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06/28/20
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta in Classical English
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Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta in Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी
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Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta in Classical 06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,and English

06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,
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Zariya - AR Rahman, Ani Choying, Farah Siraj - Coke Studio @ MTV Season 3
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Giving
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Credits:
Traditional Buddhist & Jordanian Composition.
Composed & Produced by A.R.Rahman
Singers: Ani Choying Drolma, Farah Siraj
Lyrics: Traditional Jordanian Lyrics & Hindi Lyrics by Prasoon Joshi
Keys & Continuum Keyboard: A R Rahman
Percussion: Sivamani
Guitar: Prasanna
Guitar: Keba Jeremiah
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Lyrics:
Tu Zariya, hun mein zariya (You’re a path, so am I)
Aur uski kirpa, dariya dariya (And His compassion, like an ocean..an ocean)
Hain jo ankhiya nirmal, duniya nirmal (The world is pure, if pure is your vision)
Chalka..chalka, chhal chhal chhal chhal (Brimming o’er, brimming o’er, on and on)
Ho zuba koyeebhi (Whichever language, doesn’t matter)
Bol dil se tu bol (When from the heart, words you utter)
Ya misri si ho (Like sugar maybe)
Ya shahad si ho (Or even like honey)
Anti al umm (You are the mother)
Anti il hayaa (You are the life)
Anti alhob (You are love)
Anti lee aldunya (You are the world to me)
Anti lee aldunya (You are the world to me)
Tu Zariya, hun mein zariya (You’re a path, so am I)
Aur uski kirpa, dariya dariya (And His compassion, like an ocean..an ocean)
Hain jo ankhiya nirmal, duniya nirmal (The world is pure, if pure is your vision)
Chalka..chalka, chhal chhal chhal chhal (Brimming o’er, brimming o’er, on and on)
Reedaha, reedaha (I love her, I love her)
Kefima, reedaha (However it may be, I love her)
Teflatan ya halee (She is a young beauty)
Wil asaal reegaha (In her voice there is honey)

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Ani Choying Drolma: “Buddhist Chants and Songs”
Raman Flute
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It’s
always my great honor to play music with respected Ani Choying Drolma.
this video is recorded at a live concert in Taiwan in 2015 organized by
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society and the Cultural Department of Taiwan Government for great
Support to make this event possible and great success.
Dear Friends If you find this video helpful in your life
please consider subscribing to this channel.it helps me to promote my music. Thank you.感恩

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देवनागरी

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देवनागरी लिपि
Chandas typeface specimen.svg
देवनागरी लिपि (ऊपर स्वर है, नीचे व्यंजन है) छन्दस फॉण्ट में
प्रकार आबूगीदा
भाषाएँ अपभ्रंश, अवधी, भीली, भोजपुरी, बोड़ो, ब्रजभाषा, छत्तीसगढ़ी, डोगरी, गुजराती, हरियाणवी, हिन्दी, हिन्दुस्तानी, कन्नड़, कश्मीरी, कोंकणी, कोशली ओड़िया, मगही, मैथिली, मराठी, मारवाड़ी, मुंडारी, नेवा, नेपाली, पालि, पहाड़ी (विविध), प्राकृत, पंजाबी, राजस्थानी, सादरी, संस्कृत, संताली, सराइकी, शेर्पा, सिन्धी, सूरजापुरी, उर्दू और बहुत सारे
समय अवधि
पूर्व संकेत: पहली शताब्दी ई.,[1] आधुनिक रूप: 10 वीं शताब्दी ई.[2][3]
जनक प्रणाली
बाल प्रणालियाँ गुजराती
मोड़ी
Sister systems नन्दिनागरी
आईएसओ 15924 Deva, 315
दिशा
बाएँ-से-दाएँ
यूनिकोड एलियास
Devanagari
यूनिकोड रेंज U+0900–U+097F देवनागरी,
U+A8E0–U+A8FF देवनागरी विस्तारित,
U+1CD0–U+1CFF वैदिक विस्तार
[क] ब्राह्मी लिपियों का सॅमॅटिक से मूल, सार्वभौमिक रूप से सहमत नहीं है।

नोट: इस पृष्ठ पर आइपीए ध्वन्यात्मक प्रतीक हो सकते हैं।

देवनागरी में लिखी ऋग्वेद की पाण्डुलिपि

देवनागरी एक भारतीय लिपि है जिसमें अनेक भारतीय भाषाएँ तथा कई विदेशी भाषाएँ लिखी जाती हैं। यह बायें से दायें लिखी जाती है। इसकी पहचान एक क्षैतिज रेखा से है जिसे ‘शिरोरेखा’ कहते हैं। संस्कृत, पालि, हिन्दी, मराठी, कोंकणी, सिन्धी, कश्मीरी, हरियाणवी, डोगरी, खस, नेपाल भाषा (तथा अन्य नेपाली भाषाएँ), तमांग भाषा, गढ़वाली, बोडो, अंगिका, मगही, भोजपुरी, नागपुरी, मैथिली, संताली, राजस्थानी बघेली आदि भाषाएँ और स्थानीय बोलियाँ भी देवनागरी में लिखी जाती हैं। इसके अतिरिक्त कुछ स्थितियों में गुजराती, पंजाबी, बिष्णुपुरिया मणिपुरी, रोमानी और उर्दू भाषाएँ भी देवनागरी में लिखी जाती हैं। देवनागरी विश्व में सर्वाधिक प्रयुक्त लिपियों में से एक है। यह दक्षिण एशिया की १७० से अधिक भाषाओं को लिखने के लिए प्रयुक्त हो रही है। [4]

मुंबई के परल नामक उपनगर मे प्राप्त प्राचीन देवनागरी शिलालेख यह इ.स ११०९ बनाया गया था
मेलबर्न ऑस्ट्रेलिया की एक ट्राम पर देवनागरी लिपि

परिचय

अधिकतर भाषाओं की तरह देवनागरी भी बायें से दायें लिखी जाती है। प्रत्येक शब्द के ऊपर एक रेखा खिंची होती है (कुछ वर्णों के ऊपर रेखा नहीं होती है) इसे शिरोरेखा कहते हैं। देवनागरी का विकास ब्राह्मी लिपि से हुआ है। यह एक ध्वन्यात्मक लिपि है जो प्रचलित लिपियों (रोमन, अरबी, चीनी आदि) में सबसे अधिक वैज्ञानिक है। इससे वैज्ञानिक और व्यापक लिपि शायद केवल अध्वव लिपि है। भारत की कई लिपियाँ देवनागरी से बहुत अधिक मिलती-जुलती हैं, जैसे- बांग्ला, गुजराती, गुरुमुखी आदि। कम्प्यूटर प्रोग्रामों की सहायता से भारतीय लिपियों को परस्पर परिवर्तन बहुत आसान हो गया है।

वाराणसी में देवनागरी लिपि में लिखे विज्ञापन

भारतीय भाषाओं के किसी भी शब्द या ध्वनि को देवनागरी लिपि में ज्यों का त्यों लिखा जा सकता है और फिर लिखे पाठ को लगभग ‘हू-ब-हू’ उच्चारण किया जा सकता है, जो कि रोमन लिपि और अन्य कई लिपियों में सम्भव नहीं है, जब तक कि उनका विशेष मानकीकरण न किया जाये, जैसे आइट्रांस या IAST

मुंबई के सार्वजनिक यातायात के टिकट पर देवनागरी

इसमें कुल ५२ अक्षर हैं, जिसमें १४ स्वर और ३८ व्यंजन हैं। अक्षरों की क्रम व्यवस्था (विन्यास) भी बहुत ही वैज्ञानिक है। स्वर-व्यंजन, कोमल-कठोर, अल्पप्राण-महाप्राण, अनुनासिक्य-अन्तस्थ-उष्म इत्यादि वर्गीकरण भी वैज्ञानिक हैं। एक मत के अनुसार देवनगर (काशी) मे प्रचलन के कारण इसका नाम देवनागरी पड़ा।

भारत तथा एशिया की अनेक लिपियों के संकेत देवनागरी से अलग हैं पर उच्चारण व वर्ण-क्रम आदि देवनागरी के ही समान हैं, क्योंकि वे सभी ब्राह्मी लिपि से उत्पन्न हुई हैं (उर्दू को छोड़कर)। इसलिए इन लिपियों को परस्पर आसानी से लिप्यन्तरित किया जा सकता है। देवनागरी लेखन की दृष्टि से सरल, सौन्दर्य की दृष्टि से सुन्दर और वाचन की दृष्टि से सुपाठ्य है।

‘देवनागरी’ शब्द की व्युत्पत्ति

देवनागरी
या नागरी नाम का प्रयोग “क्यों” प्रारम्भ हुआ और इसका व्युत्पत्तिपरक
प्रवृत्तिनिमित्त क्या था- यह अब तक पूर्णतः निश्चित नहीं है।

(क) ‘नागर’ अपभ्रंश या गुजराती “नागर” ब्राह्मणों से उसका संबंध बताया गया है। पर दृढ़ प्रमाण के अभाव में यह मत संदिग्ध है।

(ख) दक्षिण में इसका प्राचीन नाम “नंदिनागरी” था। हो सकता है “नंदिनागर” कोई स्थानसूचक हो और इस लिपि का उससे कुछ संबंध रहा हो।

(ग) यह भी हो सकता है कि “नागर” जन इसमें लिखा करते थे, अत: “नागरी” अभिधान पड़ा और जब संस्कृत के ग्रंथ भी इसमें लिखे जाने लगे तब “देवनागरी” भी कहा गया।

(घ) सांकेतिक चिह्नों या देवताओं की उपासना में प्रयुक्त
त्रिकोण, चक्र आदि संकेतचिह्नों को “देवनागर” कहते थे। कालांतर में नाम के
प्रथमाक्षरों का उनसे बोध होने लगा और जिस लिपि में उनको स्थान मिला- वह
‘देवनागरी’ या ‘नागरी’ कही गई। इन सब पक्षों के मूल में कल्पना का
प्राधान्य है, निश्चयात्मक प्रमाण अनुपलब्ध हैं।

इतिहास

देवनागरी, भारत, नेपाल, तिब्बत और दक्षिण पूर्व एशिया की लिपियों के ब्राह्मी लिपि परिवार का हिस्सा है।[5][6] गुजरात से कुछ अभिलेख प्राप्त हुए हैं जिनकी भाषा संस्कृत है और लिपि नागरी लिपि। ये अभिलेख पहली ईसवी से लेकर चौथी ईसवी के कालखण्ड के हैं।[7]
ध्यातव्य है कि नागरी लिपि, देवनागरी से बहुत निकट है और देवनागरी का
पूर्वरूप है। अतः ये अभिलेख इस बात के साक्ष्य हैं कि प्रथम शताब्दी में भी
भारत में देवनागरी का उपयोग आरम्भ हो चुका था। नागरी, सिद्धम और शारदा तीनों ही ब्राह्मी की वंशज हैं।[8] रुद्रदमन
के शिलालेखों का समय प्रथम शताब्दी का समय है और इसकी लिपि की देवनागरी से
निकटता पहचानी जा सकती हैं। जबकि देवनागरी का जो वर्तमान मानक स्वरूप है,
वैसी देवनागरी का उपयोग १००० ई के पहले आरम्भ हो चुका था। [9][10]

मध्यकाल के शिलालेखों के अध्ययन से स्पष्ट होता है कि नागरी से
सम्बन्धित लिपियों का बड़े पैमाने पर प्रसार होने लगा था। कहीं-कहीं
स्थानीय लिपि और नागरी लिपि दोनों में सूचनाएँ अंकित मिलतीं हैं। उदाहरण
के लिए, ८वीं शताब्दी के पट्टदकल
(कर्नाटक) के स्तम्भ पर सिद्धमात्रिका और तेलुगु-कन्नड लिपि के आरम्भिक
रूप - दोनों में ही सूचना लिखी हुई है। कांगड़ा (हिमाचल प्रदेश) के
ज्वालामुखी अभिलेख में शारदा और देवनागरी दोनों में लिखा हुआ है। [11]

७वीं शताब्दी तक देवनागरी का नियमित रूप से उपयोग होना आरम्भ हो गया था और लगभग १००० ई तक देवनागरी का पूर्ण विकास हो गया था।[12][13]

डॉ॰ द्वारिका प्रसाद सक्सेना के अनुसार सर्वप्रथम देवनागरी लिपि का प्रयोग गुजरात के नरेश जयभट्ट (700-800 ई.) के शिलालेख में मिलता है। आठवीं शताब्दी में चित्रकूट, नवीं में बड़ौदा के ध्रुवराज भी अपने राज्यादेशों में इस लिपि का उपयोग किया हैं।

758 ई. का राष्ट्रकूट राजा दन्तिदुर्ग का सामगढ़ ताम्रपट मिलता है जिस पर देवनागरी अंकित है। शिलाहारवंश के गंडारादित्य प्रथम के उत्कीर्ण लेख की लिपि देवनागरी है। इसका समय बारहवीं शताब्दी हैं। ग्यारहवीं शताब्दी के चोलराजा राजेन्द्र के सिक्के मिले हैं जिन पर देवनागरी लिपि अंकित है। राष्ट्रकूट राजा इंद्रराज (दसवीं शताब्दी) के लेख में भी देवनागरी का व्यवहार किया है। प्रतिहार राजा महेंद्रपाल (891-907) का दानपत्र भी देवनागरी लिपि में है।

कनिंघम की पुस्तक में सबसे प्राचीन मुसलमानों सिक्के के रूप में महमूद गजनवी द्वारा चलाये गए चांदी के सिक्के का वर्णन है जिस पर देवनागरी लिपि में संस्कृत अंकित है। मुहम्मद विनसाम (1192-1205) के सिक्कों पर लक्ष्मी की मूर्ति के साथ देवनागरी लिपि का व्यवहार हुआ है। शम्सुद्दीन इल्तुतमिश (1210-1235) के सिक्कों पर भी देवनागरी अंकित है। सानुद्दीन फिरोजशाह प्रथम, जलालुद्दीन रज़िया, बहराम शाह, अलाऊद्दीन मसूदशाह, नासिरुद्दीन महमूद, मुईजुद्दीन, गयासुद्दीन बलवन, मुईजुद्दीन कैकूबाद, जलालुद्दीन हीरो सानी, अलाउद्दीन महमद शाह आदि ने अपने सिक्कों पर देवनागरी अक्षर अंकित किये हैं। अकबर के सिक्कों पर देवनागरी में ‘राम‘ सिया का नाम अंकित है। गयासुद्दीन तुग़लक़, शेरशाह सूरी, इस्लाम शाह, मुहम्मद आदिलशाह, गयासुद्दीन इब्ज, ग्यासुद्दीन सानी आदि ने भी इसी परम्परा का पालन किया।

भाषाविज्ञान की दृष्टि से देवनागरी

भाषावैज्ञानिक दृष्टि से देवनागरी लिपि अक्षरात्मक (सिलेबिक) लिपि मानी जाती है। लिपि के विकाससोपानों की दृष्टि से “चित्रात्मक“, “भावात्मक” और “भावचित्रात्मक” लिपियों के अनंतर “अक्षरात्मक
स्तर की लिपियों का विकास माना जाता है। पाश्चात्य और अनेक भारतीय
भाषाविज्ञानविज्ञों के मत से लिपि की अक्षरात्मक अवस्था के बाद अल्फाबेटिक
(वर्णात्मक) अवस्था का विकास हुआ। सबसे विकसित अवस्था मानी गई है
ध्वन्यात्मक (फोनेटिक) लिपि की। “देवनागरी” को अक्षरात्मक इसलिए कहा जाता
है कि इसके वर्ण- अक्षर (सिलेबिल) हैं- स्वर भी और व्यंजन भी। “क”, “ख” आदि
व्यंजन सस्वर हैं- अकारयुक्त हैं। वे केवल ध्वनियाँ नहीं हैं अपितु सस्वर
अक्षर हैं। अत: ग्रीक, रोमन आदि वर्णमालाएँ हैं। परंतु यहाँ यह ध्यान रखने
की बात है कि भारत की “ब्राह्मी” या “भारती” वर्णमाला की ध्वनियों में
व्यंजनों का “पाणिनि” ने वर्णसमाम्नाय के 14 सूत्रों में जो स्वरूप परिचय दिया है- उसके विषय में “पतंजलि
(द्वितीय शताब्दी ई.पू.) ने यह स्पष्ट बता दिया है कि व्यंजनों में
संनियोजित “अकार” स्वर का उपयोग केवल उच्चारण के उद्देश्य से है। वह तत्वत:
वर्ण का अंग नहीं है। इस दृष्टि से विचार करते हुए कहा जा सकता है कि इस लिपि की वर्णमाला तत्वत: ध्वन्यात्मक है, अक्षरात्मक नहीं।

देवनागरी वर्णमाला

देवनागरी की वर्णमाला में १२ स्वर और ३४ व्यंजन हैं। शून्य या एक या अधिक व्यंजनों और एक स्वर के मेल से एक अक्षर बनता है।

स्वर

निम्नलिखित स्वर आधुनिक हिन्दी (खड़ी बोली) के लिये दिये गये हैं। संस्कृत में इनके उच्चारण थोड़े अलग होते हैं।

वर्णाक्षर “प” के साथ मात्रा IPA उच्चारण “प्” के साथ उच्चारण IAST समतुल्य हिन्दी में वर्णन
/ ə / / pə / a बीच का मध्य प्रसृत स्वर
पा / α: / / pα: / ā दीर्घ विवृत पश्व प्रसृत स्वर
पि / i / / pi / i ह्रस्व संवृत अग्र प्रसृत स्वर
पी / i: / / pi: / ī दीर्घ संवृत अग्र प्रसृत स्वर
पु / u / / pu / u ह्रस्व संवृत पश्व वर्तुल स्वर
पू / u: / / pu: / ū दीर्घ संवृत पश्व वर्तुल स्वर
पे / e: / / pe: / e दीर्घ अर्धसंवृत अग्र प्रसृत स्वर
पै / æ: / / pæ: / ai दीर्घ लगभग-विवृत अग्र प्रसृत स्वर
पो / ο: / / pο: / o दीर्घ अर्धसंवृत पश्व वर्तुल स्वर
पौ / ɔ: / / pɔ: / au दीर्घ अर्धविवृत पश्व वर्तुल स्वर
<कुछ भी नही> <कुछ भी नही> / ɛ / / pɛ / <कुछ भी नहीं> ह्रस्व अर्धविवृत अग्र प्रसृत स्वर

संस्कृत में ऐ दो स्वरों का युग्म होता है और “अ-इ” या “आ-इ” की तरह बोला जाता है। इसी तरह औ “अ-उ” या “आ-उ” की तरह बोला जाता है।

इसके अलावा हिन्दी और संस्कृत में य

  • ऋ — आधुनिक हिन्दी में “रि” की तरह
  • ॠ — केवल संस्कृत में
  • ऌ — केवल संस्कृत में
  • ॡ — केवल संस्कृत में
  • अं — आधे न् , म् , ङ् , ञ् , ण् के लिये या स्वर का नासिकीकरण करने के लिये
  • अँ — स्वर का नासिकीकरण करने के लिये
  • अः — अघोष “ह्” (निःश्वास) के लिये
  • ऍ और ऑ — इनका उपयोग मराठी और और कभी-कभी हिन्दी में अंग्रेजी शब्दों का निकटतम उच्चारण तथा लेखन करने के लिये किया जाता है।

व्यंजन

जब किसी स्वर प्रयोग नहीं हो, तो वहाँ पर ‘अ’ (अर्थात श्वा का स्वर) माना जाता है। स्वर के न होने को हलन्त्‌ अथवा विराम से दर्शाया जाता है। जैसे कि क्‌ ख्‌ ग्‌ घ्‌।

जिन वर्णो को बोलने के लिए स्वर की सहायता लेनी पड़ती है उन्हें व्यंजन कहते है।

दूसरे शब्दो में- व्यंजन उन वर्णों को कहते हैं, जिनके उच्चारण में स्वर वर्णों की सहायता ली जाती है।

जैसे- क, ख, ग, च, छ, त, थ, द, भ, म इत्यादि।

स्पर्श (Plosives)

अल्पप्राण
अघोष
महाप्राण
अघोष
अल्पप्राण
घोष
महाप्राण
घोष
नासिक्य
कण्ठ्य / kə /
/ khə /
/ gə /
/ gɦə /
/ ŋə /
तालव्य / cə / या / tʃə /
/ chə / या /tʃhə/
/ ɟə / या / dʒə /
/ ɟɦə / या / dʒɦə /
/ ɲə /
मूर्धन्य / ʈə /
/ ʈhə /
/ ɖə /
/ ɖɦə /
/ ɳə /
दन्त्य / t̪ə /
/ t̪hə /
/ d̪ə /
/ d̪ɦə /
/ nə /
ओष्ठ्य / pə /
/ phə /
/ bə /
/ bɦə /
/ mə /
स्पर्शरहित (Non-Plosives)

तालव्य मूर्धन्य दन्त्य/
वर्त्स्य
कण्ठोष्ठ्य/
काकल्य
अन्तस्थ / jə /
/ rə /
/ lə /
/ ʋə /
ऊष्म/
संघर्षी
/ ʃə /
/ ʂə /
/ sə /
/ ɦə / या / hə /
नोट करें -
  • इनमें से ळ (मूर्धन्य पार्विक अन्तस्थ) एक अतिरिक्त व्यंजन
    है जिसका प्रयोग हिन्दी में नहीं होता है। मराठी, वैदिक संस्कृत, कोंकणी,
    मेवाड़ी, इत्यादि में सभी का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
  • संस्कृत में ष का उच्चारण ऐसे होता था : जीभ की नोक को मूर्धा (मुँह की छत) की ओर उठाकर श जैसी आवाज़ करना। शुक्ल यजुर्वेद की माध्यंदिनि शाखा में कुछ वाक़्यात में ष का उच्चारण ख की तरह करना मान्य था। आधुनिक हिन्दी में ष का उच्चारण पूरी तरह श की तरह होता है।
  • हिन्दी में ण का उच्चारण
    ज़्यादातर ड़ँ की तरह होता है, यानि कि जीभ मुँह की छत को एक ज़ोरदार ठोकर
    मारती है। हिन्दी में क्षणिक और क्शड़िंक में कोई फ़र्क नहीं। पर संस्कृत
    में ण का उच्चारण न की तरह बिना ठोकर मारे होता था, अन्तर केवल इतना कि जीभ
    ण के समय मुँह की छत को छूती है।

नुक़्ता वाले व्यंजन

हिन्दी भाषा में मुख्यत: अरबी और फ़ारसी
भाषाओं से आये शब्दों को देवनागरी में लिखने के लिये कुछ वर्णों के नीचे
नुक्ता (बिन्दु) लगे वर्णों का प्रयोग किया जाता है (जैसे क़, ज़ आदि)।
किन्तु हिन्दी में भी अधिकांश लोग नुक्तों का प्रयोग नहीं करते। इसके अलावा
संस्कृत, मराठी, नेपाली एवं अन्य भाषाओं को देवनागरी में लिखने में भी
नुक्तों का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।

वर्णाक्षर (IPA उच्चारण) उदाहरण वर्णन अंग्रेज़ी में वर्णन ग़लत उच्चारण
क़ (/ q /) क़त्ल अघोष अलिजिह्वीय स्पर्श Voiceless uvular stop क (/ k /)
ख़ (/ x or χ /) ख़ास अघोष अलिजिह्वीय या कण्ठ्य संघर्षी Voiceless uvular or velar fricative ख (/ kh /)
ग़ (/ ɣ or ʁ /) ग़ैर घोष अलिजिह्वीय या कण्ठ्य संघर्षी Voiced uvular or velar fricative ग (/ g /)
फ़ (/ f /) फ़र्क अघोष दन्त्यौष्ठ्य संघर्षी Voiceless labio-dental fricative फ (/ ph /)
ज़ (/ z /) ज़ालिम घोष वर्त्स्य संघर्षी Voiced alveolar fricative ज (/ dʒ /)
झ़ (/ ʒ /) टेलेवीझ़न घोष तालव्य संघर्षी Voiced palatal fricative ज (/ dʒ /)
थ़ (/ θ /) अथ़्रू अघोष दन्त्य संघर्षी Voiceless dental fricative थ (/ t̪h /)
ड़ (/ ɽ /) पेड़ अल्पप्राण मूर्धन्य उत्क्षिप्त Unaspirated retroflex flap -
ढ़ (/ ɽh /) पढ़ना महाप्राण मूर्धन्य उत्क्षिप्त Aspirated retroflex flap -

थ़ का प्रयोग मुख्यतः पहाड़ी भाषाओँ
में होता है जैसे की डोगरी (की उत्तरी उपभाषाओं) में “आंसू” के लिए शब्द है
“अथ़्रू”। हिन्दी में ड़ और ढ़ व्यंजन फ़ारसी या अरबी से नहीं लिये गये
हैं, न ही ये संस्कृत में पाये जाये हैं। असल में ये संस्कृत के साधारण ड
और ढ के बदले हुए रूप हैं।

विराम-चिह्न, वैदिक चिह्न आदि

प्रतीक
नाम
कार्य
डण्डा / खड़ी पाई / पूर्ण विराम
वाक्य का अन्त बताने के लिये
दोहरा डण्डा
  संक्षिप्तीकरण के लिये, जैसे मो॰ क॰ गाँधी
प्रणव , ओम हिन्दू धर्म का शुभ शब्द
प॑ उदात्त उच्चारण बताने के लिये वैदिक संस्कृत के कुछ ग्रन्थों में प्रयुक्त
प॒ अनुदात्त उच्चारण बताने के लिये वैदिक संस्कृत के कुछ ग्रन्थों में प्रयुक्त

देवनागरी अंक

देवनागरी अंक निम्न रूप में लिखे जाते हैं :


देवनागरी संयुक्ताक्षर

देवनागरी लिपि में दो व्यंजन का संयुक्ताक्षर निम्न रूप में लिखा जाता है :


क्क क्ख क्ग क्घ क्ङ क्च क्छ क्ज क्झ क्ञ क्ट क्ठ क्ड क्ढ क्ण क्त क्थ क्द क्ध क्न क्प क्फ क्ब क्भ क्म क्य क्र क्ल क्व क्श क्ष क्स क्ह क्ळ
ख्क ख्ख ख्ग ख्घ ख्ङ ख्च ख्छ ख्ज ख्झ ख्ञ ख्ट ख्ठ ख्ड ख्ढ ख्ण ख्त ख्थ ख्द ख्ध ख्न ख्प ख्फ ख्ब ख्भ ख्म ख्य ख्र ख्ल ख्व ख्श ख्ष ख्स ख्ह ख्ळ
ग्क ग्ख ग्ग ग्घ ग्ङ ग्च ग्छ ग्ज ग्झ ग्ञ ग्ट ग्ठ ग्ड ग्ढ ग्ण ग्त ग्थ ग्द ग्ध ग्न ग्प ग्फ ग्ब ग्भ ग्म ग्य ग्र ग्ल ग्व ग्श ग्ष ग्स ग्ह ग्ळ
घ्क घ्ख घ्ग घ्घ घ्ङ घ्च घ्छ घ्ज घ्झ घ्ञ घ्ट घ्ठ घ्ड घ्ढ घ्ण घ्त घ्थ घ्द घ्ध घ्न घ्प घ्फ घ्ब घ्भ घ्म घ्य घ्र घ्ल घ्व घ्श घ्ष घ्स घ्ह घ्ळ
ंक ंख ंग ंघ ंङ ंच ंछ ंज ंझ ंञ ंट ंठ ंड ंढ ंण ंत ंथ ंद ंध ंन ंप ंफ ंब ंभ ंम ंय ंर ंल ंव ंश ंष ंस ंह ंळ
च्क च्ख च्ग च्घ च्ङ च्च च्छ च्ज च्झ च्ञ च्ट च्ठ च्ड च्ढ च्ण च्त च्थ च्द च्ध च्न च्प च्फ च्ब च्भ च्म च्य च्र च्ल च्व च्श च्ष च्स च्ह च्ळ
छ्क छ्ख छ्ग छ्घ छ्ङ छ्च छ्छ छ्ज छ्झ छ्ञ छ्ट छ्ठ छ्ड छ्ढ छ्ण छ्त छ्थ छ्द छ्ध छ्न छ्प छ्फ छ्ब छ्भ छ्म छ्य छ्र छ्ल छ्व छ्श छ्ष छ्स छ्ह छ्ळ
ज्क ज्ख ज्ग ज्घ ज्ङ ज्च ज्छ ज्ज ज्झ ज्ञ ज्ट ज्ठ ज्ड ज्ढ ज्ण ज्त ज्थ ज्द ज्ध ज्न ज्प ज्फ ज्ब ज्भ ज्म ज्य ज्र ज्ल ज्व ज्श ज्ष ज्स ज्ह ज्ळ
झ्क झ्ख झ्ग झ्घ झ्ङ झ्च झ्छ झ्ज झ्झ झ्ञ झ्ट झ्ठ झ्ड झ्ढ झ्ण झ्त झ्थ झ्द झ्ध झ्न झ्प झ्फ झ्ब झ्भ झ्म झ्य झ्र झ्ल झ्व झ्श झ्ष झ्स झ्ह झ्ळ
ंक ंख ंग ंघ ंङ ंच ंछ ंज ंझ ंञ ंट ंठ ंड ंढ ंण ंत ंथ ंद ंध ंन ंप ंफ ंब ंभ ंम ंय ंर ंल ंव ंश ंष ंस ंह ंळ
ट्क ट्ख ट्ग ट्घ ट्ङ ट्च ट्छ ट्ज ट्झ ट्ञ ट्ट ट्ठ ट्ड ट्ढ ट्ण ट्त ट्थ ट्द ट्ध ट्न ट्प ट्फ ट्ब ट्भ ट्म ट्य ट्र ट्ल ट्व ट्श ट्ष ट्स ट्ह ट्ळ
ठ्क ठ्ख ठ्ग ठ्घ ठ्ङ ठ्च ठ्छ ठ्ज ठ्झ ठ्ञ ठ्ट ठ्ठ ठ्ड ठ्ढ ठ्ण ठ्त ठ्थ ठ्द ठ्ध ठ्न ठ्प ठ्फ ठ्ब ठ्भ ठ्म ठ्य ठ्र ठ्ल ठ्व ठ्श ठ्ष ठ्स ठ्ह ठ्ळ
ड्क ड्ख ड्ग ड्घ ड्ङ ड्च ड्छ ड्ज ड्झ ड्ञ ड्ट ड्ठ ड्ड ड्ढ ड्ण ड्त ड्थ ड्द ड्ध ड्न ड्प ड्फ ड्ब ड्भ ड्म ड्य ड्र ड्ल ड्व ड्श ड्ष ड्स ड्ह ड्ळ
ढ्क ढ्ख ढ्ग ढ्घ ढ्ङ ढ्च ढ्छ ढ्ज ढ्झ ढ्ञ ढ्ट ढ्ठ ढ्ड ढ्ढ ढ्ण ढ्त ढ्थ ढ्द ढ्ध ढ्न ढ्प ढ्फ ढ्ब ढ्भ ढ्म ढ्य ढ्र ढ्ल ढ्व ढ्श ढ्ष ढ्स ढ्ह ढ्ळ
ण्क ण्ख ण्ग ण्घ ण्ङ ण्च ण्छ ण्ज ण्झ ण्ञ ण्ट ण्ठ ण्ड ण्ढ ण्ण ण्त ण्थ ण्द ण्ध ण्न ण्प ण्फ ण्ब ण्भ ण्म ण्य ण्र ण्ल ण्व ण्श ण्ष ण्स ण्ह ण्ळ
त्क त्ख त्ग त्घ त्ङ त्च त्छ त्ज त्झ त्ञ त्ट त्ठ त्ड त्ढ त्ण त्त त्थ त्द त्ध त्न त्प त्फ त्ब त्भ त्म त्य त्र त्ल त्व त्श त्ष त्स त्ह त्ळ
थ्क थ्ख थ्ग थ्घ थ्ङ थ्च थ्छ थ्ज थ्झ थ्ञ थ्ट थ्ठ थ्ड थ्ढ थ्ण थ्त थ्थ थ्द थ्ध थ्न थ्प थ्फ थ्ब थ्भ थ्म थ्य थ्र थ्ल थ्व थ्श थ्ष थ्स थ्ह थ्ळ
द्क द्ख द्ग द्घ द्ङ द्च द्छ द्ज द्झ द्ञ द्ट द्ठ द्ड द्ढ द्ण द्त द्थ द्द द्ध द्न द्प द्फ द्ब द्भ द्म द्य द्र द्ल द्व द्श द्ष द्स द्ह द्ळ
ध्क ध्ख ध्ग ध्घ ध्ङ ध्च ध्छ ध्ज ध्झ ध्ञ ध्ट ध्ठ ध्ड ध्ढ ध्ण ध्त ध्थ ध्द ध्ध ध्न ध्प ध्फ ध्ब ध्भ ध्म ध्य ध्र ध्ल ध्व ध्श ध्ष ध्स ध्ह ध्ळ
न्क न्ख न्ग न्घ न्ङ न्च न्छ न्ज न्झ न्ञ न्ट न्ठ न्ड न्ढ न्ण न्त न्थ न्द न्ध न्न न्प न्फ न्ब न्भ न्म न्य न्र न्ल न्व न्श न्ष न्स न्ह न्ळ
प्क प्ख प्ग प्घ प्ङ प्च प्छ प्ज प्झ प्ञ प्ट प्ठ प्ड प्ढ प्ण प्त प्थ प्द प्ध प्न प्प प्फ प्ब प्भ प्म प्य प्र प्ल प्व प्श प्ष प्स प्ह प्ळ
फ्क फ्ख फ्ग फ्घ फ्ङ फ्च फ्छ फ्ज फ्झ फ्ञ फ्ट फ्ठ फ्ड फ्ढ फ्ण फ्त फ्थ फ्द फ्ध फ्न फ्प फ्फ फ्ब फ्भ फ्म फ्य फ्र फ्ल फ्व फ्श फ्ष फ्स फ्ह फ्ळ
ब्क ब्ख ब्ग ब्घ ब्ङ ब्च ब्छ ब्ज ब्झ ब्ञ ब्ट ब्ठ ब्ड ब्ढ ब्ण ब्त ब्थ ब्द ब्ध ब्न ब्प ब्फ ब्ब ब्भ ब्म ब्य ब्र ब्ल ब्व ब्श ब्ष ब्स ब्ह ब्ळ
भ्क भ्ख भ्ग भ्घ भ्ङ भ्च भ्छ भ्ज भ्झ भ्ञ भ्ट भ्ठ भ्ड भ्ढ भ्ण भ्त भ्थ भ्द भ्ध भ्न भ्प भ्फ भ्ब भ्भ भ्म भ्य भ्र भ्ल भ्व भ्श भ्ष भ्स भ्ह भ्ळ
म्क म्ख म्ग म्घ म्ङ म्च म्छ म्ज म्झ म्ञ म्ट म्ठ म्ड म्ढ म्ण म्त म्थ म्द म्ध म्न म्प म्फ म्ब म्भ म्म म्य म्र म्ल म्व म्श म्ष म्स म्ह म्ळ
य्क य्ख य्ग य्घ य्ङ य्च य्छ य्ज य्झ य्ञ य्ट य्ठ य्ड य्ढ य्ण य्त य्थ य्द य्ध य्न य्प य्फ य्ब य्भ य्म य्य य्र य्ल य्व य्श य्ष य्स य्ह य्ळ
र्क र्ख र्ग र्घ र्ङ र्च र्छ र्ज र्झ र्ञ र्ट र्ठ र्ड र्ढ र्ण र्त र्थ र्द र्ध र्न र्प र्फ र्ब र्भ र्म र्य र्र र्ल र्व र्श र्ष र्स र्ह र्ळ
ल्क ल्ख ल्ग ल्घ ल्ङ ल्च ल्छ ल्ज ल्झ ल्ञ ल्ट ल्ठ ल्ड ल्ढ ल्ण ल्त ल्थ ल्द ल्ध ल्न ल्प ल्फ ल्ब ल्भ ल्म ल्य ल्र ल्ल ल्व ल्श ल्ष ल्स ल्ह ल्ळ
व्क व्ख व्ग व्घ व्ङ व्च व्छ व्ज व्झ व्ञ व्ट व्ठ व्ड व्ढ व्ण व्त व्थ व्द व्ध व्न व्प व्फ व्ब व्भ व्म व्य व्र व्ल व्व व्श व्ष व्स व्ह व्ळ
श्क श्ख श्ग श्घ श्ङ श्च श्छ श्ज श्झ श्ञ श्ट श्ठ श्ड श्ढ श्ण श्त श्थ श्द श्ध श्न श्प श्फ श्ब श्भ श्म श्य श्र श्ल श्व श्श श्ष श्स श्ह श्ळ
ष्क ष्ख ष्ग ष्घ ष्ङ ष्च ष्छ ष्ज ष्झ ष्ञ ष्ट ष्ठ ष्ड ष्ढ ष्ण ष्त ष्थ ष्द ष्ध ष्न ष्प ष्फ ष्ब ष्भ ष्म ष्य ष्र ष्ल ष्व ष्श ष्ष ष्स ष्ह ष्ळ
स्क स्ख स्ग स्घ स्ङ स्च स्छ स्ज स्झ स्ञ स्ट स्ठ स्ड स्ढ स्ण स्त स्थ स्द स्ध स्न स्प स्फ स्ब स्भ स्म स्य स्र स्ल स्व स्श स्ष स्स स्ह स्ळ
ह्क ह्ख ह्ग ह्घ ह्ङ ह्च ह्छ ह्ज ह्झ ह्ञ ह्ट ह्ठ ह्ड ह्ढ ह्ण ह्त ह्थ ह्द ह्ध ह्न ह्प ह्फ ह्ब ह्भ ह्म ह्य ह्र ह्ल ह्व ह्श ह्ष ह्स ह्ह ह्ळ
ळ्क ळ्ख ळ्ग ळ्घ ळ्ङ ळ्च ळ्छ ळ्ज ळ्झ ळ्ञ ळ्ट ळ्ठ ळ्ड ळ्ढ ळ्ण ळ्त ळ्थ ळ्द ळ्ध ळ्न ळ्प ळ्फ ळ्ब ळ्भ ळ्म ळ्य ळ्र ळ्ल ळ्व ळ्श ळ्ष ळ्स ळ्ह ळ्ळ

ब्राह्मी परिवार की लिपियों
में देवनागरी लिपि सबसे अधिक संयुक्ताक्षरों को समर्थन देती है। देवनागरी २
से अधिक व्यंजनों के संयुक्ताक्षर को भी समर्थन देती है। छन्दस फॉण्ट देवनागरी में बहुत संयुक्ताक्षरों को समर्थन देता है।

द् + र + ध् + य संयुक्ताक्षर

पुरानी देवनागरी

पुराने समय में प्रयुक्त हुई जाने वाली देवनागरी के कुछ वर्ण आधुनिक देवनागरी से भिन्न हैं।

आधुनिक देवनागरी पुरानी देवनागरी
Devanagari a.svg Devanagari a old.svg
Devanagari jh.svg Devanagari jh old.svg
Devanagari nn.svg Devanagari nn old.svg
Devanagari l old.svg Devanagari l.svg


देवनागरी लिपि के गुण

  • भारतीय भाषाओं के लिये वर्णों की पूर्णता एवं सम्पन्नता (५२ वर्ण, न बहुत अधिक न बहुत कम)।
  • एक ध्वनि के लिये एक सांकेतिक चिह्न — जैसा बोलें वैसा लिखें।
  • लेखन और उच्चारण और में एकरुपता — जैसा किखें, वैसे पढ़े (वाचें)।
  • एक सांकेतिक चिह्न द्वारा केवल एक ध्वनि का निरूपण — जैसा लिखें वैसा पढ़ें।
उपरोक्त दोनों गुणों के कारण ब्राह्मी लिपि का उपयोग करने वाली सभी भारतीय भाषाएँ ‘स्पेलिंग की समस्या’ से मुक्त हैं।
  • स्वर और व्यंजन में तर्कसंगत एवं वैज्ञानिक क्रम-विन्यास -
    देवनागरी के वर्णों का क्रमविन्यास उनके उच्चारण के स्थान (ओष्ठ्य, दन्त्य,
    तालव्य, मूर्धन्य आदि) को ध्यान में रखते हुए बनाया गया है। इसके अतिरिक्त
    वर्ण-क्रम के निर्धारण में भाषा-विज्ञान
    के कई अन्य पहलुओ का भी ध्यान रखा गया है। देवनागरी की वर्णमाला (वास्तव
    में, ब्राह्मी से उत्पन्न सभी लिपियों की वर्णमालाएँ) एक अत्यन्त तर्कपूर्ण
    ध्वन्यात्मक क्रम (phonetic order) में व्यवस्थित है। यह क्रम इतना
    तर्कपूर्ण है कि अन्तरराष्ट्रीय ध्वन्यात्मक संघ (IPA) ने अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय ध्वन्यात्मक वर्णमाला के निर्माण के लिये मामूली परिवर्तनों के साथ इसी क्रम को अंगीकार कर लिया।
  • वर्णों का प्रत्याहार रूप में उपयोग : माहेश्वर सूत्र
    में देवनागरी वर्णों को एक विशिष्ट क्रम में सजाया गया है। इसमें से किसी
    वर्ण से आरम्भ करके किसी दूसरे वर्ण तक के वर्णसमूह को दो अक्षर का एक छोटा
    नाम दे दिया जाता है जिसे ‘प्रत्याहार’ कहते हैं। प्रत्याहार का प्रयोग
    करते हुए सन्धि आदि के नियम अत्यन्त सरल और संक्षिप्त ढंग से दिए गये हैं (जैसे, आद् गुणः)
  • मात्राओं की संख्या के आधार पर छन्दों का वर्गीकरण :
    यह भारतीय लिपियों की अद्भुत विशेषता है कि किसी पद्य के लिखित रूप से
    मात्राओं और उनके क्रम को गिनकर बताया जा सकता है कि कौन सा छन्द है। रोमन,
    अरबी एवं अन्य में यह गुण अप्राप्य है।
  • लिपि चिह्नों के नाम और ध्वनि मे कोई अन्तर नहीं (जैसे रोमन में अक्षर का नाम “बी” है और ध्वनि “ब” है)
  • लेखन और मुद्रण मे एकरूपता (रोमन, अरबी और फ़ारसी मे हस्तलिखित और मुद्रित रूप अलग-अलग हैं)
  • देवनागरी, ‘स्माल लेटर” और ‘कैपिटल लेटर’ की अवैज्ञानिक व्यवस्था से मुक्त है।
  • मात्राओं का प्रयोग
क के उपर विभिन्न मात्राएं लगाने के बाद का स्वरूप
  • अर्ध-अक्षर के रूप की सुगमता : खड़ी पाई को हटाकर - दायें
    से बायें क्रम में लिखकर तथा अर्द्ध अक्षर को ऊपर तथा उसके नीचे पूर्ण
    अक्षर को लिखकर - ऊपर नीचे क्रम में संयुक्ताक्षर बनाने की दो प्रकार की
    रीति प्रचलित है।
  • अन्य - बायें से दायें, शिरोरेखा, संयुक्ताक्षरों का
    प्रयोग, अधिकांश वर्णों में एक उर्ध्व-रेखा की प्रधानता, अनेक ध्वनियों को
    निरूपित करने की क्षमता आदि।[14]
  • भारतवर्ष के साहित्य में कुछ ऐसे रूप विकसित हुए हैं जो दायें-से-बायें अथवा बाये-से-दायें पढ़ने पर समान रहते हैं। उदाहरणस्वरूप केशवदास का एक सवैया लीजिये :
मां सस मोह सजै बन बीन, नवीन बजै सह मोस समा।
मार लतानि बनावति सारि, रिसाति वनाबनि ताल रमा ॥
मानव ही रहि मोरद मोद, दमोदर मोहि रही वनमा।
माल बनी बल केसबदास, सदा बसकेल बनी बलमा ॥
इस सवैया की किसी भी पंक्ति को किसी ओर से भी पढिये, कोई अंतर नही पड़ेगा।
सदा सील तुम सरद के दरस हर तरह खास।
सखा हर तरह सरद के सर सम तुलसीदास॥

देवनागरी लिपि के दोष

देवनागरी लिपि की 10 कमियाँ !

1.ग, ण,और श में आकार लगे होने का भ्रम होता है !

2.वर्ण के प्रकार –

क, र ध्वनि-राजा,क्रम,कर्म,ट्रक,ऋण,कृपा

ख.द - दम,विद्या,छद्म,गद्दी

ग. क-कर,वक्त ,क्वाथ

घ .श-शाम,श्रम,श्याम

ङ.म-मन,म्यान,छद्म,ब्रह्म           

च.भ-भवन,अभ्युक्ति,उद्भव,     

3.संयुक्ताक्षर में आधे अक्षर बाएँ,दाएँ और नीचे लगते हैं-वह, व्यय, द्वार,जिह्वा!

4.शुद्ध
में द पूरा अक्षर लिखा है,लेकिन उच्चारण आधा होता है!ध आधा लिखा होता
है,लेकिन उच्चारण पूरा होता है !इसी तरह वृद्ध,श्रद्धा आदि!

5.शक्ति में क पर भी इकार लगता है!ऐसे ही निश्चित,बल्कि आदि!

6.द्विज का उच्चारण दु+वि+ज होता है!लिखने और पढ़ने दोनों में दुविधा होती है!

7.जो लिखा दिखता है वह उच्चारित नहीं होता है!और जो कहते हैं वह नहीं लिखा जाता है!

क.शुरू
में एकार लगा नहीं है लेकिन उच्चारित होता है! जैसे-क्या का उच्चारण के+या
होता है!इसी तरह-व्यय, प्यास,प्याज,ब्याज,व्यापार,व्यवस्था,व्यवहार,आदि!

ख.शुरू में ओकार नहीं लगा है,लेकिन उच्चारित होता है! जैसे-द्वार दो+वा+ र,द्वंद्व,ज्वर,त्वरित आदि!

8.शब्दों के उच्चारण के हिसाब से वर्णों का क्रम अस्पष्ट होता है!असमंजस की स्थिति रहती है!जैसे-क.वृद्ध उच्चारण वृ+द्+ध होता है!

ख.निर्देश
लिखे वर्ण का क्रम देखें तो नि+दे+र्+श उच्चारण के अनुसार ‘ दे ‘ के पहले ‘
र ‘ ध्वनि संकेत लिखा होना चाहिए ! लेकिन ऐसा नहीं है-दे के बाद र का
संकेत लगता है!

9.अनुनासिक
अनेक ध्वनि संकेतों के बदले सिर्फ अनुस्वार का प्रयोग होने के कारण ध्वनि
का गलत संकेत लिखा जा रहा है ! जैसे-अंत उच्चारित करें तो अ+न्+त=अन्त होता
है!इसी तरह कंपनी/कम्पनी,खंड/खन्ड/खण्ड आदि!

10.देवनागरी एक हजार साल पुरानी लिपि है!कम्प्यूटर से हिंदी टाइपिंग में लगभग140ध्वनि संकेतों की आवश्यकता होती है!

देवनागरी
लिपि से विकसित होडो़ सेंणा लिपि में उपर्युक्त सभी कमियों का समाधान
है!इस लिपि से मात्र 45 ध्वनि संकेत चिह्नों से शुद्ध वर्तनी लिखी जा सकती
है!सिर्फ हिंदी और मुंडा भाषाएँ ही नहीं,अनेक भारतीय भाषाएँ भी शुद्ध
वर्तनी के साथ लिखी जा सकती हैं !

रवीन्द्र नाथ सुलंकी

www.hindikinailipi.com

लेकिन लगभग सभी भारतीय लिपियों में छोटी इ या छोटी ए (ऎ) की मात्रा व्यंजन के पहले ही लगती है।
  • (१) कुल मिलाकर 403 टाइप होने के कारण टंकण, मुद्रण में कठिनाई। किन्तु आधुनिक प्रिन्टर तकनीक के लिए यह कोई समस्या नहीं है।
  • (२) कुछ लोग शिरोरेखा का प्रयोग अनावश्यक मानते हैं।
  • (३) अनावश्यक वर्ण (ऋ, ॠ, लृ, ॡ, ष)— बहुत से लोग इनका शुद्ध उच्चारण नहीं कर पाते।
  • (४) द्विरूप वर्ण (अ, ज्ञ, क्ष, त्र, छ, झ, ण, श) आदि को दो-दो प्रकार से लिखा जाता है।
  • (५) समरूप वर्ण (ख में र+व का, घ में ध का, म में भ का भ्रम होना)।
  • (६) वर्णों के संयुक्त करने की व्यवस्था एकसमान नहीं है।
  • (८) त्वरापूर्ण लेखन नहीं क्योंकि लेखन में हाथ बार–बार उठाना पड़ता है।
  • (९) वर्णों के संयुक्तीकरण में र के प्रयोग को लेकर अनेक लोगों को भ्रम की स्थिति।
  • (११) इ की मात्रा (ि) का लेखन वर्ण के पहले, किन्तु उच्चारण वर्ण के बाद।

देवनागरी पर महापुरुषों के विचार

आचार्य विनोबा भावे
संसार की अनेक लिपियों के जानकार थे। उनकी स्पष्ट धारणा थी कि देवनागरी
लिपि भारत ही नहीं, संसार की सर्वाधिक वैज्ञानिक लिपि है। अगर भारत की सब
भाषाओं के लिए इसका व्यवहार चल पड़े तो सारे भारतीय एक दूसरे के बिल्कुल
नजदीक आ जाएंगे। हिंदुस्तान की एकता में देवनागरी लिपि हिंदी से ही अधिक
उपयोगी हो सकती है। अनन्त शयनम् अयंगार तो दक्षिण भारतीय भाषाओं के लिए भी देवनागरी की संभावना स्वीकार करते थे। सेठ गोविन्ददास इसे राष्ट्रीय लिपि घोषित करने के पक्ष में थे।

  • (१) हिन्दुस्तान की एकता के लिये हिन्दी भाषा जितना काम देगी, उससे बहुत अधिक काम देवनागरी लिपि दे सकती है।
— आचार्य विनोबा भावे
  • (२) देवनागरी किसी भी लिपि की तुलना में अधिक वैज्ञानिक एवं व्यवस्थित लिपि है।
— सर विलियम जोन्स
  • (३) मानव मस्तिष्क से निकली हुई वर्णमालाओं में नागरी सबसे अधिक पूर्ण वर्णमाला है।
— जान क्राइस्ट
  • (४) उर्दू लिखने के लिये देवनागरी लिपि अपनाने से उर्दू उत्कर्ष को प्राप्त होगी।
— खुशवन्त सिंह
  • (५) The Devanagri alphabet is a splendid monument of phonological accuracy, in the sciences of language.
— मोहन लाल विद्यार्थी - Indian Culture Through the Ages, p. 61
  • (६) एक सर्वमान्य लिपि स्वीकार करने से भारत की विभिन्न भाषाओं में
    जो ज्ञान का भंडार भरा है उसे प्राप्त करने का एक साधारण व्यक्ति को सहज
    ही अवसर प्राप्त होगा। हमारे लिए यदि कोई सर्व-मान्य लिपि स्वीकार करना
    संभव है तो वह देवनागरी है।
एम.सी.छागला
  • (७) प्राचीन भारत के महत्तम उपलब्धियों में से एक उसकी विलक्षण
    वर्णमाला है जिसमें प्रथम स्वर आते हैं और फिर व्यंजन जो सभी उत्पत्ति क्रम
    के अनुसार अत्यंत वैज्ञानिक ढंग से वर्गीकृत किये गए हैं। इस वर्णमाला का
    अविचारित रूप से वर्गीकृत तथा अपर्याप्त रोमन वर्णमाला से, जो तीन हजार वर्षों से क्रमशः विकसित हो रही थी, पर्याप्त अंतर है।
— ए एल बाशम, “द वंडर दैट वाज इंडिया” के लेखक और इतिहासविद्

भारत के लिये देवनागरी का महत्व

Unbalanced scales.svg
इस लेख की निष्पक्षता विवादित है।
कृपया इसके वार्ता पृष्ठ पर चर्चा देखें।

बहुत से लोगों का विचार है कि भारत में अनेकों भाषाएँ होना कोई समस्या नहीं है जबकि उनकी लिपियाँ अलग-अलग होना बहुत बड़ी समस्या है। गांधीजी ने १९४० में गुजराती भाषा की एक पुस्तक को देवनागरी लिपि में छपवाया और इसका उद्देश्य बताया था कि मेरा सपना है कि संस्कृत से निकली हर भाषा की लिपि देवनागरी हो।[15]

इस संस्करण को हिंदी में छापने के दो उद्देश्य हैं। मुख्य
उद्देश्य यह है कि मैं जानना चाहता हूँ कि, गुजराती पढ़ने वालों को
देवनागरी लिपि में पढ़ना कितना अच्छा लगता है। मैं जब दक्षिण अफ्रीका में
था तब से मेरा स्वप्न है कि संस्कृत से निकली हर भाषा की एक लिपि हो, और वह
देवनागरी हो। पर यह अभी भी स्वप्न ही है। एक-लिपि के बारे में बातचीत तो
खूब होती हैं, लेकिन वही ‘बिल्ली के गले में घंटी कौन बांधे’ वाली बात है।
कौन पहल करे ! गुजराती कहेगा ‘हमारी लिपि तो बड़ी सुन्दर सलोनी आसान है,
इसे कैसे छोडूंगा?’ बीच में अभी एक नया पक्ष और निकल के आया है, वह ये, कुछ
लोग कहते हैं कि देवनागरी खुद ही अभी अधूरी है, कठिन है; मैं भी यह मानता
हूँ कि इसमें सुधार होना चाहिए। लेकिन अगर हम हर चीज़ के बिलकुल ठीक हो
जाने का इंतज़ार करते रहेंगे तो सब हाथ से जायेगा, न जग के रहोगे न जोगी
बनोगे। अब हमें यह नहीं करना चाहिए। इसी आजमाइश के लिए हमने यह देवनागरी
संस्करण निकाला है। अगर लोग यह (देवनागरी में गुजराती) पसंद करेंगे तो
‘नवजीवन पुस्तक’ और भाषाओं को भी देवनागरी में प्रकाशित करने का प्रयत्न
करेगा।
इस साहस के पीछे दूसरा उद्देश्य यह है कि हिंदी पढ़ने वाली जनता
गुजराती पुस्तक देवनागरी लिपि में पढ़ सके। मेरा अभिप्राय यह है कि अगर
देवनागरी लिपि में गुजराती किताब छपेगी तो भाषा को सीखने में आने वाली आधी
दिक्कतें तो ऐसे ही कम हो जाएँगी।
इस संस्करण को लोकप्रिय बनाने के लिए इसकी कीमत बहुत कम राखी
गयी है, मुझे उम्मीद है कि इस साहस को गुजराती और हिंदी पढ़ने वाले सफल
करेंगे।

इसी प्रकार विनोबा भावे का विचार था कि-

हिन्दुस्तान की एकता के लिये हिन्दी भाषा
जितना काम देगी, उससे बहुत अधिक काम देवनागरी लिपि देगी। इसलिए मैं चाहता
हूँ कि सभी भाषाएँ देवनागरी में भी लिखी जाएं। सभी लिपियां चलें लेकिन
साथ-साथ देवनागरी का भी प्रयोग किया जाये। विनोबा जी “नागरी ही” नहीं
“नागरी भी” चाहते थे। उन्हीं की सद्प्रेरणा से 1975 में नागरी लिपि परिषद की स्थापना हुई।

विश्वलिपि के रूप में देवनागरी

बौद्ध संस्कृति से प्रभावित क्षेत्र नागरी के लिए नया नहीं है। चीन और जापान चित्रलिपि
का व्यवहार करते हैं। इन चित्रों की संख्या बहुत अधिक होने के कारण भाषा
सीखने में बहुत कठिनाई होती है। देववाणी की वाहिका होने के नाते देवनागरी
भारत की सीमाओं से बाहर निकलकर चीन और जापान के लिए भी समुचित विकल्प दे
सकती है। भारतीय मूल के लोग संसार में जहां-जहां भी रहते हैं, वे देवनागरी
से परिचय रखते हैं, विशेषकर मारीशस, सूरीनाम, फिजी, गुयाना, त्रिनिदाद, टोबैगो
आदि के लोग। इस तरह देवनागरी लिपि न केवल भारत के अंदर सारे प्रांतवासियों
को प्रेम-बंधन में बांधकर सीमोल्लंघन कर दक्षिण-पूर्व एशिया के पुराने
वृहत्तर भारतीय परिवार को भी ‘बहुजन हिताय, बहुजन सुखाय‘ अनुप्राणित कर
सकती है तथा विभिन्न देशों को एक अधिक सुचारू और वैज्ञानिक विकल्प प्रदान
कर ‘विश्व नागरी‘ की पदवी का दावा इक्कीसवीं सदी में कर सकती है। उस पर
प्रसार लिपिगत साम्राज्यवाद और शोषण का माध्यम न होकर सत्य, अहिंसा, त्याग,
संयम जैसे उदात्त मानवमूल्यों का संवाहक होगा, असत्‌ से सत्‌, तमस्‌ से
ज्योति तथा मृत्यु से अमरता की दिशा में।

लिपि-विहीन भाषाओं के लिये देवनागरी

दुनिया की कई भाषाओं के लिये देवनागरी सबसे अच्छा विकल्प हो सकती है
क्योंकि यह यह बोलने की पूरी आजादी देता है। दुनिया की और किसी भी लिपि मे
यह नही हो सकता है। इन्डोनेशिया, विएतनाम, अफ्रीका आदि के लिये तो यही सबसे
सही रहेगा। अष्टाध्यायी को देखकर कोई भी समझ सकता है की दुनिया मे इससे
अच्छी कोई भी लिपि नहीं है। अग‍र दुनिया पक्षपातरहित हो तो देवनागरी ही
दुनिया की सर्वमान्य लिपि होगी क्योंकि यह पूर्णत: वैज्ञानिक है। अंग्रेजी भाषा में वर्तनी (स्पेलिंग) की विकराल समस्या के कारगर समाधान के लिये देवनागरी पर आधारित देवग्रीक लिपि प्रस्तावित की गयी है।

देवनागरी की वैज्ञानिकता

विस्तृत लेख देवनागरी की वैज्ञानिकता देखें।

जिस प्रकार भारतीय अंकों
को उनकी वैज्ञानिकता के कारण विश्व ने सहर्ष स्वीकार कर लिया वैसे ही
देवनागरी भी अपनी वैज्ञानिकता के कारण ही एक दिन विश्वनागरी बनेगी।

देवनागरी लिपि में सुधार

देवनागरी का विकास उस युग में हुआ था जब लेखन हाथ से किया जाता था और लेखन के लिए शिलाएँ, ताड़पत्र, चर्मपत्र, भोजपत्र, ताम्रपत्र आदि का ही प्रयोग होता था। किन्तु लेखन प्रौद्योगिकी ने बहुत अधिक विकास किया और प्रिन्टिंग प्रेस, टाइपराइटर
आदि से होते हुए वह कम्प्यूटर युग में पहुँच गयी है जहाँ बोलकर भी लिखना
सम्भव हो गया है।
जब प्रिंटिंग एवं टाइपिंग का युग आया तो देवनागरी के यंत्रीकरण में कुछ
अतिरिक्त समस्याएँ सामने आयीं जो रोमन में नहीं थीं। उदाहरण के लिए रोमन
टाइपराइटर में अपेक्षाकृत कम कुंजियों की आवश्यकता पड़ती थी। देवनागरी में
संयुक्ताक्षर की अवधारणा होने से भी बहुत अधिक कुंजियों की आवश्यकता पड़
रही थी। ध्यातव्य है कि ये समस्याएँ केवल देवनागरी में नहीं थी बल्कि रोमन
और
सिरिलिक को छोड़कर लगभग सभी लिपियों में थी। चीनी और उस परिवार की अन्य
लिपियों में तो यह समस्या अपने गम्भीरतम रूप में थी।

इन सामयिक समस्याओं को ध्यान में रखते हुए अनेक विद्वानों और
मनीषियों ने देवनागरी के सरलीकरण और मानकीकरण पर विचार किया और अपने सुझाव
दिए। इनमें से अनेक सुझावों को क्रियान्वित नहीं किया जा सका या उन्हें
अस्वीकार कर दिया गया। कहने की आवश्यकता नहीं है कि कम्प्यूटर युग आने से
(या प्रिंटिंग की नई तकनीकी आने से) देवनागरी से सम्बन्धित सारी समस्याएँ
स्वयं समाप्त हों गयीं।

भारत के स्वाधीनता आंदोलनों में हिंदी को राष्ट्रभाषा का दर्जा प्राप्त होने के बाद लिपि के विकास व मानकीकरण हेतु कई व्यक्तिगत एवं संस्थागत प्रयास हुए। सर्वप्रथम बम्बई के महादेव गोविन्द रानडे ने एक लिपि सुधार समिति का गठन किया। तदन्तर महाराष्ट्र साहित्य परिषद पुणे ने सुधार योजना तैयार की। सन १९०४ में बाल गंगाधर तिलक ने अपने केसरी
पत्र में देवनागरी लिपि के सुधार की चर्चा की। प्रिणामस्वरूप देवनागरी के
टाइपों की संख्या १९० निर्धारित की गयी और इन्हें ‘केसरी टाइप’ कहा गया।[16]

आगे चलकर सावरकर बंधुओं ने ‘अ’ की बारहखड़ी प्रयिग करने का सुझाव दिया ( अर्थात ‘ई’ न लिखकर अ पर बड़ी ई की मात्रा लगायी जाय)। डॉ गोरख प्रसाद ने सुझाव दिया कि मात्राओं को व्यंजन के बाद दाहिने तरफ अलग से रखा जाय। डॉ. श्यामसुन्दर दास ने अनुस्वार
के प्रयोग को व्यापक बनाकर देवनागरी के सरलीकरण के प्रयास किये (पंचमाक्षर
के बदले अनुस्वार के प्रयोग )। इसी प्रकार श्रीनिवास का सुझाव था कि
महाप्राण वर्ण के लिए अल्पप्राण के नीचे ऽ चिह्न लगाया जाय। १९४५ में काशी नागरी प्रचारिणी सभा द्वारा अ की बारहखड़ी और श्रीनिवास के सुझाव को अस्वीकार करने का निर्णय लिया गया।[17]

देवनागरी के विकास में अनेक संस्थागत प्रयासों की भूमिका भी अत्यन्त महत्त्वपूर्ण रही है। १९३५ में हिंदी साहित्य सम्मेलन ने नागरी लिपि सुधार समिति[18] के माध्यम से ‘अ’ की बारहखड़ी और शिरोरेखा से संबंधित सुधार सुझाए। इसी प्रकार, १९४७ में आचार्य नरेन्द्र देव
की अध्यक्षता में गठित एक समिति ने बारहखड़ी, मात्रा व्यवस्था, अनुस्वार व
अनुनासिक से संबंधित महत्त्वपूर्ण सुझाव दिये। देवनागरी लिपि के विकास
हेतु भारत सरकार
के शिक्षा मंत्रालय ने कई स्तरों पर प्रयास किये हैं। सन् १९६६ में मानक
देवनागरी वर्णमाला प्रकाशित की गई और १९६७ में ‘हिंदी वर्तनी का मानकीकरण’
प्रकाशित किया गया। १९८३ में ‘देवनागरी लिपि तथा हिन्दी की वर्तनी का
मानकीकरण’ प्रकाशित किया गया।

देवनागरी के सम्पादित्र व अन्य सॉफ्टवेयर

इंटरनेट पर हिन्दी के साधन देखिये।

देवनागरी से अन्य लिपियों में रूपान्तरण

  • ITRANS (iTrans) निरूपण, देवनागरी को लैटिन (रोमन) में परिवर्तित करने का आधुनिकतम और अक्षत (lossless) तरीका है। (Online Interface to iTrans)
  • आजकल अनेक कम्प्यूटर प्रोग्राम उपलब्ध हैं जिनकी सहायता से देवनागरी में लिखे पाठ को किसी भी भारतीय लिपि में बदला जा सकता है। [19]
  • कुछ ऐसे भी कम्प्यूटर प्रोग्राम हैं जिनकी सहायता से देवनागरी में
    लिखे पाठ को लैटिन, अरबी, चीनी, क्रिलिक, आईपीए (IPA) आदि में बदला जा सकता
    है। (ICU Transform Demo)
  • यूनिकोड
    के पदार्पण के बाद देवनागरी का रोमनीकरण (romanization) अब अनावश्यक होता
    जा रहा है, क्योंकि धीरे-धीरे कम्प्यूटर, स्मार्ट फोन तथा अन्य डिजिटल
    युक्तियों पर देवनागरी को (और अन्य लिपियों को भी) पूर्ण समर्थन मिलने लगा
    है।

देवनागरी यूनिकोड

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+090x

U+091x

U+092x

U+093x
ि
U+094x

U+095x
क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ ड़ ढ़ फ़ य़
U+096x

U+097x
ॿ

संगणक कुंजीपटल पर देवनागरी

इंस्क्रिप्ट कुंजीपटल पर देवनागरी वर्ण (Windows, Solaris, Java)

[20]

सन्दर्भ


  • सन्दर्भ त्रुटि: का गलत प्रयोग; gazett नाम के संदर्भ में जानकारी नहीं है।

  • Isaac Taylor (1883), History of the Alphabet: Aryan Alphabets, Part 2, Kegan Paul, Trench & Co, पृ॰ 333, आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-7661-5847-4, … In
    the Kutila this develops into a short horizontal bar, which, in the
    Devanagari, becomes a continuous horizontal line … three cardinal
    inscriptions of this epoch, namely, the Kutila or Bareli inscription of
    992, the Chalukya
    or Kistna inscription of 945, and a Kawi inscription of 919 … the
    Kutila inscription is of great importance in Indian epigraphy, not only
    from its precise date, but from its offering a definite early form of
    the standard Indian alphabet, the Devanagari …

  • Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian epigraphy: a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages. South Asia research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. पपृ॰ 39–41. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-19-509984-3.

  • Writing systems that use Devanagari script

  • George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415772945, pages 68–69

  • Steven Roger Fischer (2004), A history of writing, Reaktion Books, आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-1-86189-167-9, मूल से 7 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 12 अप्रैल 2020, (p.
    110) “… an early branch of this, as of the fourth century CE, was the
    Gupta script, Brahmi’s first main daughter. […] The Gupta alphabet
    became the ancestor of most Indic scripts (usually through later
    Devanagari). […] Beginning around AD 600, Gupta inspired the important
    Nagari, Sarada, Tibetan and Pāḷi scripts. Nagari, of India’s northwest,
    first appeared around AD 633. Once fully developed in the eleventh
    century, Nagari had become Devanagari, or “heavenly Nagari”, since it
    was now the main vehicle, out of several, for Sanskrit literature.”

  • Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency Archived 15 मार्च 2020 at the वेबैक मशीन.
    at Google Books, Rudradaman’s inscription from 1st through 4th century
    CE found in Gujarat, India, Stanford University Archives, pages 30–45,
    particularly Devanagari inscription on Jayadaman’s coins pages 33–34

  • Steven Roger Fischer (2004), A history of writing Archived 7 मार्च 2020 at the वेबैक मशीन., Reaktion Books, ISBN 978-1-86189-167-9,
    “(p. 110) “… an early branch of this, as of the fourth century CE,
    was the Gupta script, Brahmi’s first main daughter. […] The Gupta
    alphabet became the ancestor of most Indic scripts (usually through
    later Devanagari). […] Beginning around AD 600, Gupta inspired the
    important Nagari, Sarada, Tibetan and Pāḷi scripts. Nagari, of India’s
    northwest, first appeared around AD 633. Once fully developed in the
    eleventh century, Nagari had become Devanagari, or “heavenly Nagari”,
    since it was now the main vehicle, out of several, for Sanskrit
    literature.”"

  • Richard Salomon (2014), Indian Epigraphy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195356663, pages 40–42

  • Krishna Chandra Sagar (1993), Foreign Influence on Ancient India, South Asia Books, ISBN 978-8172110284, page 137

  • Richard Salomon (2014), Indian Epigraphy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195356663, page 71

  • Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83

  • Richard Salomon (2014), Indian Epigraphy, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195356663, pages 40–42

  • “History of Devanagari Letterforms”. मूल से 14 अप्रैल 2015 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 10 अप्रैल 2015.

  • “देवनागरी की महत्ता पर बापू का पत्र”. मूल से 17 मई 2018 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 17 मई 2018.

  • “देवनागरी लिपि का विकास”. मूल से 7 जून 2019 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 15 जून 2020.

  • Hindi for Competitive Examinations, पृष्ठ ५१ से ५६

  • Notes on the works of Script Reforms[मृत कड़ियाँ]

  • अक्षरमुख Archived 24 अगस्त 2019 at the वेबैक मशीन. (लिपि परिवर्तक)

    1. Ram Narayan Ray

    इन्हें भी देखें

    बाहरी कड़ियाँ



    जागृति यूनिवर्स के साथ मेटेक्या जागृत की खोज (FOAINDMAOAU)
    वर्तमान
    स्थिति 04-8-2020 और 3-12-2020 के बीच समाप्त होती है, जो नि: शुल्क
    ऑनलाइन विश्लेषणात्मक अंतर्दृष्टि नेट के लिए मार्ग प्रशस्त करती है
    के लिये
    कल्याण, खुशी, सभी संवेदी और गैर-सजातीय लोगों की शांति और उनके लिए अंतिम लक्ष्य के रूप में शाश्वत शांति प्राप्त करना।
    से
    कुशीनार निबाण भामि पगोडा
    116 भाषा विज्ञान में
    के माध्यम से
    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
    पर
    सफेद घर
    668, 5 ए मुख्य सड़क, 8 वीं क्रॉस, एचएएल III स्टेज,
    प्रबुद्ध भारत पुण्यभूमि बेंगलुरु
    मगधी कर्नाटक राज्य
    प्रबुद्ध भाव

    जागरूकता के साथ जागृति एक के साथ अच्छे सर्वेक्षण के मिनट और पर्यावरणविज्ञान को देखें
    से
    कुशीनारा निबाना भूमि पैगोडा के लिए 3 डी सर्कल-विज़न 360 ° में आभासी दौरे के चरण निर्माण द्वारा मुफ्त ऑनलाइन कदम

    शास्त्रीय देवनागरी में महासतीपाठ्य सूत्र, शास्त्रीय हिंदी-देवनागरी- प्राथमिक हिंदी
    ttps: //srv1.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

    अंतिम अद्यतन: 30 जून, 2020, 02:33 GMT
    कोरोनावाइरस के केस:
    10,408,433
    मौतें:
    508,078

    7,794,770,907
    वर्तमान विश्व जनसंख्या -40,382,525 नेट जनसंख्या वृद्धि इस वर्ष- 79,241
    नेट जनसंख्या वृद्धि आज 69,603,91 बर्थ इस वर्ष-136,581 बर्थ
    आज-पुनर्प्राप्त: COVID-19 कोरोनवायरस वायरस महामारी से 6,664,407

    सभी
    खुश, अच्छी तरह से और सुरक्षित हो सकते हैं! सभी लंबे समय तक रह सकते हैं!
    सभी को शांत, शांत, सतर्क, चौकस और समभाव वाला होना चाहिए। एक स्पष्ट समझ
    के साथ कि सब कुछ बदल रहा है। romanalipyAH devanAgarIlipyAm parivartanam

    सजगता के साथ मेटेय्या जागृत एक के शब्द
    से
    कुशीनारा निबाना भूमि पैगोडा के लिए 3 डी सर्कल-विज़न 360 ° में आभासी दौरे के चरण निर्माण द्वारा मुफ्त ऑनलाइन कदम

    यह
    रूपरेखा चैपनिम्हा साग th याना (छठी परिषद) टिपीफाका के देवान line
    गारी-लिपि संस्करण में पुस्तकों के प्रकाशन को प्रदर्शित करती है। वॉल्यूम
    के नामों को इटैलिक्स में प्रत्यय “-p ⁄ 1i4i” के साथ प्रदर्शित किया गया
    है, यह संकेत करते हुए कि टिप्पणी टिपेरियल साहित्य के बजाय वॉल्यूम
    टिपिफाका का हिस्सा है। यह रूपरेखा केवल रूट वॉल्यूम को सूचीबद्ध करती है।
    कृपया ध्यान दें: ये पुस्तकें केवल P ± li में, Devan and gari स्क्रिप्ट
    में हैं, और बिक्री के लिए नहीं हैं।

    अंग्रेजी अनुवाद का कोई सेट उपलब्ध नहीं है। अधिक जानकारी के लिए कृपया देखें: www.tipitaka.org

    (तीन किताबें, 5 किताबों में छपीं)

    Sutta Vibhaaga [दो किताबें जिनमें भिक्खु और भिक्खुनिस के लिए नियम हैं, अपराध की आठ कक्षाओं को रेखांकित करती हैं]

    टिपियापका (तीन “बास्केट”)

    सुत्त पिरपका
    (पांच निक Five यास, या संग्रह)
    सुत्त
    पिआका में धम्म के बारे में बुद्ध के शिक्षण का सार है। इसमें दस हज़ार से
    अधिक सत्त शामिल हैं। इसे पाँच संग्रह में विभाजित किया जाता है जिसे
    निकयास (एक भीड़, संयोजन; एक संग्रह; एक वर्ग, आदेश, समूह; एक संघ,
    बंधुत्व, मण्डली; एक घर, आवास) कहा जाता है।

    दीघा निकया [दीघा: लंबी]
    बुद्ध
    द्वारा दिए गए सबसे लंबे प्रवचनों में से दीघा निकाह 34 को इकट्ठा करता
    है। विभिन्न संकेत हैं कि उनमें से कई मूल कॉर्पस और संदिग्ध प्रामाणिकता
    के लिए देर से जोड़ रहे हैं।

    मज्झिमा निकैया
    [मज्झिमा: मध्यम] मज्झिमा निकाह विभिन्न मामलों से निपटने के लिए, मध्यवर्ती लंबाई के बुद्ध के 152 प्रवचनों को इकट्ठा करता है।

    सौयुतता निकया
    [samyutta:
    group] सौयत्त निकेता अपने विषय के अनुसार ५६ उप समूहों में सौयत्त को
    इकट्ठा करता है। इसमें परिवर्तनशील लंबाई के तीन हजार से अधिक प्रवचन होते
    हैं, लेकिन आम तौर पर अपेक्षाकृत कम होते हैं।

    अगुत्तारा निकया
    [ag:
    कारक | उत्तारा: इसके अलावा] अगुत्तारा निकाह को ग्यारह उप-समूहों में
    उपनिषद कहा जाता है, उनमें से प्रत्येक सभा में एक अतिरिक्त कारक बनाम
    उनमें से एक की गणना से जुड़े प्रवचन मिलते हैं।
    पूर्ववर्ती निपटा। इसमें हजारों सत्त शामिल हैं जो आमतौर पर कम होते हैं।

    खुदाका निकया
    [khuddha:
    short, small] खड्ढाका निकेया लघु ग्रंथ और माना जाता है कि यह दो स्तरों
    से बना है: धम्मपद, उधना, इतिवत्तक, सुत्त निपात, थेरगथ-थिराघ्त और जातक
    प्राचीन ग्रंथ हैं, जबकि अन्य पुस्तकें देर से प्रमाणित होती हैं। अधिक
    संदिग्ध है।

    सुत्त पिरपका
    (पांच निक as यास, या संग्रह)
    1. D2gha-nik [ya [34 suttas; 3 योनि, या अध्याय (प्रत्येक पुस्तक)]
    (1) S2lakkhandavagga-p ⁄ 1i4i (13 suttas)
    (२) महा ga योनि-पी) १i४ आई (१० सूत्त)
    (३) पी ik μikavagga-p ⁄ १i४i (११ सुत्त)
    2. मज्झिमा-निक [य [१५२ सत्त; १५ योनि; 3 पुस्तकों में विभाजित,
    5 योनि प्रत्येक, जिसे ± सा () पचास ’) के रूप में जाना जाता है]
    (1) M3lapaoo) ssa-p ⁄ 1i4i (’रूट’ पचास)
    1. M3lapariy av यावग्गा (10 सुत्त)
    2. S2han ± दवग्गा (10 सुत्त)
    3. टटियावग्गा (10 सूत्त)
    4. मह utt यामाकवग्गा (10 सुत्त)
    5. सी 31 s4 श्यामकवग्गा (10 सुत्त)
    (२) मज्झिमपाओ) सा-पी ⁄ १i४ आई (’मध्य’ पचास)
    6. गपपति-योनि (10 सूक्त)
    7. भिक्खु-योनि (10 सुत्त)
    8. परब ± जाका-योनि (10 सुत्त)
    9. आर as जा-योनि (10 सुत्त)
    10. ब्राह्मण-योनि (10 सूत्त)
    (३) उपरिप्पू) सा-पी ⁄ १i४ आई (मतलब ’पचास से अधिक’)
    11. देवदाह-योनि (10 सूत्त)
    12. अनुपदा-योनि (10 सूत्त)
    13. सुन्नत-योनि (10 सूत्त)
    14. विभागा-योनि (12 सूत्त)
    15. Sa1ga4 ± यतना-योनि (10 सूत्त)



    Last updated: June 28, 2020, 05:11 GMT



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    May all live Long!

    May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity Mind with a clear understanding that Everything is Changing!romanalipyAH devanAgarIlipyAm parivartanam

    Words of the Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness
    from
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    This
    outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script
    edition of the Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of
    the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i”
    indicating the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than
    commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.Please
    note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not
    for sale.

    No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

    (Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

    Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]

    Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

    Sutta Piμaka
    (Five nik±yas, or collections)
    The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching
    regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is
    divided in five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a
    collection; a class, order, group; an association, fraternity,
    congregation; a house, dwelling).

    Dīgha Nikāya[dīgha: long] The
    Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by the Buddha.
    There are various hints that many of them are late additions to the
    original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

    Majjhima Nikāya
    [majjhima:
    medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
    intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

    Saṃyutta Nikāya
    [samyutta:
    group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
    subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
    thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

    Aṅguttara Nikāya
    [aṅg:
    factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
    eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
    consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
    precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally short.

    Khuddaka Nikāya
    [khuddha:
    short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as
    been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta
    Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while
    other books are late additions and their authenticity is more
    questionable.

    Sutta Piμaka
    (Five nik±yas, or collections)
    1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
    (1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
    (2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 suttas)
    (3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i (11 suttas)
    2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
    5 vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]
    (1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
    1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10 suttas)
    2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
    3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)
    4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)
    5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
    (2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘middle’ fifty)
    6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
    7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
    8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
    9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)
    10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
    (3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (means ‘more than fifty’)
    11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
    12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
    13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
    14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
    15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)
    3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
    into 6 books]
    (1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    (6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    4. Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
    numerically; each nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
    each vagga; 6 books]
    (1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
    (2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
    (3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
    (4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)
    (5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
    (6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)
    5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
    ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes suttas, compilations of
    doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
    been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]
    (1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i
    1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
    novice bhikkhus)
    2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
    verses in 26 vaggas)
    3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with
    some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)
    (2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i
    4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
    said by the Buddha])
    5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
    known, most popular suttas of the Buddha
    (3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
    6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
    merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
    7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
    unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
    8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
    elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279 g±thas)
    9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)
    (4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
    (5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
    10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
    stories in verses, divided into nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
    tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
    explain the story behind the verses.
    (6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
    (7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i
    11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
    Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th vagga
    C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and
    the Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
    (8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i
    12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
    teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three vaggas,
    each containing ten topics [kath±])
    (9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
    13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)
    (10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i
    14. Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
    question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D2paakara
    Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
    15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)
    (11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i
    16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain-
    ing canonical texts)
    17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
    teaching of the Buddha)
    (12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i
    18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
    answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
    mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)
    Abhidhamma Piμaka
    [Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
    12 books]
    1. Dhammasaagao2
    (enumeration of the dhammas)
    (1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i
    2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
    (distinction or analysis of dhammas)
    (2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
    3. Dh±tukath±
    (discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
    must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)
    4. Puggalapaññatti
    (designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
    individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.
    (3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42
    5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
    (points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
    settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)
    (4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
    6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
    (book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
    guities and define precise usage of technical terms)
    (5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
    (6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
    (7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III
    7. Paμμh±na
    (book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
    relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
    the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)
    (8) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
    (9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
    (10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
    (11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
    (12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V
    (1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
    p±r±jik± (expulsion) 4
    saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
    aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
    nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30
    (2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
    suddha p±cittiy± (ordinary expiation) 92
    p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
    sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
    adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7
    (concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______Bhikkhuni
    2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
    (3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the
    Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
    outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
    1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
    2. the uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha
    3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
    4. ceremony concluding the vassa, called pav±rao±
    5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
    6. medicine and food
    7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
    8. rules for sick bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
    9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
    10. proceedings in cases of schism
    (4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
    dures for institutional acts or functions, known as saaghakamma:
    1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
    (saagh±disesa)
    2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
    3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a bhikkhu
    4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
    5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
    6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
    7. schisms
    8. classes of bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
    9. exclusion from the p±timokkha
    10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
    11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
    12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li
    3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
    catechism for instruction and examination]
    (5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
    to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.

    Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya DN 9 -
    Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
    {excerpt}
    — The questions of Poṭṭhapāda — Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā. Note: plain texts

    Now,
    lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
    knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
    knowledge arise simultaneously?

    Potthapada, perception arises
    first, and knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the
    arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my
    knowledgehas arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize
    how perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of
    knowledge comes from the arising of perception.DN 22 - (D ii 290)
    Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
    — Attendance on awareness —
    [
    mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] This sutta is widely considered as a the main
    reference for meditation practice. Note: infobubbles on all Pali words

    English Introduction I. Observation of Kāya
       A. Section on ānāpāna
       B. Section on postures
       C. Section on sampajañña
       D. Section on repulsiveness
       E. Section on the Elements
       F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

    II. Observation of Vedanā

    Introduction

    Thus have I heard: 


    On
    one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at
    Kammāsadhamma,a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the
    bhikkhus:

    – Bhikkhus.
    – Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 


    This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
    of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
    of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
    Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

    Which four?
    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
    sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world
    He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
    given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
    in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
    towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
    sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

    I. Kāyānupassanā
    A. Section on ānāpāna
    And
    how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
    root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
    legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
    thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
    long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
    understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
    understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
    understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
    whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
    kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
    kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
    kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

    Just as, bhikkhus, a
    skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn,
    understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
    understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
    bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
    breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
    in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
    he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
    the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
    whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
    kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
    kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

    Thus he dwells observing
    kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally,
    or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he
    dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
    observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing
    the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
    [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
    of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
    to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
    kāya in kāya. 


    B. Section on postures

    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
    while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
    understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
    lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
    understands it accordingly. 


    Thus he dwells observing kāya in
    kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he
    dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells
    observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
    passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
    and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
    kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 
Thus he
    dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya
    in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
    externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
    dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
    observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
    [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
    of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
    to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
    kāya in kāya. 


    C. Section on sampajañña

    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
    sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
    sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
    while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
    he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
    while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
    of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
    while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
    talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 


    Thus
    he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
    kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
    and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya o phenomena in kāya, or
    he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena\ in kāya, or he
    dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
    else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
    extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
    cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
    observing kāya in kāya. 


    D. Section on Repulsiveness

    Furthermore,bhikkhus,
    a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and
    from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full
    of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of
    the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones,
    bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines,
    mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood,
    sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and
    urine.” 


    Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two
    openings and filled with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy,
    paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with
    good eyesight, having unfastened it, would consider [its contents]:
    “This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those are mung beans, those are
    cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same
    way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
    feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
    skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
    the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
    tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
    lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
    phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
    saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

    Thus
    he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
    kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
    and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
    or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
    dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
    else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
    extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
    cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
    observing kāya in kāya. 


    E. Section on the Elements

    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
    however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
    water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


    Just as,
    bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having killed a
    cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the same way,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
    however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
    water element, the fire element and the air element.”

    Thus he
    dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
    kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
    externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
    dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
    observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
    [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
    of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
    to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
    kāya in kāya.

    F. Section on the nine charnel grounds
    (1)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
    a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
    swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
    also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
    free from such a condition.” 


    Thus he dwells observing kāya in
    kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he
    dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells
    observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
    passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
    and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
    kāya!”\ sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    (2)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
    a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
    eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
    eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
    of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
    nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
    condition.

    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or
    he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
    in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
    phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
    in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
    phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
    in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
    detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
    bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    (3)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
    charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by
    tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
    nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
    condition.”

    
Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    (4)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
    acharnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood,
    heldtogether by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is
    of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
    such a condition.” 


    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    (5)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
    a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by
    tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
    nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
    condition.” 


    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
    or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
    kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
    of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
    phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
    of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
    present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
    dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


    (6)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
    a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
    hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
    here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
    a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
    or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
    such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
    such a condition.” 


    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
    away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
    passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    (7)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
    a charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this
    very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become
    like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


    (8)
    Furthermore,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
    a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a year old, he considers this
    very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become
    like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


    Thus he
    dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
    kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
    externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
    dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
    observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
    [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
    of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
    to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
    kāya in kāya.

    (9)
    Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if
    he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones
    reduced to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
    such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
    such a condition.” 


    Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
    internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
    observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
    the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
    passingaway of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
    andpassing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
    kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

    II. Observation of Vedanā

    Introduction

    Which
    four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
    sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
    He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
    given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
    in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
    towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
    sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

    Thus
    he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally, or he dwells observing
    vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā
    internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
    in vedanā, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in
    vedanā, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
    phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!” sati is
    present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
    dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā in vedanā.

    (The Mirror of the Dhamma)

    I
    will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
    possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
    himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
    more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
    misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
    of being destined to sambodhi.

    And what, Ānanda, is that
    discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which
    the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me,
    there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya,
    no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a
    sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being
    destined to sambodhi?

    Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
    IV. Observation of Dhammas

    A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas

    And
    furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in
    dhammas? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
    with reference to the five nīvaraṇas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
    does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
    five nīvaraṇas?

    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being
    kāmacchanda present within, understands: “there is kāmacchanda within
    me”; there not being kāmacchanda present within, he understands: “there
    is no kāmacchanda within me”; he understands how the unarisen
    kāmacchanda comes to arise; he understands how the arisen kāmacchanda is
    abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned kāmacchanda does not
    come to arise in the future.

    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there
    being byāpāda present within, understands: “there is byāpāda within me”;
    there not being byāpāda present within, he understands: “there is no
    byāpāda within me”; he understands how the unarisen byāpāda comes to
    arise; he understands how the arisen byāpāda is abandoned; and he
    understands how the abandoned byāpāda does not come to arise in the
    future.

    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being thīnamiddhā
    present within, understands: “there is thīnamiddhā within me”; there not
    being thīnamiddhā present within, he understands: “there is no
    thīnamiddhā within me”; he understands how the unarisen thīnamiddhā
    comes to arise; he understands how the arisen thīnamiddhā is abandoned;
    and he understands how the abandoned thīnamiddhā does not come to arise
    in the future.

    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being
    uddhacca-kukkucca present within, understands: “there is
    uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; there not being uddhacca-kukkucca present
    within, he understands: “there is no uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; he
    understands how the unarisen uddhacca-kukkucca comes to arise; he
    understands how the arisen uddhacca-kukkucca is abandoned; and he
    understands how the abandoned uddhacca-kukkucca does not come to arise
    in the future

    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being vicikicchā
    present within, understands: “there is vicikicchā within me”; there not
    being vicikicchā present within, he understands: “there is no vicikicchā
    within me”; he understands how the unarisen vicikicchā comes to arise;
    he understands how the arisen vicikicchā is abandoned; and he
    understands how the abandoned vicikicchā does not come to arise in the
    future.

    Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally,
    or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells
    observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells
    observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing
    the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the
    samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:]
    “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere
    ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to
    anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
    dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the five nīvaraṇas.

    B. Section on the Khandhas

    And
    furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
    with reference to the five khandhas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does
    a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five
    khandhas?

    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu [discerns]: “such is rūpa,
    such is the samudaya of rūpa, such is the passing away of rūpa; such is
    vedanā, such is the samudaya of vedanā, such is the passing away of
    vedanā; such is saññā, such is the samudaya of saññā, such is the
    passing away of saññā; such is saṅkhāra, such is the samudaya of
    saṅkhāra, such is the passing away of saṅkhāra; such is viññāṇa, such is
    the samudaya of viññāṇa, such is the passing away of viññāṇa”.

    Thus
    he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
    observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
    in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
    of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
    phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
    away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
    with reference to the five khandhas.

    C. Section on the Sense Spheres

    And
    furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
    with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas. And
    furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in
    dhammas with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas?

    Here,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands cakkhu, he understands rūpa, he
    understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he
    understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands
    how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the
    abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

    He
    understands sota, he understands sadda, he understands the saṃyojana
    which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
    saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
    abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
    to arise in the future.

    He understands ghāna, he understands
    gandha, he understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he
    understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands
    how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the
    abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

    He
    understands jivha, he understands rasa, he understands the saṃyojana
    which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
    saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
    abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
    to arise in the future.

    He understands kāya, he understands
    phoṭṭhabba, he understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these
    two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he
    understands how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands
    how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

    He
    understands mana, he understands dhammas, he understands the saṃyojana
    which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
    saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
    abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
    to arise in the future.

    Thus he dwells observing dhammas in
    dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
    externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and
    externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or
    he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he
    dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas;
    or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just
    to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
    does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
    dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the six internal
    and external āyatanas.

    D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

    And
    furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
    with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
    does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
    seven bojjhaṅgas?

    Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being the sati
    sambojjhaṅga present within, understands: “there is the sati
    sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the sati sambojjhaṅga present
    within, he understands: “there is no sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; he
    understands how the unarisen sati sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he
    understands how the arisen sati sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

    There
    being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
    “there is the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the
    dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no
    dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen
    dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
    dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

    There being
    the vīriya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the
    vīriya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the vīriya sambojjhaṅga
    present within, he understands: “there is no vīriya sambojjhaṅga within
    me”; he understands how the unarisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise;
    he understands how the arisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga is developed to
    perfection.

    There being the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he
    understands: “there is the pīti sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being
    the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no pīti
    sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen pīti
    sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen pīti
    sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection. There being the passaddhi
    sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the passaddhi
    sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga
    present within, he understands: “there is no passaddhi sambojjhaṅga
    within me”; he understands how the unarisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga comes
    to arise; he understands how the arisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga is
    developed to perfection.

    There being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga
    present within, he understands: “there is the samādhi sambojjhaṅga
    within me”; there not being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he
    understands: “there is no samādhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; he
    understands how the unarisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he
    understands how the arisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga is developed to
    perfection.

    There being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within,
    he understands: “there is the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not
    being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there
    is no upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen
    upekkhā sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
    upekkhā sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

    Thus he dwells
    observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas
    in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
    internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
    in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in
    dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
    phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is
    present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
    dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
    bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference
    to the seven bojjhaṅgas.

    E. Section on the Truths

    And
    furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
    with reference to the four ariya·saccas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
    does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
    four ariya·saccas?

    E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca

    And what,
    bhikkhus, is the dukkha ariyasacca? Jāti is dukkha, aging is dukkha
    (sickness is dukkha) maraṇa is dukkha, sorrow, lamentation, dukkha,
    domanassa and distress is dukkha, association with what is disliked is
    dukkha, dissociation from what is liked is dukkha, not to get what one
    wants is dukkha; in short, the five upādāna·k·khandhas are dukkha.

    And
    what, bhikkhus, is jāti? For the various beings in the various classes
    of beings, jāti, the birth, the descent [into the womb], the arising [in
    the world], the appearance, the apparition of the khandhas, the
    acquisition of the āyatanas. This, bhikkhus, is called jāti.

    And
    what, bhikkhus, is jarā? For the various beings in the various classes
    of beings, jarā, the state of being decayed, of having broken [teeth],
    of having grey hair, of being wrinkled, the decline of vitality, the
    decay of the indriyas: this, bhikkhus, is called jarā.

    And what,
    bhikkhus, is maraṇa? For the various beings in the various classes of
    beings, the decease, the state of shifting [out of existence], the break
    up, the disappearance, the death, maraṇa, the passing away, the break
    up of the khandhas, the laying down of the corpse: this, bhikkhus, is
    called maraṇa.

    And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow? In one, bhikkhus,
    associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of
    dukkha dhammas, the sorrrow, the mourning, the state of grief, the
    inner sorrow, the inner great sorrow: this, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

    And
    what, bhikkhus, is lamentation? In one, bhikkhus, associated with
    various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas,
    the cries, the lamentations, the weeping, the wailing, the state of
    crying, the state of lamentating: this, bhikkhus, is called lamentation.

    And
    what, bhikkhus, is dukkha? Whatever, bhikkhus, bodily dukkha, bodily
    unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by bodily contact, unpleasant
    vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called dukkha.

    And what, bhikkhus,
    is domanassa? Whatever, bhikkhus, mental dukkha, mental unpleasantness,
    dukkha engendered by mental contact, unpleasant vedayitas: this,
    bhikkhus, is called domanassa.

    And what, bhikkhus, is despair? In
    one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by
    various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the trouble, the despair, the state of
    being in trouble, the state of being in despair: this, bhikkhus, is
    called despair.

    And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being
    associated with what is disagreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds,
    tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are
    unpleasing, not enjoyable, unpleasant, or else those who desire one’s
    disadvantage, those who desire one’s loss, those who desire one’s
    discomfort, those who desire one’s non-liberation from attachment,
    meeting, being associated, being together, encountering them: this,
    bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being associated with what is
    disagreeable.

    And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being
    dissociated from what is agreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds,
    tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are
    pleasing, enjoyable, pleasant, or else those who desire one’s
    advantage, those who desire one’s benefit, those who desire one’s
    comfort, those who desire one’s liberation from attachment, not meeting,
    not being associated, not being together, not encountering them: this,
    bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being dissociated from what is
    agreeable.

    And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of not getting what
    one wants? In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of being born,
    such a wish arises: “oh really, may there not be jāti for us, and
    really, may we not come to jāti.” But this is not to be achieved by
    wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

    In
    beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of getting old, such a wish
    arises: “oh really, may there not be jarā for us, and really, may we not
    come to jarā.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the
    dukkha of not getting what one wants.

    In beings, bhikkhus, having
    the characteristic of getting sick, such a wish arises: “oh really, may
    there not be sickness for us, and really, may we not come to sickness.”
    But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not
    getting what one wants.

    In beings, bhikkhus, having the
    characteristic of getting old, such a wish arises: “oh really, may there
    not be maraṇa for us, and really, may we not come to maraṇa.” But this
    is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what
    one wants.

    In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of
    sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress, such a wish arises:
    “oh really, may there not be sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and
    distress for us, and really, may we not come to sorrow, lamentation,
    dukkha, domanassa and distress.” But this is not to be achieved by
    wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

    And
    what, bhikkhus, are in short the five upādānakkhandhas? They are: the
    rūpa upādānakkhandha, the vedanā upādānakkhandha, the saññā
    upādānakkhandha, the saṅkhāra upādānakkhandha, the viññāṇa
    upādānakkhandha. These are called in short, bhikkhus, the five
    upādānakkhandhas.

    This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha ariyasacca

    E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca

    And
    what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā
    leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight
    here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
    vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when arising, where does it
    arise, and when settling [itself], where does it settle? In that in the
    world which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, where when settling, it settles.

    And what in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The tongue in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. Kāya in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles.

    Visible forms in the world are pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. Sounds in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Smells in the
    world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. Tastes in the world are pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Dhammas
    in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
    arises, there when settling, it settles.

    The eye-viññāṇa in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. The tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.
    Kāya-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana-viññāṇa in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles.

    The eye-samphassa in the world
    is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
    tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Kāya-samphassa in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. Mana-samphassa in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles.

    The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles.

    The saññā of visible forms in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The saññā of sounds in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
    saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā
    of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

    The intention
    [related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
    intention [related to] sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
    intention [related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
    intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
    intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. The intention [related to] dhammas in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles.

    The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
    taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for
    tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for bodily
    phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for dhammas
    in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
    arises, there when settling, it settles.
    The vicāra of visible forms
    in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
    arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of sounds in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of odors in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The vicāra of tastes in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. This
    is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·samudaya ariyasacca.

    The
    eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The ear-samphassa in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The nose-samphassa in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.
    Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

    The vedanā
    born of eye-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā
    born of ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā
    born of nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā
    born of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā
    born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vedanā
    born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

    The
    saññā of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā
    of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā of odors in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The saññā of tastes in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles.

    The intention [related to] visible forms in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The intention [related to] sounds in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The intention [related to] odors in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The intention [related to] tastes in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The intention [related to] dhammas in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles.

    The taṇhā for visible forms in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. The taṇhā for tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
    taṇhā for bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā
    for dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.
    The vicāra of
    visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of sounds
    in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
    arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of odors in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
    there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of tastes in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
    settling, it settles. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
    settles. This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·samudaya ariyasacca.

    E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca

    And
    what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā
    leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight
    here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
    vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when abandoned, where is it
    abandoned, and when ceasing, where does it cease? In that in the world
    which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when abandoned,
    is abandoned, where when ceasing, it ceases.

    And what in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
    ceases. The nose in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue
    in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
    abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya in the world is pleasant
    and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. Mana in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

    Visible
    forms in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Sounds in the
    world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
    abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Smells in the world are
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
    when ceasing, it ceases. Tastes in the world are pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. Dhammas in the world are pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
    ceases.

    The eye-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
    ceases. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
    nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
    tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-viññāṇa in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
    abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-viññāṇa in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
    when ceasing, it ceases.

    The eye-samphassa in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
    when ceasing, it ceases. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. The tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases.

    The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world
    is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned,
    there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
    abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of
    nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born
    of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
    vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
    ceases. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases.

    The saññā of visible forms in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
    when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant
    and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and
    agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
    when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is pleasant
    and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
    ceasing, it ceases.

    The intention [related to] visible forms in
    the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
    abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to]
    sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention
    [related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
    intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
    there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
    ceases. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is
    pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
    when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] dhammas in the
    world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
    abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

    The taṇhā for visible
    forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
    sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
    odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
    tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
    bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā
    for dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

    The
    vitakka of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
    vitakka of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka
    of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of
    tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of
    bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka
    of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

    The
    vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
    taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
    vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra
    of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of
    tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of
    bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
    when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra
    of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
    abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. This is called,
    bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha ariyasacca.

    E4. Exposition of Maggasacca

    And
    what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca? It is
    just this ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, that is to say sammādiṭṭhi,
    sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo,
    sammāsati and sammāsamādhi.

    And what, bhikkhus, is sammādiṭṭhi?
    That, bhikkhus, which is the ñāṇa of dukkha, the ñāṇa of
    dukkha-samudaya, the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha and the ñāṇa of
    dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada, that is called, bhikkhus, sammādiṭṭhi.

    And
    what, bhikkhus, are sammāsaṅkappas? Those, bhikkhus, which are
    saṅkappas of nekkhamma, saṅkappas of abyāpāda, saṅkappas of avihiṃsā,
    those are called, bhikkhus, sammāsaṅkappas.

    And what, bhikkhus,
    is sammāvācā? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from musāvādā,
    abstaining from pisuṇa vācā, abstaining from pharusa vācā, and
    abstaining from samphappalāpa, that is called, bhikkhus, sammāvācā.

    And
    what, bhikkhus, is sammā-kammanta? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining
    from pāṇātipāta , abstaining from adinnādāna, abstaining from
    abrahmacariya, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-kammanta.

    And
    what, bhikkhus, is sammā-ājīva? Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple, having
    abandonned wrong livelihood, supports his life by right means of
    livelihood, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-ājīva.

    And what,
    bhikkhus, is sammāvāyāma? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu generates his chanda
    for the non-arising of unarisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts
    himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he
    generates his chanda for the forsaking of arisen pāpaka and akusala
    dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his
    citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the arising of unarisen
    kusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously
    his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the steadfastness of
    arisen kusala dhammas, for their absence of confusion, for their
    increase, their development, their cultivation and their completion, he
    exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and
    strives. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāvāyāma.

    An what,
    bhikkhus, is sammāsati? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya
    in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
    towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī
    sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
    He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
    given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing
    dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up
    abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. This is called, bhikkhus,
    sammāsati.

    And what, bhikkhus, is sammāsamādhi? Here, bhikkhus, a
    bhikkhu, detached from kāma, detached from akusala dhammas, having
    entered in the first jhāna, abides therein, with vitakka and vicāra,
    with pīti and sukha born of detachment. With the stilling of
    vitakka-vicāra, having entered in the second jhāna, he abides therein
    with inner tanquilization, unification of citta, without vitakka nor
    vicāra, with pīti and sukha born of samādhi. And with indifference
    towards pīti, he abides in upekkha, sato and sampajāno, he experiences
    in kāya the sukha which the ariyas describe: ‘one who is equanimous and
    mindful dwells in [this] sukha’, having entered in the third jhāna, he
    abides therein. Abandoning sukha and abandoning dukkha, somanassa and
    domanassa having previously disappeared, without sukha nor dukkha, with
    the purity of upekkha and sati, having entered in the fourth jhāna, he
    abides therein. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsamādhi.

    This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca.

    Thus
    he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
    observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
    in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
    of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
    phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
    away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
    sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
    paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
    world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
    with reference to the four ariya·saccas.

    The benefits of practicing the Satipaṭṭhānas

    For
    whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way
    for seven years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect]
    knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left,
    anāgāmita.

    Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. For whoever,
    bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six
    years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in
    visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let
    alone six years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these
    four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for five years, one of two results may be
    expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there
    is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let alone five years, bhikkhus.
    For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this
    way for four years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect]
    knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left,
    anāgāmita.

    Let alone four years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus,
    would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three years,
    one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in
    visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let
    alone three years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
    these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two years, one of two results
    may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
    there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let alone two years,
    bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
    in this way for one year, one of two results may be expected: either
    [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
    left, anāgāmita.

    Let alone one year, bhikkhus. For whoever,
    bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for seven
    months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
    in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let
    alone seven months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
    these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six months, one of two results
    may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
    there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let alone six months,
    bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
    in this way for five months, one of two results may be expected: either
    [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
    left, anāgāmita.

    Let alone five months, bhikkhus. For whoever,
    bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for four
    months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
    in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let
    alone four months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
    these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three months, one of two
    results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
    phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let
    alone three months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
    these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two months, one of two results
    may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
    there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let alone two months,
    bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
    in this way for one month, one of two results may be expected: either
    [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
    left, anāgāmita.

    Let alone one month, bhikkhus. For whoever,
    bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for half a
    month, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
    in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    Let
    alone half a month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
    these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for a week, one of two results may
    be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
    there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

    “This, bhikkhus, is the
    path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the
    overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
    dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
    Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.” Thus has it been said,
    and on the basis of all this has it been said.

    Thus spoke the Bhagavā. Delighted, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Bhagavā.



    COVID-19 conspiracy claims, but virus origins still a mystery.

    There were still no conclusive answers as to where the disease started.

    SARS-CoV-2,
    now responsible for more than 200,000 deaths worldwide, was synthesised
    by the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), based in the city where the
    disease was first identified. 




    Last updated: June 28, 2020, 05:11 GMT

    Coronavirus Cases:


    10,086,969




    Deaths:


    501,393


    7,794,346,988 Current World Population-39,958,612 Net population growth this year- 100,66 Net population growth today 68,873,254 Births this year-173,512 Births today-Recovered:5,464,271


    from COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic



    World Population

    68,873,254 Births this year
    173,512 Births today

    28,914,641 Deaths this year

    72,844 Deaths today

    39,958,612 Net population growth this year

    100,668 Net population growth today


    Government & Economics

    $ 6,826,807,785 Public Healthcare expenditure today
    $ 4,667,763,911 Public Education expenditure today
    $ 2,121,222,629 Public Military expenditure today
    38,748,631 Cars produced this year
    74,135,092 Bicycles produced this year
    122,951,971 Computers produced this year

    Society & Media

    1,317,980 New book titles published this year
    215,200,168 Newspapers circulated today
    301,884 TV sets sold worldwide today
    2,944,785 Cellular phones sold today
    $ 131,849,130 Money spent on videogames today
    4,601,673,518 Internet users in the world today
    118,750,817,592 Emails sent today
    3,137,912 Blog posts written today
    352,655,941 Tweets sent today
    3,274,682,912 Google searches today

    Environment

    2,556,719 Forest loss this year (hectares)
    3,442,035 Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
    17,777,873,523 CO2 emissions this year (tons)
    5,899,523 Desertification this year (hectares)
    4,814,197 Toxic chemicals released  in the environment this year (tons)

    Food

    844,065,363 Undernourished people in the world
    1,695,282,229 Overweight people in the world
    759,813,318 Obese people in the world
    13,851 People who died of hunger today
    $ 262,130,303 Money spent for obesity related diseases in the USA today
    $ 85,621,190 Money spent on weight loss programs in the USA today

    Water

    2,144,792,052Water used this year (million L)
    413,974Deaths caused by water related diseases this year
    799,985,636People with no access to a safe drinking water source

    Energy

    211,396,844 Energy used today (MWh), of which:
    179,952,931- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
    31,834,521- from renewable sources (MWh)
    1,324,623,131,498 Solar energy striking Earth today (MWh)
    43,357,446 Oil pumped today (barrels)
    1,504,600,152,580 Oil left (barrels)
    15,691 Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
    1,095,095,025,845 Natural Gas left (boe)

    57,637 Days to the end of natural gas

    4,315,345,130,381 Coal left (boe)

    148,805 Days to the end of coal


    Health

    6,381,718 Communicable disease deaths this year

    239,614 Seasonal flu deaths this year
    3,736,623 Deaths of children under 5 this year
    20,906,930 Abortions this year
    151,946 Deaths of mothers during birth this year
    41,900,984 HIV/AIDS infected people
    826,398 Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
    4,037,414 Deaths caused by cancer this year
    482,195 Deaths caused by malaria this year
    6,855,710,582 Cigarettes smoked today
    2,457,489 Deaths caused by smoking this year
    1,229,520 Deaths caused by alcohol this year
    527,158 Suicides this year
    $ 196,661,117,105 Money spent on illegal drugs this year
    663,599 Road traffic accident fatalities this year






    https://srv1.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

    Last updated: June 30, 2020, 02:33 GMT
    Coronavirus Cases:
    10,408,433
    Deaths:
    508,078

    7,794,770,907
    Current World Population-40,382,525 Net population growth this year-
    79,241 Net population growth today 69,603,91 Births this year-136,581
    Births today-Recovered:5,664,407 from COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic



    BIRTH, OLD AGE, SICKNESS, ILLNESS, DEATH ARE CERTAININTIES

    May all be Happy, Well and Secure!

    May all have Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and Equanimity Mind with a Clear Understanding that Everything is Changing!

    May all those who died attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal and Rest in Peace
    as they followed the following original words of the Buddha the Mettiyya Awakened One with awraeness :

    Countries and territories without any cases of COVID-19



    1. Comoros,2. North Korea,3. Yemen,4.
    The Federated States of Micronesia,5. Kiribati,6. Solomon Islands,7.
    The Cook Islands,8. Micronesia,9. Tong,10. The Marshall Islands
    Palau,11. American Samoa,12. South Georgia,13. South Sandwich
    Islands,14.SaintHelena,Europe,
    15. Aland Islands,16.Svalbard,17. Jan
    Mayen Islands,18. Latin America,19.Africa,20.British Indian Ocean
    Territory,21.French Southern
    Territories,22.Lesotho,23.Ocea
    nia,24.Christmas
    Island,25. Cocos
    (Keeling) Islands,26. Heard Island,27. McDonald Islands,28. Niue,29.
    Norfolk Island,30. Pitcairn,31. Solomon Islands,32. Tokelau,33. United
    States Minor Outlying Islands,34. Wallis and Futuna Islands,35.Tajikistan,
    36. Turkmenistan,37. Tuvalu,38. Vanuatu

    as they are following the original words of the Buddha Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness:



    Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta


    1. Dasa raja dhamma, 2. kusala 3. Kuutadanta Sutta dana, 4.
    priyavacana,5. artha cariya ,6. samanatmata, 7. Samyutta
    Nikayaaryaor,ariyasammutidev 8. Agganna Sutta,9. Majjima Nikaya,10.
    arya” or “ariy, 11.sammutideva,12. Digha Nikaya,13. Maha
    Sudassana,14.Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma ,15. Canon Sutta ,16. Pali Canon and Suttapitaka ,17. Iddhipada ,18. Lokiyadhamma and Lokuttaradhamma,19. Brahmavihàra,20. Sangahavatthu ,21. Nathakaranadhamma ,22. Saraniyadhamma ,23. Adhipateyya Dithadhammikattha,24. dukkha,25. anicca,26. anatta,
    27. Samsara,28. Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,29.Chandagati,30.Dosagati, 31. Mohagati,32.Bhayagati,33.Yoniso manasikara,34. BrahmavihàraSangaha vatthu,35. Nathakaranadhamma,36.SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya,37. Dithadhammikatth38.Mara,39.Law of Kamma,40. dhammamahamatras, 41.
    IV. Observation of Dhammas,42.Assamedha,43.Sassamedha,44.Naramedha,45.Purisamedha,46.Sammapasa,47.Vajapeyya,48.Niraggala,49.Sila,50.Samadhi51.Panna, 52.Samma-sankappa,53.Sigalovada Sutta,54.Brahmajala Sutta,55.Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya,56.Ambattha Sutta in Digha Nikaya

    The Blessed,Noble,Awakened One-The Tathagata








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