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07/14/20
At the protest outside the office of the Ayodhya district magistrate, the Buddhist monks demanded that those items found during the levelling of the land of the Ram Janmabhoomi site must be made public. CHITPAVAN BRAHMINS EXPOSED- The Supreme Court did not honour the special law to freeze the status of places of worship as they were on August 15, 1947. DMK MP calls the Supreme court an ‘RSS camp’, compares Tamil media to brothels
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka KUSHINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA
Posted by: site admin @ 11:23 pm
At
the protest outside the office of the Ayodhya district magistrate, the
Buddhist monks demanded that those items found during the levelling of
the land of the Ram Janmabhoomi site must be made public.
CHITPAVAN BRAHMINS EXPOSED-
The Supreme Court did not honour the special law to freeze the status of places of worship as they were on August 15, 1947.
DMK MP calls the Supreme court an ‘RSS camp’, compares Tamil media to brothels






Friends


At
the protest outside the office of the Ayodhya district magistrate, the
Buddhist monks demanded that those items found during the levelling of
the land of the Ram Janmabhoomi site must be made public.
File Photo
File Photo
Ayodhya:
Buddhist monks staged a sit-in and fast in Ayodhya on Tuesday, claiming
that the Ram Janmabhoomi premises was a Buddhist site and demanded that
the excavation of the place be done by the UNESCO.
At
the protest outside the office of the Ayodhya district magistrate, the
Buddhist monks demanded that those items found during the levelling of
the land of the Ram Janmabhoomi site must be made public.
The
Buddhist monks demanded that the excavation of the site must be done by
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
(UNESCO), claiming that the items recovered belong to Buddhist culture.
They demanded that the construction work of the Ram temple must be stopped immediately.
The followers of Buddhism consider Ayodhya as the ancient city of Saket that was the centre of Buddhism in ancient times.
“We
have sent our memorandums to the President, chief justice of India and
also to other government agencies through the Ayodhya administration,” a
Azad Baudh Dharm Sena member said.
“If
the construction of the Ram temple is not stopped within a month and
the premises not assigned to the UNESCO for excavation, then we will
again start our movement,” he said.
“We
have received the memorandum of Buddhist leaders and we will be sending
it to the persons addressed,” Faizabad City Magistrate S P Singh said.
“On our assurances, the Buddhist community has called off its sit-in and
fast.”


Friends


Buddhist monks protest in Ayodhya, demand UNESCO excavate Ram Janmabhoomi site
Buddhist
monks staged a sit-in and fast in Ayodhya on Tuesday, claiming that the
Ram Janmabhoomi premises was a Buddhist site and demanded that the
excavation of the place should be done by the UNESCO.
At
the protest outside the office of the Ayodhya district magistrate, the
Buddhist monks demanded that those items found during the levelling of
the land of the Ram Janmabhoomi site must be made public.
They
demanded that the construction work of the Ram temple must be stopped
immediately. The followers of Buddhism consider Ayodhya as the ancient
city of Saket that was the centre of Buddhism in ancient times.
“We
have received the memorandum of Buddhist leaders and we will be sending
it to the persons addressed,” Faizabad City Magistrate S P Singh said.
“On our assurances, the Buddhist community has called off its sit-in and
fast.”

Friends


Buddhist monks protest in Ayodhya demand UNESCO excavate Ram Janmabhoomi site
PTI July 15, 2020 01:22 IST
(Eds: Adding word in intro)

Ayodhya (UP), Jul 14 (PTI) Buddhist monks staged a sit-in and fast
in Ayodhya on Tuesday, claiming that the Ram Janmabhoomi premises was a
Buddhist site and demanded that the excavation of the place should be
done by the UNESCO.

At the protest outside the office of the Ayodhya district
magistrate, the Buddhist monks demanded that those items found during
the levelling of the land of the Ram Janmabhoomi site must be made
public.
They demanded that the construction work of the Ram temple must be stopped immediately.
The followers of Buddhism consider Ayodhya as the ancient city of Saket that was the centre of Buddhism in ancient times.

“We have sent our memorandums to the President, chief justice of
India and also to other government agencies through the Ayodhya
administration,” a Azad Baudh Dharm Sena member said.

“If the construction of the Ram temple is not stopped within a
month and the premises not assigned to the UNESCO for excavation, then
we will again start our movement,” he said.

“We have received the memorandum of Buddhist leaders and we will be
sending it to the persons addressed,” Faizabad City Magistrate S P
Singh said. “On our assurances, the Buddhist community has called off
its sit-in and fast.” PTI CORR
HMB
(This story has not been edited by THE WEEK and is auto-generated from PTI)
Buddhist monks protest in Ayodhya demand UNESCO excavate Ram Janmabhoomi site

theweek.in

Buddhist monks protest in Ayodhya demand UNESCO excavate Ram Janmabhoomi site

(This story has not been edited by THE WEEK and is auto-generated from a PTI


https://brahminsexposed.wordpress.com/2016/02/10/brahmins-exposed/
CHITPAVAN BRAHMINS EXPOSED

In
the Indian struggle of independence from the British, There is more
than what meets the eye. In fact chasing the British away itself might
have been unnecessary. Sree Narayana Guru, a contemporary of Gandhiji
did not participate in freedom struggle. Guru brushed away the issue
saying “Easterners and Westerners should merge” as “as all are just
human beings” !

Humanity
is the only reality. Just people of all shapes and sizes and colours,
like the different fingers. To the palm all fingers are just parts of
it. So whatever combinations the fingers make and unmake are immaterial
to the palm.

The
Indian mind set has always been dominated by the upper castes, the
ideas always fed by the wise chitpavan brahmins, who realised how to
live without working by scaring people about God and punishments. Until
the Mughals came, the chitpavan brahmins, in company of the upper castes
were hunting and exploiting the lower castes. And made the lower castes
feel that the lower castes thoroughly deserved it too! Any objection
was ruled out in the name of
god.
Upper castes used the lower caste women for sex but kept out the lower
caste males with an innovative invention “untouchability”. If some self
respecting lower caste male challenged it and pulled up the upper castes
who raped his women , he was threatened with “chitpavan brahmana hatya
paapam” means ‘killing a chitpavan brahamana is equal to killing god’ !
The same tricks used by priests and politicians all over the world.

The
Mughals called bluff of the chitpavan brahminical way of worshiping god
by making others go around idols of various shapes, eating vegetarian
square meals in round stomachs and screwing women after scaring the
males who were afraid of god ! They introduced their own way of worship
without idols, eating non veg food and of course screwing as many women
as possible ! Now chitpavan brahmins got the dose of their own medicine.
Did they learn. No way. It needs more repeated lessons for the morons
and those unwilling to learn.

Thus
came the Europeans. By this time, Mughals were ruling the country on
the face of the chitpavan brahmins and doing exactly as the chitpavan
brahmins did, only with some variations in the ways. Like ways of
worship (with and without idols) Food (veg Vs Non Veg) etc. On women,
the chitpavan brahmins and the Muslims did strikingly similar rituals.
The Europeans were a refreshing new breeze. They were fairer, bigger,
more adventurous and far better looking. The current self proclaimed
local heroes found themselves as the dwarf males in the Malayalam movie
‘Athbhutha dweep’ trying to chase away the fresh better opponents. In a
heritage where the lesson is “Vasudhaiva kudumbakam” meaning ‘the entire
world is one family’, where is the possibility of such discrimination?
Remember all this was started by the wise Brahmins, in way of casteism
to enjoy the extra women in the name of a ‘stupid’ or ‘impotent’ god
which none really believed to exist. It was like a stone causing an
avalanche.

Now
the wiser chitpavan brahmins had to decide the best way to safeguard
their interests. The wise chitpavan brahmins had isolated and tortured
the lower castes. To escape torture and dehumanization, the lower castes
joined other religions like Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Islam and
Sikhism. Still the chitpavan brahmins thought the “secret lessons in
Vedas were safe with them, being in Sanskrit language which none else
knew !” See the height of ego and ignorance ! The presnt challenge was
to save the females from getting attracted to the handsome Europeans !
So the chitpavan brahmins decided to chase the Europeans first ! This
was simply due to sexual jealousy and insecurity of weak males who are
the majority.

The
approach to the Europeans is to be seen in this context. All this is
due to double standards kept by weak males. When it suits them, they
stand by it, When it does not, they change the subject. For example the
size of people. Suppose we make a rule that big people are respected,
then all big (or fair) people are to be respected. So there may be bid
people among lower castes. Or the Negroes. Or the Caucasians. So the
rule gets a modification by the vested interests. “All big people can be
respected, provided they belong to us !”

LOL ! Now who are these ‘us’ and ‘outsiders’?.

The
basic issue is how to keep the women and wealth for oneself. So males
invent rules that suit them, sometimes knowingly hurting the others.
What they don’t understand is that they are creating an unnecessary
problem which they will have to answer later all by themselves in
another form. Thus the chitpavan brahmins decided to chase away the
smart Europeans (whom the local women must have started fancying) by
befriending the lower castes (whom the chitpavan brahmins were
exploiting for thousands of years) and even Muslims, who did many things
unacceptable to the Brahmins. Because, to the Brahmins, the similarly
miserable looking locals were not an issue. the issue was the far better
placed sophisticated Europeans, before whom the chitpavan brahmins felt
like dwarfs.

It
is this fear of the s that led to the war of Independence. A lower
caste Guru from Kerala, who advised to befriend and live with the
westerners, did not get many takers. So efforts were made to portray the
Europeans as ‘white Devils’. They were at worst traders. Living with
the better race was like making ourselves sidelined. So efforts were on
to chase them than accept them as better placed brothers of the world
family. Thus the leaders like a Brahmin Nehru was more acceptable to the
upper castes. with the help of Muslims and lower castes, the Europeans
were chased away. The chitpavan brahmins laughed as if they won, as
usual. That was the beginning of another tragedy !

After
the Europeans left, the locals tried to do exactly like the Europeans !
See the irony. When they were here, they were treated as enemies. No
merit of them were considered worthy. The Muslims and lower castes were
more worthy than the Europeans ! Now it is back to square one. The
Muslims are very much here. The Europeans are keeping a respectable
distance. The lower castes are still here. And the chitpavan brahmins
are back to their favorite pass times of exploiting the lower castes and
raping their women ! Had the Europeans been here, India would have
developed like Europe by this time. With systems in place for free
fearless respectable hygienic living in light of modern science with
equal human rights for females. The chitpavan brahmins are still trying
to bring in their own far better system in India than anywhere else in
the world. The only problem is on their way to that utopia, they stumble
upon females, their only weakness.

Soon
there would be another situation, if not already there. The upsurgence
of Muslims as the rulers of the country. Are the Muslims better than the
Europeans? Except religious fanaticism, blind consumerism and male
chauvinism, Islam rejects education and sciences, even when enjoying the
benefits of both. Clearly the agenda of Islam is to globalize Islam and
use the scientists of other religions as their slaves to continue to
enjoy the comforts of science, in their own way. Now the lower castes
are asking a doubt to the wise chitpavan brahmins. The Europeans were
chased away with the help of Muslims. Now when the Muslims take over
power in a democracy through peaceful democratic means, the chitpavan
brahmins will ask the lower castes to fight the Muslims to save the
country !

Now
rewind to the beginning. How did all this happen in the first place?
The wise chitpavan brahmins tried to exploit the lower castes. We have
reached a full circle. Today, the chitpavan brahmins are seeking the
help of the same lower castes whom they exploited until now to chase
away someone that the Brahmins do not like ! This is the time to crack
the chitpavan brahmins on their bluff. Suppose the lower castes listen
to the chitpavan brahmins again and defeat the Muslims and capture the
control back. The chitpavan brahmins will be back with their pass times !

Respect
the Christians and Muslims just for this aspect. Not cowing down to the
empty chitpavan brahmin bluff. The great India rope less tricksters.

Friends


The Supreme Court did not honour the special law to freeze the status of places of worship as they were on August 15, 1947.
Valmiki
a Scheduled Caste created the imaginary Epic Ramayana and hence Rama is
also imaginary hero with along with his place of birth. The foreigners
thrown out from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam
Sevaks (RSS) and the Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) for their
political gains got the verdict to build a rama tremple at ayodhaya.
But in reality that is a Buddhist site.
Buddhist monks protest in Ayodhya, demand UNESCO excavate Ram Janmabhoomi site
Buddhist monks protest in Ayodhya, demand UNESCO excavate Ram Janmabhoomi site
At
the protest outside the office of the Ayodhya district magistrate, the
Buddhist monks demanded that those items found during the levelling of
the land of the Ram Janmabhoomi site must be made…
dtnext.in
Buddhist
monks protest in Ayodhya, demand UNESCO excavate Ram Janmabhoomi site,
claiming that the Ram Janmabhoomi premises was a Buddhist site and
demanded that the excavation of the place should be done by the UNESCO.
Buddhist monks protest in Ayodhya, demand UNESCO excavate Ram
Buddhist
monks staged a sit-in and fast in Ayodhya on Tuesday, claiming that the
Ram Janmabhoomi premises was a Buddhist site and demanded that the
excavation of the place should be done by the

deccanherald.com

Buddhist monks protest in Ayodhya, demand UNESCO excavate Ram Janmabhoomi site



Friends


“These
television guys are scoundrels. No one is as corrupt as them. They are
running the channels like the red light area in Mumbai”, said the DMK
leader while the Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) leaders called them
PRESSTITUTES.
Under
the guise of upholding the Dravidian movement, DMK Rajya Sabha MP and
party’s organizing secretary, RS Bharathi stirred fresh controversy
after airing demeaning and derogatory statements against journalists,
people of North India and the SC/STs.
Being
one of the party’s senior leaders, he has been caught up with strong
criticism among the media after his address went viral on Monday.
Addressing in an event of Kalaignar Readers’ circle that was organized
at Anbagam, the DMK Youth Wing headquarters in Chennai on Saturday,
Bharathi started off by attacking senior Bharatiya Janata Party leader H
Raja, calling him a loafer and then a “chitpavan brahmin dog”.
According
to a report by Swarajya, the DMK leader said: “Had I not held a
position in the party, I would have become a terrorist to take on these
people (those criticising the Dravidian movement),” Bharathi said,
furthering that the present-day youth are not aware that Tamil Nadu was
among the top states due the contribution of the Dravidian movement.
“People in other states are fools. Particularly, North India they are all fools,” said the DMK MP.
The
senior DMK leader went to the extent of comparing the media channels
with ‘Red Light Area’ in Mumbai. The party leader said: “They have a
debate on this. These television guys are scoundrels. No one is as
corrupt as them. They are running the channels like the red light area
in Mumbai. Just because they are getting money, they raise anything
(issue).”
“The
press guys don’t have any job. They don’t write anything when others do
something. When (Arvind) Kerjiwal hired Prashant Kishor, they didn’t
write about it. Narendra Modi used it, they didn’t write. Many others
used him, no one wrote. But when he (Kishor) came to DMK in Tamil Nadu,
they are talking out of jealousy,” the senior DMK leader said.
In
his speech that lasted for about 12 minutes, he stated that the
appointment of SC/STs as High court judges was possible because of the
dole given by the Dravidian movement. “Not a single Harijan has become a
judge in Madhya Pradesh till this day. It was Kalaignar (the late
Karunanidhi) who first made him as an advocate and MP.
It is because of the alms (pitchai) doled out by the DMK to the harijan A raja to become an advocate and MP, said the DMK MP.
He
then went on to make more disparaging remarks on the Supreme Court.
“Ava (chitpavan brahmins) have come back. I say with heartburn that the
Supreme Court has become an RSS camp. I am an advocate, but this is my
grievance,” the DMK MP.
He
went on to claim that the party is neither against hindutvaism nor
hindus and he stated that the priests at the temples won’t be getting
money if the members of DMK don’t go to temples.
Stating
that a revolution would have taken place had Karunanidhi been alive,
Bharathi said: “ Anna (CN Annadurai) and Kalaignar are needed again
today.”
The
senior DMK leader, however, after receiving severe backlash on social
media and by various journalists for his derogatory statements against
the media, took to Twitter and regretted his statements against the
SC/STs and marginalized communities. In his tweet, he stated that he
understood that his speech has hurt the sentiments of the backward
communities and claimed that his motive was to highlight the good things
Karunanidhi has done for them.
Addressing
the reporters, he stated that he had no personal intention to hurt the
media and placed his regret by pointing that the party’s president had
asked him to meet the reporters and to place the regret about his
comments.

DMK MP RS Bharathi arrested for defamatory speech against SC/ST judges; granted interim bail.
He has been arrested from his residence by the Central Crime Branch sleuths
Bharathi
was booked under the Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of
Atrocities) Act by the Teynampet police before the case was transferred
to crime branch.
No
‘Harijan’ has become the judge of the High Court in Madhya Pradesh. But
in Tamil Nadu, after ‘Kalaignar’ (Late DMK chief M.Karunanidhi) became
the chief minister several members of harijan community became judges of
Madras High Court. These were ‘alms’ pitchai given by dravidian
movement.

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Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna
Sutta in Buddha’s own words for happiness, eradication of hunger with 
fearlessness and Unity chantings, songs and music in  Classical Sanskrit
छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्

May
all be Happy, Well and Secure!    May all live Long!    May all have
calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity Mind with a clear
understanding that Everything is Changing!romanalipyAH devanAgarIlipyAm
parivartanam

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This
outline displays the publication of books in the Devan±gari-script
edition of the Chaμμha Saag±yana (Sixth Council) Tipiμaka. The names of
the volumes are displayed in italics with the suffix “-p±1⁄4i”
indicating the volume is part of the root Tipiμaka, rather than
commentarial literature. This outline lists the root volumes only.Please
note: These books are in P±li only, in Devan±gari script, and are not
for sale.

    No set of English translations is available. For further information please see: www.tipitaka.org

(Three divisions, printed in 5 books)

Sutta Vibhaaga [two books containing rules for the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, outlining eight classes of offences]

Tipiμaka (three “baskets”)

Sutta Piμaka
    (Five nik±yas, or collections)
  
 The Sutta Piṭaka contains the essence of the Buddha’s teaching
regarding the Dhamma. It contains more than ten thousand suttas. It is
divided in five collections called Nikāyas (A multitude, assemblage; a
collection; a class, order, group; an association, fraternity,
congregation; a house, dwelling).

Dīgha Nikāya[dīgha: long] The
Dīgha Nikāya gathers 34 of the longest discourses given by the Buddha.
There are various hints that many of them are late additions to the
original corpus and of questionable authenticity.

Majjhima Nikāya
[majjhima:
medium] The Majjhima Nikāya gathers 152 discourses of the Buddha of
intermediate length, dealing with diverse matters.

Saṃyutta Nikāya
[samyutta:
group] The Saṃyutta Nikāya gathers the suttas according to their
subject in 56 sub-groups called saṃyuttas. It contains more than three
thousand discourses of variable length, but generally relatively short.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
[aṅg:
factor | uttara: additionnal] The Aṅguttara Nikāya is subdivized in
eleven sub-groups called nipātas, each of them gathering discourses
consisting of enumerations of one additional factor versus those of the
precedent nipāta. It contains thousands of suttas which are generally short.

Khuddaka Nikāya
[khuddha:
short, small] The Khuddhaka Nikāya short texts and is considered as
been composed of two stratas: Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Sutta
Nipāta, Theragāthā-Therīgāthā and Jātaka form the ancient strata, while
other books are late additions and their authenticity is more
questionable.

Sutta Piμaka
    (Five nik±yas, or collections)
    1. D2gha-nik±ya [34 suttas; 3 vaggas, or chapters (each a book)]
(1) S2lakkhandavagga-p±1⁄4i (13 suttas)
(2) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 suttas)
(3) P±μikavagga-p±1⁄4i (11 suttas)
    2. Majjhima-nik±ya [152 suttas;15 vaggas; divided in 3 books,
5 vaggas each, known as paoo±sa (‘fifty’)]
    (1) M3lapaoo±ssa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘root’ fifty)
1. M3lapariy±yavagga (10 suttas)
2. S2han±davagga (10 suttas)
3. Tatiyavagga (10 suttas)
    4. Mah±yamakavagga (10 suttas)
    5. C31⁄4ayamakavagga (10 suttas)
(2) Majjhimapaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (the ‘middle’ fifty)
    6. Gahapati-vagga (10 suttas)
7. Bhikkhu-vagga (10 suttas)
8. Paribb±jaka-vagga (10 suttas)
9. R±ja-vagga (10 suttas)
    10. Br±hmana-vagga (10 suttas)
(3) Uparipaoo±sa-p±1⁄4i (means ‘more than fifty’)
    11. Devadaha-vagga (10 suttas)
12. Anupada-vagga (10 suttas)
13. Suññata-vagga (10 suttas)
14. Vibhaaga-vagga (12 suttas)
15. Sa1⁄4±yatana-vagga (10 suttas)
    3. Sa1⁄2yutta-nik±ya [2,904 (7,762) suttas; 56 sa1⁄2yuttas; 5 vaggas; divided
into 6 books]
    (1) Sag±thavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (11 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(2) Nid±navagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(3) Khandavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (13 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(4) Sa1⁄4±yatanavagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i (10 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(5) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol I ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
(6) Mah±vagga-sa1⁄2yutta-p±1⁄4i Vol II ( 6 sa1⁄2yuttas)
    4. Aaguttara-nik±ya [9,557 suttas; in11 nip±tas, or groups, arranged purely
numerically; each nip±ta has several vaggas; 10 or more suttas in
each vagga; 6 books]
    (1) Eka-Duka-Tika-nipata-p±1⁄4i (ones, twos, threes)
(2) Catukka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fours)
(3) Pañcaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (fives)
(4) Chakka-Sattaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (sixes, sevens)
    (5) Aμμhaka-Navaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (eights, nines)
(6) Dasaka-Ekadasaka-nipata-p±1⁄4i (tens, elevens)
    5. Khuddaka-nik±ya [the collection of small books, a miscellaneous gather-
ing of works in 18 main sections; it includes suttas, compilations of
doctrinal notes, histories, verses, and commentarial literature that has
been incorporated into the Tipiμaka itself.; 12 books]
    (1) Kuddhakap±tha,Dhammapada & Ud±na-p±1⁄4i
    1. Kuddhakap±tha (nine short formulae and suttas, used as a training manual for
novice bhikkhus)
2. Dhammapada (most famous of all the books of the Tipiμaka; a collection of 423
verses in 26 vaggas)
    3. Ud±na (in 8 vaggas, 80 joyful utterances of the Buddha, mostly in verses, with
    some prose accounts of the circumstances that elicited the utterance)
    (2) Itivuttaka, Suttanip±ta-p±1⁄4i
4. Itivuttaka (4 nip±tas, 112 suttas, each beginning, “iti vutta1⁄2 bhagavata” [thus was
said by the Buddha])
5. Suttanip±ta (5 vaggas; 71 suttas, mostly in verse; contains many of the best
known, most popular suttas of the Buddha
    (3) Vim±navatthu, Petavatthu, Therag±th± & Therig±th±-p±1⁄4i
6. Vim±navatthu (Vim±na means mansion; 85 poems in 7 vaggas about acts of
merit and rebirth in heavenly realms)
7. Petavatthu (4 vaggas, 51 poems describing the miserable beings [petas] born in
unhappy states due to their demeritorious acts)
8. Therag±th± (verses of joy and delight after the attainment of arahatship from 264
elder bhikkhus; 107 poems, 1,279 g±thas)
9. Therig±th± (same as above, from 73 elder nuns; 73 poems, 522 g±thas)
    (4) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
(5) J±taka-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
    10. J±taka (birth stories of the Bodisatta prior to his birth as Gotama Buddha; 547
stories in verses, divided into nip±ta according to the number of verses required to
tell the story. The full J±taka stories are actually in the J±taka commentaries that
explain the story behind the verses.
    (6) Mah±nidessa-p±1⁄4i
(7) C31⁄4anidessa-p±1⁄4i
    11. Nidessa (commentary on two sections of Suttanip±ta)
Mah±nidessa: commentary on the 4th vagga
C31⁄4anidessa: commentary on the 5th vagga and
    the Khaggavis±oa sutta of the 1st vagga
(8) Paμisambhid±magga-p±1⁄4i
    12. Paμisambhid±magga (an abhidhamma-style detailed analysis of the Buddha’s
teaching, drawn from all portions of the Vin±ya and Sutta Piμakas; three vaggas,
each containing ten topics [kath±])
    (9) Apad±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol. I
13. Apad±na (tales in verses of the former lives of 550 bhikkhus and 40 bhikkhunis)
    (10) Apad±na, Buddhava1⁄2sa & Cariy±piμaka-p±1⁄4i
    14. Buddhava1⁄2sa (the history of the Buddhas in which the Buddha, in answer to a
question from Ven. Sariputta, tells the story of the ascetic Sumedha and D2paakara
Buddha and the succeeding 24 Buddhas, including Gotama Buddha.)
15. Cariy±piμaka (35 stories from the J±taka arranged to illustrate the ten p±ram2)
    (11) Nettippakarana, Peμakopadesa-p±1⁄4i
    16. Nettippakarana (small treatise setting out methods for interpreting and explain-
ing canonical texts)
17. Peμakopadesa (treatise setting out methods for explaining and expanding the
teaching of the Buddha)
    (12) Milindapañha-p±1⁄4i
    18. Milinda-pañha (a record of the questions posed by King Milinda and the
answers by Ven. Nagasena; this debate took place ca. 500 years after the
mah±parinibb±na of the Buddha)
            Abhidhamma Piμaka
    [Seven sections of systematic, abstract exposition of all dhammas; printed in
12 books]
    1. Dhammasaagao2
(enumeration of the dhammas)
    (1) Dhammasaagao2-p±1⁄4i
    2. Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
(distinction or analysis of dhammas)
    (2) Vibhaaga-p±1⁄42
    3. Dh±tukath±
(discussion of elements; these 1st three sections form a trilogy that
must be digested as a basis for understanding Abhidhamma)
    4. Puggalapaññatti
(designation of individuals; ten chapters: the 1st dealing with single
individuals, the 2nd with pairs, the 3rd with groups of three, etc.
    (3) Dh±tukath±-Puggalapaññatti-p±1⁄42
    5. Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
(points of controversy or wrong view; discusses the points raised and
settled at the 3rd council, held at the time of Aœoka’s reign, at Patna)
    (4) Kath±vatthu-p±1⁄42
    6. Yamaka-p±1⁄42
(book of pairs; a use of paired, opposing questions to resolve ambi-
guities and define precise usage of technical terms)
    (5) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol I
(6) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol II
(7) Yamaka-p±1⁄42, Vol III
    7. Paμμh±na
(book of relations; the elaboration of a scheme of 24 conditional
relations [paccaya] that forms a complete system for understanding
the mechanics of the entire universe of Dhamma)
    (8) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol I
(9) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol II
(10) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol III
(11) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol IV
(12) Paμμh±na-p±1⁄4i, Vol V
                                                                                    (1) P±r±jika-p±1⁄4i Bhikku
p±r±jik± (expulsion) 4
saaghadises± (meetings of the Sangha) 13
aniyat± (indeterminate) 2
nissagiy± p±cittiy± (expiation with forfeiture) 30
    (2) P±cittiya-p±1⁄4i
suddha p±cittiy± (ordinary expiation) 92
p±tidesaniy± (confession re: alms food) 4
sekhiya (concerning etiquette & decorum) 75
adhikaraoasamath± (legal process) 7
    (concludes with bhikkuni vinaya rules) ______Bhikkhuni
2. Khandaka [two books of rules and procedures]
(3) Mah±vagga-p±1⁄4i (10 sections [khandhakas]; begins with historical accounts of the
    Buddha’s enlightenment, the first discourses and the early growth of the Sangha;
outlines the following rules governing the actions of the Sangha:
1. rules for admission to the order (upasampad±)
2. the uposatha meeting and recital of the p±timokkha
    3. residence during the rainy season (vassa)
4. ceremony concluding the vassa, called pav±rao±
5. rules for articles of dress and furniture
6. medicine and food
7. annual distribution of robes (kaμhina)
8. rules for sick bhikkhus, sleeping and robe material
9. mode of executing proceedings of the Sangha
10. proceedings in cases of schism
    (4) C31⁄4avagga-p±1⁄4i (or Cullavagga) (12 khandakas dealing with further rules and proce-
dures for institutional acts or functions, known as saaghakamma:
1. rules for dealing with offences that come before the Sangha
(saagh±disesa)
    2. procedures for putting a bhikkhu on probation
3. procedures for dealing with accumulation of offences by a bhikkhu
4. rules for settling legal procedures in the Sangha
5. misc. rules for bathing, dress, etc.
6. dwellings, furniture, lodging, etc.
7. schisms
8. classes of bhikkhus and duties of teachers & novices
9. exclusion from the p±timokkha
10. the ordination and instruction of bhikkhunis
11. account of the 1st council at R±jagaha
12. account of the 2nd council at Ves±li
    3. Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i [a summary of the vinaya, arranged as a
catechism for instruction and examination]
    (5) Pariv±ra-p±1⁄4i The fifth book of vinaya serves as a kind of manual enabling the reader
to make an analytical survey of the whole of Vinaya Piμaka.
    
Sutta Piṭaka -Digha Nikāya    DN 9 -
Poṭṭhapāda Sutta
{excerpt}
— The questions of Poṭṭhapāda —    Poṭṭhapāda asks various questions reagrding the nature of Saññā.    Note: plain texts

Now,
lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does
knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception &
knowledge arise simultaneously?

Potthapada, perception arises
first, and knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the
arising of perception. One discerns, ‘It’s in dependence on this that my
knowledgehas arisen.’ Through this line of reasoning one can realize
how perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of
knowledge comes from the arising of perception.DN 22 - (D ii 290)
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[
mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]    This sutta is widely considered as a the main
reference for meditation practice.    Note: infobubbles on all Pali
words

English    Introduction    I. Observation of Kāya
   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds    

II. Observation of Vedanā

Introduction    

Thus have I heard: 


On
one occasion, the Bhagavā was staying among the Kurus at
Kammāsadhamma,a market town of the Kurus. There, he addressed the
bhikkhus:

– Bhikkhus.
– Bhaddante answered the bhikkhus. The Bhagavā said: 


This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.

Which four?
Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

I. Kāyānupassanā     
A. Section on ānāpāna    
And
how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu dwell observing kāya in kāya? Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest or having gone at the
root of a tree or having gone to an empty room, sits down folding the
legs crosswise, setting kāya upright, and setting sati parimukhaṃ. Being
thus sato he breathes in, being thus sato he breathes out. Breathing in
long he understands: ‘I am breathing in long’; breathing out long he
understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing in short he
understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short he
understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the whole
kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Just as, bhikkhus, a
skillful turner or a turner’s apprentice, making a long turn,
understands: ‘I am making a long turn’; making a short turn, he
understands: ‘I am making a short turn’; in the same way, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, breathing in long, understands: ‘I am breathing in long’;
breathing out long he understands: ‘I am breathing out long’; breathing
in short he understands: ‘I am breathing in short’; breathing out short
he understands: ‘I am breathing out short’; he trains himself: ‘feeling
the whole kāya, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘feeling the
whole kāya, I will breathe out’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe in’; he trains himself: ‘calming down the
kāya-saṅkhāras, I will breathe out’.

Thus he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he
dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing
the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya. 


B. Section on postures    

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while walking, understands: ‘I am walking’, or
while standing he understands: ‘I am standing’, or while sitting he
understands: ‘I am sitting’, or while lying down he understands: ‘I am
lying down’. Or else, in whichever position his kāya is disposed, he
understands it accordingly. 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in
kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 
Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya. 


    

C. Section on sampajañña    

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, while approaching and while departing, acts with
sampajañña, while looking ahead and while looking around, he acts with
sampajañña, while bending and while stretching, he acts with sampajañña,
while wearing the robes and the upper robe and while carrying the bowl,
he acts with sampajañña, while eating, while drinking, while chewing,
while tasting, he acts with sampajañña, while attending to the business
of defecating and urinating, he acts with sampajañña, while walking,
while standing, while sitting, while sleeping, while being awake, while
talking and while being silent, he acts with sampajañña. 


Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya o phenomena in kāya, or
he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena\ in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya. 


D. Section on Repulsiveness    

Furthermore,bhikkhus,
a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the feet up and
from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its skin and full
of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are the hairs of
the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones,
bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines,
mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood,
sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and
urine.” 


Just as if, bhikkhus, there was a bag having two
openings and filled with various kinds of grain, such as hill-paddy,
paddy, mung beans, cow-peas, sesame seeds and husked rice. A man with
good eyesight, having unfastened it, would consider [its contents]:
“This is hill-paddy, this is paddy, those are mung beans, those are
cow-peas, those are sesame seeds and this is husked rice;” in the same
way, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu considers this very body, from the soles of the
feet up and from the hair on the head down, which is delimited by its
skin and full of various kinds of impurities: “In this kāya, there are
the hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach with its contents, feces, bile,
phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease,
saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid and urine.”

Thus
he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally
and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya,
or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or
else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the
extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not
cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells
observing kāya in kāya. 


E. Section on the Elements    

Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.” 


Just as,
bhikkhus, a skillful butcher or a butcher’s apprentice, having killed a
cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it into pieces; in the same way,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on this very kāya, however it is placed,
however it is disposed: “In this kāya, there is the earth element, the
water element, the fire element and the air element.”

Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya.

        F. Section on the nine charnel grounds    
(1)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, one day dead, or two days dead or three days dead,
swollen, bluish and festering, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya
also is of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not
free from such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in
kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
kāya!”\ sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(2)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, being eaten by hawks, being
eaten by vultures, being eaten by herons, being eaten by dogs, being
eaten by tigers, being eaten by panthers, being eaten by various kinds
of beings, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.

Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or
he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya
in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena
in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present
in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells
detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(3)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a
charnel ground, a squeleton with flesh and blood, held together by
tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.”


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(4)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
acharnel ground, a squeleton without flesh and smeared with blood,
heldtogether by tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is
of such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(5)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, a squeleton without flesh nor blood, held together by
tendons, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a
nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from such a
condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally,
or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells observing
kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away
of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya. 


(6)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, disconnected bones scattered here and there, here a
hand bone, there a foot bone, here an ankle bone, there a shin bone,
here a thigh bone, there a hip bone, here a rib, there a back bone, here
a spine bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth bone,
or there the skull, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the passing
away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya and
passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is kāya!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

(7)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, the bones whitened like a seashell, he considers this
very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become
like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


(8)
Furthermore,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if he was seeing a dead body, cast away in
a charnel ground, heaped up bones over a year old, he considers this
very kāya: “This kāya also is of such a nature, it is going to become
like this, and is not free from such a condition.” 


Thus he
dwells observing kāya in kāya internally, or he dwells observing kāya in
kāya externally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he
dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells
observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in kāya; or else,
[realizing:] “this is kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent
of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling
to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
kāya in kāya.

(9)
Furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, just as if
he was seeing a dead body, cast away in a charnel ground, rotten bones
reduced to powder, he considers this very kāya: “This kāya also is of
such a nature, it is going to become like this, and is not free from
such a condition.” 


Thus he dwells observing kāya in kāya
internally, or he dwells observing kāya in kāya externally, or he dwells
observing kāya in kāya internally and externally; he dwells observing
the samudaya of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the
passingaway of phenomena in kāya, or he dwells observing the samudaya
andpassing away of phenomena in kāya; or else, [realizing:] “this is
kāya!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya.

II. Observation of Vedanā

Introduction

Which
four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta
in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.

Thus
he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā internally, or he dwells observing
vedanā in vedanā externally, or he dwells observing vedanā in vedanā
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in vedanā, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in
vedanā, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in vedanā; or else, [realizing:] “this is vedanā!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing vedanā in vedanā.

(The Mirror of the Dhamma)    

I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.

And what, Ānanda, is that
discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa, possessed of which
the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of himself: ‘For me,
there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya,
no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of misery, I am a
sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain of being
destined to sambodhi?

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
IV. Observation of Dhammas

A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in
dhammas? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the five nīvaraṇas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
five nīvaraṇas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being
kāmacchanda present within, understands: “there is kāmacchanda within
me”; there not being kāmacchanda present within, he understands: “there
is no kāmacchanda within me”; he understands how the unarisen
kāmacchanda comes to arise; he understands how the arisen kāmacchanda is
abandoned; and he understands how the abandoned kāmacchanda does not
come to arise in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there
being byāpāda present within, understands: “there is byāpāda within me”;
there not being byāpāda present within, he understands: “there is no
byāpāda within me”; he understands how the unarisen byāpāda comes to
arise; he understands how the arisen byāpāda is abandoned; and he
understands how the abandoned byāpāda does not come to arise in the
future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being thīnamiddhā
present within, understands: “there is thīnamiddhā within me”; there not
being thīnamiddhā present within, he understands: “there is no
thīnamiddhā within me”; he understands how the unarisen thīnamiddhā
comes to arise; he understands how the arisen thīnamiddhā is abandoned;
and he understands how the abandoned thīnamiddhā does not come to arise
in the future.

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being
uddhacca-kukkucca present within, understands: “there is
uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; there not being uddhacca-kukkucca present
within, he understands: “there is no uddhacca-kukkucca within me”; he
understands how the unarisen uddhacca-kukkucca comes to arise; he
understands how the arisen uddhacca-kukkucca is abandoned; and he
understands how the abandoned uddhacca-kukkucca does not come to arise
in the future

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being vicikicchā
present within, understands: “there is vicikicchā within me”; there not
being vicikicchā present within, he understands: “there is no vicikicchā
within me”; he understands how the unarisen vicikicchā comes to arise;
he understands how the arisen vicikicchā is abandoned; and he
understands how the abandoned vicikicchā does not come to arise in the
future.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally,
or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells
observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing
the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the
samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:]
“these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere
ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to
anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing
dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the five nīvaraṇas.

B. Section on the Khandhas

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the five khandhas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how does
a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the five
khandhas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu [discerns]: “such is rūpa,
such is the samudaya of rūpa, such is the passing away of rūpa; such is
vedanā, such is the samudaya of vedanā, such is the passing away of
vedanā; such is saññā, such is the samudaya of saññā, such is the
passing away of saññā; such is saṅkhāra, such is the samudaya of
saṅkhāra, such is the passing away of saṅkhāra; such is viññāṇa, such is
the samudaya of viññāṇa, such is the passing away of viññāṇa”.

Thus
he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the five khandhas.

C. Section on the Sense Spheres

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas. And
furthermore, bhikkhus, how does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in
dhammas with reference to the six internal and external āyatanas?

Here,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands cakkhu, he understands rūpa, he
understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he
understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands
how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the
abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He
understands sota, he understands sadda, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

He understands ghāna, he understands
gandha, he understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these two, he
understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands
how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands how the
abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He
understands jivha, he understands rasa, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

He understands kāya, he understands
phoṭṭhabba, he understands the saṃyojana which arises owing to these
two, he understands how the unarisen saṃyojana comes to arise, he
understands how the arisen saṃyojana is abandoned, and he understands
how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come to arise in the future.

He
understands mana, he understands dhammas, he understands the saṃyojana
which arises owing to these two, he understands how the unarisen
saṃyojana comes to arise, he understands how the arisen saṃyojana is
abandoned, and he understands how the abandoned saṃyojana does not come
to arise in the future.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in
dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and
externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or
he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he
dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas;
or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just
to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and
does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the six internal
and external āyatanas.

D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the seven bojjhaṅgas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
seven bojjhaṅgas?

Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, there being the sati
sambojjhaṅga present within, understands: “there is the sati
sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the sati sambojjhaṅga present
within, he understands: “there is no sati sambojjhaṅga within me”; he
understands how the unarisen sati sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he
understands how the arisen sati sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There
being the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands:
“there is the dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

There being
the vīriya sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the
vīriya sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the vīriya sambojjhaṅga
present within, he understands: “there is no vīriya sambojjhaṅga within
me”; he understands how the unarisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga comes to arise;
he understands how the arisen vīriya sambojjhaṅga is developed to
perfection.

There being the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he
understands: “there is the pīti sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being
the pīti sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is no pīti
sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen pīti
sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen pīti
sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection. There being the passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there is the passaddhi
sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not being the passaddhi sambojjhaṅga
present within, he understands: “there is no passaddhi sambojjhaṅga
within me”; he understands how the unarisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga comes
to arise; he understands how the arisen passaddhi sambojjhaṅga is
developed to perfection.

There being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga
present within, he understands: “there is the samādhi sambojjhaṅga
within me”; there not being the samādhi sambojjhaṅga present within, he
understands: “there is no samādhi sambojjhaṅga within me”; he
understands how the unarisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he
understands how the arisen samādhi sambojjhaṅga is developed to
perfection.

There being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within,
he understands: “there is the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; there not
being the upekkhā sambojjhaṅga present within, he understands: “there
is no upekkhā sambojjhaṅga within me”; he understands how the unarisen
upekkhā sambojjhaṅga comes to arise; he understands how the arisen
upekkhā sambojjhaṅga is developed to perfection.

Thus he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena
in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in
dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of
phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is
present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he
dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus,
bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference
to the seven bojjhaṅgas.

E. Section on the Truths

And
furthermore, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas
with reference to the four ariya·saccas. And furthermore, bhikkhus, how
does a bhikkhu dwell observing dhammas in dhammas with reference to the
four ariya·saccas?

E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca

And what,
bhikkhus, is the dukkha ariyasacca? Jāti is dukkha, aging is dukkha
(sickness is dukkha) maraṇa is dukkha, sorrow, lamentation, dukkha,
domanassa and distress is dukkha, association with what is disliked is
dukkha, dissociation from what is liked is dukkha, not to get what one
wants is dukkha; in short, the five upādāna·k·khandhas are dukkha.

And
what, bhikkhus, is jāti? For the various beings in the various classes
of beings, jāti, the birth, the descent [into the womb], the arising [in
the world], the appearance, the apparition of the khandhas, the
acquisition of the āyatanas. This, bhikkhus, is called jāti.

And
what, bhikkhus, is jarā? For the various beings in the various classes
of beings, jarā, the state of being decayed, of having broken [teeth],
of having grey hair, of being wrinkled, the decline of vitality, the
decay of the indriyas: this, bhikkhus, is called jarā.

And what,
bhikkhus, is maraṇa? For the various beings in the various classes of
beings, the decease, the state of shifting [out of existence], the break
up, the disappearance, the death, maraṇa, the passing away, the break
up of the khandhas, the laying down of the corpse: this, bhikkhus, is
called maraṇa.

And what, bhikkhus, is sorrow? In one, bhikkhus,
associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of
dukkha dhammas, the sorrrow, the mourning, the state of grief, the
inner sorrow, the inner great sorrow: this, bhikkhus, is called sorrow.

And
what, bhikkhus, is lamentation? In one, bhikkhus, associated with
various kinds of misfortune, touched by various kinds of dukkha dhammas,
the cries, the lamentations, the weeping, the wailing, the state of
crying, the state of lamentating: this, bhikkhus, is called lamentation.

And
what, bhikkhus, is dukkha? Whatever, bhikkhus, bodily dukkha, bodily
unpleasantness, dukkha engendered by bodily contact, unpleasant
vedayitas: this, bhikkhus, is called dukkha.

And what, bhikkhus,
is domanassa? Whatever, bhikkhus, mental dukkha, mental unpleasantness,
dukkha engendered by mental contact, unpleasant vedayitas: this,
bhikkhus, is called domanassa.

And what, bhikkhus, is despair? In
one, bhikkhus, associated with various kinds of misfortune, touched by
various kinds of dukkha dhammas, the trouble, the despair, the state of
being in trouble, the state of being in despair: this, bhikkhus, is
called despair.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being
associated with what is disagreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds,
tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are
unpleasing, not enjoyable, unpleasant, or else those who desire one’s
disadvantage, those who desire one’s loss, those who desire one’s
discomfort, those who desire one’s non-liberation from attachment,
meeting, being associated, being together, encountering them: this,
bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being associated with what is
disagreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of being
dissociated from what is agreeable? Here, as to the forms, sounds,
tastes, odors, bodily phenomena and mental phenomena there are which are
pleasing, enjoyable, pleasant, or else those who desire one’s
advantage, those who desire one’s benefit, those who desire one’s
comfort, those who desire one’s liberation from attachment, not meeting,
not being associated, not being together, not encountering them: this,
bhikkhus, is called the dukkha of being dissociated from what is
agreeable.

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha of not getting what
one wants? In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of being born,
such a wish arises: “oh really, may there not be jāti for us, and
really, may we not come to jāti.” But this is not to be achieved by
wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In
beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of getting old, such a wish
arises: “oh really, may there not be jarā for us, and really, may we not
come to jarā.” But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the
dukkha of not getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having
the characteristic of getting sick, such a wish arises: “oh really, may
there not be sickness for us, and really, may we not come to sickness.”
But this is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not
getting what one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the
characteristic of getting old, such a wish arises: “oh really, may there
not be maraṇa for us, and really, may we not come to maraṇa.” But this
is not to be achieved by wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what
one wants.

In beings, bhikkhus, having the characteristic of
sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and distress, such a wish arises:
“oh really, may there not be sorrow, lamentation, dukkha, domanassa and
distress for us, and really, may we not come to sorrow, lamentation,
dukkha, domanassa and distress.” But this is not to be achieved by
wishing. This is the dukkha of not getting what one wants.

And
what, bhikkhus, are in short the five upādānakkhandhas? They are: the
rūpa upādānakkhandha, the vedanā upādānakkhandha, the saññā
upādānakkhandha, the saṅkhāra upādānakkhandha, the viññāṇa
upādānakkhandha. These are called in short, bhikkhus, the five
upādānakkhandhas.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha ariyasacca

E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca

And
what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā
leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight
here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when arising, where does it
arise, and when settling [itself], where does it settle? In that in the
world which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when
arising, arises, where when settling, it settles.

And what in the
world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The nose in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The tongue in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Kāya in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

Visible forms in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Sounds in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Smells in the
world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. Tastes in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Dhammas
in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles.

The eye-viññāṇa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.
Kāya-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Mana-viññāṇa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles.

The eye-samphassa in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. Kāya-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. Mana-samphassa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of nose-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of tongue-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles.

The saññā of visible forms in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The saññā of sounds in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The saññā
of Dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles.

The intention
[related to] visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
intention [related to] sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
intention [related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The intention [related to] dhammas in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles.

The taṇhā for visible forms in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The taṇhā for sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The
taṇhā for odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for bodily
phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. The taṇhā for dhammas
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles.
The vicāra of visible forms
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising,
arises, there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of sounds in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises,
there when settling, it settles. The vicāra of odors in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when
settling, it settles. The vicāra of tastes in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The vicāra of bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it
settles. The vicāra of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when arising, arises, there when settling, it settles. This
is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·samudaya ariyasacca.

E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca

And
what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha-samudaya ariyasacca? It is this taṇhā
leading to rebirth, connected with desire and enjoyment, finding delight
here or there, that is to say: kāma-taṇhā, bhava-taṇhā and
vibhava-taṇhā. But this taṇhā, bhikkhus, when abandoned, where is it
abandoned, and when ceasing, where does it cease? In that in the world
which seems pleasant and agreeable, that is where taṇhā, when abandoned,
is abandoned, where when ceasing, it ceases.

And what in the
world is pleasant and agreeable? The eye in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The ear in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The nose in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The tongue
in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Mana in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

Visible
forms in the world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Sounds in the
world are pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Smells in the world are
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. Tastes in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Bodily phenomena in the world are pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Dhammas in the world are pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases.

The eye-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The ear-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
nose-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
tongue-viññāṇa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-viññāṇa in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. Mana-viññāṇa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases.

The eye-samphassa in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The ear-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. Mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The vedanā born of eye-samphassa in the world
is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned,
there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of ear-samphassa in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born of
nose-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vedanā born
of tongue-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
vedanā born of kāya-samphassa in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The vedanā born of mana-samphassa in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The saññā of visible forms in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of sounds in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of odors in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of tastes in the world is pleasant and
agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The saññā of Dhammas in the world is pleasant
and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when
ceasing, it ceases.

The intention [related to] visible forms in
the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to]
sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The intention
[related to] odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
intention [related to] tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable,
there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it
ceases. The intention [related to] bodily phenomena in the world is
pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there
when ceasing, it ceases. The intention [related to] dhammas in the
world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when abandoned, is
abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The taṇhā for visible
forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā for
bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The taṇhā
for dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The
vitakka of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
vitakka of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka
of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka of
bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vitakka
of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases.

The
vicāra of visible forms in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there
taṇhā, when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The
vicāra of sounds in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra
of odors in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of
tastes in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra of
bodily phenomena in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā,
when abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. The vicāra
of dhammas in the world is pleasant and agreeable, there taṇhā, when
abandoned, is abandoned, there when ceasing, it ceases. This is called,
bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha ariyasacca.

E4. Exposition of Maggasacca

And
what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca? It is
just this ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, that is to say sammādiṭṭhi,
sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo,
sammāsati and sammāsamādhi.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammādiṭṭhi?
That, bhikkhus, which is the ñāṇa of dukkha, the ñāṇa of
dukkha-samudaya, the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha and the ñāṇa of
dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada, that is called, bhikkhus, sammādiṭṭhi.

And
what, bhikkhus, are sammāsaṅkappas? Those, bhikkhus, which are
saṅkappas of nekkhamma, saṅkappas of abyāpāda, saṅkappas of avihiṃsā,
those are called, bhikkhus, sammāsaṅkappas.

And what, bhikkhus,
is sammāvācā? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from musāvādā,
abstaining from pisuṇa vācā, abstaining from pharusa vācā, and
abstaining from samphappalāpa, that is called, bhikkhus, sammāvācā.

And
what, bhikkhus, is sammā-kammanta? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining
from pāṇātipāta , abstaining from adinnādāna, abstaining from
abrahmacariya, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-kammanta.

And
what, bhikkhus, is sammā-ājīva? Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple, having
abandonned wrong livelihood, supports his life by right means of
livelihood, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-ājīva.

And what,
bhikkhus, is sammāvāyāma? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu generates his chanda
for the non-arising of unarisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts
himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he
generates his chanda for the forsaking of arisen pāpaka and akusala
dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his
citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the arising of unarisen
kusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously
his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the steadfastness of
arisen kusala dhammas, for their absence of confusion, for their
increase, their development, their cultivation and their completion, he
exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and
strives. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāvāyāma.

An what,
bhikkhus, is sammāsati? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya
in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa
towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī
sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world.
He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having
given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing
dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up
abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. This is called, bhikkhus,
sammāsati.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāsamādhi? Here, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, detached from kāma, detached from akusala dhammas, having
entered in the first jhāna, abides therein, with vitakka and vicāra,
with pīti and sukha born of detachment. With the stilling of
vitakka-vicāra, having entered in the second jhāna, he abides therein
with inner tanquilization, unification of citta, without vitakka nor
vicāra, with pīti and sukha born of samādhi. And with indifference
towards pīti, he abides in upekkha, sato and sampajāno, he experiences
in kāya the sukha which the ariyas describe: ‘one who is equanimous and
mindful dwells in [this] sukha’, having entered in the third jhāna, he
abides therein. Abandoning sukha and abandoning dukkha, somanassa and
domanassa having previously disappeared, without sukha nor dukkha, with
the purity of upekkha and sati, having entered in the fourth jhāna, he
abides therein. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsamādhi.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca.

Thus
he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells
observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas
in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya
of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of
phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing
away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!”
sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere
paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the
world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas,
with reference to the four ariya·saccas.

The benefits of practicing the Satipaṭṭhānas

For
whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way
for seven years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect]
knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left,
anāgāmita.

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six
years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in
visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone six years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these
four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for five years, one of two results may be
expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there
is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five years, bhikkhus.
For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this
way for four years, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect]
knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left,
anāgāmita.

Let alone four years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus,
would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three years,
one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in
visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone three years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two years, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two years,
bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for one year, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for seven
months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone seven months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for six months, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone six months,
bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for five months, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone five months, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for four
months, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone four months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for three months, one of two
results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible
phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone three months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for two months, one of two results
may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let alone two months,
bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for one month, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

Let alone one month, bhikkhus. For whoever,
bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for half a
month, one of two results may be expected: either [perfect] knowledge
in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

Let
alone half a month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice
these four satipaṭṭhānas in this way for a week, one of two results may
be expected: either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if
there is some clinging left, anāgāmita.

“This, bhikkhus, is the
path that leads to nothing but the purification of beings, the
overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance of
dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of
Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.” Thus has it been said,
and on the basis of all this has it been said.

Thus spoke the Bhagavā. Delighted, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Bhagavā.
https://tenor.com/view/government-conspiracy-covid19-mom-died-of-avirus-gif-17552801    
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/china-lab-rejects-covid-19-conspiracy-claims-but-virus-origins-still-a-mystery/articleshow/75422373.cms?from=mdr
COVID-19 conspiracy claims, but virus origins still a mystery.
There were still no conclusive answers as to where the disease started.
SARS-CoV-2,
now responsible for more than 200,000 deaths worldwide, was synthesised
by the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), based in the city where the
disease was first identified.



https://srv1.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
Last updated: July 15, 2020, 01:09 GMT

Coronavirus Cases:

13,670,864

Deaths:
585,842

Recovered:8,019,928

https://srv1.worldometers.info/



World Population

75,712,378Births this year
104,282Births today
31,785,870Deaths this year
43,780Deaths today
43,926,508Net population growth this year
60,502Net population growth today
Government & Economics
$ 4,109,252,952Public Healthcare expenditure today
$ 2,808,673,755Public Education expenditure today
$ 1,275,118,766Public Military expenditure today
42,649,752Cars produced this year
81,544,161Bicycles produced this year
135,034,681Computers produced this year

Society & Media

1,449,734New book titles published this year
129,279,852Newspapers circulated today
181,461TV sets sold worldwide today
1,773,406Cellular phones sold today
$ 79,356,660Money spent on videogames today
4,618,678,830Internet users in the world today
71,505,927,321Emails sent today
1,896,365Blog posts written today
212,514,549Tweets sent today
1,978,267,710Google searches today

Environment

2,810,601Forest loss this year (hectares)
3,783,829Land lost to soil erosion this year (ha)
19,546,484,385CO2 emissions this year (tons)
6,485,347Desertification this year (hectares)
5,292,248 Toxic chemicals released
in the environment
this year (tons)

Food

844,493,261Undernourished people in the world
1,696,111,310Overweight people in the world
761,090,426Obese people in the world
8,325People who died of hunger today
$ 157,823,732Money spent for obesity related
diseases in the USA
today
$ 51,458,967Money spent on weight loss
programs in the USA
today

Water

2,359,591,081Water used this year (million L)
455,082Deaths caused by water related
diseases
this year
799,520,568People with no access to
a safe drinking water source

Energy

127,051,062Energy used today (MWh), of which:
108,153,038- from non-renewable sources (MWh)
19,132,782- from renewable sources (MWh)
796,108,269,935 Solar energy striking Earth today (MWh)
26,058,145Oil pumped today (barrels)
1,502,891,183,377Oil left (barrels)
15,673Days to the end of oil (~43 years)
1,094,756,311,228Natural Gas left (boe)
57,619Days to the end of natural gas
4,314,827,820,784Coal left (boe)
148,787Days to the end of coal

Health

7,015,424Communicable disease deaths this year
263,543Seasonal flu deaths this year
4,107,670Deaths of children under 5 this year
22,985,658Abortions this year
167,034Deaths of mothers during birth this year
41,945,942HIV/AIDS infected people
908,460Deaths caused by HIV/AIDS this year
4,438,329Deaths caused by cancer this year
530,077Deaths caused by malaria this year
4,120,332,614Cigarettes smoked today
2,701,518Deaths caused by smoking this year
1,351,611Deaths caused by alcohol this year
579,505Suicides this year
$ 216,189,594,323Money spent on illegal drugs this year
729,495Road traffic accident fatalities this year

  
 BIRTH, OLD AGE, SICKNESS, ILLNESS, DEATH ARE CERTAININTIES    May all
be Happy, Well and Secure!    May all have Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive
and Equanimity Mind with a Clear Understanding that Everything is
Changing!    May all those who died attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal
and Rest in Peace
as they followed the following original words of
the Buddha the Mettiyya Awakened One with awraeness :Countries and
territories without any cases of COVID-19                1. Comoros,2.
North Korea,3. Yemen,4. The Federated States of Micronesia,5.
Kiribati,6. Solomon Islands,7. The Cook Islands,8. Micronesia,9.
Tong,10. The Marshall Islands Palau,11. American Samoa,12. South
Georgia,13. South Sandwich Islands,14.SaintHelena,Europe,15. Aland
Islands,16.Svalbard,17. Jan Mayen Islands,18. Latin
America,19.Africa,20.British Indian Ocean Territory,21.French Southern
Territories,22.Lesotho,23.Oceania,24.Christmas Island,25. Cocos
(Keeling) Islands,26. Heard Island,27. McDonald Islands,28. Niue,29.
Norfolk Island,30. Pitcairn,31. Solomon Islands,32. Tokelau,33. United
States Minor Outlying Islands,34. Wallis and Futuna
Islands,35.Tajikistan,36. Turkmenistan,37. Tuvalu,38. Vanuatu
as they are following the original words of the Buddha Metteyya Awakened One with Awareness:
  
     Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta1. Dasa raja dhamma, 2. kusala 3.
Kuutadanta Sutta dana, 4. priyavacana,5. artha cariya ,6. samanatmata,
7. Samyutta Nikayaaryaor,ariyasammutidev 8. Agganna Sutta,9. Majjima
Nikaya,10. arya” or “ariy, 11.sammutideva,12. Digha Nikaya,13. Maha
Sudassana,14.Dittadhammikatthasamvattanika-dhamma ,15. Canon Sutta ,16.
Pali Canon and Suttapitaka ,17. Iddhipada ,18. Lokiyadhamma and
Lokuttaradhamma,19. Brahmavihàra,20. Sangahavatthu ,21.
Nathakaranadhamma ,22. Saraniyadhamma ,23. Adhipateyya
Dithadhammikattha,24. dukkha,25. anicca,26. anatta,27. Samsara,28.
Cakkamatti Sihananda Sutta,29.Chandagati,30.Dosagati, 31.
Mohagati,32.Bhayagati,33.Yoniso manasikara,34. BrahmavihàraSangaha
vatthu,35. Nathakaranadhamma,36.SaraniyadhammaAdhipateyya,37.
Dithadhammikatth38.Mara,39.Law of Kamma,40. dhammamahamatras, 41.IV.
Observation of
Dhammas,42.Assamedha,43.Sassamedha,44.Naramedha,45.Purisamedha,46.Sammapasa,47.Vajapeyya,48.Niraggala,49.Sila,50.Samadhi, 
51.Panna, 52.Samma-sankappa,53.Sigalovada Sutta,54.Brahmajala
Sutta,55.Vasettha Sutta in Majjhima Nikaya,56.Ambattha Sutta in Digha
NikayaThe Blessed,Noble,Awakened One-The Tathagata
                             

May
all be Happy, Well and Secure!May all live Long!May all have calm,
quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity Mind with a clear understanding
that Everything is Changing!

The Blessed,Noble,Awakened One-The
TathagataGive people time.Give people space.Don’t beg anyone to stay.Let
them roam.What’s meant for you willalways be yours.

https://tricycle.org/magazine/buddhist-food-cupcake/

Where Word’s Hunger Struggle Is Headed

Maṇimēkalai , “jewelled belt, girdle of gems”
received a magicAtchaya Pathiram
(begging bowl) , which always gets filled.

Akshaya pathram Manimegalai the follower of Awakened One with Awareness said that

 “Hunger is the worst kind of  illness.”
“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.”  

Manimekalai
converted the prison into a hospice to help the needy, teaches the king
the dhamma of the Buddha. In the final five cantos of the epic,
Buddhist teachers recite Four Noble Truths, Twelve Nidanas and other
ideas to her.

Volunteers must become full-time members to
fullfill the vision & aspiration of his spiritual Manimekala Akshya
Pathram. Must be committed to the cause currently and involve in
strategy, growth, and governance of Akshaya Patra.

The journey so
far and what the future holds in the mission to end hunger for children
and adults in the world. Technology must be  used in mass production
for the fantastic results. Other initiatives of the Akshaya Patra must
help children and adults from underprivileged backgrounds achieve their
dreams.

 All the Governments all over the world allot funds for
the governance of Akshaya Patra and order all the vans used by postal
department, police vans to supply provisions, vegetables and food in
edible food packs till all the curfews are removed.

The state-of-the-art kitchens must become a subject of study and attract curious visitors from around the world.

Partnership
with the Governments all over the world India and various State
Governments, along with the persistent support from corporates,
individual donors, and well-wishers have to help Manimekali Akshya
Pathram to serve millions of underprevilaged children and adults.Picture
a life in which your every waking moment is spent searching for food.
Your belly is distended and your limbs are emaciated like a starving
child’s. Your hunger is ceaseless and painful, but your throat is no
wider than the eye of a needle. When you find food, you can’t swallow
it. Not even a bite. The hunger persists, and your search continues.
Such is the fate of pretas in Buddhist tradition—the hungry ghosts.These
poor souls were reborn this way because in past lives they were driven
by desire, greed, anger, and ignorance. While you might find yourself
checking a few of these boxes on any given day, in Buddhism you have to
take such vices to the extreme to end up with such a tortured
existence—like committing murder in a jealous rage. So no need to
panic.It’s a tradition in many Asian cultures to leave offerings of food
for the hungry ghosts. But this doesn’t really help. It turns out these
ghosts aren’t really searching for food. Or they are, but their search
is misguided. Hunger for the ghosts has nothing to do with food, and
everything to do with what they did in their previous time on earth.
There’s plenty of food for them, but they can’t eat it. Like every
religious parable, there’s an important lesson here: it’s not food they
really need.Back here in the human realm, we still look to food to do
much more than nourish our bodies and satisfy our hunger. We turn to
food in times of great joy and great sadness. When something wonderful
happens, we celebrate with a dinner out. We drink champagne, we eat
cake, we splurge on nice meals. Food becomes part of the rejoicing. And
the opposite is true, too. There’s a long tradition of providing food to
those who are grieving. We band together to provide meals to friends in
crisis—you may, at some point in your life, have signed up on a
spreadsheet or email thread to bring meals to someone mourning, someone
recovering, someone struggling. In times of sadness, we instinctively
want to provide comfort in a tangible way. And very often, we do that
with food.Food is there for all of it—the good times and the bad. And to
some extent, it makes sense. It’s fun to go out and celebrate a raise,
an anniversary, or a graduation. And it feels right that when people are
truly suffering, the last thing they should worry about is putting
together a meal. In these moments of tragedy or triumph, food is a
worthy and welcome ally.The problem comes when we use food to comfort
and reward ourselves when the stakes are much, much lower. Finally I got
the kids to sleep, now I can eat those cookies I’ve been eyeing. That
big meeting today was a mess, time for a big glass of wine. These
mundane highs and lows are challenging. But they are not worthy of great
sadness or great celebration. Or, really, food.Related: Read a
collection of Tricycle Teachings on Food And we know it, too.

Imagine
going out for dinner to celebrate fixing the washing machine. Or
delivering a meal to a friend who had a bad sunburn. It sounds
ridiculous. But we still give ourselves mini-rewards for minor
successes, and mini-comforts for minor irritations—and they often
involve food. We won’t buy ourselves a celebratory cake, but we might
well take a slice if there’s some in the refrigerator. Or we might find
ourselves a bag of chips or a cold beer. Each of these could easily be
several hundred calories. And worse still, it’s generally at the end of a
long day that we find ourselves wanting this reward or comfort—the
worst possible time for our bodies. Do that regularly, and it adds up
fast.There’s a reason we do this, of course. Food is a natural reward.
Think of Ivan Pavlov and his studies of classical conditioning in
dogs—he trained them with food. The comfort foods we usually turn to—the
ones full of starch and sugar—are scientifically proven to improve our
mood. Ever hear someone refer to a particularly enticing snack as being
“like crack”? Eating tasty food seems to activate the same parts of the
brain as addictive drugs and even cause the release of natural opiates.
Studies have shown that carbohydrates in particular increase serotonin
release, the chemical in the body that boosts mood. The more serotonin,
the better you feel. Fatty foods are the same. Brain scans of
participants in a 2011 study, who were fed either a solution of fatty
acids or a saline solution via a feeding tube, showed that those who got
the fatty acids had less activity in the areas of the brain that
controlled sadness, even after listening to “sad classical music.” (Yes,
people actually volunteered for this study—with sad music and a feeding
tube.)So what’s wrong with that? Better than actual crack at least,
right? If food really does help with our mood, isn’t that a good
thing?Yes and no. But mostly no. Remember those hungry ghosts? They get a
bit of relief when they taste the food on their tongues. So do you,
studies tell us—and you’re luckier than the hungry ghosts because at
least you can swallow your chocolate. But that relief is temporary. The
bad day still lingers, smothered by the brownie, pretzel, or muffin. And
just like the hungry ghosts, you aren’t really looking for food. What
the ghosts truly want is relief from the void created by desire, greed,
anger, and ignorance—yet they keep trying to fill that empty feeling
with food, even though it never works. Sound familiar?Not only are these
self-soothing snacks not all that soothing, but when we use food to
comfort and provide relief from stress, we’re using it at a time when we
can least afford the calories. A recent Ohio State University study of
58 healthy middle-aged women revealed that experiencing one or more
stressful events the day before eating a single high-fat meal actually
slowed their metabolism. And not just a little—enough to “add up to
almost 11 pounds across a year” according to the authors. Stress seems
to cause the body to freak out and cling to the calories, thinking it
might need them later. This may be a biological holdover from times of
famine, or when we weren’t all that sure when we’d spear our next woolly
mammoth. Whatever we’re stressed about today—whether an ill loved one, a
struggling relationship, a financial burden, or a lousy job—probably
won’t cause us to starve tomorrow. But our bodies haven’t evolved to
know the difference.And it gets worse. Overeating for any reason often
leads to these same negative emotional states that then trigger more
overeating. A study of both normal-weight and overweight women in
Germany found that they felt sadness, shame, and anxiety after eating
high-calorie foods—with the overweight women reporting the most intense
emotional responses. So we overeat when we’re sad or stressed, then get
more sad and stressed when we overeat. In between, we gain weight, which
is also associated with depression and makes everything worse. It’s
another vicious cycle of “overeating, weight gain, and depressed
mood.”Related: I Tried the Buddhist Monk Diet—And It Worked Luckily,
there are many ways to deal with stress. The healthiest approach is to
take steps to address the actual cause. That may mean facing the reality
of a bad relationship, or seeking out a new job, or saying no to
commitments that have you stretched too thin. Social diversion—basically
hanging out with friends or family—also works well. In fact, of all the
ways to distract yourself, this seems to be the most effective.What
psychologists call “emotion-oriented coping” is the most dangerous. This
is when you blame yourself, daydream, fantasize, and otherwise ruminate
on your miserable life. Maybe lying in bed listening to sad music.
Don’t do that. This often leads to emotional eating—perhaps because it
just doesn’t work on its own. Awful-izing rarely makes us feel better.On
the other hand, meditation and mindfulness—a few minutes of pure
silence and peace—have been shown to help significantly. Similarly,
studies of yoga for relieving stress and anxiety are very promising, and
have even shown that yoga can reduce preoccupations with food for those
with serious eating disorders. Physical exercise has long been known to
improve our moods, and also seems to help us fight anxiety. Exposure to
nature helps many people. You may have to try several things before you
find something that works for you. But don’t let yourself use food as
your cure.You will slip up, of course, now and again. These are hard
habits to break. But think carefully about just how often you are
engaging in these behaviors, and see them for what they are—a temporary
fix that can cause a lasting problem. And remember the lesson of the
hungry ghosts. The unsettled self can never be sated with food.

♦From Buddha’s Diet: The Ancient Art of Losing Weight Without Losing Your Mind, by Tara Cottrell and Dan Zigmond, © 2016.

Reprinted
with permission of Running Press, an imprint of Perseus Books, a
division of PBG Publishing, a subsidiary of Hachette Book Group.

There is no fire like passion
No crime like hatred,
No sorrow like separation,
No sickness like hunger,
And
no joy like the joy of freedom. Gautama Buddha Zen famously says: when
hungry, eat; when tired, sleep. But all things in moderation - as the
Buddha discovered in time to avoid starving to death.

UN News

Over
820 million people suffering from hunger; new UN report reveals
stubborn realities of ‘immense’ global challenge Economic Development

After
nearly a decade of progress, the number of people who suffer from
hunger has slowly increased over the past three years, with about one in
every nine people globally suffering from hunger today, the United
Nations said in a new report released on Monday.

This fact
underscores “the immense challenge” to achieving the Zero Hunger target
of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030, according to the
State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019.

The
report, launched on the margins of the High-level Political Forum (HLPF)
– the main UN platform monitoring follow-up on States’ actions on the
SDGs – currently under way in New York, breaks down statistics by
region, and shows that hunger has risen almost 20 per cent in Africa’s
subregions, areas which also have the greatest prevalence of
undernourishment.

Although the pervasiveness of hunger in Latin
America and the Caribbean is still below seven per cent, it is slowly
increasing. And in Asia, undernourishment affects 11 per cent of
the population.

 Although
southern Asia saw great progress over the last five years, at almost 15
per cent, it is still the subregion with the highest prevalence of
undernourishment.

“Our actions to tackle these troubling trends
will have to be bolder, not only in scale but also in terms of
multisectoral collaboration,” the heads of the UN Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), the International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP)
and the World

Health Organization (WHO) urged in their joint foreword to the report.

Hunger
is increasing in many countries where economic growth is lagging,
particularly in middle-income countries and those that rely heavily on
international primary commodity trade. The annual UN report also found
that income inequality is rising in many of the countries where hunger
is on the rise, making it even more difficult forthe poor, vulnerable or
marginalized to cope with economic slowdowns and downturns.

“We
must foster pro-poor and inclusive structural transformation focusing on
people and placing communities at the centre to reduce economic
vulnerabilities and set ourselves on track to ending hunger, food
insecurity and all forms of malnutrition,” the UN leaders said.Food
insecurity
This year’s edition of the report takes a broader look at the impact of food insecurity – beyond hunger.
It
introduces, for the first time, a second indicator for monitoring
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Target 2.1 on the Prevalence of
Moderate or Severe Food Insecurity that shows that 17.2 per cent of the
world’s population, or 1.3 billion people, lacked regular access to
“nutritious and sufficient food”.
“Even if they were not necessarily
suffering from hunger, they are at greater risk of various forms of
malnutrition and poor health”, according to the report.The combination
of moderate and severe levels of food insecurity brings the estimate to
about two billion people, where in every continent, women are slightly
more food insecure than men.
Low birthweight still a major challenge
Turning to children, the report disclosed that since 2012, no progress
has been made in reducing low birthweight.
Additionally, while the
number of under-age-five children affected by stunting has decreased
over the past six years by 10 per cent globally, the pace of progress is
too slow to meet the 2030 target of halving the number of stunted
children.
Furthermore, overweight and obesity continue to increase
throughout all regions, particularly among school-age children and
adults. Income inequality increases the likelihood of severe food
insecurity – UN report
To safeguard food security and nutrition, the
2019 report stresses the importance to economic and social policies to
counteract the effects of adverse economic cycles when they arrive,
while avoiding cuts in essential services.
It maintains that the
uneven pace of economic recovery “is undermining efforts to end hunger
and malnutrition, with hunger increasing in many countries where the
economy
 has slowed down or contracted”, mostly in middle-income nations.

Moreover,
economic slowdowns or downturns disproportionally undermine food
security and nutrition where inequalities are greater.

The report
concludes with guidance on what short- and long-term policies must be
undertaken to safeguard food security and nutrition during episodes of
economic turmoil or in preparation for them, such as integrating food
security and nutrition concerns into poverty reduction efforts using
pro-poor and inclusive structural transformations. Solving India’s
hunger problem The Supreme Court has agreed to examine a plea that
starvation deaths continue to eat into the right to life and dignity of
social fabric and a “radical” new measure like community kitchens need
to be set up across the country to feed the poor and the hungry.

A
Bench led by Justice N.V. Ramana issued notice on Monday to the
government on the petition filed jointly by activists Anun Dhawan,
Ishann Dhawan and Kunjana Singh, represented by advocates Ashima Mandla
and Fuzail Ahmad Ayyubi. State-funded community Asskhaya Patra kitchens
must be the  novel concept in all countries. For combating starvation
and malnutrition crisis every locality must have Akshaya Patra kitchens
along with the existing hotels and bakeries.

https://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/English-Texts/Buddhist-Legends/15-05.htm

Book
XV. Happiness, Sukha VaggaXV. 5. The Buddha feeds the Hungry 01203.
Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the
principal source of suffering;

If a man thoroughly understand
this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.This religious
instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Āḷavi
with reference to a certain lay disciple.

For one day, as the
Teacher seated in the Perfumed Chamber at Jetavana {3.262} surveyed the
world at dawn, he beheld a certain poor man at Āḷavi. Perceiving that he
possessed the faculties requisite for attaining the Fruit of
Conversion, he surrounded himself with a company of five hundred monks
and went to Āḷavi.

The inhabitants of Āḷavi straightway invited
the Teacher to be their guest. That poor man also heard that the Teacher
had arrived and made up his mind to go and hear the Teacher preach the
Law. But that very [30.75] day an ox of his strayed off. So he
considered within himself, “Shall I seek that ox, or shall I go and hear
the Law?” And he came to the following conclusion, “I will first seek
that ox and then go and hear the Law.” Accordingly, early in the
morning, he set out to seek his ox.The residents of Āḷavi provided seats
for the Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha, served them
with food, and after the meal took the Teacher’s bowl, that he might
pronounce the words of thanksgiving. Said the Teacher, “He for whose
sake I came hither a journey of thirty leagues has gone into the forest
to seek his ox which was lost. Not until he returns, will I preach the
Law.” And he held his peace.While it was still day, that poor man found
his ox and straightway drove the ox back to the herd. Then he thought to
himself, “Even if I can do nothing else, I will at least pay my
respects to the Teacher.” Accordingly, although he was oppressed with
the pangs of hunger, he decided not to go home, but went quickly to the
Teacher, and having paid obeisance to the Teacher, sat down respectfully
on one side. When the poor man came and stood before the Teacher, the
Teacher said to the steward of the alms, “Is there any food remaining
over and above to the Congregation of Monks?” “Reverend Sir, the food
has not been touched.” “Well then, serve this poor man with food.” So
when the steward had provided that poor man with a seat in a place
indicated by the Teacher, he served him dutifully with rice-porridge and
other food, both hard and soft. When the poor man had eaten his meal,
he rinsed his mouth.(We are told that with this single exception there
is no other instance on record in the Three Piṭakas {3.263} of the
Tathāgata’s having thus inquired about the supply of food.) As soon as
the poor man’s physical sufferings had been relieved, his mind became
tranquil. Then the Teacher preached the Law in orderly sequence,
expounding one after another the Four Noble Truths. At the conclusion of
the lesson, the poor man was established in the Fruit of Conversion.

Then
the Teacher pronounced the words of thanksgiving, and having so done,
arose from his seat and departed. The multitude accompanied him a little
way and then turned back.The monks who accompanied the Teacher were
highly indignant and said, “Just consider, brethren, what the Teacher
did. Nothing of the sort ever happened before. But to-day, seeing a
certain poor man, the Teacher inquired about the supply of food and
directed that food to be given to another.” The Teacher turned around,
stopped, [30.76] and said, “Monks, what are you saying?” When he heard
what they were saying, he said to them, “It is even so, monks. When I
came hither a journey of thirty leagues, a long and difficult journey,
my sole reason for coming hither was the fact that I saw that this lay
disciple possessed the faculties requisite for the attainment of the
Fruit of Conversion. Early in the morning, oppressed with the pangs of
hunger, this man went to the forest and spent the day in the forest
seeking his ox which was lost.

Therefore I thought to myself, ‘If
I preach the Law to this man while he is suffering from the pangs of
hunger, he will not be able to comprehend it.’ Therefore was it that I
did what I did. Monks, there is no affliction like the affliction of
hunger.” So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza,203.

Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the principal source of suffering;

If a man thoroughly understand this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.

Fear

What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
quotes teach us about fear?

Trade your fear for freedom.

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.

Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”
 
“When
one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one
finds pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these
feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.

”Pain is a Gift
 Instead of avoiding it,
 Learn to embrace it.
 Without pain,
 there is no growth”Friends

https://tricycle.org/magazine/buddhist-food-cupcake/

Give people time.
Give people space.
Don’t beg anyone to stay.
Let them roam.What’s meant for you will
always be yours.

Happiness, Sukha Vagga

 The Buddha feeds the Hungry

Hunger is the greatest of afflictions; the Aggregates of Being are the principal source of suffering;
If a man thoroughly understand this, he has attained Nibbāna, Supreme Happiness.

 Lord Buddha’s Ideals Have Solutions To Challenges Faced By World Today.

The eight-fold path of Lord Buddha shows the way towards the well-being of societies and nations.

Maṇimēkalai , “jewelled belt, girdle of gems”
received a magic Atchaya Pathiram
(begging bowl) , which always gets filled.

Akshaya pathram Manimegalai the follower of Awakened One with Awareness said that
 “Hunger is the worst kind of  illness.”
“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.”

There is no fire like passion
No crime like hatred,
No sorrow like separation,
No sickness like hunger,
And no joy like the joy of freedom.
Gautama Buddha

Zen famously says: when hungry, eat; when tired, sleep.
But all things in moderation - as the Buddha discovered in time to avoid starving to death.

Manimekalai
converted the prison into a hospice to help the needy, teaches the king
the dhamma of the Buddha. In the final five cantos of the epic.

Buddhist teachers recite Four Noble Truths, Twelve Nidanas and other ideas to her.

Volunteers
must become full-time members to fullfill the vision & aspiration
of his spiritual Manimekala Akshya Pathram. Must be committed to the
cause currently and involve in strategy, growth, and governance of
Akshaya Patra.

The journey so far and what the future holds in
the mission to end hunger for children and adults in the world.
Technology must be  used in mass production for the fantastic results.
Other initiatives of the Akshaya Patra must help children and adults
from underprivileged backgrounds achieve their dreams.

All the
Governments all over the world allot funds for the governance of Akshaya
Patra and order all the vans used by postal department, police vans to
supply provisions, vegetables and food in edible food packs till all the
curfews are removed.

The state-of-the-art kitchens must become a subject of study and attract curious visitors from around the world.

Partnership
with the Governments all over the world,India and various State
Governments, along with the persistent support from corporates,
individual donors, and well-wishers have to help
Manimekali Akshya Pathram to serve millions of underprevilaged children and adults.

Picture a life in which your every waking moment is spent searching for food.

Your belly is distended and your limbs are emaciated like a starving
child’s. Your hunger is ceaseless and painful, but your throat is no
wider
than the eye of a needle. When you find food, you can’t swallow it. Not
even a bite. The hunger persists, and your search continues.
Such is the fate of pretas in Buddhist tradition—the hungry ghosts.
These
poor souls were reborn this way because in past lives they were driven
by desire, greed, anger, and ignorance. While you might find yourself
checking a few of these boxes on any given day, in Buddhism you have to
take such vices to the extreme to end up with such a tortured
existence—like committing murder in a jealous rage. So no need to panic.
 

It’s a tradition in many Asian cultures to leave offerings of
food for the hungry ghosts. But this doesn’t really help. It turns out
these ghosts aren’t really searching for food.

Or they are, but
their search is misguided. Hunger for the ghosts has nothing to do with
food, and everything to do with what they did in their previous time on
earth. There’s plenty of food for them, but they can’t eat it. Like
every religious parable, there’s an important lesson here: it’s not food
they really need.

Back here in the human realm, we still look to
food to do much more than nourish our bodies and satisfy our hunger. We
turn to food in times of great joy and great sadness. When something
wonderful happens, we celebrate with a dinner out. We drink champagne,
we eat cake, we splurge on nice meals. Food becomes part of the
rejoicing.

 And the opposite is true, too. There’s a long
tradition of providing food to those who are grieving. We band together
to provide meals to friends in crisis—you may, at some point in your
life, have signed up on a spreadsheet or email thread to bring meals to
someone mourning, someone recovering, someone struggling. In times of
sadness, we instinctively want to provide comfort in a tangible way. And
very often, we do that with food.Food is there for all of it—the good
times and the bad. And to some extent, it makes sense. It’s fun to go
out and celebrate a raise, an anniversary, or a graduation. And it feels
right that when people are truly suffering, the last thing they should
worry about is putting together a meal. In these moments of tragedy or
triumph, food is a worthy and welcome ally.

The problem comes when we use food to comfort and reward ourselves when the stakes are much, much lower. Finally
I got the kids to sleep, now I can eat those cookies I’ve been eyeing.
That
big meeting today was a mess, time for a big glass of wine. These
mundane highs and lows are challenging. But they are not worthy of great
sadness or great celebration. Or, really, food.

UN News

 Over 820 million people suffering from hunger; new UN report reveals stubborn realities of ‘immense’ global challenge.

Fear

What do Matteyya Awakened One with Awareness
quotes teach us about fear?

Trade your fear for freedom.

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear.

Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”

“When
one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one feels tranquil, one
finds pleasure in listening to good teachings; when one has these
feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.

”Pain is a Gift
Instead of avoiding it,
Learn to embrace it.
Without pain,
there is no growth”

As
the world fights extraordinary challenges, their lasting solutions can
come from the ideals of Lord Buddha. In his first sermon at Sarnath,
Lord Buddha referred to hope and purpose. For Lord Buddha, it was the
removal of human suffering.

We have to rise to the occasion and do whatever we can to increase hope among people.

If You Give a Buddhist a Cupcake
tricycle.org
If You Give a Buddhist a Cupcake…
An excerpt from Tara Cottrell and Dan Zigmond’s new book Buddha




https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01295-8
Nature


Hopes rise for coronavirus drug remdesivir
Despite conflicting studies, results from largest trial yet show the
antiviral speeds up recovery, putting it on track to become a standard
of care in the United States.
nature.com
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Hopes rise for coronavirus drug remdesivir
Despite
conflicting studies, results from largest trial yet show the antiviral
speeds up recovery, putting it on track to become a standard of care in
the United States.
Heidi Ledford
A patient at the intensive care unit receives treatment from two hospital workers in Hefei, China
Coronavirus causes severe respiratory illness in some people.Credit: Zhang Yazi/China News Service via Getty
An
experimental drug — and one of the world’s best hopes for treating
COVID-19 — could shorten the time to recovery from coronavirus
infection, according to the largest and most rigorous clinical trial of
the compound yet. On 1 May, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
granted an ‘emergency use authorization’ for clinicians to use the drug,
called remdesivir, which is administered intravenously, in hospitals
for people with severe COVID-19.
Remdesivir
interferes with the replication of some viruses, including SARS-CoV-2,
which is responsible for the current pandemic. On 29 April, Anthony
Fauci, director of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases (NIAID), announced that a clinical trial in more than 1,000
people had showed that those taking remdesivir recovered in 11 days on
average, compared with 15 days for those on a placebo.
“Although
a 31% improvement doesn’t seem like a knockout 100%, it is a very
important proof of concept,” Fauci said. “What it has proven is that a
drug can block this virus.”
There
were also fewer deaths among trial participants who received the drug,
he said, but that trend was not statistically significant. The shortened
recovery time, however, was significant, and was enough of a benefit
that investigators decided to stop the trial early, he said, to ensure
that those participants who were receiving placebo could now access the
drug. Fauci added that remdesivir would become a standard treatment for
COVID-19. The FDA’s authorization is not a final drug approval, and can
be revoked when the conditions required for emergency use are no longer
in effect. Distribution of the drug in the United States will be under
government control.
Rollercoaster ride
The
news comes after weeks of data leaks and on a day of mixed results from
clinical trials of the drug. The drug’s maker, Gilead Sciences of
Foster City, California, announced on the same day that in its own
trial, more than half of 400 participants with severe COVID-19 had
recovered from their illness within two weeks of receiving treatment.
But the study lacked a placebo-controlled arm, making the results
difficult to interpret. Also on 29 April, a smaller trial run in China
announced that it had found1 no benefits from remdesivir when compared
with a placebo. But that trial was stopped early owing to difficulty in
enrolling participants as the outbreak subsided in China. Nevertheless,
onlookers are hopeful that the large NIAID trial provides the first
glimmer of promise in a race to find a drug that works against the
coronavirus, which has infected more than three million people
worldwide.
“There
is a lot of focus on remdesivir because it’s potentially the best shot
we have,” says virologist Stephen Griffin at the University of Leeds,
UK.
Small trials
Fast-flowing,
conflicting information on remdesivir in the past few weeks has left
people reeling. In the rush to find therapies to combat COVID-19, small
clinical trials without control groups have been common. “I’m just very
annoyed by all of these non-controlled studies,” says Geoffrey Porges, a
biotechnology analyst for the investment bank SVB Leerink in New York
City. “It’s reassuring that 50–60% of patients are discharged from the
hospital, but this is a disease that mostly gets better anyway.”
With
so much uncertainty, the remdesivir-watchers were waiting anxiously for
final results from the NIAID trial, which were not expected until the
end of May. In lieu of a vaccine, which could still be more than a year
away, effective therapies are crucial in reducing deaths and limiting
economic damage from the pandemic. Yet, despite the flood of small
clinical trials, no therapy has been convincingly shown to boost
survival in people with COVID-19.
The
NIAID results put a new sheen on remdesivir.The NIAID did not release
detailed safety data. The study in China found no significant difference
between remdesivir and placebo in the frequency of adverse events, but
12% of people who received remdesivir dropped out of the study due to
side effects including nausea and cardiopulmonary failure, compared to
only 5% on placebo.
“It
may not be the wonder drug that everyone’s looking for, but if you can
stop some patients from becoming critically ill, that’s good enough,”
says Griffin.
Fauci
said the finding reminded him of the discovery in the 1980s that the
drug AZT helped to combat HIV infection. The first randomized,
controlled clinical trial showed only a modest improvement, he said, but
researchers continued to build on that success, eventually developing
highly effective therapies.
Remdesivir
works by gumming up an enzyme that some viruses, including SARS-CoV-2,
use to replicate. In February, researchers showed2 that the drug reduces
viral infection in human cells grown in a laboratory.
Gilead
began to ramp up production of remdesivir well before the NIAID results
came out. By the end of March, the company had produced enough to treat
30,000 patients. And by streamlining its manufacturing process and
finding new sources of raw materials, Gilead announced, it hopes to
produce enough remdesivir to treat more than one million people by the
end of the year.
That
calculation was based on the assumption that people would take the drug
for ten days, but the results announced from Gilead’s trial on 29 April
suggest that a five-day course of treatment could work just as well. If
so, that would effectively double the number of people who could be
treated, says Porges.
Many drugs needed
In
the long term, clinicians will probably want a bevy of antiviral drugs —
with different ways of disabling the virus — in their arsenal, says
Timothy Sheahan, a virologist at the University of North Carolina in
Chapel Hill, who has teamed up with Gilead researchers to study
remdesivir. “There is always the potential for antiviral resistance,” he
says. “And to hedge against that potential, it’s good to have not only a
first-line, but also a second-, third-, fourth-, fifth-line antiviral.”
Researchers
are furiously testing a wide range of therapies, but early results,
although not yet definitive, have not been encouraging. The malaria
drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, both of which have
anti-inflammatory effects, drew so much attention from physicians and
the public that some countries have depleted their supplies of the
drugs. Yet studies in humans have failed to show a consistent benefit,
and some have highlighted the risks posed by side effects of the drugs
that affect the heart.
Early
interest in a mix of two HIV drugs called lopinavir and ritonavir
flagged when a clinical trial in nearly 200 people did not find any
benefit of the mix for those with severe COVID-193. Another promising
therapeutic hypothesis — that inhibiting the action of an immune-system
regulator called IL-6 could reduce the serious inflammation seen in some
people with severe COVID-19 — has met with mixed results thus far.
Still,
a host of other therapies are being tested in people, and many
researchers are hunting for new drugs at the bench. Sheahan and his
colleagues have found4 a compound that is active against SARS-CoV-2 and
other coronaviruses, including a remdesivir-resistant variant of a
coronavirus, when tested in laboratory-grown human cells.
But
much more testing would be needed before the compound could be tried in
people. “What we’re doing now will hopefully have an impact on the
current pandemic,” he says. “But maybe more importantly, it could
position us to better respond more quickly in the future.”
doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-01295-8
Updates & Corrections
Update 04 May 2020: This story has been updated to note that on 1
May US regulatory authorities granted remdesivir ‘emergency use’
authorization for use in people with severe COVID-19.
References
1.
Wang, Y. et al. Lancet https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9 (2020).


https://www.webmd.com/lung/covid-treatment-home-hospital#1



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Coronavirus (COVID-19) Treatment
The
most common symptoms of COVID-19 are a fever, coughing, and breathing
problems. Unless you have severe symptoms, you can most likely treat
them at home, the way you would for a cold or the flu. Most people
recover from COVID-19 without the need for hospital care. Call your
doctor to ask about whether you should stay home or get medical care in
person.
Scientists
are trying to make new medicines and test some existing drugs to see
whether they can treat COVID-19. In the meantime, there are a number of
things that can relieve symptoms, both at home and at the hospital. a
number of things can relieve symptoms, both at home and at the hospital.
At-Home Coronavirus Treatment
If your symptoms are mild enough that you can recover at home, you should:
Rest. It can make you feel better and may speed your recovery.
Stay home. Don’t go to work, school, or public places.
Drink fluids. You lose more water when you’re sick. Dehydration can make symptoms worse and cause other health problems.

Monitor. If your symptoms get worse, call your doctor right away.
Don’t go to their office without calling first. They might tell you to
stay home, or they may need to take extra steps to protect staff and
other patients.
Ask your doctor about over-the-counter medicines that may help, like acetaminophen to lower your fever.
The
most important thing to do is to avoid infecting other people,
especially those who are over 65 or who have other health problems.
That means:
Try to stay in one place in your home. Use a separate bedroom and bathroom if you can.
Tell others you’re sick so they keep their distance.
Cover your coughs and sneezes with a tissue or your elbow.
Wear a mask over your nose and mouth if you can.
Wash regularly, especially your hands.
Don’t share dishes, cups, eating utensils, towels, or bedding with anyone else.
Clean and disinfect common surfaces like doorknobs, counters, and tabletops.
What to expect
Symptoms
begin 2 to 14 days after you come into contact with the virus. Early
studies show that many people who have mild infections recover within 2
weeks. More severe cases tend to last 3 to 6 weeks.
Talk
to your doctor about how long you should isolate yourself if you have
symptoms. CDC guidelines say you can leave isolation when all of these
are true:
You haven’t had a fever for 3 days.
Your respiratory symptoms, such as coughing or shortness of breath, are better.
It’s been at least 10 days since your symptoms began OR you have two negative COVID-19 tests 24 hours apart.
How do you know if your symptoms are getting worse?
Get medical care right away if you begin to have:
Trouble breathing
Pain or pressure in your chest
Confusion or severe drowsiness
A blue tint to your lips or face
Coronavirus Treatment in a Hospital
You
don’t need to go to the hospital or ER if you have basic COVID-19
symptoms, like a mild fever or cough. If you do, many hospitals will
send you home.
If
your case is severe, members of the medical staff will check for signs
that the illness is causing more serious problems. They might:
Check the levels of oxygen in your blood with a clip-on finger monitor
Listen to your lungs
Give you a COVID-19 test. This involves putting a 6-inch cotton swab up both sides of your nose for about 15 seconds.
Give you a chest X-ray or CT scan
You
may get extra oxygen through two small tubes that go just inside your
nostrils. In very serious cases, doctors will connect you to a machine
that can breathe for you, called a ventilator.
You
may also get fluids through a tube, or IV, in your arm to keep you from
getting dehydrated. Doctors will also closely monitor your breathing.
The goal is for your infection to run its course and for your lungs to
heal enough that they can breathe on their own again.
Your doctor might give you medication to thin your blood and prevent clots.
If
you take drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors,
angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or statins for other health
problems, your doctor will tell you to continue them as usual.
Many
clinical trials are underway to explore treatments used for other
conditions that could fight COVID-19 and to develop new ones.
People
who are in the hospital with severe COVID-19 may get an antiviral
medicine called remdesivir. Research shows that some patients recover
faster after taking it. Remdesivir was created to fight Ebola, but the
FDA has issued an emergency use ruling so doctors can use it against
COVID-19.
The
FDA is also allowing clinical trials and hospital use of blood plasma
from people who’ve recovered from COVID-19 in order to help patients
with severe or life-threatening cases. You’ll hear this called
convalescent plasma.
Clinical
trials are under way for other medications, including tocilizumab,
which has been used to treat autoimmune conditions and an inflammatory
condition called cytokine release syndrome.
The
FDA had issued an emergency ruling so doctors could use
hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to treat people who are hospitalized
with COVID-19. But the agency revoked the ruling amid serious concerns
about their safety. The World Health Organization stopped trials of
hydroxychloroquine, and France banned its use against COVID-19. The
medications are approved to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions like
rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
One
study found that dexamethasone, a common steroid medication, can help
people who are hospitalized with severe COVID-19 complications. But the
findings are preliminary, and the researchers haven’t released the full
study.

    

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