Free Online Analytic Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.Free Online Analytic Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.
From Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University in
 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India Do good. Purify mind -‘The gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts – sabba danam dhamma danam to attain NIBBANA as Final Goal
Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
May 2020
M T W T F S S
« Apr    
 123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
05/20/20
LESSON 3359 Thu 21 May 2020 Discovery of Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(DBAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University in
 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA’S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org at WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Puniya Bhoomi Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -Prabuddha Bharat TIPITAKA
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 9:03 pm


Current World Population -
COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:
2,024,329

Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19



  • 1. Comoros,
  • 2. North Korea, 
  • 3. Yemen,
  • 4. The Federated States of Micronesia,
  • 5. Kiribati,
  • 6. Solomon Islands,
  • 7. The Cook Islands,
  • 8. Micronesia,
  • 9. Tonga,
  • 10. The Marshall Islands Palau,
  • 11. American Samoa, 
  • 12. South Georgia
  •  13. South Sandwich Islands.
  • 14.Saint Helena.

    Europe

    15. Aland Islands
    16.Svalbard

  • 17. Jan Mayen Islands

  • 18. Latin America

    Africa

    British Indian Ocean Territory


    French Southern Territories
    Lesotho

  • Oceania


  • Christmas Island
    Cocos (Keeling) Islands


    Heard Island

  • McDonald Islands


    Niue
    Norfolk Island
    Pitcairn
    Solomon Islands
    Tokelau
    United States Minor Outlying Islands
    Wallis and Futuna Islands

  • Tajikistan,
  • Turkmenistan,
  • Tuvalu,
  • Vanuatu


Are all well, happy and secure!
They are calm, quiet, alert and attentive with their wisdom,
having an equanimity mind not reacting to good and bad thoughts
with a clear understanding that everything is changing!

including
all the Presidents, Prime Ministers, Parlimentarians,
Legislators,Ministers, MPs, MLAs, Political ruling and opposition Party
members, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Election Commission members Media
persons who were not affected by COVID-19 not wearing face masks but
still alive  and who are more deadliest than COVID-1
9

International
World Organisations including WHO, UNO, Human Rights Commission, All
Chief Justices, Election Commissioners, All Opposition parties Social
Media must unite for

Discovery of Awakened with Awareness Universe

For
the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient
Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

1. All EVMs/VVPATs must be replaced with Ballot Papers to save Democracy, Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.

2.
Whether COVID-19 Virus is natural or a Lab Created One.The affected and
dead peoples’ names and addresses must be made public.

3. Signs and symptoms of the Virus


While it’s not known who got what from whom, whether the virus was even
spread simply having a cold at that time, the case has shaken the
community even if it didn’t “qualify” for a test after showing runny
nose which was listed as a symptom of COVID-19 and advises anyone
feeling unwell to stay home.

Major Cause of Death in COVID-19 is Thrombosis, Not Pneumonia !

It seems that the disease is being attacked wrongly worldwide.


Thanks to autopsies performed by the Italians … it has been shown that
it is not pneumonia … but it is: disseminated intravascular coagulation
(thrombosis).

Therefore, the way to fight it is with antibiotics, antivirals, anti-inflammatories and anticoagulants.

The protocols are being changed here since !

According to valuable information from Italian pathologists, ventilators and intensive care units were never needed.

If this is true for all cases, it is about to be resolved it earlier than expected.

4. https://theprint.in/…/modis-poorly-planned-lockdown…/388056/

Murderer
of democratic institutions (Modi)’s poorly planned 45 days curfew didn’t
save us from COVID-19, but killed economy after gobbling the Master Key
by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won elections on behalf of Rowdy
rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) foreigners from Bene Israel who must be
forced to quit Prabuddha Bharat along with their own mother’s flesh
eaters, stooges, slaves and boot lickers.

With typically shoddy execution, Modi’s national curfew could starve to death.

It is
important to note that countries that have so far done a relatively good
job of containing the COVID-19 pandemic have refrained from imposing a
complete, nation-wide, curfew-like lockdown. These
include Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, and Turkey. Even China, where it all
started, placed only the Hubei province under complete curfew, not the
whole country.

Modi has
put 1.3 billion people under a curfew. Since the authorities are using
the word ‘curfew’ in the context of issuing passes, it is fair to call
it a national curfew.

Modi does
not have the capacity to think through the details of planning and
execution. This is turning out to be another demonetisation, with the
typical Modi problem of mistaking theatrics for achievement.

If we
survive the pandemic, we won’t survive the impending economic collapse.
The economy isn’t on Modi’s radar either. He won a national election
despite disastrous economic policies that gave us a 45
year-high unemployment rate. Why should he worry about the economy? Names list as to how many employees and migrant and daily
workers lost their jobs because of the permanent curfew laid by
governments in the name of COVID-19 and suffering with hunger.


Demonetisation and GST resulted in killing demand, and this poorly
planned national curfew will kill supply chains. We’ll be left with the
great Indian discovery, the zero.


Modi announced a national curfew with little notice. He addressed India
at 8 pm, and the curfew came into force at midnight. Just like
demonetisation. Why couldn’t he have given some notice? Why couldn’t he
have done his TV address at 8 am? Maximising prime time attention, you
see.

The home
ministry issued a list of exemptions but try explaining them to the cops
on the street. The police is doing what it loves to do the most:
beating up Indians with lathis. Meanwhile, lakhs
of trucks are stranded on state borders. Supply chains for the most
essential items have been disrupted, including medicines, milk,
groceries, food and newspaper deliveries.

Nobody in
the Modi’s office seems to be aware of any such thing as crop
harvesting, or the Rabi season, as farmers wonder how they’ll do it amid
this national curfew. Only Modi can manage to be so
clever as to
disrupt the country’s medical supply chain while fighting a
pandemic.Modi is the only major world leader who has not yet announced a
financial package. In his first speech, he said the finance minister
will head a committee, but some in the finance ministry said they heard
of this committee from the Modi’s speech. He did announce Rs 15,000
crore extra to meet the health expenditure arising out of the COVID-19
crisis — that is Rs 5,000 crore less than the amount of money he has
kept aside for his narcissistic and unnecessary project of rebuilding
the Central Vista of New Delhi.

At this
rate, more might die of hunger than of COVID-19. Modi’s poor
administrative skills, zero attention span for details, spell disaster
for this crisis. In a few weeks, we might find ourselves overwhelmed
with an epidemic in defiance of official numbers, while the economy
might start looking like the 1980s.

With a request
for partnership with allyour esteemed organisations for Discovery of
Awakened One with Awareness Universe (DAOAU) for the welfare, happiness
and peace for all societies.

From

KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University in
 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in Awakened One with Awareness’s own Words
through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
at WHITE HOME
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd
Stage, Puniya Bhoomi  Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -Prabuddha Bharat

Last updated: May 21, 2020, 05:33 GMT












Coronavirus Cases:5,090,157 Deaths 329,739



Awakened One with Awareness perspective of good governance-

Democratic governance
Shadow man on COVID-19, US story
Major Cause of Death in COVID-19 is Thrombosis, Not Pneumonia
The CDC says they don’t recommend people wear masks to prevent transmitting the virus if you do not have symptoms.


Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta
1. Dasa raja dhamma

2. kusala.

3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana
4. priyavacana

 5. artha cariya

 6. samanatmata

7. Samyutta Nikayaarya

” or

“ariyasammutideva
8. Agganna Sutta
9. Majjima Nikaya
10. arya” or “ariya
11.sammutideva
12. Digha Nikaya
Maha Sudassana
Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma
Canon Sutta
Pali Canon and Suttapitaka
Iddhipada
Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma
Brahmavihàra
Sangahavatthu
Nathakaranadhamma
Saraniyadhamma
Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha
dukkha
anicca
anatta
Samsara
Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,
Kutadanta Sutta
Chandagati
Dosagati
Mohagati
Bhayagati
Yoniso manasikara
BrahmavihàraSangahavatthu
Nathakaranadhamma
SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya
Dithadhammikattha
Mara
Law of Kamma
Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya
Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya

Assamedha

Sassamedha


Naramedha

Purisamedha


Sammapasa

Vajapeyya

Niraggala

Sila

Samadhi

Panna

Samma-sankappa

Sigalovada Sutta

Brahmajala Sutta

Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta
dhammamahamatras

Lord Awakened One with Awareness said (in Pali),

‘Na jacca vasalo hoti na jacca hoti brahmano.
Kammuna vasalo hoti
kammuna hoti brahmano.’
(Not by his birth man is an outcaste or a Brahman;
Only by his own Kamma man becomes an outcaste
or a Brahman.)

Lord Awakened One with Araeness said,

Be hurry, O Bhikkhus, to paddle your boat till it shall reach the other side of the river bank.’

Awakened One with awareness said
Suddhi asuddhi paccattam nanno nannam visodhaye’ (purity and impurity is the matter of an individual; one can, by no means, purify
another).



http://www.buddhanet.net/ebooks_s.htm

                            “Assuredly this is the word of the Buddha, it has been rightly understood by this monk.”

Theravada Text & Teachings

PDF Download Acrobat Reader: To read our eBooks you will require the Acrobat Reader available for free from Adobe.

Zip Download Zip Archive: a complete file list of all BuddhaNet’s eBooks (PDF docs.) with a detailed description of each.

PDF PDF Doc. (633 KB) Guide to Tipitaka — Compiled by U KO Lay.

The
Guide to the Tipitaka is an outline of the Pali Buddhist Canonical
Scriptures of Theravada Buddhism from Burma. This is a unique work, as
it is probably the only material that deals in outline with the whole of
the Pali Buddhist Tipitaka. The Tipitaka includes all the teachings of
the Buddha, grouped into three divisions: the Soutane Patch, or general
discourses; the Vane Patch, or moral code for monks and nuns; and the
Abhidhamma Pitaka, or philosophical teachings. An excellent reference
work which gives an overview of the Pali Buddhist texts. • It is
recommended that you download the print version below as it is of higher
quality.

Print Version (1,314KB, zipped file) This print version
is suitable for people who can print the pages duplex and they will
have 2 A5 size pages on every Landscape oriented A4 page. This file is
of higher quality with bookmarks and a hyper linked series of “contents”
pages.

PDF PDF Doc. (1,815 KB) Daily Readings from Buddha’s Words of Wisdom — by Ven. S. Dhammika.

For
over two millennium the discourses of the Buddha have nourished the
spiritual lives of countless millions of people in India, Sri Lanka,
Burma and Thailand. This book contains extracts from some of these
discourses selected from the Pali Tipitaka and also from some
post-canonical writings. Rendered into readable English, presented so
that one extract can be read and reflected upon each day of the year and
provided with a Readers Guide, this book is an indispensable companion
for anyone trying to apply the Buddha’s gentle message to their daily
life.
PDF PDF Doc. (752 KB) Essentials of Buddhism — Ven. Pategama Gnanarama Ph.D.

This
book can be used as a textbook on basic Buddhism. It is based on the
Theravada Buddhism syllabus of the Postgraduate Diploma Examination in
Buddhist Studies course of the Buddhist and Pali University of Sri
Lanka. Since the work is meant for students, every chapter appears as a
unit by itself and is confined to a few pages. Ven. Pategama Ganarama is
the Principal of the Buddhist and Pali College of Singapore.
PDF PDF Doc. (2,274 KB) Aspects of Early Buddhist Thought — Ven. Pategama Gnanarama Ph.D.

“All
the chapters are enlightening and sociologically important.
Particularly the discussion on Dhamma, medicine and sociology deserves
special praise, for the novel and refreshing interpretation offered.”
Prof. Chandima Wijebandara. “Early Buddhist redefinition of woman’s
social role is well documented and discussed, shedding light on the
subject, so it can be viewed in a broader perspective.” Senarat
Wijavasundara
Lecturer in Philosophy Buddhist and Pali College of Singapore

PDF PDF Doc. (499 KB) Sutta-Nipata — Translated by Lesley Fowler & Tamara Ditrich with Primoz Pecenko.

The
Sutta-nipata is one of the earliest texts of the Pali cannon, coming
from the same period as the Dhammapada, before the monastic tradition
was strong. It was created by people as they practised and refers to
“the wise one”, rather than to monks or nuns. In the present
translation, “the wise one” is referred to as female and as male on a
roughly equal number of occasions. This translation aims to combine
textual precision and a colloquial style. Natural Australian speech
rhythms and some idiomatic expressions (skite, for example, is an
Australian colloquial word for brag or boast) were chosen to reflect
both the popular origins of the text and the audience to whom this
translation is directed.
PDF PDF Doc. (241 KB) The Dhammapada, Buddha’s Path of Wisdom — Ven. Acharya Buddharakkita.

Translated
from the Pali by Acharya Buddharakkhita and with an introduction by
Bhikkhu Bodhi. The Dhammapada is the best known and most widely esteemed
text in the Pali Tipitaka, the sacred scriptures of Theravada Buddhism.
The work is included in the Khuddaka Nikaya (”Minor Collection”) of the
Sutta Pitaka, but its popularity has raised it far above the single
niche it occupies in the scriptures to the ranks of a world religious
classic. Composed in the ancient Pali language, this slim anthology of
verses constitutes a perfect compendium of the Buddha’s teaching,
comprising between its covers all the essential principles elaborated at
length in the forty-odd volumes of the Pali Canon.

» » Print Version Only (176KB)

PDF PDF Doc. (592 KB) The Dhammapada, a Translation — Ven. Thanissaro, Bhikkhu.

The
Dhammapada, an anthology of verses attributed to the Buddha, has long
been recognized as one of the masterpieces of early Buddhist literature.
Only more recently have scholars realized that it is also one of the
early masterpieces of the Indian tradition of Kavya, or belles lettres.
This translation is an attempt to render the verses into English in a
way that does justice to both of the traditions to which the text
belongs. Although it is tempting to view these traditions as distinct,
dealing with form (Kavya) and content (Buddhism), the ideals of Kavya
aimed at combining form and content into a seamless whole.
PDF PDF Doc. (3,839 KB) Treasury of Truth - Dhammapada (Text Version) — Ven. W. Sarada Maha Thero.

This
work lends itself readily to an in-depth study of this religious
classic of mankind, to the great delight of both the scholar and the
student. This PDF file is the text version only of the Illustrated
Dhammapada by Ven. Sarada Maha Thero. The Pali text has explanatory
translation of the verses with commentary in English.

Treasury of Truth - Illustrated Dhammapada(21, 511 KB) — Ven. W. Sarada Maha Thero.

This
archived zipped file (21,511KB) is the Illustrated version of the
Dhammapada or Treasury of Truth, compiled by Venerable Weragoda Sarada
Maha Thero. [ PLEASE NOTE: LARGE FILE SIZE ]

PDF PDF Doc. (2,026 KB) Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta — Ven. Mahasi Sayadaw.

The
First Discourse of the Buddha, namely the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta,
commonly known as the Great Discourse on the Wheel of Dhamma. This is a
series of discourses on the Dhammacakka Sutta by the late Venerable
Mahasi Sayadaw, a Questioner at the Sixth Buddhist Council in Myanmar,
(Burma) 1954. Translated by U Ko Lay.

PDF PDF Doc. (504 KB) Transcendental Dependent Arising — Bhikkhu Bodhi.

An
Exposition of the Upanisa Sutta. Dependent Arising (paticcasamuppada)
is the central principle of the Buddha’s teaching, constituting both the
objective content of its liberating insight and the germinative source
for its vast network of doctrines and disciplines. So crucial is this
principle to the body of the Buddha’s doctrine that an insight into
dependent arising is held to be sufficient to yield an understanding of
the entire teaching. In the words of the Buddha: “He who sees dependent
arising sees the Dhamma; he who sees the Dhamma sees dependent arising.”

PDF PDF Doc. (2,620 KB) Sigalovada Sutta - Illustrated — Compiled by Ven. K. Dhammasiri.

The
Sigalovada in Pictures. A Pictorial presentation of the Buddha’s advice
to the layman, Sigala on the duties of the householder. Compiled by
Venerable K. Dhammasiri. Artwork by K. W. Janaranjana.

PDF PDF Doc. (1,128 KB) Maha Satipatthana Sutta — Translated by U Jotika & U Dhamminda.

Practise
in accordance with this Mahasatipatthana Sutta so that you can see why
it is acknowledged as the most important Sutta that the Buddha taught.
Try to practise all the different sections from time to time as they are
all useful, but in the beginning start with something simple such as
being mindful while walking, or the mindfulness of in and out breathing.
Then as you practise these you will be able to practise the other
sections contained within this Sutta and you will find that all the four
satipatthanas can be practised concurrently. A Sutta should be read
again and again as you will tend to forget its message. The message here
in this Sutta is that you should be mindful of whatever is occurring in
the body and mind, whether it be good or bad, and thus you will become
aware that all conditioned phenomena are impermanent, unsatisfactory and
not self.

High quality: Print Version - Maha Satipatthana Sutta for downloading (1,626 KB zipped file)

PDF PDF Doc. (1,027 KB) The Mission Accomplished — Ven. Pategama Gnanarama Ph.D.

A
historical analysis of the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Digha Nikaya of
the Pali Canon. “The Mission Accomplished is undoubtedly an eye opening
contribution to Buddhist analytical Pali studies. In this analytical
and critical work Ven. Dr. Pategama Gnanarama enlightens us in many
areas of subjects hitherto unexplored by scholars. His views on the
beginnings of the Bhikkhuni Order are interesting and refreshing. They
might even be provocative to traditional readers, yet be challenging to
the feminists to adopt a most positive attitude to the problem”. Prof.
Chandima Wijebandara, University of Sri Jayawardhanapura, Sri Lanka.

PDF PDF Doc. (896 KB) The Debate of King Milinda — Bhikkhu Pesala.

The
Milanda Panna is a famous work of Buddhist literature, probably
compiled in the 1st century B.C. It presents Buddhist doctrine in a very
attractive and memorable form as a dialogue between a Bactrian Greek
king, Milinda, who plays the ‘Devil’s Advocate’ and a Buddhist sage,
Nagasena. The topics covered include most of the questions commonly
asked by Westerners. This abridgment provides a concise presentation of
this masterpiece of Buddhist literature. The introduction outlines the
historical background against which the dialogues took place, indicating
the meeting of two great cultures that of ancient Greece and the
Buddhism of the Indus valley, which was the legacy of the great Emperor
Asoka.

PDF PDF Doc. (3,416 KB) The Buddha and His Teachings — Ven. Narada Maha Thera.

Many
valuable books have been written by Eastern and Western scholars,
Buddhists and non-Buddhists alike, to present the life and teachings of
the Buddha to those who are interested in Buddhism. This treatise is
another humble attempt made by a member of the Order of the Sangha,
based on the Pali Texts, commentaries, and traditions prevailing in
Buddhist countries, especially in Sri Lanka. The first part of the book
deals with the Life of the Buddha, the second with the Dhamma, the Pali
term for His Doctrine.

PDF PDF Doc. (1,481 KB) A Manual of Abhidhamma — Ven. Narada Maha Thera.

Abhidhamma
is the Higher Teaching of the Buddha. It expounds the quintessence of
His profound doctrine. The Dhamma, embodied in the Sutta Piñaka, is the
conventional teaching, and the Abhidhamma is the ultimate teaching. In
the Abhidhamma both mind and matter, which constitute this complex
machinery of man, are microscopically analysed. Chief events connected
with the process of birth and death are explained in detail. Intricate
points of the Dhamma are clarified. The Path of Emancipation is set
forth in clear terms.

PDF PDF Doc. (3,254 KB) Buddha Abhidhamma - Ultimate Science — Dr Mehn Tin Mon.

The
Buddha’s ultimate teaching, known as the Abhidhamma, describes in
detail the natures of the ultimate realities that really exist in nature
but are unknown to scientists. His method of verification is superior
to scientific methods which depend on instruments. He used his
divine-eye to penetrate the coverings that hide the true nature of
things. He also taught others how to develop concentration and how to
observe with their mind-eyes the true nature of all things and finally
the four Noble Truths which can enlighten one to achieve one’s
liberation from all miseries for ever!

PDF PDF Doc. (1,673 KB) Practising Dhamma with a View to Nibbana — Radhika Abeysekera.

Radhika
Abeysekera began teaching and writing books on the Dhamma to help
reintroduce Buddhism to immigrants in non-Buddhist countries. The books
are designed in such a manner that a parent or educator can use them to
teach Buddhism to a child. Mrs. Abeysekera feels strongly that parents
should first study and practise the Dhamma to the best of their ability
to obtain maximum benefits, because what you do not possess you cannot
give to your child. The books were also designed to foster understanding
of the Dhamma among non-Buddhists, so that there can be peace and
harmony through understanding and respect for the philosophies and
faiths of others.

PDF PDF Doc. (3,129 KB) The Teachings of Ajahn Chah — Ven. Ajahn Chah.

The
following Dhamma books of Ajahn Chah have been included in this
collection of Ajahn Chah’s Dhamma talks: Bodhinyana (1982); A Taste of
Freedom (fifth impression.2002); Living Dhamma (1992); Food for the
Heart (1992); The Path to Peace (1996); Clarity of Insight (2000);
Unshakeable Peace (2003); Everything is Teaching Us (2004). Also some as
yet unpublished talks have been included in the last section called
`More Dhamma Talks’. We hope our efforts in compiling this collection of
Dhamma talks of Ajahn Chah will be of benefit. (Wat Pah Nanachat)

PDF PDF Doc. (1,249 KB) A Taste of Freedom — Ven. Ajahn Chah.

Venerable Ajahn Chah always gave his talks in simple, everyday language. His objective was to clarify the
Dhamma,
not to confuse his listeners with an overload of information.
Consequently the talks presented here have been rendered into
correspondingly simple English. The aim has been to present Ajahn Chah’s
teaching in both the spirit and the letter. In 1976 Venerable Ajahn
Chah was invited to England together with Ajahn Sumedho, the outcome of
which was eventually the establishment of the first branch monastery of
Wat Pa Pong outside of Thailand. Since then, further branch monasteries
have been established in England, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand
and Italy.

PDF PDF Doc. (1,479 KB) Bhavana Vandana - Book of Devotion — Compiled by Ven. Gunaratana.

The
purpose of this book is manifold. One is to teach the users of this
Vandana book how to pronounce Pali words correctly. By the daily
repetition of these Pali verses and Suttas people can learn the Pali
pronunciation without much effort. Secondly we intend to teach people
the Pali language without much toil. Therefore we made one half of our
chanting in English, so people learn the meaning of what they chant in
Pali and later on they can compare the English with the Pali. Thirdly,
we intend to teach people Dhamma through devotional service. In order to
fulfill all these purposes we decided to include certain Suttas which
are not normally used in Viharas for vandana service.

PDF PDF Doc. (1,690 KB) Ordination Procedure — Pali / English.

Ordination
Procedure, was composed by Somdet Phra Sangharàja Pussadeva of Wat
Ràjapratisñhasthita Mahàsãmàràma. His Eminence reformed some of the text
and procedure for Pabbajjà and Upasampadà from the original text. The
method of Pabbajjà (Going-forth) and Upasampadà (Acceptance) in the
Southern School (that is, Theravàda) uses the original Magadha (Pàli)
language.

PDF PDF Doc. (435 KB) Chanting Book — Pali / English.

This
is the standard Morning and Evening Chanting Book, with Protective
Discourses, commonly chanted in many Theravadin temples and monasteries.
The text is in both Pali and English.

PDF PDF Doc. (402 KB) A Pali Word A Day — Mahindarama Sunday Pali School.

A
selection of Pali words for daily reflection. This booklet aims to
assist new Buddhist students who are unfamiliar with some of the Pali
words often used in the study of Buddhism. As the title suggests, it
encourages the learning and use of Pali words by learning one word a
day. This booklet can serve both as a dictionary and a glossary of terms
for your reference.
PDF PDF Doc. (822 KB) Elementary Pali Course — Ven. Narada, Thera. [Pali Studies]

This
Elementary Pali Course by the late Venerable Narada Thera, the renowned
Buddhist scholar of the Vjirarama Vihara, Colombo, Sri Lanka, is the
standard work for the study of the elementary level of Pali. Pali was
the language spoken by the Buddha, and employed by him to expound his
teachings. It is also the scriptural language used by the Theravada
school of Buddhism.
PDF PDF Doc. (479 KB) A Grammar of the Pali Language — Chas Durioselle. [Pali Studies]

Most
introductory Pali grammar books consist of lessons that teach the
elements of the language in stages, but because of that they are also
very difficult to use as a reference when you need to look up a noun’s
declension, or a verb’s conjugation. Because of its practical and
comprehensive coverage of the elements of the Pali language in complete
chapters, this book is a very useful reference. It was not written for
linguistics experts, but for students with little experience studying
Pali grammar.
PDF PDF Doc. (930 KB) With Robes & Bowl - Glimpses of the Thudong Bhikkhu Life — Bhikkhu Kantipalo.

As
much as can easily be written of the thudong bhikkhu’s life is
contained in these sketches. Just as the flavor of soup is not to be
told even in one thousand pages, so the real flavor of this Ancient Way
cannot be conveyed by words. Soup is to be tasted: the thudong life is
to be lived. If it sounds hard, one must remember that its rewards are
great, and in the field of Dhamma-endeavor, nothing is gained without
effort. The world wants everything quick-and-easy but the fruits of the
holy life are thus only for those who have already put forth their
energy, already striven hard for the goal.
PDF PDF Doc. (1,000 KB) The Bhikkhus’ Rules - Guide for Laypeople — Bhikkhu Ariyesako.

The
Theravadin Buddhist Monk’s Rules by compiled and explained by Bhikkhu
Ariyesako. This compilation is for anyone interested about bhikkhus and
about how to relate to them. Some may think that this lineage follows an
overly traditionalist approach but then, it does happen to be the
oldest living tradition. A slight caution therefore to anyone completely
new to the ways of monasticism, which may appear quite radical for the
modern day and age. The best introduction, perhaps essential for a true
understanding, is meeting with a practising bhikkhu who should manifest
and reflect the peaceful and joyous qualities of the bhikkhu’s way of
life.
PDF PDF Doc. (1,354 KB) The Bhikkhuni Patimokkha of the Six Schools — Chatsumarn Kabilsingh Ph.D.

Dr.
Chatsumarn Kabilsingh has translated the monastic rules of Buddhist
nuns or the Patimokkha of the Six Schools, which will help us to learn
and compare Theravada, Mahasanghika, Mahisasaka, Sarvastivada,
Dhamagupta and Mula-Sarvastivada. The study of the patimokkha also
provides insight into the historical context from which the rules took
place. This translation will also provide valuable material for
concerned Buddhist scholars.

PDF PDF Doc. (1,773 KB) Inspiration from Enlightened Nuns — Susan Elbaum Jootla.

In
this booklet we will be exploring poems composed by the arahant
bhikkhunis or enlightened Buddhist nuns of old, looking at these poems
as springs of inspiration for contemporary Buddhists. From the poems of
the enlightened nuns of the Buddha’s time contemporary followers of the
Noble Eightfold Path can receive a great deal of instruction, help and
encouragement. These verses can assist us in developing morality,
concentration and wisdom, the three sections of the path. With their aid
we will be able to work more effectively towards eliminating our mental
defilements and towards finding lasting peace and happiness.

PDF PDF Doc. (2,799 KB) Buddhist Women at the Time of the Buddha — Hellmuth Hecker.

The
following stories of Buddhist women at the time of the Buddha, written
by Hellmuth Hecker, have been translated from the German. While every
effort has been made by the translator to conform to the original
writing, some changes had to be made for the sake of clarity. The
stories of Bhadda Kundalakesa and Patacara have been enlarged and filled
in. It is hoped that this booklet will serve as an inspiration to all
those who are endeavoring to tread in the Buddha’s footsteps - Sister
Khema (translator).
PDF PDF Doc. (342 KB) The Buddha and His Disciples — Ven. S. Dhammika.

Taking
a different perspective from the usual biographies of the Buddha, the
author retells the great man’s story using the society of the time as
the backdrop and the Buddha’s interactions with his contemporaries as
the main theme. We discover what the Buddha was like as a person, how he
taught and how he changed the lives of all who were blessed enough to
come into contact with him.
PDF PDF Doc. (886 KB) No Inner Core: An Introduction to the Doctrine of Anatta — Sayadaw U Silananda.

Anattà
is a Pàli word consisting of a negative prefix, ‘an’ meaning not, plus
atta, soul, and is most literally translated as no-soul. The word atta,
however, has a wide range of meanings, and some of those meanings cross
over into the fields of psychology, philosophy, and everyday
terminology, as, for example, when atta can mean self, being, ego, and
personality. Therefore, we will examine and elucidate the wide range of
meanings which atta can signify in order to determine exactly what the
Buddha denied when He proclaimed that He teaches anattà, that is, when
He denied the existence of atta. We will examine both Buddhist and
non-Buddhist definitions of the term soul, and we will also examine
modern definitions of terms such as ego and self.
PDF PDF Doc. (1,169 KB) Volition: An Introduction of the Law of Kamma — Sayadaw U Silanada.

What
is kamma? The Buddha said: “Oh monks, it is volition that I call
kamma.” The popular meaning of kamma is action or doing, but as a
technical term, kamma means volition or will. When you do something,
there is volition behind it, and that volition, that mental effort, is
called kamma. The Buddha explained that, having willed, one then acts
through body, speech, and mind. Whatever you do, there is some kind of
kamma, mental effort, will, and volition. Volition is one of the
fifty-two mental states which arise together with consciousness.
PDF PDF Doc. (1,739 KB) The 31 Planes of Existence — Ven. Suvanno Mahathera.

The
suttas describe the 31distinct “planes” or “realms” of existence into
which beings can be reborn during their long wanderings through samsara.
These range from the extraordinarily dark, grim, and painful hell
realms all the way up to the most sublime, refined and exquisitely
blissful heavenly realms. Existence in every realm is impermanent; in
the cosmology taught by the Buddha there is no eternal heaven or hell.
Beings are born into a particular realm according to both their past
kamma and their kamma at the moment of death.
PDF PDF Doc. (1,662 KB) The Roots of Good and Evil — Ven. Nyanaponika Thera.

Greed,
hatred, and delusion - these are the three bad roots in us. Conversely
the good ones are non-greed (i.e generosity), non-hatred (love), and
non-delusion (wisdom). All our troubles and suffering stem essentially
from the bad roots while our joy and happiness comes from the good ones.
It is important to know and understand these roots if we are going to
make an end of suffering and attain true peace and happiness. This book
explains in a penetrative way the nature of these six roots. It contains
discourses of the Buddha on the subject together with traditional
commentarial explanations.
PDF PDF Doc. (1,050 KB) Good, Evil & Beyond: Kamma in the Buddha’s Teachings — Bhikkhu P.A. Payutto.

For
the modern Westerner, the teaching of kamma offers a path of practice
based not on fear of a higher authority, nor dogma, but rather founded
on a clear understanding of the natural law of cause and effect as it
relates to human behaviour. It is a teaching to be not so much believed
as understood and seen in operation.
PDF PDF Doc. (2,797 KB) Dying to Live: The Role of Kamma in Dying & Rebirth — Aggacitta Bhikkhu.

There
are different views and beliefs about what happens after death. Tibetan
(Vajrayàna) and Chinese (Mahàyàna) Buddhists believe that after death,
the spirit of the dead person passes through an intermediate period
(bardo in Tibetan, zhong yin in Mandarin) — which may last for as long
as forty-nine days — during which it undergoes a series of unearthly,
extraordinary experiences, including a “small death” at the end of each
week, before it is finally reborn into another realm of existence. In
contrast, orthodox Theravada Buddhism, which is the earliest extant
record of Gotama Buddha’s teaching, asserts that rebirth takes place
immediately after death.

PDF PDF Doc. (2,250 KB) Kathina: Then and Now — Aggacitta Bhikkhu.

The
kathina ceremony is now an internationally established celebration
where the Sangha and the laity meet to participate in mutually
rewarding, meritorious activities. Throughout the centuries, the way of
carrying out the ceremony has changed with local interpretations,
practices and customs. How much has deviated from the original
scriptural tradition — how much is in accordance with the scriptures and
how much is mere invention? In this booklet, Venerable Aggacitta
Bhikkhu combines his scriptural knowledge and practical experience to
scrutinise the kathina ceremony through two articles: The Scriptural
Tradition of Kathina; Kathina Benefits — Illusion, Delusion and
Resolution.
PDF PDF Doc. (1,986 KB) Acariya Mun Bhuridatta - A Spiritual Biography — Tr. Bhikkhu Dick Silaratano.

A
Spiritual Biography by Acariya Maha Boowa Nanasampanno. Translated from
the Thai by Bhikkhu Dick Sãlaratano. Acariya Mun Bhýridatta Thera was a
vipassanã meditation master of the highest caliber of this present age.
He taught the profound nature of Dhamma with such authority and
persuasion that he left no doubts among his students about the exalted
level of his spiritual attainment. His devoted followers consist of
numerous monks and laity from virtually every region of Thailand. His
story is truly a magnificent one throughout: from his early years in lay
life through his long endeavor as a Buddhist monk to the day he finally
passed away. [This eBook is also available with photographs ]
PDF PDF Doc. (4,164 KB) Acariya Mun Bhuridatta - Screen Version — Tr. Bhikkhu Dick Silaratano.

A high quality screen version of the above. This edition is made with InDesign 2.  [Please note: Large file size]
PDF PDF Doc. (3,992 KB) Clearing the Path — Nanavira Thera. [Screen Viewing]

NOTE:
There are 3 versions of Clearing the Path. This version is made for
screen viewing and is very similar to the “book” version. However it is
not designed to be printed because the pages are not a standard size
(the pages have been cropped for easier screen viewing).
It cannot be
expected that this material, which poses a clear challenge to the
mainstream version of Buddhism, will gain any great popularity among the
majority of Buddhists — Eastern or Western — but at least it can
suggest an alternative approach to the Buddha’s original Teaching, and
perhaps serve as a useful eye-opener for those seeking an understanding
of its more fundamental principles.

PDF PDF Doc. (3,681 KB) Clearing the Path — Nanavira Thera. [Print Version 01]

NOTE:
Primarily the PDF “CtPbookV1.pdf” is made to be printed as a book.
Other versions of this PDF are modified to be better viewed on screen -
whilst another is already “pre-printed” in PDF format as a “2-up”
meaning that there are 2 pages per A4 Landscape oriented page to make
for easier printout (on A4 paper) for personal use.

PDF PDF Doc. (2,602 KB) Clearing the Path — Nanavira Thera. [Print Version 02]

NOTE:
The primary book version was made for printing as a book so it was not
optimised for onscreen viewing or personal printout. This version
“2upbookctpv1.PDF” has been reprinted (Distilled) via Acrobat so that
there are now 2 pages per A4 page in Landscape orientation (rather than
usual Portrait orientation) so as to make personal printouts for reading
much easier. The same effect could be obtained by using the original
“CtPbookv1.pdf” and printing that via your desktop printer driver so as
to have 2 pages per page (if possible).

PDF PDF Doc. (726 KB) Vandana: Pali Devotional Chanting — by Ven. E. Indaratana.

Pali
Devotional Chanting and Hymns - It is beneficial for every Buddhist to
recite daily at least a few verses from the Vandana, recalling to mind
the sublime qualities of the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha.
Contemplation on these great qualities will make our minds calm,
peaceful and serene.
• Audio files of the chanting are available in BuddhaNet’s Audio section.

PDF PDF Doc. (1,542 KB) Theravadin Buddhist Chinese Funeral — Ven. Suvanno.

Generally,
a Chinese funeral is a mixture of Taoist, Confucian and Buddhist rites.
How then should a Theravadin Buddhist funeral be conducted? Venerable
Suvanno, a respected and senior Theravadin Buddhist monk of Chinese
descent explains how a Theravadin Buddhist Chinese funeral may be
conducted.
PDF PDF Doc. (2,650 KB) Forest Path — Wat Pah Nanachat community.

This
book provides a present-moment snapshot of the International community
of Wat Pah Nanachat, Thailand. The articles come from a broad
cross-section of the community from the abbot to the most newly ordained
novice. It opens with excerpts from two chapters of ‘Water Still, Water
Flowing’, Ajan Jayasaro’s forthcoming biography of Ajan Cha’s life and
teachings. To give a visual impression of monastic life, the book also
contains a number of photographs and a selection of illustrations by
Ajan Abhinano.
PDF PDF Doc. (3,602 KB) Introduction to Basic Pathana — Ashin Janakabhivamsa. (Burmese Script)

This
is a commentary on the seventh Book of the Abhidhamma: Patthana - “The
Book of Causal Relations”. Which is the most important and voluminous
book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, by the late renowned Burmese scholar
monk, Ashin Janakabhivamsa. ( Please Note: the text is in Burmese script
)

[3:40 AM, 5/21/2020] Manju:

https://www.sariputta.com/tipitaka/english

Tipitaka english

Cari berdasarkan
Nama
A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L  M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W  X   Y   Z
[PDF] Abhidhamma Dhammasangani - A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics
[PDF] Abhidhamma Dhatukatha - Discourse on Elements
[PDF] Abhidhamma Kathavatthu - Points of Controversy or Subjects of Discourse
[PDF] Abhidhamma Patthana1 - Conditional Relations
[PDF] Abhidhamma Patthana2 - Conditional Relations
[PDF] Abhidhamma Puggala Pannatti
[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Anusaya
[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Citta
[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Dhamma
[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Indriya
[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka Sankhara
[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka1 - The Book On Pairs
[PDF] Abhidhamma Yamaka2 - The Book On Pairs
[PDF] Abhidhmma Vibhanga - The Book of Analysis
[PDF] Sutta Anguttara Nikaya - Discourses of the Buddha An Anthology Part 1
[PDF] Sutta Anguttara Nikaya - Discourses of the Buddha An Anthology Part 2
[PDF] Sutta Anguttara Nikaya - Discourses of the Buddha An Anthology Part 3
[PDF] Sutta Anguttara Nikaya - The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha
[PDF] Sutta Digha Nikaya - Dialogues of Buddha I
[PDF] Sutta Digha Nikaya - Dialogues of Buddha II
[PDF] Sutta Digha Nikaya - Dialogues of Buddha III
[PDF] Sutta Digha Nikaya - The Long Discourses of the Buddha
[PDF] Sutta In the Buddhas Words - An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon
[PDF] Sutta Khuddaka Nikaya
[PDF] Sutta Majjhima Nikaya - The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha
[PDF] Sutta Nipata - Translated by Lesley Fowler & Tamara Ditrich with Primoz Pecenko
[PDF] Sutta Samyutta Nikaya Vol I - The Connected Discourses of the Buddha
[PDF] Sutta Samyutta Nikaya Vol.II - The Connected Discourses of the Buddha
[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.1 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births
[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.2 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births
[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.3 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births
[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.4 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births
[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.5 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births
[PDF] Sutta The Jataka.vol.6 - Stories of The Buddha’s Former Births
[PDF] Vinaya Culavagga - The Book of The Discipline V
[PDF] Vinaya Magavagga - The Book of The Discipline IV
[PDF] Vinaya Parivara - The Book of The Discipline VI
[PDF] Vinaya The Book of The Discipline
[PDF] Vinaya Vibhanga - The Book of The Discipline I
[PDF] Vinaya Vibhanga - The Book of The Discipline II
[PDF] Vinaya Vibhanga - The Book of The Discipline III
[3:44 AM, 5/21/2020] Manju:


https://dhammawiki.com/index.php/Tipitaka

Tipitaka
Tipitaka1.jpg

The complete Tipitaka is 40 volumes long
Tipitaka
(Tripitaka in Sanskrit) is the name given to the Buddhist sacred
scriptures and is made up of two words; ti meaning ‘three’ and pitaka
meaning ‘basket.’ The word basket was given to these writings because
they were orally transmitted for some centuries (from about 483 BCE),
the way a basket of earth at a construction site might be relayed from
the head of one worker to another. It was written on palm leaves in the
Pali language around 100 BCE. The three parts of the Tipitaka are the
Sutta Pitaka, the Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Tipitaka
was composed in the Pali language and takes up more than forty volumes
in an English translation, roughly about 20,000 pages. It is the largest
sacred book of any of the great world religions.

It is also
known as the Pali Canon since the language is in Pali and to better
differentiate it from the Mahayana Tripitaka (only one letter
difference).

Contents [hide]
1 Sutta Pitaka
2 Vinaya Pitaka
3 Abhidhamma Pitaka
4 The Tipitaka on Dhamma Wiki
5 External links
Sutta Pitaka
Digha Nikaya the “long collection”
Majjhima Nikaya the “middle-length collection”
Samyutta Nikaya the “grouped collection”
Anguttara Nikaya the “numerical discourses”
Khuddaka Nikaya the “collection of little texts”:
Khuddakapatha
Dhammapada Udana Itivuttaka Sutta Nipata Vimanavatthu Petavatthu
Theragatha Therigatha Jataka Niddesa Patisambhidamagga Apadana
Buddhavamsa Cariyapitaka Nettippakarana (Burmese edition) Petakopadesa
(Burmese edition) Milindapanha (Burmese edition)

Vinaya Pitaka
I.
Suttavibhanga the basic rules of conduct (Patimokkha) for bhikkhus and
bhikkhunis, along with the “origin story” for each one.
II. Khandhaka
A.
Mahavagga in addition to rules of conduct and etiquette for the Sangha,
this section contains several important sutta-like texts, including an
account of the period immediately following the Buddha’s Awakening, his
first sermons to the group of five monks, and stories of how some of his
great disciples joined the Sangha and themselves attained Awakening. B.
Cullavagga an elaboration of the bhikkhus’ etiquette and duties, as
well as the rules and procedures for addressing offences that may be
committed within the Sangha.

III. Parivara A recapitulation of
the previous sections, with summaries of the rules classified and
re-classified in various ways for instructional purposes.
Abhidhamma Pitaka
Dhammasangani
(”Enumeration of Phenomena”). This book enumerates all the paramattha
dhamma (ultimate realities) to be found in the world.
Vibhanga (”The Book of Treatises”). This book continues the analysis of the Dhammasangani, here in the form of a catechism.
Dhatukatha (”Discussion with Reference to the Elements”). A reiteration of the foregoing, in the form of questions and answers.
Puggalapannatti
(”Description of Individuals”). Somewhat out of place in the Abhidhamma
Pitaka, this book contains descriptions of a number of
personality-types.
Kathavatthu (”Points of Controversy”). Another odd
inclusion in the Abhidhamma, this book contains questions and answers
that were compiled by Moggaliputta Tissa in the 3rd century BCE, in
order to help clarify points of controversy that existed between the
various early schools of Buddhism at the time.
Yamaka (”The Book of
Pairs”). This book is a logical analysis of many concepts presented in
the earlier books. In the words of Mrs. Rhys Davids, an eminent 20th
century Pali scholar, the ten chapters of the Yamaka amount to little
more than “ten valleys of dry bones.”
Patthana (”The Book of
Relations”). This book, by far the longest single volume in the Tipitaka
(over 6,000 pages long in the Siamese edition), describes the 24
paccayas, or laws of conditionality, through which the dhammas interact.
These laws, when applied in every possible permutation with the dhammas
described in the Dhammasangani, give rise to all knowable experience.
The Tipitaka on Dhamma Wiki
See
the Pali Canon category link on the Main Page for large parts of the
Tipitaka in English translation and also in the original Pali.
External links
Sutta Central
Sutta Central discourse and discussion
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/index.html Large parts of the Tipitaka in English translation.
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/ Excerpts of the Tipitaka in English translation.
Categories: Pali termsPali CanonTheravada history
Navigation menu
Log in
PageDiscussionReadView source
More
Search

Main page
Recent changes
Random page
Help
Tools
What links here
Related changes
Special pages
Printable version
Permanent link
Page information


https://www.urbandharma.org/pdf/PDF_BuddhismCourse/18_%20Three%20Baskets%20_Tipitaka_%20in%20Buddhism.pdf


THREE BASKETS (TIPITAKA)


I􏰁 BUDDHISM


CO􏰁TE􏰁TS



  1. What is the Tipitaka?

  2. Language of Buddha’s words (Buddhavacana)

  3. What is Pali?

  4. The First Council

  5. The Second Council

  6. The Great Schism

  7. Origin of the Eighteen 􏰀ikayas (Schools of Buddhism)

  8. The Third Council

  9. Committing the Tipitaka to Memory

  10. Fourth Council: Committing the Tipitaka to Writing

  11. Fifth and Sixth Councils in Myanmar

  12. Conclusion

  13. Appendix: Contents of the Tipitaka or Three Baskets

  14. Explanatory Notes

  15. References

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

1. What is the Tipitaka?

The word of the Buddha, which is originally called the Dhamma,
consists of three aspects, namely: Doctrine (
Pariyatti), Practice
(
Patipatti) and Realization (Pativedha). The Doctrine is preserved in
the Scriptures called the
Tipitaka. English translators of the Tipitaka
have estimated it to be eleven times the size of the Christian Bible. It
contains the Teachings of the Buddha expounded from the time of
His Enlightenment to
Parinibbana over forty-five years.

Tipitaka in Pali means Three Baskets (Ti = Three, Pitaka = Basket),
not in the sense of function of storing but of
handing down, just like
workers carry earth with the aid of baskets handed on from worker
to worker, posted in a long line from point of removal to point of
deposit, so the Baskets of Teachings are handed down over the
centuries from teacher to pupil.

The Three Baskets are: Basket of Discipline (Vinaya Pitaka), which
deals mainly with the rules and regulations of the Order of monks
and nuns; Basket of
Discourses (Sutta Pitaka) which contains the
discourses delivered by the Buddha to individuals or assemblies of
different ranks in the course of his ministry; Basket of
Ultimate
Things
(Abhidhamma Pitaka) which consists of the four ultimate
things: Mind (
Citta), Mental-factors (Cetasikas), Matter (Rupa) and
􏰀ibbana. The contents of the Pali Tipitaka are shown in the
Appendix.

According to Ven. Sayadaw U Thittila1, the versions of the Pali
Canon existing in Theravada countries such as Burma, Sri Lanka,
Thailand, Cambodia and Laos differ very slightly, with only a few
minor grammatical forms and spelling. In substance and meaning
and even the phrases used, they are in complete agreement. The Pali
Tipitaka contains everything necessary to show forth the Path to the
ultimate goal of
􏰀ibbana, the cessation of all suffering.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

a) Each Tradition has its own Version of the Tipitaka

There are three versions of the Tipitaka adopted by the three
branches of Buddhism in existence today, namely: (i) the
Pali
Tipitaka of the Theravada tradition, (ii) the vast Mahayana
Tripitaka in Chinese consisting primarily of translations of Sanskrit
Texts and (iii) the
Tibetan Tripitaka in the Tibetan language, called
the
Kagyur (consisting of translations of Sanskrit Texts & the Four
Great
Tantras) and Tangyur (consisting of works of Indian and
Tibetan scholars). Theravada, the orthodox Buddhist school which
traces its origin to the Buddha’s time, rejects the Mahayana and
Tibetan scriptures as later creations that do not reflect the Buddha’s
Teachings.

According to Warder2, although Mahayana claims to have been
founded by the Buddha himself, the consensus of the evidence is that
Mahayana teachings originated in South India somewhere in Andhra
Pradesh during the 1
st century AD. Several of its leading teachers
were born in South India, studied there and afterwards went to the
North to teach, one of whom was
􏰁agarjuna. The idea that the
sutras had been confined to the South was a convenient way for
Mahayanists to explain to Buddhists in the North why it was that
they had not heard these texts directly from their own teachers,
without admitting that they were
recent fabrications.

Another alternative explanation recorded by the Tibetan historian
Taranatha was that though the Buddha had taught the Mahayana
sutras, they were not in circulation in the world of men for many
centuries, there being no competent teachers and no intelligent
students. The sutras were transmitted secretly to various supernatural
beings and preserved by the gods and
nagas (dragons). These secret
teachings were brought out from their hiding places when Mahayana
teachers who were capable of interpreting these sacred texts
appeared around the 2
nd century AD. This is as good as admitting
that no Mahayana texts existed until the 2
nd century AD!

As pointed out by Warder2, such fanciful accounts cannot be
accepted as historical facts. Since everything about early Buddhism
suggests that the Buddha’s Teaching was never meant to be secret,

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

the possibility of a secret transmission amounts to an aspersion on
the powers of the Buddha that he failed to do what others were able
to accomplish 600 years later. Also, in the
Mahaparinibbana Sutta,
the Buddha had declared that there was nothing with regard to the
teaching that he held to the last with the closed fist of the teacher
who keeps some things back.

The claim by Mahayana that there were no competent teachers and
intelligent students during Buddha’s time is aimed at
exalting their
own status
and disparaging the accomplishments of the Chief
Disciples and
Arahants. In fact, one of the earliest Mahayana sutras,
the
Ratnakuta Sutra denounces the pupils (Savakas or Arahants) as
not really ‘sons’ of the Buddha i.e. not really Buddhists! Practically
every Mahayana
sutra repeats this denunciation of the ‘inferior
(
hina)’ way of the pupil rather unpleasantly in sharp contrast to the
tolerance and understanding characteristic of most of the earlier
Buddhist texts that display the
true spirit of the Dhamma taught by
the Buddha.

b) Reliability of Tipitaka compared with other Religious Records
In ‘The Life of the Buddha’ by Ven. Bhikkhu 􏰁anamoli3, the Pali

scholar, T.W. Rhys Davids, made the relevant observation that:

“The Buddha did not leave behind a number of deep simple sayings,
from which his disciples subsequently expanded on to build up a
system or systems of their own, but had himself thoroughly
elaborated his doctrine and during his long career (45 years of
ministry), he had ample time to repeat the principles and details of
the system over and over again to his disciples, to test their
knowledge of it until finally his leading disciples were accustomed
to the subtlest metaphysical distinctions and trained in the wonderful
command of memory which Indian ascetics then possessed. When
these facts are recalled to mind, it will be seen that much more
reliance may be placed upon the doctrinal parts of the Buddhist
Scriptures than the corresponding late records of other religions.”

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

2. Language of Buddha’s Words (Buddhavacana)

In Cullavagga V, 33 of the Book of Discipline4, the Buddha made
an injunction allowing monks to learn his Teachings in ‘
saka nirutti
or ‘own dialect’, which the great Pali commentator
Ven.
Buddhaghosa
had interpreted to mean the Magadhi dialect spoken
by the Buddha, and forbidding them to put the teachings into
Sanskrit verses. It appears that two brothers, both
bhikkhus named
Yamelu and Tekula, once approached the Buddha complaining that
monks of different castes and clans were corrupting the Buddha’s
words by preaching them in their own dialects. They wanted to put
his words into Sanskrit verses (
chandaso), but the Buddha forbade
them with this injunction. For the last two thousand four hundred
years, the term ‘
saka nirutti’ had signified the Magadhi language.

During the later part of the 19th century, Western scholars began to
show an interest in Buddhism and when the Pali scholars
Rhys
Davids
and Oldenberg began translating the Vinaya Texts5 into
English, they translated the Buddha’s injunction as “I allow you, O
Bhikkhus, to learn the words of the Buddha each in his own dialect”,
to mean
each monk’s own dialect. Most scholars have tended to
accept this interpretation, except
Geiger, who concurred with Ven.
Buddhaghosa that it meant the Buddha’s own language. Rhys
Davids, on second thought, appears to have been convinced of the
interpretation of Ven. Buddhaghosa. Consequently in his later
works, he accepted ‘
saka nirutti’ as the Buddha’s own language but
with an ingenious modification. In his Foreword to the Pali-English
Dictionary by T.W. Rhys Davids and William Stede first published
in London 1921-1925, he argues that the Pali of the canonical books
is based on vernacular
Kosalan, the Buddha’s native dialect.

Recently, Law6, in his book entitled ‘A History of Pali Literature’ is
of the opinion that Buddhaghosa had taken the term ‘
chandasa
indiscriminately as a synonym for the Sanskrit language and the
term ‘
saka nirutti’ as a synonym for the Magadhi dialect used as a
medium of instruction (
vacanamagga) by the Buddha. According to
Law, the Sanskrit language was divided into Vedic and current usage
and the Buddha’s injunction directed against Vedic only and not

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

current Sanskrit. “It is beyond our comprehension how Buddhaghosa
went so far as to suggest that by the term saka nirutti, the Buddha
meant his own medium of instruction and nothing but the Magadhi
dialect. It would be irrational, erroneous and dogmatic of the
Buddha to promulgate this rule that Magadhi is the only correct
form of speech to learn his teaching and that every other dialect
would be the incorrect form
”, wrote Law.

a) Medium of Instruction for Monks

Despite his strong sentiment, Law’s argument does not appear to
have taken into consideration the prevailing conditions with regard
to the system of learning in ancient times. Back then, it was the
custom for pupils who wish to study under a certain master to live
with the master and learn the doctrine by oral tradition in the latter’s
language.
Venerable Buddhaghosa’s interpretation is certainly in
consonance with the Indian spirit that there can be no other form of
the Buddha’s words than in which the Master himself had preached.
In an oral tradition it is imperative for the pupils to be able to learn,
recite and remember the teachings in a
common language, for in
this way any mistake or distortion can be quickly detected and
corrected by rehearsing together in that language. This was what
actually took place in the
Buddhist Councils after the Buddha’s
Parinibbana to ensure that the true teachings were preserved. Just
imagine the chaos if various dialects were employed to rehearse the
Master’s teachings in the Buddhist Councils. When these factors are
considered, it certainly appears logical why the Buddha made this
injunction allowing the monks to learn his teachings in the
common
dialect
of his time, Magadhi, although his native dialect was
Kosalan, the Sakyan kingdom being a vassal state of Kosala.

According to Ven. Anagarika Dharmapala7, the Blessed One
wished that the language used to convey the message of Buddha
should be the language of the people, and not Sanskrit.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

Sanskrit was and still is the language exclusively of Brahmins. In
fact even in recent times before India became independent in 1947,
high-caste Hindu teachers
would not teach Sanskrit to children of
low-caste Hindus and Untouchables in school! (Note: This happened
to
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the Greatest Champion of the Untouchables
of India, while in high school because the Sanskrit teacher refused to
teach Sanskrit to untouchables.)

Knowing well that the majority of the population in his time could
not understand Sanskrit, the Buddha decided to use Magadhi as the
medium of instruction in order to benefit the common people. So
important is this point that the Buddha even made it an
offence
(dukkata) for monks to put his words in Sanskrit!

b) Saka 􏰀irutti Our Own Language

Lately, Indian scholar Dr. Mauli Chand Prasad8 has come up with
a more sensible reappraisal of the controversy. According to him,
Magadhi was the most popular dialect or vernacular used for local
communication during the Buddha’s time in the same sense as Hindi
is adopted in present day India as the ‘
nij bhasa’ (lit. own language).
He translates the term ‘
saka nirutti’ to mean ‘our own language
and the Buddha’s injunction as “I allow, O monks, the words of the
Buddha to be learnt in (our) own language”,
meaning Magadhi.
This interpretation is in consonance with Ven. Buddhaghosa’s
interpretation and at the same time vindicates the Buddha’s stand in
disapproving the proposals of the monks Yamelu and Tekula to put
the words of the Buddha into Sanskrit verses. Thus the terms ‘
saka
nirutti
’ and ‘nij bhasa’ convey the same sense. Despite a long lapse
of time between their uses, both of them denote the dialect or
vernacular adopted for local communication of their respective ages.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

3. What is Pali?

According to Childers9, Magadhi was one of the Prakrits or Aryan
vernaculars of ancient India. It was spoken in the sixth century BC
in Magadha, the region around modern Bihar, which was one of the
most important centres of Indian civilization in the Buddha’s time.
Magadhi has been a dead language for about two thousand years.
The word
paliin Sanskrit means ‘line, row or series’ and the
Theravada extended its use to mean a series of books that form the
text of the Buddhist Scriptures. So the
Pali Text is synonymous with
the Scriptures of the Theravada tradition.
Palibhasa therefore means
the ‘language of the texts’, which of course is equivalent to saying
Magadhi language’. The term ‘pali’ in the sense of the sacred texts
is ancient enough, but the term ‘
Palibhasa’ as the language of the
Scriptures is of modern introduction by the Singhalese from which
the English word is derived. ‘Magadhi’ is the only name used in the
old Theravada texts for the sacred language of Buddhism.

As a language, Pali is unique in the sense that it is reserved entirely
to one subject
, namely, the Buddha’s Teachings. This has probably
led some scholars to even speculate that it was a kind of
lingua
franca
created by Buddhist monks, for how else can one explain this
paradox? On the contrary, it may very well mean that the ancient
Elders (
Theras) had truly memorized the Dhamma and Vinaya in the
original dialect of the Buddha, which is now a dead language!
Theravada monks are reputed to be the most orthodox so it is
highly
improbable
that they would change the original language of the
Buddha’s teaching unlike the other sects who switched to Sanskrit or
mixed Sanskrit, something
forbidden by the Buddha! This second
explanation is more logical given the
religious zeal, dedication and
legendary memory skills of the ancient monks in preserving and
perpetuating the Teachings of the Buddha by oral tradition.

As a spoken dialect, Pali does not have its own script and in each of
the countries in which it is the sacred language of the inhabitants,
namely: Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Thailand, it is written in the script
of that country. In modern times, the Roman alphabets are widely
used, so it is usual to print Pali texts in Roman letters, which are

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

clear, simple and easily computerized, leading to the widespread

learning and dissemination of the Pali Texts.

a) The Origin and Home of Pali

There are many theories hatched by scholars regarding the original
home of Pali. Early Pali scholars were of the opinion that literary
Pali is the
vernacular Magadhi used by the Buddha to preach the
Dhamma. Later scholars based their opinion on philological grounds
that Pali bears some resemblances to Paisaci, which they claimed is
a western dialect while Magadhi is an eastern dialect. So Pali cannot
be the Magadhi dialect spoken by the Buddha. But the
Magadhi that
scholars know of today is the language of the
Asoka Edicts carved
on rocks and pillars that were drafted by his scribes at the time when
the majority of the populace could hardly read or write, as recent
studies by
Salomon19 suggest that there was no written language
during the Buddha’s time. On the other hand, the dialect spoken by
the Buddha was the
vernacular Magadhi (􏰁ote 1) understood by
the common people, by which the monks transmitted his Teaching
and later became known as the Pali language of the Scriptures. An
exhaustive review by the Indian scholar
Law5 concluded that it is
difficult to come to a definite conclusion about the original home of
Pali. According to
Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi10 current scholarly opinion
holds that Pali was probably created as a kind of
lingua franca for
use by Buddhist monks in Northern India two hundred years after
Parinibbana and may not be identical with the one used by the
Buddha! Evidently these are scholars’ conjectures and new theories
are often proposed as
academic exercises, many of which lack
proper understanding of the
traditions and practices of the Sangha.

b) Role of the Buddhist Councils in Maintaining the Language

Concerning the language of the Pali Canon, most Western scholars
appeared to have ignored the role of the Buddhist Councils in
ascertaining the medium of transmission of the Buddha’s teaching.
As the authority of the Scriptures rests on its
ratification by the

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

Buddhist Councils, so the language employed by the Councils plays
the prime role in the transmission of the Scriptures. All schools of
Buddhism agree that the three Buddhist Councils are historical facts,
so the pertinent question that one should asked is: “What dialect
would the
Arahants from the East or West, employ to rehearse the
Buddha’s teachings in the First, Second and Third Councils?

For the First Council, there is no doubt it was the Magadhi dialect,
as all council members were conversant with that dialect having
learnt from the Master himself. During the Second Council, monks
from both the Eastern and Western regions got together to rehearse
the
Dhamma and Vinaya at Vesali. All the eight senior monks
selected to settle the Ten Points were disciples of Ven. Ananda and
Ven. Anuraddha. The most senior monk,
Ven. Sabbakami who
adjudged the issue, lived during the Buddha’s time. Having learnt
the teachings from the two Great Disciples of the Buddha, they
would have used the same dialect to rehearse the
Dhamma and
Vinaya in the Second Council.

All the theories linking Pali with Ujjaini or Paisaci or even a new
language created by the monks as a kind of
lingua franca after the
Second Council appeared to have ignored two important facts.
Firstly the Theravadin monks (
Sthavarivada) who convened the
Buddhist Councils are reputed to be the
most orthodox (so-called
no changers’) of all the schools in the observance of the monastic
rules and would certainly have retained the
Vinaya in its original
form and language for their fortnightly
Uposatha ceremony.
Secondly,
Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa, who convened the Third
Council in Pataliputta would still maintain the original dialect in the
tradition of his lineage of
Vinaya teachers (Acaryaparampara). So
when the
Arahant Mahinda and other members of the Sangha were
sent to propagate the religion in Sri Lanka, they would have
transmitted the Teachings in the language of the Third Council in
order to
maintain the lineage and avoid any misinterpretation.

In the light of these facts, it is improbable and irrational that the
ancient Elders would want to change the language of the Buddha’s
words let alone invent some new language that will lead to
misinterpretation of the Blessed One’s unique teachings.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

4. The First Council

According to Cullavagga Kh. XI of the Book of Discipline4, the
Ven. Maha Kassapa, on seeing an unhealthy trend among some
monks immediately upon the
Parinibbana of the Buddha, decided to
convene a Council to compile the
Dhamma & Vinaya (Doctrine &
Discipline) to prevent the true doctrine from being submerged by
false doctrines. This historic event took place at Rajagaha (Rajgir)
three months after the Buddha’s
Parinibbana. Five hundred leading
Arahants attended the First Council, which lasted over seven
months outside the
Sattapanni caves on top of Vebhara hill in
Rajagaha. Ven Maha Kassapa presided over the meeting. Ven.
Upali
was chosen to rehearse the Vinaya Pitaka or Basket of
Discipline. He began each account with the words ‘
Tena Samayena
— ‘the occasion was this’.

Although Ven. Ananda was not an Arahant before the convocation,
he was chosen to rehearse the
Sutta Pitaka or Basket of Discourses
because of his moral purity and his knowledge of the Scriptures
which he heard directly from the Buddha’s own mouth when he was
the Buddha’s personal attendant. As he was expected to play a
leading part in the assembly composed only of
Arahants, Ven.
Ananda made strenuous effort and attained
Arahantship in an
inclined position with feet off the ground as he lay down to rest after
a whole night’s practice of meditation on the eve of the First
Council. The Book of Discipline states that he was the only disciple
to attain
Arahantship free from the postures of sitting, standing,
walking or lying down. At the First Council, Ven. Ananda prefaced
each discourse with an account of where and to whom it was spoken,
beginning with the words ‘
Evam me sutam’ — ‘thus have I heard’.

a) Was the Abhidhamma Pitaka recited in the First Council?

On the 3rd Basket of the Tipitaka, there is disagreement. According
to
Warder2, Theravada and Mahasanghika versions did not mention
the recitation of
Abhidhamma but Sarvastavadin and Dhammagupta

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

sects said that Ananda recited the Abhidhamma. Other accounts
mentioned that the
Matikas or Abhidhamma Outlines were recited.
There is no doubt about the recitation of the
Matikas as the Pali
Scriptures mentioned that the Buddha preached the
Abhidhamma to
his mother in heaven and taught them to Ven.
Sariputta when he
returned to earth daily for his meals. It is very likely that the
Abhidhamma Pitaka as we know today consisted simply of some set
of
Matika headings, propounded by the Buddha himself when giving
systematic instructions to his followers, and that this was later fully
elaborated into
Abhidhamma expositions. Since the agreement
between the two oldest schools, Theravada and Mahasanghika,
should establish the oldest available textual tradition, it would
appear that only
two Pitakas were recited at the First Council with
the
Matikas recited as part of the Suttas by Ven. Ananda.

With regard to doubts about the authenticity of the Abhidhamma
Pitaka
, one fact often overlooked is that the Sutta Pitaka too
contains a considerable amount of pure
Abhidhamma. This
comprises all those numerous
suttas and passages where ultimate
(
paramattha) terms are used, expressing the non-self (anatta) or
functional way of thinking, for example, when dealing with the
khandhas, dhatus, ayatanas, etc.

Concerning Ven. Sariputta’s mastery and exposition of the Dhamma,
the Buddha described it in
􏰀idana Samyutta XII, 32. “The Essence
of the
Dhamma (Dhammadhatu) has been so well penetrated by
Sariputta, O monks, that if I were to question him therein for one
day in different words and phrases, Sariputta would reply likewise
for one day in various words and phrases. And if I were to question
him for one night, one day and a night, or for two days and nights,
even up to seven days and nights, Sariputta would expound the
matter for the same period of time in various words and phrases.”

The Expositor11 (Atthasalini) says: “Thus the giving of the method
(
naya) to the Chief Disciple who was endowed with analytical
knowledge, was as though the Buddha stood on the edge of the shore
and pointed out the ocean with his open hand. To the elder, the
doctrine taught by the Blessed One in hundreds and thousands of
methods became very clear.”

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

Thereafter Ven. Sariputta repeated this doctrine to 500 select pupils,
who memorized it. According to the Expositor, the textual order of
the
Abhidhamma originated with Ven. Sariputta who also laid down
the numerical series in order to make it easy to learn, study, and
teach the
Dhamma.

It was then conveyed by oral tradition up till the time of the Third
Council by the Elders:
Sariputta, Bhaddaji, Sobhita, Piyapala,
Piyadassi, Kosiyaputta, Siggava, Sandeha,
Moggaliputta Tissa,
Visudatta, Dhammiya, Dasaka, Sonaka, Revata and others. The
reason why so many teachers were involved was because the
Abhidhamma is a very profound teaching and required various
teachers to memorize the various books. After that, it was conveyed
by a succession of their pupils. Thus in India, it has been conveyed
by an unbroken line of teachers. When Buddhism came to Sri Lanka,
the Elders
Mahinda, Iddhiya, Uttiya, Bhaddanama and Sambala
brought it from India and from then on the Abhidhamma was
conveyed in succession up till the Fourth Council when it was
documented on palm leaves.

b) Charges against Venerable Ananda

After the recitation of the Dhamma and Vinaya, the monks made
five charges against Ven. Ananda. He explained the circumstances
behind each incident and said that he did not see any fault on his part
but acknowledged them as wrongdoing out of faith in the
Sangha.

i) He did not ask the Buddha which of the lesser and minor
precepts the monks could abolish after the Buddha was gone
because he had not thought of asking through forgetfulness. As
the Council was unable to agree as to what constituted the minor
rules, Ven. Maha Kassapa finally ruled that no disciplinary rule
laid by the Buddha should be changed, and no new ones should
be introduced. No intrinsic reason was given. Ven. Maha
Kassapa did say one thing, however: “If we changed the rules,
people will say that Ven. Gotama’s disciples changed the rules
even before the fire from his funeral pyre has ceased burning.”

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

  1. ii)  He had stepped on the Buddha’s robe while sewing but it was

    not out of disrespect and he did not see any fault in it.

  2. iii)  He had allowed the body of the Buddha to be saluted by women
    first whose weeping had smeared the body with tears because he
    did not want to detain them for too long.

  3. iv)  He did not plead to the Buddha to live out His lifespan because
    his (Ananda’s) mind was under the influence of Mara.

  4. v)  He pleaded for the admission of women into the Order out of
    compassion for Mahapajapati Gotami who had nursed the
    Buddha in His infancy when His own mother died.

c) Imposition of Higher Penalty on Ven. Channa

The next item concerned the imposition of the higher penalty
amounting to complete ostracism, which the Buddha had
pronounced on
Ven. Channa before His Mahaparinibbana. This
monk was the charioteer of the Master when He was a prince and
was very arrogant, having slighted every member of the Order. Ven.
Ananda travelled to
Ghositarama in Kosambi to inform Ven.
Channa, who fainted and fell when he heard the decision of the
Sangha to ostracize him. Thereafter, he was so seized with grief and
repentance that he remained alone and became earnest, zealous and
resolute in his practice until he eventually won
Arahantship. With
Ven. Channa’s attainment of
Arahantship, the punishment achieved
the desired result that the Buddha wanted for him and it
automatically lapsed.

d) Ven. Purana and the Eight Indulgences on Food

After the monks had completed the Rehearsal of the Doctrine and
Discipline,
Ven. Purana who was wandering in the Southern Hills
(
Dakkhinagiri) during the meeting, arrived at Rajagaha with a large

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

company of monks. When asked by the Elders whether he supported
the Rehearsal and would learn the text so rehearsed by them, Ven.
Purana replied that the Doctrine and Discipline were well rehearsed
by the Elders but he, however, would only remember them as he had
heard personally from the Buddha. According to some Chinese
translations quoted by
Teitaro Suzuki12, Ven. Purana expressed his
satisfaction with the general proceedings of the Council, except as to
the insertion of the following
eight indulgences, which he
remembered had been approved by Buddha. The eight things were:
(1) keeping food indoors; (2) cooking indoors; (3) cooking of one’s
own accord; (4) taking food of one’s own accord; (5) receiving food
when rising early in the morning; (6) carrying food home according
to the wish of a giver; (7) having miscellaneous fruits; (8) eating
things grown in a pond.

He pointed out that these indulgences were not against the rule that
forbids the taking of remnant of food. Ven. Maha Kassapa explained
that he was correct in saying so, but that Buddha permitted them
only on account of a scarcity of food, when the
bhikkhus could not
get a sufficient supply of it in their alms-rounds, and that therefore
when this circumstance was removed, Buddha again bade them to
abstain from these eight indulgences. Ven. Purana, however,
protested, declaring that Buddha, who was all-wise, would not
permit what was otherwise forbidden, nor would he forbid what
otherwise was permitted. To this Ven. Maha Kassapa replied: “The
very reason of his being all-wise has enabled him to permit what
otherwise was forbidden, and to forbid what otherwise was
permitted. Ven. Purana, we will now make this decision: That
whatever Buddha did not forbid shall not be forbidden, and whatever
Buddha forbade shall not be disregarded. Let us train ourselves in
accordance with the disciplinary rules established by Buddha.”

There is no mention that Ven. Purana raised any further objection
after Ven. Maha Kassapa’s explanation. When the Mahisasaka
seceded from Theravada, they incorporated these eight indulgences
in their
Vinaya and this incident of Ven. Purana has been
misconstrued by certain scholars, as the seed of dissension to explain
the reason for the secession.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

e) Achievements of First Council

The first council called the Council of Rajagaha was held three
months after the
Parinibbana under the sponsorship of King
Ajatasattu of Magadha during the eighth year of his reign. The
proceedings achieved four results, namely:

  1. i)  Compilation of the Vinaya Pitaka by Ven. Upali.

  2. ii)  Compilation of the Sutta Pitaka by Ven. Ananda.

iii) Acknowledgement of Wrongdoing by Ven. Ananda.
iv) Imposition of Higher Penalty on Ven. Channa.

After the compilation of the Doctrine and Discipline for oral
transmission, the senior monks or Elders would have devised a
system whereby certain monks in the same locality would be
charged with the duty to memorize certain portions of the Doctrine
and Disciple in Magadhi and by combining all the portions
memorized, the
Sangha in that locality would be able to recite the
whole Doctrine and Discipline together. This is confirmed by the
Gopaka Moggallana
Sutta in the Majjhima 􏰀ikaya in which the
Venerable Ananda attributed the harmony of the
Sangha to the fact
that monks in each village observed the practice of assembling every
fortnight to recite the
Patimokkha.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

5. The Second Council

About a century after the Parinibbana, some shameless monks of
the Vajjian clan at Vesali were indulging in the
Ten Points or Dasa
Vatthuni
that were against the Vinaya or Rules of Discipline.
Venerable Yasa, son of the Brahmin Kakandaka and Vinaya expert
from Kosambi, who was staying in Kutagara Hall at the Mahavana
saw them asking for money from the laity and objected to it. Still the
laity gave money to the monks who divided the takings at the end of
the day among themselves and gave Ven Yasa his due share. When
he refused to accept the money and reprimanded them, they passed a
motion of censure (
Patisaraniya kamma) against him whereby he
had to apologize to the laity for forbidding them to perform
dana
(charity) to the Vajjian monks. Ven. Yasa, fully conversant with the
law, demanded another monk to accompany him as witness to the
reconciliation with the laity of Vesali, during which he defended his
own view before the laity and won them over. When the
accompanying monk reported the matter to the Vajjian monks, they
charged Ven Yasa with proclaiming a false doctrine to laymen and
pronounced an Act of Suspension (
Ukkhepaniya kamma), effectively
expelling him from the
Sangha.

a) Ten Points (Dasa Vatthuni) of the Vajjian Monks

The Ten Points or Indulgences that Ven. Yasa openly declared as
unlawful were:
i)
Singilona kappa: The custom of putting salt in a horn vessel, in

order to season unsalted foods when received. (Against Pacittiya

38 which prohibits the storing of food unless used as medicine)
ii)
Dvangula kappa: The custom of taking the midday meal, even
after the prescribed time, as long as the sun’s shadow had not
pass the meridian by more than two-fingers’ breadth. (Against

Pacittiya 37 which prohibits eating after noon and before dawn)
iii)
Gamantara kappa: The custom of going into the village after
the meal and there eating again, if invited. (Contrary to
Pacittiya

35 which prohibits over-eating)

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

iv) Avasa kappa: The custom of holding the Uposatha ceremony
separately by monks dwelling in the same parish (
sima).
(Contravenes
Mahavagga II, 8, 3: rules of residence in a parish)

v) Anumati kappa: The carrying out of official acts by an
incomplete chapter on the supposition that the consent of absent
bhikkhus was obtained afterwards. (Unlawful according to
Mahavagga IX, 3, 5)

vi) Acinna kappa: It was permissible for a monk to do anything
adopted as a practice by his preceptor. (Contrary to the rules)
vii)
Amathita kappa: The practice of drinking milk-curds even after

the mealtime. (Against Pacittiya 35 which prohibits over-eating)
viii)
Jalogi kappa: The practice of drinking palm-juice, which is
fermenting but is not yet toddy. (Against
Pacittiya 51 which

prohibits the drinking of intoxicants)
ix)
Adasakam nisidanam: The practice of using mats to sit on

which were not of the prescribed size, if they were without
fringe. (Contrary to
Pacittiya 89 prohibiting the use of a fringed
sitting cloth exceeding the prescribed size)

x) Jatarupam rajatam: The practice of accepting gold and silver.
(Prohibited in
􏰀issaggiya 18, an offence involving forfeiture of
the object relating to the offence)

After the Act of Suspension (Ukkhepaniya kamma) was pronounced,
Ven Yasa went to Kosambi and sent messengers to the
bhikkhus of
the Western country, of Avanti and of the Southern country to enlist
their support to stop the deterioration of the religion and ensure the
preservation of the
Vinaya. Next he went to the Ahoganga hill in the
Upper Ganges to consult Ven.
Sambhuta Sanavasi of Mathura and
team up with sixty
bhikkhus from the Western country (Pava) and
eighty-eight from Avanti and the Southern country. Ven. Sambhuta
Sanavasi advised them to consult Ven.
Revata of Soreyya (Kanauj),
a leading monk recognized for his piety and learning. Accompanied
by him, they traveled to Soreyya to meet Ven. Revata. But he was
aware of their mission and was on the way to Vesali to meet them.
Both parties finally met at Sahajati where Ven. Yasa asked for his
opinion regarding the Ten Points. Each one of them was declared to
be unlawful by Ven. Revata.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

b) Ten Points Declared Unlawful by Second Council

Meanwhile the Vajjian monks were following the developments of
Ven. Yasa and they too went to Sahajati to enlist the support of Ven.
Revata hoping to win him over with presents but he refused to
accept them. So they induced his disciple, Uttara, to take up their
cause but that too failed. When the
Sangha met together to decide on
the matter, Ven Revata suggested that it should be settled at the
place where the dispute originated. So the elders went to Vesali
where the
Sangha assembled to settle the dispute but no progress
was made due to much talk and fruitless discussion. So it was
decided to settle the matter by referring it to a body of referees. Ven.
Revata chose four
bhikkhus of the East and four of the West. The
referees of the East were the Venerable
Sabbakami, Salha,
Khujjasobhita and Vasabhagamika. Those of the West were the
Venerable
Revata, Sambhuta Sanavasi, Yasa and Sumana. Of the
eight, six were pupils of Ven. Ananda (who lived to 120 years) while
Ven. Vasabhagamika and Sumana were pupils of Ven. Anuruddha
(said to have lived to 150 years). When the referees convened, Ven.
Sabbakami, the most senior
Arahant with 120 vassas (rains retreat)
questioned by Ven. Revata, adjudged the Ten Points as unlawful
according to the
Vinaya. The same hearing was re-enacted before the
full assembly and the verdict unanimously upheld.

According to Mahavamsa13, after settling this issue, Ven. Revata,
chose seven hundred
Arahants in order to hold a council to prevent
the deterioration of the religion. The Council spent eight months
rehearsing the
Dhamma & Vinaya to ensure that the true doctrine
was preserved and handed down to future generations. The Second
Council is also called
Yasatthera Sangiti (Elder Yasa’s Rehearsal)
because of the major role played by the Elder Yasa in his zeal to
safeguard the
Vinaya. It was held at Valukarama in Vesali a
century after the
Parinibbana during the reign of King Kalasoka.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

6. The Great Schism

According to Mahavamsa13, the Vajjian monks did not accept the
verdict but held an assembly of their own attended by ten thousand
calling it a
Mahasangiti (great convocation) from which the sect
derived its name
Mahasanghika. From then on, further schisms led
to the formation of different sub-sects, and in the course of time, 12
sub-sects arose from Theravada while 6 issued from Mahasanghika.

a) Five Theories of Mahadeva

According to the Sanskrit Pratimoksa Sutra of Mahasamghikas
discovered by Rahula Sankrtyayana in Tibet in 1934 and translated
into English by
Charles S. Prebish14, all its Vinaya rules, except the
75
sekhiyas rules of training for novices (67 in Mahasanghika) are
exactly the same as the Theravadin
Vinaya. This means that the
schism did not result from the differences in
Vinaya or Disciplinary
Code. According to the Sammitiya School, the first schism took
place a few decades after the Second Council. The founder of
Mahasanghika was Bhadra also known as
Mahadeva, who came out
with five theories concerning the
Arahant. According to information
collected by Watters (see
Dutt15, page 28), Mahadeva was the son of
a Brahmin merchant of Mathura who was ordained at Kukkutarama
in Pataliputra. By his zeal and abilities, he soon became head of the
establishment, with the ruling king as his friend and patron. With the
king’s help, he was able to oust the senior orthodox monks and put
forward his five theories, namely:

  1. i)  Arahants are subject to lust when having an erotic dream. (Atthi
    arahato rago ti
    ).

  2. ii)  Arahants may have residue of ignorance. (Atthi arahato
    aññānanti
    )

  3. iii)  Arahants may have still have doubts. (Atthi arahato kankha ti)

  4. iv)  Arahants may be excelled because they may need other’s help.

    (Atthi arahato paravitarana ti)

v) Attainment of the Path is accompanied by an exclamation (as

‘aho’).

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

Rebuttal (Refer to Kathavatthu, Book II16)

  • Theravada completely rejected the first theory as the Arahant
    has eradicated craving and ignorance in his mental continuum.
    So lust cannot arise even while asleep.

  • The second, third and fourth theories of Mahadeva maintained
    that (1) because an
    Arahant has no knowledge of such things of
    others as the name, family, etc., he is liable to be ignorant. (2)
    He is liable to get perplexed about facts concerning everyday
    life. (3) He is liable to be surpassed in such knowledge by
    others because it comes to him, is explained and disclosed by
    others. Theravada rejected them because those things mentioned
    are conventional truths having no bearing on the
    Arahant’s
    knowledge and attainment since the Arahant is absolutely free
    from delusive Ignorance and skeptical Doubt.

  • On the fifth theory, Theravada maintained that speech was not
    involved in the attainment of Path Consciousness.

  • Obviously the Theravada elders would not accept these heretical
    views. With the help of the king, Mahadeva convened a great
    assembly (
    Mahasangiti) reportedly consisting of Arahants and
    non-
    Arahants that ratified his ideas and broke off from the
    original
    Sangha effectively creating the first schism. The idea
    that
    Arahants attended the Mahasangiti appears far-fetched
    since true
    Arahants would certainly have disagreed with these
    heretical propositions.

    b) Primary Cause of Schism

    Some scholars (see Dutt15) have theorized that the Vaisalians
    wanted a certain amount of latitude and freedom in the interpretation
    and observance of the rules and to introduce into their organization
    and general governance a democratic spirit, which was gradually
    disappearing from the
    Sangha. The exclusive power and privileges,

    Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

    which the Arahants had claimed were looked upon with distrust and
    disfavour by the Vaisalians, who preferred a democratic rule to a
    monarchial government. The claim of the
    Arahants to become the
    exclusive members of the important Councils and to arrive at
    decisions, which were binding on non
    Arahants could not appeal to
    the Vajjians
    a clan imbued with a democratic spirit.

    The reasons given by scholars obviously represent the grievances of
    the Vaisalian monks from the secular point of view. When examined
    in the context of the
    Vinaya which governs the monastic order, they
    appear spurious and without merit, as discussed below:

    • As far as the constitution of the Sangha is concerned, the
      conduct of a
      bhikkhu is governed by the Vinaya rules drawn up
      by the Buddha himself. After his
      Parinibbana, no locus of
      authority competent to be a source of law could exist in the
      Sangha because the Buddha did not appoint anyone to succeed
      him. Instead He directed the monks to regard the Teaching and
      Discipline as their teacher after He was gone. Thus each member
      of the
      Sangha stood on an equal footing in relation to the rest.
      The elders could advise and instruct but not direct or compel;
      each member was a refuge unto himself, having the Teaching as
      his refuge. When a dispute arises over the
      Dhamma and Vinaya,
      any decision should be arrived at through consensus by referring
      to the
      Four Great Authorities (􏰁ote 2). So the question of a
      democratic or a monarchial system of government does not
      arise.

    • Secondly, Arahants by virtue of the eradication of greed, hatred
      and delusion have no interest in power or privileges. It is a well-
      known fact that within the
      Sangha, respect is accorded based on
      seniority not on attainment. In the
      Mahaparinibbana Sutta, the
      Buddha had stressed that for the growth of the
      bhikkhus they
      should show respect, honour, esteem and veneration towards the
      elder bhikkhus, those of long standing, long gone forth, the
      fathers and leaders of the Sangha, and deem it worthwhile to
      listen to them
      ”.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

  • It appears that the Second Council followed this injunction by
    appointing the most senior
    bhikkhus present as referees to
    adjudge the Ten Points.

  • As for the cause of the Schism, it is unlikely to be due to
    differences in the interpretation of v
    inaya (disciplinary rules).
    Frauwallner17, who made a study of the similarities and
    divergences of the
    vinaya of six schools, namely: Theravada,
    Mahasanghika, Mula-sarvastivada, Mahisasaka, Dharmagupta
    and Sarvastivada, concluded: “
    We can see at once that the
    agreement of the texts reaches deep into the particulars
    .”

  • Hence there is no doubt that the theories proposed by Mahadeva
    were primarily responsible for the Schism. As these five theories
    were based on
    worldly knowledge and concepts, meant to
    create disrespect towards the
    Arahants, they were certainly
    unacceptable to the orthodox monks and this led to the Great
    Schism.

    c) Transformation of the Buddha and his Doctrine by Mahayana

    In the Tipitaka, the Buddha is not distinguished from any other
    Arahant except his extraordinary genius to be able to discover the
    Truths unaided, while others realized the Truths by his guidance.
    Theravada has remained closer to this conception though they later
    elevated His status to complete
    ‘Omniscience’. The Mahasanghika,
    having ‘downgraded’ the attainment of the
    Arahant found it
    desirable to make a clear distinction in the case of the Buddha.

    According to the Kathavatthu15, the Mahasanghikas held the view
    that a Buddha exists everywhere in all directions of the firmament.
    Its offshoot, the Andhakas, even considered that a Buddha’s daily
    habits notably speech, was supra-mundane. Out of indiscriminate
    affection for the Buddha, some even held that the excreta of the
    Exalted One excelled all other odorous things! Yet in spite of their

    Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

    divergent views on the nature of the Buddha, the schismatic schools

    or 􏰀ikayas, all aspired to the same goal — Arahantship as the ideal.

    According to Warder2, the Mahayana movement started with the
    appearance of
    Sutras of anonymous and doubtful origin, around
    the beginning of the Christian era in Andhra Pradesh in South India.
    The
    Saddharma-pundarika or ‘Lotus of the Good Law’ claimed
    that after attaining Enlightenment, the Buddha decided to preach his
    doctrines in a modified form for the mediocre searchers of Truth to
    enable them to achieve their desired end. This modified teaching
    consists of the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path and
    Dependent Origination, subjects of the First Sermon. The Mahayana
    took this to mean that only an Omniscient One could realize the
    highest Truth while his disciples or
    Savakas, who could only attain
    perfection by observing the instructions of the discourse, realized
    only the absence of individual soul (
    anatta) and not the non-
    existence or
    Emptiness (dhamma-sunnata). According to Rhys
    Davids
    18, “Arahatship is explicitly condemned and Bodhisatship
    held up as the goal at which every good Buddhist has to aim; and the
    whole exposition of this theory, so subversive of the original
    Buddhism, is actually placed in the mouth of Gotama himself.”

    Thus began the transformation of the Buddha and His Dhamma by
    Mahayanist logic and ratiocination that led step by step to
    Mahayana; from the humanism and
    realization of the Four Noble
    Truths and
    􏰀ibbana of the original Teachings to the supernaturalism
    and
    fantasy of the Mahayana sutras and Emptiness doctrine in
    which long metaphysical and philosophical treatises in
    Sanskrit are
    created by scholars like Nagarjuna and Asvaghosa, which are
    hardly
    intelligible
    to the common masses, and are meant only for Sanskrit
    knowing scholars. Being well aware that the laity could hardly
    understand their abstract theories, the Mahayanist teachers created a
    new
    Mahayana Pantheon in order attract the masses to their ‘Great
    Vehicle’. According to
    Ven. Bhikkhu Kashyap1, “after a time, in
    the Mahayana tradition, the philosophical speculations were
    symbolized by various
    Bodhisattas and gods such as
    Avalokitesvara (Bodhisatta of Great Compassion), Tara (Goddess
    of Mercy),
    Manjusri (Bodhisatta of Meditation), and Amitabha
    (Buddha of Sukhavati or Western Paradise).”

  • Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

    7. Origin of the Eighteen 􏰀ikayas (Schools)

    The Eighteen 􏰀ikayas or Schools of Buddhism arose sometime
    between one hundred to two hundred years after
    Parinibbana i.e.,
    sometime between the Second and Third Buddhist Councils. They
    were called “
    Hinayana” (Mean or Inferior Vehicle), a contemptuous
    term tantamount to verbal abuse coined by followers of Mahayana
    who wanted to exalt their own doctrines and belittle the earlier forms
    of Buddhism. It should be pointed out that the Buddha had never
    preached any “superior or inferior vehicle” to his disciples, only the
    Noble Eightfold Path to end suffering. Due to its
    derogatory
    nature
    , the term ‘Hinayana’ should be avoided when referring to
    the
    􏰀ikayas or Early Schools of Buddhism.

    According to the Mahavamsa13, after the Second Council, (1)
    Mahasanghika seceded from the original Sangha and produced two
    schools (2) Gokulika and (3) Ekavyoharika. From Gokulika, arose
    (4) Pannatti and (5) Bahulika or Bahussutiya and from these the (6)
    Cetiya sect making with the Mahasanghika a total of six. From the
    (7)
    Theravada, two more groups seceded, namely (8) Mahimsasaka
    and (9) Vajjiputtaka. The latter produced (10) Dhammuttariya, (11)
    Bhaddayanika, (12) Channagarika and (13) Sammitiya while the
    former produced (14) Sabbathivada and (15) Dhammaguttika. From
    Sabbathivada, (16) Kassapiya split off and later produced (17)
    Samkantika and from this (18) Suttavada. (
    􏰁ote 3)

    According to Rhys Davids18, evidence from the Mahavastu, the
    main text of the
    Lokuttaravadins (an offshoot of the Mahasanghika
    furthest removed from Theravada) shows very little of its teaching
    that could not have been developed from Theravada. The difference
    was the prominence given to legendary matters and in the
    consequent inattention to ethical points. In fact, all the early schools
    looked upon
    Arahantship not Bodhisattaship, as the ideal of a good
    Buddhist. However their concept of the
    Arahant and other doctrinal
    matters differed from the Theravada giving rise to the composition
    of the
    Kathavatthu16 by Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa, President of the
    Third Council. The reader should refer to the
    Kathavatthu for the
    full refutation of the heretical views held by the various schools.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

In most of the cases, the difference between one school and another
may be ascribed to geographical factors rather than to doctrinal
differences. The first serious differences before the Schism found the
Buddhists tending to separate into a western group around the great
triangle of
Kosambi–Mathura–Ujjaini and an eastern group at
Vesali. In the case of Theravada, events of the Second Council
showed that the monks of the west, especially of
Kosambi and
Avanti dominated this group. The first group to secede, namely, the
Mahasanghikas remained in and around
Pataliputta as their main
centre while Theravada dominated at
Avanti and spread rapidly into
Maharashtra, Andhra and down to the Chola country as well as
Ceylon. Soon after the Second Council, Mathura became the first
centre of the
Sabbathivadins and from there their influence radiated
all over Northern India, particularly in
Kashmir and Gandhara.
The
Kassapiyas in fact were a group of Theravada cut off from the
mainstream Theravada by the seceded Sabbathivadins and for a long
time they maintained contact with their original base at
Sanchi near
Bhopal. More widespread were the
Sammitiyas, who spread across
Avanti and Gujarat to form their main centre at
Sindhu while the
Lokuttaravadins branched out as far away as Bactria.

The majority of the Eighteen 􏰀ikayas were short-lived but some
grew in strength and survived for several centuries, notably:
Theravada, Sabbathivadin, Mahasanghika, Sammitiya and
Lokottaravadins. Hsuan Tsang who visited India in AD 629-645
estimated the Buddhist
bhikkhus in India and the adjacent countries
to the Northwest at less than two hundred thousand, 3⁄4 of whom
belonged to the above five
􏰀ikayas and the remaining 1⁄4 belonged to
Mahayana. Eventually the Mahayana expanded northwards and
eastwards to Central Asia and China, eclipsing the
􏰀ikayas. Of the
remaining
􏰀ikayas, Theravada established itself in Sri Lanka and
Burma and has survived to this day after Buddhism disappeared
from India following the Muslim conquest in the 12
th century AD.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

8. The Third Council

The Third Council was held 236 years after Parinibbana during the
reign of
Emperor Asoka. The Mauryan king who ruled India from
Kashmir to the Ganges valley and south almost to Madras had
become a Buddhist and was doing everything within his power to
aid Buddhism. This royal patronage attracted thousands of heretics
to don the yellow robe for worldly gain. Although they dwelt with
the
bhikkhus yet they continued to preach their false doctrines and
caused confusion in the religion. By reason of their great numbers
and unruliness, the
bhikkhus could not restrain them by the Vinaya
rules so that no Uposatha-ceremony (fortnightly recitation of the
Patimokkha) or Pavarana (invitation) was held for 7 years.

When Asoka sent his minister to investigate and settle the matter, the
foolish official killed several monks. Hearing of the misdeed, Asoka
was filled with remorse and doubts lingered in his mind whether he
was responsible for the crime. He was told that the
Arahant
Moggaliputta Tissa, who was living in solitary retreat on the
Ahoganga Mountain further up the Ganges, could resolve his doubt.
Asoka had to invite the
Arahant three times before the latter came to
Pataliputra. There he was received with great honour by the king
who accommodated him in Asokarama and for seven days, the king
received instructions at the feet of the
Arahant. The bhikkhus were
then tested on their views and the heretics were expelled from the
Sangha. The pure bhikkhus who remained performed the Uposatha-
ceremony after a lapse of seven years.

a) Compiling the Final Recension of the Tipitaka

The Arahant Moggaliputta Tissa took the opportunity to hold the
Third Council in order to compile the true doctrine. One thousand
Arahants took part in the Council held at Asokarama in
Pataliputra (modern Patna) in the 18th year of Asoka’s reign, 236
years
after the Parinibbana. Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa presided over
the meeting in which controversial doctrines of various Buddhist

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

sects were examined and refuted leading to the composition of the
Kathavathu (Points of Controversy), one of the seven books of the
Abhidhamma. The assembly took nine months to rehearse the
Teaching after which the Pali
Tipitaka was compiled and closed.

b) Propagation of the Religion outside India

With the Buddhist king Asoka being the supreme ruler of nearly all
of India as the chief patron, the time was now ripe for expansion.
Accordingly, Venerable Moggaliputta Tissa, the recognized leader
of Theravada, decided to send competent
Arahants to propagate the
Buddha’s Teaching all over India and beyond. Each team was
headed by an Elder and consisted of five monks, the quorum
required to confer higher ordination in remote regions. The names of
the Elders and the nine places where they were deputed are given in
the
Mahavamsa13. Archeology has confirmed the historicity of
these missions. In
Stupa No. 2 at Sanchi near Bhopal, were found
two relic caskets from the 2
nd or 1st century BC, inscribed with the
names of some of the missionaries. In this way the Buddha’s
Teachings spread in the four directions after the Third Council.

MISSIO􏰁ARIES

  1. Majjhantika Thera

  2. Mahadeva Thera

  3. Rakkhita Thera

  4. Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera

  5. Maha Dhammarakkhita Thera

  6. Maha Rakkhita Thera

  7. Majjhima Thera

  8. Sonaka and Uttara Theras

  9. Mahinda, Itthiya, Uttiya, Sambala

PLACE

Kasmira & Gandhara1
Mahimsamandala2
Vanavasi3
Aparantaka4
Maharattha5

Yonaka6
Himavantapadesa7
Suvannabhumi8
Tambapannidipa9

and Bhaddasala Theras
___________________________________________________

1Gandhara comprises the districts of Peshawar & Rawalpindi in Pakistan.
Kasmira is modern Kashmir.
2Mahimsamandala is generally taken as modern Mysore.
3Vanavasi was composed of coastal regions such as Kerala and Malabar.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

4Aparantaka or the ‘western ends’ comprise the Mumbai (Bombay)
region, northern Gujarat, Kachchh and Sind.
5Mararattha is modern Maharashtra.
6Yonaka (Sanskrit Yavana) together with the Kambojas means clans of
foreign race in the northwest frontier included in Asoka’s empire.
7Himavantapadesa is the Himalayan country.

8Suvannabhumi or ‘golden land’ is Bago (Pegu) and Mawlamyine
(Moulmein) district in Mon state of Myanmar (Burma).
9Tambapannidipa is the island of Sri Lanka.
_______________________________________________________

c) Achievements of the Third Council

The Third Council refuted and eliminated all the tendencies which
were no longer regarded as consistent with the faith and brought the
Pali Canon to a close. However, its
greatest achievement was the
sending of missionaries to other countries to propagate the faith
because prior to this, Buddhism was basically a local religion
confined mainly to a few states of Northern India. Thanks to the
wisdom and foresight of Venerable Moggaliputta Tissa, the royal
patronage of Emperor Asoka and the teams of highly dedicated
missionaries, the Buddha
Sasana has spread beyond the borders of
its narrower home. Thus when Buddhism disappeared from India for
six hundred years after the Muslim conquest during the 12
th century
AD, the light of the
Dhamma still shone in Sri Lanka, Myanmar and
other Theravada countries where the
Sasana had been founded.
Today we are witnessing a new phenomenon whereby monks from
other Buddhist countries are returning to India to revive the Buddha
Sasana in its country of origin!

Strangely enough, a story in the Mahavamsa written during the 6th
century AD (􏰁ote 4) tells us that Venerable Moggaliputta Tissa was
a Brahma-god called Tissa in his previous existence. At the time of
the Second Council, the
Arahants, foreseeing danger to the religion
in the future, approached him for help as his lifespan in the Brahma
realm was coming to an end. He consented to be born in the world of
men in order to prevent the downfall of the Buddha’s religion.
Subsequent events appear to confirm the
prophecy of the Arahants
of the Second Council.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

9. Committing the Tipitaka to Memory

The Tipitaka, which contains all the Teachings of the Buddha during
his 45-years ministry, is about 11 times the size of the Bible. Its
sheer volume has led some scholars to think that the First Council
was pure fiction and that the huge mass of the
Vinaya and Sutta
Pitaka
recited was impossible. It is just beyond the comprehension
of the skeptical scholar that someone like Ven. Ananda could be able
to remember so much! However monks with such prodigious
memory are found in the
Sangha. During the Sixth Buddhist Council
held in Yangon in 1956, the late Venerable
Mingun Sayadaw
Ashin Vicittasarabhivamsa
had committed the whole Tipitaka to
memory and was able to answer all questions related to it when
questioned by the chief questioner of the Synod, the late Venerable
Mahasi Sayadaw Ashin Sobhana. Today, Myanmar has produced
several living
Tipitakadharas, or persons who have committed the
whole
Tipitaka to memory! (􏰁ote 5)

Recent studies by Salomon19 suggest that there was no written
language during the Buddha’s time. The early Indian Brahmi and
Karosthi scripts appeared to originate from the Mauryan era based
on the testimony of
Megasthenes to the absence of writing in the
early Mauryan period and the persistent failure to find and identify
actual specimens of pre-Asokan writing. However, such evidence is
by no means conclusive. Although the art of writing was employed
later to give instructions, it did not become popular, the emphasis of
education being on the development of memory and the retentive
power. Therefore, the
oral tradition continued to be the established
custom to transmit the Teaching. Monks were still required to
memorize the Teaching even after the written language appeared,
just as it is still practised today by Theravada monks in Burma.

Although the majority of the sects started to use Sanskrit or mixed-
Sanskrit as the language of transmission, the
orthodox Theravada
kept strictly to Pali. Thus, Theravada monks became very adept in
reciting the Pali texts, aided by their highly developed memory skills
so well attested in ancient and modern India. With different groups
of monks specializing in their respective sections of the
Tipitaka, it

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

would not be difficult for them to recite the whole Tipitaka by
combining their expertise. The Pali literature is replete with terms
describing the areas of specialization of monks with respect to the
Tipitaka, such as:

  1. i)  Suttantika or master of the Sutta Pitaka

  2. ii)  Vinaya-dhara or one versed in the Vinaya or Discipline

iii) Matika-dhara or one versed in matika or Abhidhamma
iv) Digha-bhanaka and Majjhima-bhanaka (Reciters of the Digha

and Majjhima 􏰀ikayas)

This demonstrates that the ancient theras (monks) had developed a
system whereby they could collectively preserve the entire
Tipitaka
intact from memory. Some of them were Arahants, and so by
definition, ‘
pure ones’ free from lust, ill-will or aversion, and
delusion. With such purity of mind, they were without doubt,
capable of retaining perfectly the Buddha’s words in their minds.
Thus they ensured that the Buddha’s teachings would be preserved
faithfully for posterity.





10. Fourth Council: Committing the Tipitaka

to Writing

Situated off the main road about 40 km from Kandy in Sri Lanka is a
village called
Matale. Although lesser known to ordinary tourists, it
is well-known to Buddhist scholars because here one can find the
International Buddhist Library & Museum and the historic
Aloka Cave, site of the Fourth Council, where the Buddha’s
Teachings were committed from oral transmission into writing on
ola palm leaves. Visitors to the Museum will be able to view the
process in which ola leaves are dried, smoothened and observe the
technique of writing with ink on the leaves. There is a showcase,
where a set of the Pali
Tipitaka written on ola leaves is kept.

According to the History of the Religion20 (Sasanavamsa), at one
time a famine arose in the island of Sinhala (Ceylon) and many
monks left the island as they feared they would not be able to learn
the three
Pitakas due to lack of food. However, 60 monks stayed
behind by the seashore and studied together living on roots, fruits
and the like. Being oppressed by hunger and weakness, they lay
down on the sandy ground while keeping their heads facing each
other and without uttering a word they studied the scriptures in their
minds. Thus did they preserve the three
Pitakas together with the
commentary for twelve years, and help the Religion forward. At the
end of twelve years, 700 monks returned from India and studied the
Teachings together with the 60 monks who had stayed behind. At
that time they agreed with each other and did not differ. This was
how the great Elders or
Mahatheras (monks of twenty years
standing or more) accomplished the difficult task of remembering
precisely the three
Pitakas orally in this way.

The zeal and dedication of the ancient theras in the learning of the
canonical texts without missing a single word is illustrated by the
following story. After he had learnt the Buddha’s words from the
Elder Dhammarakkhita of Yona country in India, the Elder Tissa,
son of a landlord Punabbasu, took leave to return to Ceylon. While
traveling to the port to board a ship to sail home, he had some doubts
regarding a certain verse in the
Tipitaka. So he retraced the journey

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

back to his teacher, a distance of 100 yojanas (1 yojana = 8 to 12
miles) in order to remove his doubt before his teacher. In this way, it
should be understood how very difficult a task it was to bear in
mind, the canonical texts without missing a single word. And
whatever they could not learn by heart, they preserved by way of
study, remembrance and the like, in order that it might neither
disappear nor be confused. In this way, for a long time since the
First Council, the succession of great Elders handed down the
canonical texts even orally.

a) Documentation of the Tipitaka on Palm Leaves

According to records compiled by Ven. 􏰁anamoli 21, four months
after
Vattagamini Abhaya became king of Lanka (104-88BC) his
reign was interrupted by the rebellion of the Brahman Tissa,
followed by famine, invasion by the Tamils and the king’s exile. The
bhikkhus from the Mahavihara or Great Monastery all dispersed to
the south and to India. After fourteen years, the king returned and
defeated the Tamils. With the restoration of the king, the
bhikkhus
returned to Sri Lanka. Filled with religious zeal, Vattagamini built
the
Abhayagiri vihara and offered it to the thera Mahatissa who
had assisted him in his bid to regain his kingdom. Later on, the
monks of the Abhayagiri seceded from the Mahavihara and became
schismatic. Sensing insecurity, the Mahavihara took the precaution
to commit the
Tipitaka for the first time to writing, doing it in the
provinces away from the king’s presence.

About four hundred and fifty years after the Parinibbana, during the
reign of King Vattagamini in
89 BC (*see footnote), 500 great
Elders held a Council presided by
Ven. Rakkhita Mahathera and
thinking, “In future, beings of poor mindfulness, wisdom and
concentration, will not be able to bear in mind (the canonical texts)
orally”, decided that the three
Pitakas together with the commentary
should be written in books. It was a time when the
viharas were
deserted and oral transmission of the texts was difficult. The art of
writing had, by this time developed substantially, so it was thought
expedient and necessary to have the entire body of the Buddha’s

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

teaching written down to prevent confusion or disappearance of the

True Religion.

The historic event took place at the Aloka cave Vihara or Aluvihara
in the Malaya country (Matale), a place in the island of Tambapanni
(Ceylon). This council is considered to be the
Fourth by the
Theravada school although in India, another council held under the
patronage of the
Kushan king Kanishka (􏰁ote 6) around 100 AD is
considered as the Fourth Council.

At the end of this Council, the texts along with the Attha-kathas
(commentaries) were inscribed on ola palm leaves and the scriptures
were thoroughly checked and rechecked to ensure their authenticity.
This was how the three
Pitakas were preserved. A visit to Aloka
Cave will certainly evoke a deep sense of gratitude to the
Sangha for
their wisdom and compassion in authenticating and documenting the
Buddha’s teachings for future generations. Thanks to the foresight
and indefatigable efforts of these great Elders, there is no room
either now or in the future for self-styled ‘progressive monks or
scholars’ to adulterate the pure Teaching.

*(The dates are calculated according to the Theravada tradition,
which places the Buddha’s
Parinibbana in 543BC. Western sources
place the Buddha’s
Parinibbana in 483BC, 60 years later.)

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

11. Fifth and Sixth Councils in Myanmar22

According to the Mahavamsa13, at the end of the Third Council,
missionary monks were sent to various countries neighbouring India
by the Council President Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa to propagate the
Buddha’s Teaching. Two monks,
Ven. Sona and Ven. Uttara were
sent to Suvannabhumi, which is Bago and Mawlamyine (Moulmein)
district in
Mon state of Myanmar, with the objective of founding
the Buddha
Sasana there. They converted the Myanmar people in
that region to the religion by preaching the
Brahmajala Sutta.
Thereafter the Buddha Sasana was firmly established in Myanmar
for over two thousand years. Hence it is not surprising that Myanmar
has taken the leading role in preserving, propagating and
perpetuating the Buddha’s Teaching in modern times by holding two
Buddhist councils during the last two centuries.

a) The Fifth Council (Panca Sangiti)

According to the Theravada tradition, the Fifth Council took place in
Mandalay, Myanmar in 1871AD during the reign of King Mindon.
The chief objective of this Synod was to recite all the teachings of
the Buddha and examine them in minute detail for errors, alterations
and omissions. Three Great Elders,
Ven. Mahathera
Jagarabhivamsa, Ven. 􏰁arindabhidhaja,
and Ven. Mahathera
Sumangalasami
led this council attended by 2,400 monks. Their
joint
Dhamma recitation (Dhamma Sangiti) lasted five months.

At the end of the Fifth Council, the entire Tipitaka was inscribed on
729 marble slabs in the Myanmar script for posterity. Each marble
slab measured 1.68m high, 1.07m wide and about 0.13m thick and
this monumental task was executed by many skillful craftsmen.
Upon completion, each slab was housed in a beautiful miniature
pagoda on a special site in the grounds of King Mindon’s Kuthodaw
Pagoda at the foot of Mandalay Hill. According to the Guinness
Book of Records, these 729 slabs represent the largest book in the
world today.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

b) The Sixth Council (Chattha Sangiti)

The Sixth Council was held from 1954 to 1956 under the auspices of
the Burmese Government led by the then Prime Minister, U Nu. It
was held at
Kaba Aye, Yangon in the Maha Passana Guha, a huge
assembly hall resembling the great cave at Sattapanni in Rajagaha,
venue of the First Council. Like the preceding councils, the objective
was to authenticate and preserve the genuine
Dhamma and Vinaya.
A total of 2473 monks from Myanmar and 144 monks from seven
other countries, namely, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka,
Thailand and Vietnam took part in the Rehearsal.

Preliminary preparations lasted three years from 1951-1954 whereby
the
Tipitaka and its allied literature in all scripts were painstakingly
examined with their differences noted, the necessary corrections
made, and collated. It was found that there was not much difference
in the content of any of the texts. Then having agreed upon the final
version, approved unanimously by all the parties concerned, the full
Assembly met on the
full-moon day of May 1954. All the 40 books
of authenticated, accepted version of the Pali
Pitaka were chanted by
2600
bhikkhus in five sessions spread out over two years from 1954
to 1956. The late
Mahasi Sayadaw Bhadanta Sobhana acted as
Pucchaka (Questioner) while the late Mingun Sayadaw Bhadanta
Vicittasarabhivamsa
acted as Vissajjhaka (Answerer) answering
correctly all questions related to the
Tipitaka from memory. Finally,
after the Council had officially approved the texts, all of the books of
the
Tipitaka and their Commentaries were prepared for printing.
This notable achievement was made possible through the dedicated
efforts of the 2,600 monks and numerous lay people. Their noble
task came to completion on the full-moon day of May 1956, to
coincide with the
2,500th Anniversary of the Lord Buddha’s
Mahaparinibbana. The version of the Tipitaka of this Council
known as the
Sixth Synod Edition has been recognized as the
pristine teachings of the Buddha. It is the
most authoritative
rendering today. After the scriptures had been examined thoroughly
several times, they were put into print, covering 52 treatises in 40
volumes, or 8026 pages in total. At the end of this Council, all the
participating countries had the
Pali Tipitaka rendered into their
native scripts, with the exception of India.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

Conclusion

The Buddhist Councils were crucial in ensuring that the true
doctrines of the Buddha were preserved for future generations. Each
council authenticated the Pali
Tipitaka by rehearsing them in an
assembly comprising hundreds of learned monks and
Arahants,
whereby false doctrines were purged and points of controversy
settled. The Pali Canon or
Tipitaka is generally considered to be the
oldest body of Scriptures documenting the Buddha’s teachings,
somewhat older than its Sanskrit counterpart, though some Sanskrit
scholars resist this opinion. According to
Childers9, the Pali version
of the Buddhist Scriptures is the
only genuine and original one.

When the Buddha made the injunction that monks were to learn his
teaching in ‘
saka nirutti’ (own language) meaning Magadhi, the
common dialect of the region in his time, it was in consonance with
the ancient method of learning by oral tradition whereby pupils were
required to learn the master’s doctrine in the language that the latter
preached by. In an oral tradition, mistakes and distortions are bound
to arise frequently. By adopting a
common medium of instruction,
these mistakes and distortions can be quickly detected and corrected
by rehearsing together. This was what actually took place in the
Buddhist Councils after the Buddha’s
Parinibbana to ensure that the
true teachings were preserved.

There is much controversy among scholars regarding the origin of
Pali, the language of Theravada Scriptures. However to Theravada
Buddhists, it is a non-issue. As pointed out by Sayadaw U Thittila
1,
the Pali Canon contains everything necessary to show forth the Path
to the ultimate goal of
􏰀ibbana, the cessation of all suffering. This
can only mean one thing, namely, that the
Buddha’s true teachings
have been preserved in its pristine form in the Pali Canon. For this
we are indebted to the
religious zeal, dedication and prodigious
memory
of the ancient monks (Theras) in preserving, propagating
and perpetuating the Teachings of the Buddha, from his
Mahaparinibbana till the present day.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

Conclusion

The Buddhist Councils were crucial in ensuring that the true
doctrines of the Buddha were preserved for future generations. Each
council authenticated the Pali
Tipitaka by rehearsing them in an
assembly comprising hundreds of learned monks and
Arahants,
whereby false doctrines were purged and points of controversy
settled. The Pali Canon or
Tipitaka is generally considered to be the
oldest body of Scriptures documenting the Buddha’s teachings,
somewhat older than its Sanskrit counterpart, though some Sanskrit
scholars resist this opinion. According to
Childers9, the Pali version
of the Buddhist Scriptures is the
only genuine and original one.

When the Buddha made the injunction that monks were to learn his
teaching in ‘
saka nirutti’ (own language) meaning Magadhi, the
common dialect of the region in his time, it was in consonance with
the ancient method of learning by oral tradition whereby pupils were
required to learn the master’s doctrine in the language that the latter
preached by. In an oral tradition, mistakes and distortions are bound
to arise frequently. By adopting a
common medium of instruction,
these mistakes and distortions can be quickly detected and corrected
by rehearsing together. This was what actually took place in the
Buddhist Councils after the Buddha’s
Parinibbana to ensure that the
true teachings were preserved.

There is much controversy among scholars regarding the origin of
Pali, the language of Theravada Scriptures. However to Theravada
Buddhists, it is a non-issue. As pointed out by Sayadaw U Thittila
1,
the Pali Canon contains everything necessary to show forth the Path
to the ultimate goal of
􏰀ibbana, the cessation of all suffering. This
can only mean one thing, namely, that the
Buddha’s true teachings
have been preserved in its pristine form in the Pali Canon. For this
we are indebted to the
religious zeal, dedication and prodigious
memory
of the ancient monks (Theras) in preserving, propagating
and perpetuating the Teachings of the Buddha, from his
Mahaparinibbana till the present day.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc


Appendix
Contents of the Tipitaka or Three Baskets

a) Vinaya Pitaka or Basket of Discipline
Made up of rules of discipline laid down by the Buddha for
regulating the conduct of disciples who have been ordained into the
Order as
bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns)
Consists of 5 books, namely:

  1. 1)  Major Offences (Parajika) ─ including explanation of how each

    rule was promulgated and listing special cases and exceptions.

  2. 2)  Minor Offences (Pacittiya) ─ including explanations and

    exceptions.

  3. 3)  Great Section (Mahavagga) ─ giving rules for admission into

    the Sangha, ordination, dress-code, residence, and rules for

    performance of special monastic activities.

  4. 4)  Smaller Section (Cullavagga) ─ dealing with the treatment,

    offences, and duties of teachers and novices, with special rules

    for nuns.

  5. 5)  Epitome of the Vinaya Pitaka (Parivara) ─ containing

    commentary primarily on the Great Section and stories about the
    events following the Buddha’s Enlightenment.

b) Sutta Pitaka or Basket of Discourses
Contains the discourses delivered by the Buddha on various
occasions as well as some discourse delivered by his disciples. It is
divided into 5 Collections or
􏰀ikayas.

  1. 1)  Collection of Long Discourses (Digha 􏰀ikaya) ─ 34 discourses

    divided into 3 sections dealing with training of the disciple.

  2. 2)  Collection of Medium-Length Discourses (Majjhima 􏰀ikaya) ─
    152 discourses, many of which tell of the Buddha’s austerities,

    Enlightenment and early teachings.

  3. 3)  Collection of Connected Discourses (Samyutta 􏰀ikaya) ─ these

    are divided according to subject matter into 5 divisions

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc


4) Collection of Discourses from Gradual Sayings (Anguttara
􏰀ikaya
) ─ 9557 short discourses in 11 divisions, beginning with
discourses on 1 subject in first division, 2 subjects in second
division and moving up to discourses containing 11 subjects in
the last division. The name
Anguttara means ‘increasing by one
item’.

5) Collection of Short Discourses (Khuddaka 􏰀ikaya) ─ This is the
biggest volume, made up of 15 books which contains the most
exquisite parts of the entire canon:

  1. i)  Shorter Texts (Khuddaka Patha)

  2. ii)  The Way of Truth (Dhammapada)

  3. iii)  Solemn Utterances (Udana)

  4. iv)  Thus it was said (Iti-vuttaka)

  5. v)  Collected Discourses (Sutta 􏰀ipata)

  6. vi)  Stories of Celestial Mansions (Vimana Vatthu)

  7. vii)  Stories of Departed Spirits (Peta Vatthu)

  8. viii)  Psalms of the Brethen (Theragatha)

  9. ix)  Psalms of the Sisters (Therigatha)

  10. x)  Birth Stories (Jataka)

  11. xi)  Expositions (􏰀iddesa)

  12. xii)  Analytical Knowledge (Patisambhida)

  13. xiii)  Lives of Arahants (Apadana)

  14. xiv)  Chronicle of Buddhas (Buddhavamsa)

  15. xv)  Basket of Conduct (Cariya Pitaka)

c) Abhidhamma Pitaka or Basket of Ultimate Things
The Abhidhamma was incorporated as the Third Basket during the
Third Council held in the 3
rd century BC. It deals with the higher
philosophy of the Buddha and contains these seven books:

  1. 1)  Enumeration of Phenomena (Dhammasangani)

  2. 2)  Book of Analysis (Vibhanga)

  3. 3)  Treatise on the Elements (Dhatukatha)

  4. 4)  Book of Human Types (Puggala Pannati)

  5. 5)  Points of Controversy (Kathavatthu)

  6. 6)  Book of Pairs (Yamaka)

  7. 7)  Conditional Relations (Patthana)

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

Explanatory 􏰁otes

􏰁ote 1: Pali and Magadhi

Many theories have been proposed by scholars regarding the original home

of Pali. According to Ven. Anagarika Dharmapala7, Oldenburg is of
opinion that Pali had for its home the country south of the Vindhya
Mountains. Another noted critic of Pali
Dr. Franke is of the view that the
home of Pali may be found between the middle and western Vindhya
mountains. Yet another critic
Dr. Windisch differs in his conclusions with
Franke and Oldenburg and says that the Buddha used the language of
Magadha. Many Pali scholars are of the opinion that literary Pali is the
vernacular Magadhi used by the Buddha to preach the
Dhamma and the use
of the word Pali as the name of the language in which the Buddhist texts
are composed is
purely figurative and that its real name is Magadhi.

The Blessed One wished that the language used to convey the message of
Buddha should be the language of the people, and not Sanskrit.
Magadhi,
Suraseni, Paisaci, Maharashtri, Prakrit
were the dialects spoken by the
people at the time, and the Blessed One beautified the vernacular by
inventing expressions and terms to expound His wonderful Doctrine of the
Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma. Pali may be called the middle language which
was used by the Blessed One to expound the Doctrine of the
, Middle Path.
The ornate and embellished Sanskrit and the vulgar Paisaci Prakrit He
avoided, and made a
classic of purified Magadhi, which was called Pali to
designate the language that He used as different from existing dialects. Pali
is the language of the Buddha which could easily be understood by the
natives of Magadha, Kosala, Suraseni, Kasi, and Gandhara.

Sten Konow has shown the resemblances that exist between Pali words and
Paisaci.
Sir George Grierson, at one time Collector of Gaya and an expert
of Hindi dialects, agrees with
Windisch that literary Pali is Magadhi. He
gives a list of the places where the Paisaci dialects were spoken, namely:
Kancidesiya, Pandya Pancala; Gauda, Magadha, Vracada, Dakshinatya,
Saurasena, Kaikeya, Sabara, Dravida. Pandya, Kekaya, Bahlika, Simhala,
Nepala, Kuntala, Sudhesna, Bota, Gandhara, Haiva and Kannojana.

Says Dr. Grierson: “The first thing that strikes one about these three lists is
the great extent of country that they cover. If we are to accept them in their
entirety, Paisaci Prakrit was spoken over nearly the
whole of India and also
in Tibet.” Since the time of the Blessed One the
Pali language began
spreading not only in India, but beyond. Wherever the Buddhist
Bhikkhus

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

went there arose centres of literary culture, and they transplanted Indian art,

agriculture, gardening, floriculture, architecture, etc.

􏰁ote 2: The Four Great Authorities (Mahaparinibbana Sutta)

During the journey to his final resting place in Kusinara, the Buddha stayed
at the Ananda shrine in
Bhoganagara (present day Kesariya) and taught
the four standards by which his disciples would be able to decide whether a
certain teaching was actually his words or not. These standards, called the
Four Great Authorities are:

  1. (a)  A bhikkhu may say: “I heard and learned it from the Blessed One’s
    own lips
    ; this is the Law, this is the Discipline, this is the Master’s
    teaching”.

  2. (b)  A bhikkhu may say: “In a certain dwelling place there is a community
    of elders and a chief; I heard and learned it from the
    lips of that
    community
    ; this is the Law, this is the Discipline, this is the Master’s
    teaching”.

  3. (c)  A bhikkhu may say: “In a certain dwelling place many elder bhikkhus
    live who are learned, expert in the traditions, memorizers of the
    Discipline, memorizers of the Codes; I heard and learned it from
    those
    elders’ own lips
    ; this is the Law, this is the Discipline, this is the
    Master’s teaching”.

  4. (d)  A bhikkhu may say: “In a certain dwelling place an elder bhikkhu lives
    who is learned, expert in the traditions, memorizer of the Discipline,
    memorizer of the Codes; I heard and learned it from
    that elder’s own
    lips
    ; this is the Law, this is the Discipline, this is the Master’s
    teaching”.

In such a case, the declaration of this bhikkhu should be neither approved
nor disapproved but
carefully studied word by word and then verified in
the
Vinaya Discipline or confirmed in the Sutta Discourses.

If they are found to be not verified in the Vinaya or confirmed in the
Suttas, one can conclude that they are not the Blessed One’s word, they are
wrongly learned by that bhikkhu or that community or by those elders or
by that elder. One should accordingly
reject them.

If however, they are found to be verified in the Vinaya and confirmed in
the
Suttas, one can conclude that they are the Blessed One’s word, they are
rightly learned by that bhikkhu or that community or by those elders or by
that elder. One should accordingly
accept them.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

􏰁ote 3: Eighteen 􏰀ikayas (Ancient Schools of Buddhism)

A) Mahasanghika and Related Schools.

Mahasanghika or School of the Great Assembly (attended by ten
thousand heretical monks) is acknowledged as the first
􏰀ikaya to secede
from the original
Sangha after the Second Council. They had their main
centre at Pataliputta but later on migrated from Magadha in two streams,
one northwards and the other towards the south. The southern group settled
down in Andhra Pradesh around Amaravati and Dhanakataka, their
branches concentrating at Nagarjunikonda, dwelling on the mountains
around. The Pali version has been fully borne out by the inscriptions
discovered in these areas, namely, the Pubbaseliyas, Uttaraseliyas or
Aparaseliyas, Siddhatthikas and Rajagirikas, collectively designated as
Andhakas by Buddhaghosa in his commentary on the Kathavatthu. Of the
northern Mahasanghikas, he mentioned the Ekabboharikas, Gokulikas,
Pannattivadins and Bahusuttika. However except for the Gokulikas, their
views have not been referred to in the
Kathavatthu, indicating perhaps they
ceased to retain any practical importance at all.

  1. 1)  Gokulika (Kukkulika) — The doctrine of this school considered the
    world to be red-hot with misery and devoid of happiness, a
    kukkula,
    due to the misunderstanding of the Fire Sermon.

  2. 2)  Ekavyoharika (Ekavyavaharika) — This school was hardly known in
    later times and was probably reabsorbed into the Mahasanghika.

  3. 3)  Bahulika (Bahusrutiya) — This school emphasized religious
    knowledge and erudition (
    bahusutta = learning).

  4. 4)  Cetiyavada (Chaitiyavada) — This school emphasized the cetiya or
    shrine worship. It is identified with the
    Lokottaravadins because the
    Mahavastu, which is an avowed text of the Lokottaravadins, gives
    prominence to the worship of
    cetiyas.

  5. 5)  Pannattivada (Prajnaptivada) — the concept (= pannatti) school

  6. 6)  Purvasaila and Aparasaila (= Uttarasaila) — refer to the schools of
    Andhra country whose followers were called the “East-Cliffmen” and
    “Opposite Cliffmen” respectively. Part of the
    Andhaka schools.

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

B) Theravada (Sthavira) and Related Schools

Theravada means the doctrine of the Elders and was the original Sangha
from which the other schools seceded. Its texts are written in Pali,
recognized as the vernacular language used by the Buddha.

  1. 1)  Mahisasaka — named after Mahisaka country where this school was
    formed. Like Theravada, the Mahisasaka adhere to the view that an
    Arahant is beyond the reach of any seduction and cannot relapse.

  2. 2)  Vajjiputaka (Vatsiputriya) — probably formed by Vajjian monks who
    did not join the Mahasanghika but branched out independently later.
    They prepared a new recension of the
    Abhidhamma based on the belief
    of the existence of a personality or
    puggala, a belief shared by the
    Sammitiyas. Both schools were also called
    Puggalavadins.

  3. 3)  Dhammuttarika (Dharmottariya) — Higher Dhamma school an
    offshoot of the Vajjiputtakas and were found in Aparanta on the coast
    of Maharastra at the port of Soparaka and places nearby.

  4. 4)  Bhaddayanika (Bhadrayanika) — the “Auspicious” vehicle, an
    offshoot of Vajjiputtaka. To the Bhaddayanikas is attributed the
    doctrine of “
    anupubbabhisamaya” – that realization of the Four Noble
    Truths is acquired in segmentary order

  5. 5)  Channagarika (Sannagarika) — School of six towns, an offshoot of
    Vajjiputtaka. To them is attributed the doctrine of
    Dukkhaharoti, the
    utterance of the word “
    dukkha” leads to knowledge (nana).

  6. 6)  Sammitiya (Sammatiya) — from “samma ditthi” means the school of
    Right View. It ascribes its origin to Mahakaccana but Mahavamsa puts
    it as an offshoot of Vajjiputtaka. The only remarkable doctrine of the
    Sammitiyas is that regarding the nature of the
    puggala, which served
    as the carrier of the five kandhas or aggregates through births and
    rebirths of beings. Like the Sabbathivadins they also held that there is
    an
    antarabhava i.e. an intermediate state between the death of a being
    and its rebirth.

  7. 7)  Sabbathivada (Sarvastivadin) — derived from “sabba athi” or
    “everything exists” and refers to the doctrine of this school
    . They held
    almost the same views about the human life and the universe as the
    Theravadins, in the non-existence of soul, in impermanence and the
    law of
    Kamma. However the Sabbathivadins believed in the reality of
    the five aggregates (
    khandhas) that compose a being as against the

    Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

    Theravadin’s view of their unreality. Thus they admitted the reality of

    khandhas as existing in all times – past, present and future.

    1. 8)  Dhammagutika (Dharmagupta) — started in Gujarat and Sindhu and
      named after the Greek missionary Dhammarakkhita or Dharmagupta
      who was sent there after the Third Council. This explains why it was
      not mentioned in the
      Kathavatthu.

    2. 9)  Kassapiya (Kasyapiya) — named after the founder Kassapagotta, who
      with Majjhima propagated Buddhism in the Himalayan region. It is
      identical with the
      Haimavata school.

    10) Samkantika (Sautrantika) — This school denied the authority of
    Abhidhamma and admitted only that of the suttas. Hence they were
    closer to the
    Suttavadins who followed the doctrine of the suttas.

    􏰁ote 4: Venerable Moggaliputta Tissa

    According to Mahavamsa, the Venerable Moggaliputta Tissa, President
    of the Third Council, was a Brahma-god called Tissa in his previous
    existence. At the time of the Second Council, the
    Arahants, foreseeing
    danger to the religion in the future, approached him for help as his lifespan
    in the Brahma realm was coming to an end. He consented to be born in the
    world of men in order to prevent the downfall of the Buddha’s religion and
    subsequently took rebirth as the son of the
    brahmin Moggali of Pataliputta.
    The Elders
    Siggava and Candavajji, both disciples of Sonaka (himself a
    disciple of
    Dasaka, who received ordination from Ven. Upali) had been
    entrusted with the task of converting him. From the time of Tissa’s birth,
    therefore, for seven years, Siggava went daily to the house of Moggali, but
    not even one word of welcome like “Go further on”, did he receive. In the
    eighth year someone said to him, “Go further on.” As he went out he met
    Moggali, and on being asked whether he had received anything at his
    house, he said he had. Moggali inquired at home and the next day charged
    Siggava with lying. But hearing Siggava’s explanation, he was greatly
    pleased and thereafter constantly offered Siggava hospitality at his house.
    One day, young
    Tissa, who was thoroughly proficient in the Vedas, was
    much annoyed at finding Siggava occupying his seat and spoke to him
    harshly. But Siggava started to talk to him and asked him a question from
    the
    Citta Yamaka. Tissa could not answer it and in order to learn the
    Buddha’s teachings, he entered the Order under Siggava, becoming a
    Sotapanna or Stream-winner soon after. Siggava instructed him in the

    Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

    Vinaya and Candavajji in the Sutta and Abhidhamma Pitakas. In due course
    he attained
    Arahantship together with the supernormal powers and became
    the acknowledged leader of the monks at Pataliputta.

    At the festival of dedication of the Asokarama and the other monasteries
    built by
    King Asoka, Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa, in answer to a question by
    Asoka, said that even a lavish donor of gifts like him was not a kinsman of
    the Buddha but one becomes a kinsman of the Buddha’s religion only by
    letting one’s son or daughter enter the Order. Acting on this suggestion,
    Asoka had two of his children,
    Mahinda and Sanghamitta ordained. Ven.
    Moggaliputta Tissa acted as Mahinda’s preceptor. Later, because of the
    great gains which accrued to the monks through Asoka’s patronage of the
    Buddha’s religion, the Order became corrupted as heretics donned the
    yellow robe for material gain and dwelt together with
    the bhikkhus. Ven.
    Moggaliputta Tissa committed the monks to the charge of Mahinda, and for
    seven years lived in solitary retreat in the
    Ahoganga Mountain.

    Due to the great number of heretics and their unruliness, no Uposatha
    ceremony was held for seven years in all the monasteries. When Asoka sent
    his minister to investigate and settle the matter, the foolish official killed
    several monks. Hearing of the misdeed, Asoka was filled with remorse and
    doubts lingered in his mind whether he was responsible for the crime. He
    was told that Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa, who was living in solitary retreat on
    the Ahoganga Mountain further up the Ganges, could resolve his doubt.
    From there Asoka sent for him to solve his doubts as to what measure of sin
    belonged to him owing to the killing of the monks by his minister. But Ven.
    Moggaliputta Tissa would not come until Asoka appealed to him that his
    services were needed to befriend the religion. The Elder traveled by boat to
    Pataliputta, and was met at the landing place by the king who helped him
    out by supporting him on his arm.

    The king then led him to Rativaddhana Park and to test the Elder’s
    faculty, begged him to perform a miracle, which the Elder consented to do
    and made the earth quake in a single region. To convince the king that the
    killing of the monks involved no guilt on himself, the Elder preached to
    him the
    Tittira Jataka. Within a week, with the aid of two yakkhas, the
    king had all the monks gathered together and held an assembly at the
    Asokarama. In the presence of Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa, Asoka questioned
    the monks on their various doctrines, and all those holding heretical views
    were expelled from the Order, Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa decreeing that the
    Vibhajjavada alone contained the teaching of the Buddha. Later, in
    association with 1,000
    Arahants, Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa convened the
    Third Council at Asokarama, and compiled the
    Kathavatthu (Points of

    Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

    Controversy), in refutation of false views. This was in the seventeenth year
    of Asoka’s reign and Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa was seventy-two years old.
    At the conclusion of the Council in nine months, Ven. Moggaliputta Tissa
    made arrangements, in the month of Kattika, for monks to go to the
    countries adjacent to India for the propagation of the religion.

    􏰁ote 5: Tipitakadharas of Myanmar Today

    • Tipitakadhara = Bearer of the Tipitaka (’recitation’)

    • Tipitakakawida = Bearer of the Tipitaka (’oral’ and ‘written’)

    • Maha Tipitakakawida = Passing the ‘oral’ and ‘written’ with distinction

    • Dhammabhandagarika = Keeper of the Dhamma Treasure

      The above Titles are awarded to successful Buddhist monks in Myanmar if
      the candidates can recite 8026 pages of the Buddhist Canon or
      Tipitaka and
      also pass the written examination, which includes the Commentaries and
      Sub-commentaries.
      Tipitakadhara Selection Examination is the most
      extensive, most difficult and highest. No one passed any of the categories in
      1948 when it was first held in Rangoon (Yangon) after the country gained
      Independence. The aim of the examination was to promote the emergence
      of the outstanding personalities who can memorize and recite the whole of
      the
      Tipitaka (8026 pages or about 2.4 million words in Myanmar Pali).

      It is the longest examination in the world and the entire examination is
      spread over five years. In the first and second year, the candidates are
      examined in
      Vinaya Pitaka (2260 Pages) lasting a total of 20 days (3 days
      each for 5 volumes plus 5 days for the written part covering the
      Commentaries and Sub-commentaries). In the third year the candidates are
      examined in 3 volumes of the
      Sutta Pitaka (779 pages). In the fourth and
      the fifth years, the examination on the first five (1390 pages) and the last
      two (3597 pages) of seven volumes of the
      Abhidhamma Pitaka is arranged.
      The total length of the examination used to be four years before.

      The first successful candidate was Venerable U Vicittasarabhivamsa, who
      was later known as the ‘Mingun Sayadaw’. He passed the
      Vinaya part in the
      1950 Examination. In 1953 he completed the final part at that time of the
      Pathika Vagga of the Sutta Pitaka and became the first ever ‘Tipitakadhara
      in Myanmar (Burma) at the age of 42 and his achievement was recorded in
      the Guinness Book of Records. Since then, more and more outstanding
      monks have been awarded full titles for their fabulous memory. Since 1948,
      the following candidates have earned the title of
      Tipitakadhara.


Title Holders

Ven. Vicittasarabhivamsa
Ven. Nemainda
Ven. Kosala
Ven. Sumingalalankara
Ven. Sirinandabhivamsa
Ven. Vayameindabhivamsa
Ven. Kondanna

Ven. Silakhandabhivamsa
Ven. Vamsapalalankara
Ven. Indapala
Ven. Sundara

Titles* Year

1,3,4 1953
1,2,4 1959
1,2,4 1963
1,2 1973
1,2 1984
1,2 1995
1 1997
1,2 1998, 2000 34
1,2 1998, 2000 32
1 2001 40
1 2001 45

Three Baskets (Tipitaka) in Buddhism 307

Age (First Title)

*1 = Tipitakadhara, 2 = Tipitakakawida, 3 = Maha Tipitakakawida,
*4 = Dhammabhandagarika

One may question the wisdom of arranging this extremely difficult
examination now that we can put the
Tipitaka texts on CD-ROM and there
is no question of the
Tipitaka texts disappearing from this world. But the
actual rewards of the whole examination is reflected in the emergence of
thousands of monks who have memorized all or some of the texts by heart
and are able to help lay worshippers with their instant sermons and
discourses, faster than the CD-Rom texts appear on the computer screen.
Mastery of the Pali Canon will ensure that the monks transmit their
knowledge with authority. So the ultimate aim of the
Tipitaka Examination
is to promote propagation of the Buddhist Teaching, which is the noblest of
all the gifts, the Gift of the
Dhamma in its purest form. 1

Reference: Tipitaka Golden Jubilee 1948/49 – 1997/98 Magazine,
Religious Affairs Directorate Press, Myanmar, 1998

􏰁ote 6: King Kanishka of the Kushans

The Kushans belonged to the Yueh-chih tribe, who originally lived in the
western frontier of China between Tun-huang and Chi-lien-shan. They were
driven out of China by the Hsiung-nu (the powerful Asiatic Huns of North
China) around 177BC and the greater part of the group migrated westward
into present-day eastern Kyrgyzstan around Lake Issyk Kul, driving south
the local nomadic
Sakas or Scythians. Not long after this, the Yueh-chih
faced another round of attack by the Hsiung-nu, forcing them to flee to
Sogdiana (present day Uzbekistan, west of Ferghana) and Bactria (ancient

Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

country lying between the Hindu Kush and the Oxus River in what is now
Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), where they overran the local
Sakas. They and related tribes are the Asiani and
Tokharians of Western
sources. In around 128BC, the Yueh-chih were recorded as living north of
the
Oxus River (Amu Darya) ruling over Bactria which they had divided
into five divisions. A new dynasty, that of the Kushans was subsequently
founded by one of the five chieftains named
Kujula Kadphises, who
united the other four divisions under his rule. Kujula Kadphises invaded
Parthia (the country around Khorastan in Iran) and took Kabul. His son
V’ima Kadphises succeeded him and inherited a large kingdom consisting
of the Kushan homelands north of the Oxus and Kujula’s conquest – Kabul,
Kashmir, Gandhara and Taxila. V’ima increased these holdings with the
subjugation of northern India as far as
Mathura.

The most famous Kushan king was Kanishka I (ruled 78 – 102AD) whose
capital was at Purusapura near modern
Peshawar. Kanishka succeeded to a
large empire and made it even larger by further conquest of India as far as
Bihar in the east, Sindh and Baluchistan in the southwest. He was later
converted to Buddhism and supported the
Sarvastivada, one of the
eighteen
􏰀ikayas, which dominated in Mathura and in the northwest. Daily
he would invite monks to preach in his palace but found their views so
contradictory that he became confused and consulted the Venerable
Parsva
about the true doctrine. At the latter’s advice, Kanishka decided to convene
a Council in which the various
􏰀ikayas were represented. The aim of the
Fourth Council was to put an end to the dissensions in the Sangha. It was
presided by
Vasumitra and reportedly held in Jalandhar or Kashmir around
100AD. The Theravadins do not recognize this council and there is no
mention of it in the Ceylonese Chronicles. According to the Chinese
pilgrim Hsuan Tsang, after the treatises were composed, they were
engraved on sheets of red copper and stored in stone boxes, which were
deposited in a
stupa built for the purpose. These texts have survived only in
Chinese translations and adaptations.


References

  1. 1)  Chapter One Origin and Expansion of Buddhism by Ven. J.
    Kashyap. Chapter Two
    The Fundamental Principles of Theravada
    Buddhism by Ven. Sayadaw U Thittila. The Path of the Buddha edited
    by Kenneth W. Morgan. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1986.

  2. 2)  Indian Buddhism (Chapters One & Ten) by A.K. Warder. Motilal
    Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, Delhi 2000.

  3. 3)  The Life of the Buddha According to the Pali Canon by Bhikkhu
    Nanamoli. Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.

  4. 4)  The Book of Discipline, Vinayapitaka Cullavagga V, 33 translated by
    I.B. Horner. Published by the Pali Text Society, Oxford, England.

  5. 5)  Vinaya Texts, Cullavagga V, 33, translated from Pali by T.W. Rhys
    Davds and Hermann Oldenberg. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi
    1988.

  6. 6)  Introduction: A History of Pali Literature by Bimala Churn Law.
    Indica Books, Varanasi, India 2000.

  7. 7)  The Arya Dharma of Sakya Muni, Gautama Buddha or the Ethics of
    Self Discipline. By the Venerable the Anagarika Dharmapala.
    Published by Maha Bodhi Book Agency, 4-A, Bankim Chatterjee
    Street, Calcutta 700 073, India. First Published 1917, Reprinted 1989

  8. 8)  The Import of Sakaya 􏰀irutti: A Reappraisal by Dr. Mauli Chand
    Prasad in ‘Homage to Bhikkhu Jagdish Kashyap (Commemoration
    Volume)’. Published by Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, Bihar, India 1986.

  9. 9)  A Dictionary of the Pali Language by Robert Caesar Childers. 1974
    reprinted by Buddha Sasana Council, Yangon, Myanmar.

  10. 10)  Numerical Discourses of the Buddha by Nyanaponika Thera &
    Bhikkhu Bodhi. The Sacred Literature Series of the International
    Sacred Literature Trust. Vistaar Publications, New Delhi, 2000.

  11. 11)  The Expositor (Atthasalini) – Buddhaghosa’s Commentary on the
    Dhammasangani, the First Book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka Volumes
    I, II. Translated by Pe Maung Tin, PTS, London, 1976.

  12. Microsoft Word - 18_ Three Baskets _Tipitaka_ in Buddhism.doc

    1. 12)  The First Buddhist Council by Teitaro Suzuki. The Monist – A
      Quarterly Magazine Devoted to the Philosophy of Science Volume
      XIV Chicago the Open Court Publishing Company 1904. Scanned &
      edited by Christopher M. Weimer, April 2002.

    2. 13)  Mahavamsa or Great Chronicle of Ceylon. Translated into English by
      Wilhelm Geiger. Published by the Pali Text Society, London. First
      published, 1912.

    3. 14)  Buddhist Monastic Discipline: The Sanskrit Pratimoksa Sutras of the
      Mahasamghikas and Mulasarvastivadins by Charles S. Prebish. Motilal
      Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 1996.

    4. 15)  Buddhist Sects in India by Nalinaksha Dutt. Motilal Banarsidass, 2nd
      Edition, Delhi 1978.

    5. 16)  Points of Controversy – A Translation of the Katha-Vatthu by Shwe
      Zan Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids. Published by the Pali Texts Society,
      London, 1979.

    6. 17)  Buddhist Monks and Monasteries in India (page 79) by Sukumar Dutt.
      Reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1988.

    7. 18)  Davids. T. W. Rhys: The Sects of the Buddhists in Journal of the Royal
      Asiatic Society 1891, pp. 409-422. The History and Literature of
      Buddhism. Bharatiya Publishing House, Varanasi, India 1975

    8. 19)  The Origin of the Early Indian Scripts: A Review Article by Richard
      Salomon, University of Washington. Journal of the American Oriental
      Society
      115.2 (1995), 271-279.

    9. 20)  The History of the Religion (Sasanavamsa) translated by Bimala
      Churn Law. Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Vol. 1033. Luzac & Co.
      Ltd., London 1952.

    10. 21)  The Path of Purification –Visuddhi Magga. Translated from the Pali
      by Bhikkhu Nanamoli. Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri
      Lanka.

    11. 22)  The Myanmar Contribution to the Spread of Theravada Buddhism
      throughout the World by U Ko Lay, Professor, Vipassana Department,
      Faculty of Pattipatti, Yangon 1998.

Leave a Reply