Free Online Analytic Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.Free Online Analytic Insight Net for Discovery of Metteyya the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(FOAINDMAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.
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 111 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA'S own Words through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgat 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Bangalore- Karnataka State -India Do good. Purify mind -‘The gift of Dhamma excels all other gifts – sabba danam dhamma danam to attain NIBBANA as Final Goal

May 2020
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LESSON 3361 Sat 23 May 2020 Discovery of Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness Universe(DBAOAU) For the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal. From KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University in
 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in BUDDHA’S own Words through at WHITE HOME 668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Stage, Puniya Bhoomi Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -Prabuddha Bharat Free Online Leadership Training from for Discovery of Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Happiness, welfare and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient beings and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal!Make your peace with that and all will be well.” Maha-Sudassana-Suttanta
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 7:10 pm

7,786,095,060 Current World Population -
COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:2,081,511

Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19

  • 1. Comoros,
  • 2. North Korea, 
  • 3. Yemen,
  • 4. The Federated States of Micronesia,
  • 5. Kiribati,
  • 6. Solomon Islands,
  • 7. The Cook Islands,
  • 8. Micronesia,
  • 9. Tonga,
  • 10. The Marshall Islands Palau,
  • 11. American Samoa, 
  • 12. South Georgia
  •  13. South Sandwich Islands.
  • 14.Saint Helena.


    15. Aland Islands

  • 17. Jan Mayen Islands

  • 18. Latin America

    19. Africa

    British Indian Ocean Territory

    French Southern Territories

  • Oceania

  • Christmas Island
    Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    Heard Island

  • McDonald Islands

    Norfolk Island
    Solomon Islands
    United States Minor Outlying Islands
    Wallis and Futuna Islands

  • Tajikistan,
  • Turkmenistan,
  • Tuvalu,
  • Vanuatu

Are all well, happy and secure!
They are calm, quiet, alert and attentive with their wisdom,
having an equanimity mind not reacting to good and bad thoughts
with a clear understanding that everything is changing!

all the Presidents, Prime Ministers, Parlimentarians,
Legislators,Ministers, MPs, MLAs, Political ruling and opposition Party
members, Chief Justices, Judges, Chief Election Commission members Media
persons who were not affected by COVID-19 not wearing face masks but
still alive  and who are more deadliest than COVID-1

World Organisations including WHO, UNO, Human Rights Commission, All
Chief Justices, Election Commissioners, All Opposition parties Social
Media must unite for

Discovery of Awakened with Awareness Universe

the Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Sentient and Non-Sentient
Beings and for them to Attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal.

1. All EVMs/VVPATs must be replaced with Ballot Papers to save Democracy, Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.

Whether COVID-19 Virus is natural or a Lab Created One.The affected and
dead peoples’ names and addresses must be made public.

3. Signs and symptoms of the Virus

While it’s not known who got what from whom, whether the virus was even
spread simply having a cold at that time, the case has shaken the
community even if it didn’t “qualify” for a test after showing runny
nose which was listed as a symptom of COVID-19 and advises anyone
feeling unwell to stay home.

Major Cause of Death in COVID-19 is Thrombosis, Not Pneumonia !

It seems that the disease is being attacked wrongly worldwide.

Thanks to autopsies performed by the Italians … it has been shown that
it is not pneumonia … but it is: disseminated intravascular coagulation

Therefore, the way to fight it is with antibiotics, antivirals, anti-inflammatories and anticoagulants.

The protocols are being changed here since !

According to valuable information from Italian pathologists, ventilators and intensive care units were never needed.

If this is true for all cases, it is about to be resolved it earlier than expected.


of democratic institutions (Modi)’s poorly planned 45 days curfew didn’t
save us from COVID-19, but killed economy after gobbling the Master Key
by tampering the fraud EVMs/VVPATs and won elections on behalf of Rowdy
rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) foreigners from Bene Israel who must be
forced to quit Prabuddha Bharat along with their own mother’s flesh
eaters, stooges, slaves and boot lickers.

With typically shoddy execution, Modi’s national curfew could starve to death.

It is
important to note that countries that have so far done a relatively good
job of containing the COVID-19 pandemic have refrained from imposing a
complete, nation-wide, curfew-like lockdown. These
include Singapore, Taiwan, Germany, and Turkey. Even China, where it all
started, placed only the Hubei province under complete curfew, not the
whole country.

Modi has
put 1.3 billion people under a curfew. Since the authorities are using
the word ‘curfew’ in the context of issuing passes, it is fair to call
it a national curfew.

Modi does
not have the capacity to think through the details of planning and
execution. This is turning out to be another demonetisation, with the
typical Modi problem of mistaking theatrics for achievement.

If we
survive the pandemic, we won’t survive the impending economic collapse.
The economy isn’t on Modi’s radar either. He won a national election
despite disastrous economic policies that gave us a 45
year-high unemployment rate. Why should he worry about the economy? Names list as to how many employees and migrant and daily
workers lost their jobs because of the permanent curfew laid by
governments in the name of COVID-19 and suffering with hunger.

Demonetisation and GST resulted in killing demand, and this poorly
planned national curfew will kill supply chains. We’ll be left with the
great Indian discovery, the zero.

Modi announced a national curfew with little notice. He addressed India
at 8 pm, and the curfew came into force at midnight. Just like
demonetisation. Why couldn’t he have given some notice? Why couldn’t he
have done his TV address at 8 am? Maximising prime time attention, you

The home
ministry issued a list of exemptions but try explaining them to the cops
on the street. The police is doing what it loves to do the most:
beating up Indians with lathis. Meanwhile, lakhs
of trucks are stranded on state borders. Supply chains for the most
essential items have been disrupted, including medicines, milk,
groceries, food and newspaper deliveries.

Nobody in
the Modi’s office seems to be aware of any such thing as crop
harvesting, or the Rabi season, as farmers wonder how they’ll do it amid
this national curfew. Only Modi can manage to be so
clever as to
disrupt the country’s medical supply chain while fighting a
pandemic.Modi is the only major world leader who has not yet announced a
financial package. In his first speech, he said the finance minister
will head a committee, but some in the finance ministry said they heard
of this committee from the Modi’s speech. He did announce Rs 15,000
crore extra to meet the health expenditure arising out of the COVID-19
crisis — that is Rs 5,000 crore less than the amount of money he has
kept aside for his narcissistic and unnecessary project of rebuilding
the Central Vista of New Delhi.

At this
rate, more might die of hunger than of COVID-19. Modi’s poor
administrative skills, zero attention span for details, spell disaster
for this crisis. In a few weeks, we might find ourselves overwhelmed
with an epidemic in defiance of official numbers, while the economy
might start looking like the 1980s.

With a request
for partnership with allyour esteemed organisations for Discovery of
Awakened One with Awareness Universe (DAOAU) for the welfare, happiness
and peace for all societies.


Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University in
 116 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES in Awakened One with Awareness’s own Words
668, 5A main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd
Stage, Puniya Bhoomi  Bengaluru- Magadhi Karnataka State -Prabuddha Bharat

Last updated: May 22, 2020, 03:56 GMT

54,650,119Births this year
150,883Births today
22,943,429Deaths this year
63,344Deaths today

while World 22,943,429 Deaths this year COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic Recovered:2,081,511

Coronavirus Cases:5,194,879 Deaths 334,622

Awakened One with Awareness perspective of good governance-

Democratic governance
Shadow man on COVID-19, US story
Major Cause of Death in COVID-19 is Thrombosis, Not Pneumonia
The CDC says they don’t recommend people wear masks to prevent transmitting the virus if you do not have symptoms.

Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta
1. Dasa raja dhamma

2. kusala.

3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana
4. priyavacana

 5. artha cariya

 6. samanatmata

7. Samyutta Nikayaarya

” or

8. Agganna Sutta
9. Majjima Nikaya
10. arya” or “ariya
12. Digha Nikaya

13.Maha Sudassana
Canon Sutta
Pali Canon and Suttapitaka
Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma
Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha
Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,
Kutadanta Sutta
Yoniso manasikara
Law of Kamma
Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya
Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya












Sigalovada Sutta

Brahmajala Sutta

Digha Nikaya (Mahaparinibbana-sutta

Lord Awakened One with Awareness said (in Pali),

‘Na jacca vasalo hoti na jacca hoti brahmano.
Kammuna vasalo hoti
kammuna hoti brahmano.’
(Not by his birth man is an outcaste or a Brahman;
Only by his own Kamma man becomes an outcaste
or a Brahman.)

Lord Awakened One with Araeness said,

Be hurry, O Bhikkhus, to paddle your boat till it shall reach the other side of the river bank.’

Awakened One with awareness said
Suddhi asuddhi paccattam nanno nannam visodhaye’ (purity and impurity is the matter of an individual; one can, by no means, purify

19. Africa

Dance Africa GIF - Dance Africa Children GIFs

Masaka Kids Africana Dancing Joy Of Togetherness ft 3wash_hip_hop & Karina Palmira

Masaka Kids Afrikana
1.04M subscribers
Here it is! Joy Of Togetherness Dance Video..Enjoy..Don’t forget to Share,SUBSCRIBE & Like.Thank you!!
🔔.Our Song ♫♫Available on iTunes! ➥

🔔“Joy Of Togetherness” is out now:

1. Masaka Kids Africana @masakakidsafrica
2.Aisha @3wash_hip_hip
3:Karina Palmira @karinapalma @moto_dancers_afrobeats
#joyoftogetherness #masakakidsafricana #joyoftogethernesschallenge

Song: Joy Of Togetherness By Our future singer Emma
Audio: 🎙 Nico Pan Beats
Video: 🎬 3bros media

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© S O C I A L S
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• Facebook : ➸ @Masaka Kids Africana

• instagram : ➸ @masakakidsafricana

• Twitter : ➸ @masakakids

little bit about us, “Masaka Kids Africana ‘’”is the group \ Foundation
of young talented Kids in Dancing, from Uganda - Masaka, East
Africa,village called Nyendo - Kayirikiti,


****OUR VISION****** To empower children, mobilize communities and build futures.

****OUR MISSION***** We Supporting children in education and social well being, through their talents.

Masaka Kids Africana is composed of African children, from the age of 2
and up. Many have lost one or both parents through the devastation of
war, famine and disease. They represent all the children of a continent
and they demonstrate the potential of African children to become strong
leaders for a better future in their land.
children melt the hearts of audiences with their charming smiles and
delightful African tunes, accompanied by vibrant dance moves. Nearly
every performance is concluded with a thunderous standing ovation. A
marvelous by-product of the concert is the inspiration the music brings
to virtually every listener. In spite of the tragedy that has marred
their young lives, the children are radiant with hope, musically gifted
and wonderfully entertaining.

rely on the generosity of our extended family — people like you — so we
can educate, feed, clothe and support all of our children. Every dollar
we save from our performance is also a dollar earned for the continued
care of our kids. Our music and dance troupe children will soon begin
training again during their school term breaks and over select weekends.
Show your support of music and advocacy – it’s so easy to do.

Kids Africana sponsored children have gone through some of the worst
experiences a child could face — but through dance and song and sharing
their love of Uganda, these children connect to each other and the
world. They see their own potential — they have hope for their future.

10 Best African Music Singles

3 years ago
3 min read

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It was another great year for African music, with artists dropping tunes that made the whole continent dance.

Here are the ten biggest songs that topped the charts throughout the continent.

Babes Wodumo – Wololo

“Wololo” was one of the biggest songs
of 2016 in South Africa, topping the charts across most radio stations
in the country. The song is praised for putting South Africa’s popular
sub-genre, gqom, on the map, and it catapulted 23-year-old Babes Wodumo
(real name Bongekile Simelane) to fame across South Africa and the continent.  The video for the song has since amassed over 4 million views on YouTube.

Kwesta featuring Cassper Nyovest – Ngud’

South African hip hop artist, Kwesta,
had a good run with his hit single “Ngud” featuring Cassper Nyovest.
The song spent 14 non-consecutive weeks at number one on the iTunes
chart, and was the most played song on South African radio in 2016. It
was produced by DJ Maphorisa and samples Joakim’s remix of “Camino Del
Sol” by Antena. The song is from Kwesta’s 3
rd studio album titled “DaKAR II”.

Tekno – Pana

Nigerian muso, Tekno, burned the
airwaves with his sexy, African-inspired dance ballad, “Pana”. The video
for the song has since amassed over 50 million views on YouTube, and
popular the South African dj, Black Coffee, danced to the song as part
of his first dance with his wife, Mbali Mlotshwa, during their wedding
ceremony at Sun City Resort in South Africa.

Sauti Sol featuring Alikiba – Unconditionally Bae

“Unconditionally Bae” was one of East
Africa’s biggest songs as it featured two of the region’s biggest
stars; boy band, Sauti Sol, and Tanzania’s Alikiba. The song is a
danceable love ballad and was nominated for Song of the Year at the 2016
MTV Africa Music Awards. It has since amassed more than 4 million views
on YouTube.

Patoranking featuring Wande Coal – My Woman, My Everything

“My Woman, My Everything” by
Nigeria’s Patoranking featuring Wande Coal was the biggest song on the
continent in 2015 and 2016, earning Song of the Year at the 2016 MTV
Africa Music Awards. The song was also popular with Caribbean audiences
who love it for its catchy lyrics and infectious dance hall beat.

AKA featuring Burna Boy, Khuli Chana & Yanga – Baddest

South African hip hop artists
collaborated with some of the continent’s biggest stars to create the
song “Baddest” which was released in 2015, but continued to dominate the
airwaves in 2016. This is mainly attributed to the remix version being
released where AKA featured some of South Africa’s biggest female hip
hop artists, including: Moozlie, Rouge, Fifi Cooper and Gigi Lamayne.

DJ Maphorsia featuring WizKid & DJ Buckz – Soweto Baby

One of South Africa’s top dance music
producers, DJ Maphorisa, collaborated with heavyweights, Wizkid and DJ
Buckz, to create one of the biggest songs on the continent, “Soweto
Baby”. The song won Best Collaboration at the 2016 MTV Africa Music
Awards and the video was filmed in the iconic township of Soweto in
Johannesburg, South Africa.

Nasty c ft. Davido & Cassper Nyovest – Juice Back Remix

“Juice Back” by South African hip hop
artist, Nasty C, was the song that catapulted the 18-year-old rapper
into fame back in 2015. The song continued to create a stir across the
continent through his collaboration on a remix with Cassper Nyovest and
Davido. The song was produced by hit maker, Gemini Major, and it has
since amassed over 1.3 million views on YouTube.

EmTee featuring WizKid and AKA – Roll Up Re-Up

EmTee burst into the music scene in
South Africa with the smash hit, “Roll Up,” in 2015 and the hype around
the song continued well into 2016 with a remix of the song featuring
WizKid and AKA. “Roll Up” earned the award of Song of the Year in 2015
at the South African Hip Hop Awards and was nominated for Song of the
Year at the 2016 MTV Africa Music Awards. EmTee walked away with the
Best Hip Hop award at the ceremony.

Diamond Platnumz featuring Rayvanny – Salome

Diamond Platnumz’s hit single
“Salome” was one of the biggest songs in Tanzania and East Africa. The
song is a remake of Saida Karoli’s hit single from the 90s titled “Maria
Salome”, and is sung entirely in Swahili. The song has since amassed
over 12.9 million views on YouTube.

Share it!



South African journalist based in Johannesburg. A Wits
University graduate, Lebo enjoys writing lifestyle and entertainment

13.Maha Sudassana


  • Print



Suttanta is an expansion of the conversation recorded in the Book of
the Great Decease (above, Ch. V, § 17). The same legend recurs as the
Maha-Sudassana Jataka, No. 95 in Mr. Fausboll’s edition. As the latter
differs in several important particulars from our Suttanta, it is
probably not taken directly from it, but is merely derived from the

same source. To facilitate comparison between the two I add here a translation of the Jataka.


part enclosed in square brackets | | is the so-called Story of the
Present : and the whole was probably written in Ceylon in the fifth
century of our era. There is every reason to believe, for the reasons
given in my ‘ Buddhist India ‘ (pp. 201-7), that the stories themselves
belong to a very early period in the history of Buddhism and are, many
of them, older even than Buddhism. We may be sure that if this
particular story had been abstracted by the author of the commentary
from our Suttanta, he would not have ventured to introduce such serious
changes into what he regarded as sacred writ.




How transient are all component things.’ This the Master told when
lying on his death-couch, concerning that word of Ananda the Thera, when
he said : — ‘ Do not, O Exalted One, die in this little town,’ and so
on. When the Tathagata was at the Jetavana 1 he thought : —


It is not easy with our present materials to reconcile the apparently
conflicting statements with regard to the Buddha’s last journey.
According to the Malalahkara-vatthu this refers here to a residence at
the Jetavana, which took place between the end of § 23 in Chap. II in
the Book of the Great Decease, and the beginning of § 24.

Fausboll, by his punctuation, includes these words in the following
thought ascribed to the Exalted One, but I think they only describe the
time at which the thought is supposed to have arisen.


Thera Sariputta, who was born at Nalagama, has died, on the day of the
full moon in the month of Kattika, in the chamber in which he had been
born 1 ; and Maha-Moggallana in the latter, the dark half of that same
month. As my two chief disciples are thus dead, I too will pass away at
Kusinara.’ Thereupon he proceeded straight on to that place, and lay
down on the Uttarasisaka couch, between the twin Sala trees, never to
rise again.

the venerable Ananda besought him, saying: — ‘Let not the Exalted One
die in this little township, in this little town in the jungle, in this
branch township. Let the Exalted One die in one of the other great
cities, such as Rajagaha, and the rest! ‘

the Master answered: — ‘ Say not, Ananda, that this is a little
township, a little town in the jungle, a branch township. I was dwelling
formerly in this town at the time when I was Sudassana, the king of
kings; and then it was a great city, surrounded by a jewelled rampart,
twelve leagues in length! ‘And at the request of the Thera, he, telling
the tale, uttered the Maha-Sudassana-Sutta 2} .


on that occasion when Queen Subhadda saw Maha- Sudassana when he had
come down out of the Palace of Righteousness, and was lying down, not
far off, on the appropriate couch, spread out in the grove of the seven
kinds of gems, and when she said: — ‘ Thine, O king, are these four and
eighty thousand cities, of which the chief is the royal city of
Kusavati. Set thy heart on these ‘ ; — Then replied Maba-Sudassana:
‘Speak not thus, O queen! But exhort me rather, saying: — “Cast away
desire for these, long not after them 3 .” ‘


The text reads ‘ at Varaka.’ But this is a mistake. The word which has
puzzled Mr. Fausboll is ovaraka. The modern name of the village,
afterwards the site of the famous Buddhist university of Nalanda, is
Baragaon. The full-moon day in Kattika is the first of December. An
account of the death of Sariputta will be found in the
Malalahkara-vatthu (Bigandet, ‘Legend,’ &c, 3rd ed., II, 1-25), and
of the murder of Moggallana by the NigawMas in the Dhammapada commentary
(Fausboll, p. 298 seq.), of which Spence Hardy’s account (’ Manual of
Buddhism,’ p. 338) is nearly a translation; and Bigandet’s account (loc.
cit., pp. 25-7) is an abridgement.

In the earliest description of this conversation (above, ‘ Book of the
Great Decease/ V, 17) there is no mention of this. But it is inserted
most incongruously in the present Suttanta.

3 Both these speeches are different from those given on the same occasion in the Suttanta below.


when she asked: — ‘ Why so, O king? ‘ ‘ To-day my time is come, and I
shall die ! ‘was his reply 1 . Then the weeping queen, wiping her eyes,
brought herself with difficulty and distress to address him accordingly.
And having spoken, she wept, and lamented; and the other four and
eighty thousand women wept too, and lamented; and of the attendant
courtiers not one could restrain himself, but all also wept. But the
Bodisat stopped them all, saying: — ‘ Enough, my friends! Be still! ‘And
he exhorted the queen, saying: — ‘ neither do thou, O queen, weep:
neither do thou lament. For down even unto a grain of sesamum fruit
there is no such thing as a compound which is permanent! All are
transient; all have the inherent quality of dissolution! ‘And when he
had so said, he further uttered this stanza: — ‘ How transient are all
component things! Growth is their nature and decay: They are produced,
they are dissolved again: To bring them into full subjection, that is
bliss 2


these verses the words ‘ How transient are all component things! ‘ mean
‘ Dear lady Subhadda, wheresoever and by whatsoever causes made or come
together, compounds 3 , — that is, all those things which possess the
essential constituents [whether material or mental] of existing things 4
, — all these compounds are impermanence itself. For of these form 5 is
impermanent, reason 6 is impermanent, the [mental] eye 7 is
impermanent, and qualities 8 are impermanent. And whatever treasure
there is, whether conscious or unconscious, that is transitory.
Understand therefore “How transient are all component things!”

why? “Growth is their nature and decay.” These, all, have the inherent
quality of coming into [individual] existence, and have also the
inherent quality of growing old; or [in other words] their very nature
is to come into existence and to be broken up. Therefore should it be
understood that they are impermanent. ‘ And since they are impermanent,
when ” they are produced, they are dissolved again.” Having come into


1 This question and answer are not in the Suttanta.

All this is omitted in the Suttanta. It is true the verse occurs here,
but it is placed in the mouth of the Teacher, after the account of
Maha-Sudassana’s death.

3 Sankhara.

4 Khandayatanadayo.

5 Rupam.

6 Vififianam.

7 Cakkhum.

8 Dhamma.


reached a state 1 , they are surely dissolved. For all these things
come into existence, taking an individual form; and are dissolved, being
broken up. To them as soon as there is birth, there is what is called a
state; as soon as there is a state, there is what is called
disintegration 2 . For to the unborn there is no such thing as state,
and there is no such thing as a state which is without disintegration.
Thus are all compounds, having attained to the three characteristic
marks [of impermanency, pain, and want of any abiding principle], and
subject, in this way and in that way, to dissolution. All these
component things therefore, without exception, are impermanent,
momentary, despicable, unstable, disintegrating, trembling, quaking,
unlasting, sure to depart 3 , only for a time 4 , and without substance ;
as temporary as a phantom, as the mirage, or as foam !

then in these, dear lady Subhadda, can you feel any sign of
satisfaction? Understand rather than “to bring them into subjection,
that is bliss.” For to bring them into subjection, since it involves
mastery over the whole circle of transmigration,

is the same as Nirvana. That and this are one 5 . And there is no other bliss than that.’]


when Maha-Sudassana had thus brought his discourse to a point with the
ambrosial great Nirvana, and had made exhortation also to the rest of
the great multitude, saying : — ‘ Give gifts ! Observe the precepts !
Keep the sacred days 6 ! ‘ he became an inheritor of the world of the

the Master had concluded this lesson in the truth, he summed up the
Jataka, saying: — ‘ She who was then Subhadda the queen was the mother
of Rahula, the great adviser was Rahula, the rest of the retinue the
Buddha’s retinue, and

Maha-Sudassana I myself.’]

word translated ‘ component things ‘ or ‘ compounds ‘ is sarikhara,
literally confections, from kar, ‘to make,’ and sam, ‘ together.’ It is a
word very frequently used in Buddhist writings, and a word consequently
of many different connota- tions ; and there is, of course, no exactly
corresponding word


1 Thiti.

2 Bhango.

3 Payata, literally ‘departed.’ The forms payati and payato, given by Childers, should be corrected into payati and payato.

4 Tavakalika. See Jataka I, 121, where the word is used of a cart let out on hire for a time only.

5 Tad ev ekam ekam, which is not altogether without ambiguity.

6 This paragraph, too, is omitted in the Suttanta.


English. ‘Production ‘ would often be very nearly correct, although it
fails entirely to give the force of the preposition sam; but a greater
objection to that word is the fact that it is generally used, not of
things that have come into being of themselves, but of things that have
been produced by some one else. It suggests, if it does not imply, a
producer; which is contrary to the whole spirit of the Buddhist passages
in which the word sankhara occurs. In this important respect the word ‘
compound ‘ is a much more accurate translation, though it lays somewhat
too much stress on the sam. The term Confections (to coin a rendering)
is sometimes used to denote all things which have been brought together,
made up, by pre-existing causes; phenomena in general. In this sense it
includes, as the commentator here points out, all those material or
mental qualities which unite to form an individual, a separate thing or
being, whether conscious or unconscious.


is more usually used, (with special reference to their origin from
pre-existing causes, and with allusion to the wider meanings just above
explained), of the mental confections only, the mental constituents, of
all sentient beings generally, or of man alone. In this sense it forms
by itself one of the five classes or aggregates (khan d ha) into which
the material and mental qualities of each separate individual are
divided in Buddhist writings— the class of dispositions, capabilities,
and all that goes together to make what we call character. This class
has naturally enough been again divided and subdivided ;

a full list of the Confections in this sense, as now acknowledged by
orthodox Buddhists, will be found in my manual ‘Buddhism’ (pp. 91, 92).
At the time when the Five Nikayas reached their present form, no such
elaborate list of Confections in detail seems to have been made ; but
the general sense of the word was, as is quite clear from the passages
in which it occurs, the idea which these details together convey. It is
this second and more usual meaning of the term which is more especially
emphasized in the

concluding verse of the above stanza.


now to the Suttanta itself, we find that the portion of the legend
omitted in the Jataka throws an unexpected light upon the tale ; for it
commences with a long description of the riches and glory of
Maha-Sudassana, and reveals in its details the instructive fact that the
legend is nothing more nor less than a spiritualized sun-myth.


cannot be disputed that the sun-myth theory has become greatly
discredited, and with reason, by having been used too carelessly and
freely as an explanation of religious legends of different times and
countries which have really no historical connexion with the earlier awe
and reverence inspired by the sun. The very mention of the word
sun-myth is apt to call forth a smile of incredulity, and the
indubitable truth which s the basis of the theory has not sufficed to
protect it from the shafts of ridicule. The ‘ Book of the Great King of
Glory ‘ .seems to afford a useful example both of the extent to which
the theory may be accepted, and of the limitations under which it should
always be applied.


must at once be admitted that whether the whole story is based on a
sun-story, or whether certain parts or details of it are derived from
things first spoken about the sun, or not, it is still essentially
Buddhistic. A large proportion of its contents has nothing at all to do
with the worship of the sun ; and even that which has, had not, in the
mind of the author, when the book was put together. Whether indebted to a
sun-myth or not, it is therefore perfectly true and valid evidence of
the religious belief of the people among whom it was current ; and no
more shows that the Buddhists were unconscious sun-worshippers than the
story of Samson, under any theory of its possible origin, would prove
the same of the Jews.


we really have is a kind of wonderful fairy tale, a gorgeous poem, in
which an attempt is made to describe in set terms the greatest possible
glory and majesty of the

possible king, in order to show that all is vanity, save only
righteousness — just such a poem as a Jewish prophet might have written
of Solomon in all his glory. It would

been most strange, perhaps impossible, for the author to refrain from
using the language of the only poets he knew, who had used their boldly
figurative language in an attempt to describe the appearance of the sun.
To trace back all the rhetorical phrases of our Sutta to their earliest
appearance in the Vedic hymns would be an interest- ing task of
historical philology, though it would throw more light upon Buddhist
forms of speech than upon Buddhist forms of belief. In M. Senart’s
valuable work, ‘ La Legende du Bouddha,’ he has already done this with
regard to the seven treasures (mentioned in the early part of the
Suttanta) on the basis of the corresponding passage in the later
Buddhist Sanskrit poem called the Lalita Vistara. The description of the
royal city and of its wondrous Palace of Righteousness has been
probably originated by the author, though on the same lines ; and it
reminds one irresistibly, in many of its expressions, of the similar,
but simpler and more beautiful poem in which a Jewish author, some three
or four centuries afterwards, described the heavenly Jerusalem.


the Northern Buddhists, long afterwards, had smothered the simple
teaching of the founder of their religion under the subtleties of
theological and metaphysical speculation, and had forgotten all about
the Aryan Path, their goal was no longer a change of heart in the
Arahantship to be reached on earth, but a life of happiness, under a
change of outward condition, in a heaven of bliss beyond the skies. One
of the most popular books among the Buddhists of China and Japan is a
description of this heavenly paradise of theirs, called the
Sukhavati-vyuha, the ‘ Book of the Happy Country.’ It is instructive to
find that several of the expressions used are word for word the same as
the corresponding phrases in our much older ‘ Book of the Great King of


the details given in this Suttanta enable us to judge as to what was
considered, at the time when it was put together, to be the greatest
possible luxury and glory of the mightiest and most righteous king. In
spite of the exuberance of some of the language used, the luxury is
after all curiously simple, and mostly of an out-of-door kind. A summary
of the conclusions which can be drawn from the sacred books of the
Buddhists as to the social and economic condition of the Ganges valley,
at the time when those books were composed, will be found in my ‘
Buddhist India,’ ch. IV-VI. The very simple character of the luxury here
depicted is in accordance with the evidence there given.

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