
was coined to describe a more metaphorical body, a body or collection
of all the Buddha’s good qualities or dharmas, such as his wisdom, his
compassion, his fortitude, his patience. This corpus of qualities was identified as the body of the Buddha to which one should turn for refuge.

All of this is recast in the Mahayana sutras. The emanation body (nirmanakaya)
is no longer the body that the Buddha employs to perform supernatural
feats; it is rather the only body to appear in this world and the only
body visible to ordinary humans. It is the Buddha’s emanation body that
was born as a prince, achieved enlightenment, and taught the dharma to
the world; that is, the visible Buddha is a magical display. The true
Buddha, the source of the emanations, was the dharmakaya, a term that still refers to the Buddha’s transcendent qualities but, playing on the multivalence of the term dharma, came to mean something more cosmic, an eternal principle of enlightenment and ultimate truth, described in later Mahayana treatises as the Buddha’s omniscient mind and its profound nature of emptiness.



The presence of multiple universes

Along with additional bodies of the Buddha, the Mahayana sutras also
revealed the presence of multiple universes, each with its own buddha.
These universes—called buddha fields, or pure lands—are
described as abodes of extravagant splendour, where the trees bear a
fruit of jewels, the birds sing verses of the dharma, and the
inhabitants devote themselves to its practice. The buddha fields became
preferred places for future rebirth. The buddhas who presided there
became objects of devotion, especially the buddha of infinite light, Amitabha, and his Western Paradise called Sukhavati. In the buddha fields, the buddhas often appear in yet a third form, the enjoyment body (sambhogakaya),
which was the form of a youthful prince adorned with the 32 major marks
and 80 minor marks of a superman. The former include patterns of a
wheel on the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet, elongated
earlobes, a crown protrusion (usnisa) on the top of his head, a circle of hair (urna)
between his brows, flat feet, and webbed fingers. Scholars have
speculated that this last attribute derives not from a textual source
but the inadequacies of early sculptors.

The marvelous physical and mental qualities of the Buddha were codified in numerous litanies
of praise and catalogued in poetry, often taking the form of a series
of epithets. These epithets were commented upon in texts, inscribed on
stupas, recited aloud in rituals, and contemplated in meditation. One of
the more famous is “thus gone, worthy, fully and completely awakened,
accomplished in knowledge and virtuous conduct, well gone, knower of
worlds, unsurpassed guide for those who need restraint, teacher of gods
and humans, awakened, fortunate.”


Donald S. Lopez


Maha Maya
mother of Gautama Buddha


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Maha Maya

mother of Gautama Buddha
Alternative Titles:
Mahamaya, Maya

Maha Maya, also called Maya, the mother of Gautama Buddha; she was the wife of Raja Shuddhodana.


According to Buddhist legend,
Maha Maya dreamed that a white elephant with six tusks entered her
right side, which was interpreted to mean that she had conceived a child
who would become either a world ruler or a buddha. After 10 lunar
months, feeling that the time of birth was near, she went to the Lumbini
grove outside the city of Kapilavastu. While she stood upright and held
onto the branch of a sal tree (in the posture adopted by mothers of all
buddhas), the child came forth from under her right arm. Seven days
after his birth (again, in accordance with the destiny of the mothers of
all buddhas) she died and was reborn again in the Heaven of the
Thirty-three Gods (Tavatimsa Heaven). The scenes of the conception and delivery of Gautama Buddha are often depicted in art.


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