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LESSON 3550 Wed 30 Dec 2020 Free Online Step by Step Guide and Practice to Attain Anibal the Eternal Bliss in Buddha’s Own Words for Devotees Attired in White Cloth Covered from Head to Toe in Pure White Snow Fall Environment as in Fourth Jhana Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda- Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness Universe” in 116 Classical Languages White Home, Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru, Magadhi karnataka State, Prabuddha Bharat International. https://sehen.site/en/f-chn?f=Josey-Antony# Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta: To Kevatta 29) Classical English, Roman, 10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
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LESSON 3550 Wed 30 Dec  2020

Free
Online Step by Step Guide and Practice to Attain Anibal the Eternal
Bliss in Buddha’s Own Words for Devotees Attired in White Cloth Covered 
from Head to Toe in Pure White Snow Fall Environment as in Fourth Jhana




Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda- Free Online Analytical Research and
Practice University
for
“Discovery of Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness Universe”
in 116 Classical Languages
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Puniya Bhumi Bengaluru,
Magadhi karnataka State,

Prabuddha Bharat International.
https://sehen.site/en/f-chn?f=Josey-Antony#
Kevatta
(Kevaddha) Sutta: To Kevatta
29) Classical English, Roman,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,

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10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,

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ዴሞክራሲን ፣ ነፃነትን ፣ እኩልነትን ፣ ነፃነትን እና ወንድማማችነትን ለማዳን ኢቪኤሞችን ለመተካት የምርጫ
ወረቀቶች ፡፡ ረሃብን ለመግደል ፣ ህመምን እና ፍርሃትን ለማስወገድ እንዲሁም ለሁሉም ህብረተሰብ ደህንነት ፣ ደስታ
እና ሰላም እንዲሁም ዘላለማዊ ደስታን እንዲያገኙ በዓለም ዙሪያ ፍሬ የሚሰጡ ዛፎችን ይተክሉ ፡፡

ዶ / ር ቢ አር አምበድካር “ሜይን ፕራብዱድሃ ብራህድ ካሚጋ” ነጎድጓድ ነጎደ ፡፡ (ፕራቡድሃ ባህራን ቡዲስት
አደርጋለሁ)

አሁን ሁሉም የአቦርጂናል ነቅተዋል ህብረቶች ነጎድጓድ (ዓለም ፕራቡድዳ ፕራፓንች እናደርጋለን)
ሰዎች ወደ ቀድሞ ቤታቸው ቡዲዝም መመለስ ጀምረዋል ፡፡ ዘላለማዊ ደስታን እንደ የመጨረሻ ግባቸው እንዲያገኙ
ለማስቻል መላው ዓለም የነቃውን ትምህርት ለደስታቸው ፣ ለደኅንነታቸው እና ለሰላም በንቃት ይከተላል ፡፡

ኬቫታ
(ከቫድሃ) ሱታ ወደ ኬቫታ

ነፃ የመስመር ላይ የደረጃ በደረጃ መመሪያ እና ልምምድን ንባባን ለማግኘት የዘላለም ደስታን በቡድሃ የራሳቸው ቃላት
ለነጮች ልብስ ለብሰው ለጎደላቸው አገልጋዮች በንጹህ ነጭ የበረዶ መውደቅ አከባቢ ከራስ እስከ እግሩ ድረስ
ተሸፍኗል ፡፡
አንድ ሱታ አንድ ቀን ዱካካን ያስወግዳል
ዲኤን
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ኬቫታ
(ከቫድሃ) ሱታ ወደ ኬቫታ
ተተርጉሟል
ከፓሊ በ
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ቢሂቹ © 1997–2011 በአንዱ ላይ እንደዚያ ሰማሁ
አልፎ አልፎ ብፁዓን በፓቫሪካ የማንጎ ግንድ ውስጥ በናላንዳ ቆዩ ፡፡

ከዚያ የቤቱ ባለቤት ከቫታ ወደ ብፁዕው ተጠጋ እና እንደደረሱ ሰግዶ በአንድ ወገን ተቀመጠ ፡፡ እዚያ በተቀመጠ ጊዜ
ብፁዕን እንዲህ አለው ፡፡
“ጌታ ሆይ ፣ ይህ ናላንዳ በብፁዓን ላይ እምነት ባላቸው ሰዎች የተሞላ ፣ ሀብታም ፣ የበለፀገ እና ብዙ ነው።
ናላንዳ በተቻለው መጠን ብፁዕ በሆነው ላይ እምነት እንዲኖራት ብፁዓን ከላዩ ሰብዓዊ መንግሥቱ የአእምሮ ኃይል ኃይል
ተአምር እንዲያሳዩ መነኩሴውን ቢያመሩ ጥሩ ነው ፡፡

ይህ በተባለ ጊዜ ብፁዕው ለከቨታ የቤት ባለቤት “ኬቫታ ፣ መነኮሳቱን በዚህ መንገድ አላስተምራቸውም-‹ መነኮሳት ኑ
፣ ነጭ ለብሰው ለተነጠቁት ምእመናን የስነ-አዕምሮ ኃይል ተዓምር ያሳዩ ፡፡ ’ሀ ለሁለተኛ ጊዜ third ለሦስተኛ
ጊዜ የቤቷ ባለቤት ኬቫታ ለተባረከችው “ከብፁዓን ጋር አልከራከርም ግን እላችኋለሁ-ጌታ ሆይ ፣ ይህ ናላንዳ
በእምነት ባላቸው ሰዎች የተሞላ ኃይለኛ ፣ የበለፀገ እና ብዛት ያለው ነው ፡፡ በተባረከው ውስጥ. ናላንዳ በከፍተኛ
ደረጃም ቢሆን በብፁዓን ላይ እምነት እንዲኖራት ብፁዕ አንድ ሰው መነኩሴውን ከከፍተኛው የሰው አገሩ የተላበሰ
የአእምሮ ኃይል ተአምር እንዲያሳይ ቢመሩት ጥሩ ነው ፡፡

ለሶስተኛ ጊዜ ብፁዕው ለከቨታ የቤት ባለቤት “ኬቫታ ፣ መነኮሳቱን በዚህ መንገድ አላስተምራቸውም‹ ኑ መነኮሳት ኑ ፣
ለተለበሱ ምእመናን የስነ-አዕምሮ ኃይል ተዓምር አሳይ ፡፡ ’

“ኬቫታ ፣ በቀጥታ ለራሴ አውቃቸዋለሁ እና አውቃቸዋለሁ ያወጀኳቸው እነዚህ ሶስት ተዓምራቶች አሉ ፡፡ የትኞቹ ሦስት
ናቸው? የስነ-አዕምሮ ኃይል ተዓምር ፣ የቴሌፓቲ ተአምር እና የመምህር ተአምር ፡፡

የአእምሮ ኃይል ተዓምር “እና የአእምሮ ኃይል ተአምር ምንድነው? አንድ መነኩሴ ብዙ ሳይኪክ የሚጠቀምበት ሁኔታ አለ
ኃይሎች አንድ ሆኖ ብዙ ይሆናል; ብዙ ሆኖ አንድ ይሆናል ፡፡ እሱ ይገለጣል ፡፡ ይጠፋል ፡፡ እሱ በጠፈር በኩል
እንደሚሄድ በግድግዳዎች ፣ በግድግቦች እና በተራሮች ሳይገታ ያልፋል ፡፡ እሱ ውሃ እንደ ሆነ በምድር ውስጥ
ይወርዳል እና ይወጣል ፡፡ ደረቅ ምድር ይመስል ሳይሰምጥ ውሃ ላይ ይራመዳል ፡፡ እግሮቹን በመስቀል ላይ ተቀምጦ
እንደ ክንፍ ወፍ በአየር ላይ ይበርራል ፡፡ በጣም ኃይለኛ እና ኃይለኛ ፀሐይን እና ጨረቃን እንኳ በእጁ ይነካል
እና ይደበድባል። እሱ በእሱ ላይ ተጽዕኖ ያሳርፋል
እስከ ብራህማ ዓለማት ድረስ አካል።

“ከዚያ በእሱ ላይ እምነት ያለው እና ጽኑ እምነት ያለው ሰው የተለያዩ የአእምሮ ችሎታዎችን ሲጠቀም sees እስከ
ብራህ ዓለማት ድረስ በሰውነቱ ላይ ተጽዕኖ ሲያሳድር ይመለከታል። እሱ ይህንን እምነት እና እምነት ለሌለው ሰው
ሪፖርት ያደርግለታል ፣ ‹ግሩም አይደለም። ይህ የሚያስብ አይደለም ፣ ምን ያህል ኃይል ፣ የዚህ አሳቢ ችሎታ ምን
ያህል ታላቅ ነው። ልክ አሁን እስከ ብራህማ ዓለማት ድረስ በሰውነቱ ላይ ተጽዕኖ ሲያሳድር የተለያዩ ሳይኪክ
ኃይሎችን ሲጠቀም አየሁ ፡፡

“ያኔ እምነት የሌለው ሰው ያለ እምነት እና እምነት ባለው ሰው ላይ እንዲህ ይል ነበር-‘ ጌታ ሆይ ፣ መነኩሴው
የተለያዩ የስነ-አዕምሮ ኃይሎችን በመጠቀም G በሰውነቱ ላይም ቢሆን ተጽዕኖ ያሳደረበት የጋንዲሪ ማራኪ የሚባል
ውበት አለ ፡፡ ብራህማ ዓለማት ፡፡ ‹ምን ይመስላችኋል ፣ ኬቫታ - ያ ሰው እንደዚያ አይደለም
ያለ እምነት ያለ እምነት በእምነትና በልበ ሙሉነት ሰውየውን ይል ነበር? ”

“አዎ ጌታ ሆይ ፣ እሱ የሚናገረው ልክ ነው ፡፡”

“ለአእምሮአዊ ኃይል ተዓምር ኬቫታ ይህን መሰናክል በማየቴ ፣ በአእምሮ ኃይል ኃይል ተዓምር በጣም ተደናግ, ፣
ውርደት እና እንደ ተጸየፍኩ ይሰማኛል ፡፡

የቴሌፓቲ ተዓምር

“እና የቴሌፓቲ ተአምር ምንድነው? አንድ መነኩሴ አእምሮን ፣ አእምሯዊ ክንውኖችን ፣ ሀሳቦችን ፣ የሌሎችን
ፍጥረታት ፣ ሌሎች ግለሰቦችን ማሰላሰል የሚያነብበት ሁኔታ አለ ፣ “እንዲህ ነው“ የእርስዎ አስተሳሰብ ፣ እዚህ
አለ የእርስዎ አስተሳሰብ እዚህ ነው ፣ ስለሆነም አዕምሮዎ ፡፡ ”


“ከዚያ
በእሱ ላይ እምነት ያለው እና እምነት ያለው ሰው የሌሎችን ፍጡሮች አእምሮ ሲያነብ ይመለከታል this ይህንን
እምነት እና እምነት ለሌለው ለሌላ ሰው ሪፖርት ያደርግለታል‹ ግሩም አይደለም ፡፡ የሚያስደንቅ አይደለም ፣ ምን
ያህል ኃይል ፣ ምን ያህል ጎበዝ ነው
ይህ እያሰላሰለ ፡፡ ልክ አሁን የሌሎችን ፍጡሮች አእምሮ ሲያነብ አየሁ… ’

“እንግዲያው እምነት የሌለው ሰው ያለ እምነት በልበ ሙሉነት ለሰውየው‹ ጌታ ሆይ ፣ መነኩሴ የሌሎችን ፍጡሮች
አእምሮ read የሚያነብበት የማኒካ ውበት የሚባል ማራኪ አለ ›ምን ይመስልዎታል ፣ ኬቫታ - እምነት የሌለበት ሰው
ያለ እምነት ፣ እምነት ላለው ሰው ይናገራል ማለት አይደለም
እና በጽኑ እምነት? ”
“አዎ ጌታ ሆይ ፣ እሱ የሚናገረው ልክ ነው ፡፡”

ኬቫታ ለተባለ የቴሌፓቲ ተአምር ይህን መሰናክል ሲመለከት በጣም የተደናገጥኩ ፣ የተዋረድኩ እና በቴሌፓቲ ተዓምር
የተጠላሁ ሆኖ ይሰማኛል ፡፡
የትምህርቱ ተአምር “እና የትምህርቱ ተአምር ምንድነው? አንድ መነኩሴ በዚህ መንገድ መመሪያ የሚሰጥበት ሁኔታ አለ
‘ሀሳብዎን በዚህ መንገድ ይምሩት ፣ በዚያ ውስጥ አይቅጡት ፡፡ ነገሮችን በዚህ መንገድ ይሳተፉ ፣ በዚያ ውስጥ
አይሳተፉባቸው ፡፡ ይህንን ተዉ ፣ ግቡ እና በዚያ ውስጥ ኑሩ ፡፡ ’ይህ ኬቫታ ፣ የማስተማሪያው ተዓምር ይባላል
፡፡

“በተጨማሪም ፣ በዓለም ላይ ታታጋታ የታየበት ፣ የሚገባ እና በትክክል ራሱን የነቃበት ሁኔታ አለ።

ሁሉንም በጅማሬው የሚደነቅ ፣ በመሃል የሚደነቅ ፣ በመጨረሻው የሚደነቅ ያስተምራል ፡፡ እርሱ የተቀደሰውን ሕይወት
በዝርዝር እና በመሠረቱ ውስጥ ያውጃል ፣ ፍጹም ፍጹም ፣ እጅግ የላቀ ንፁህ ነው።

“የቤቱ ባለቤት ወይም የቤቱ ባለቤት ልጅ ዱማውን ሲሰማ በታታጋታ ላይ የጥፋተኝነት ስሜት ያገኛል እና
ያንፀባርቃል-“ የቤት ውስጥ ሕይወት ውስን ነው ፣ አቧራማ መንገድ ነው ፡፡

የሄደው ሕይወት ልክ እንደ ክፍት አየር ነው ፡፡ እንደ የተወለወለ ፍጹም ሕይወትን ፣ ፍጹም ንፁህ የሆነውን ቅዱስ
ሕይወት መለማመድ በቤት ውስጥ መኖር ቀላል አይደለም
shellል. ፀጉሬን እና ጺሜን መላጨት ፣ ኦቾሎኒን ብለብስስ?
ልብስ ፣ እና ከቤት ወጥታ ወደ ቤት እጦት ውጣ? ‘

“ስለዚህ ከተወሰነ ጊዜ በኋላ ትልቅም ይሁን ትንሽ ሀብቱን ጥሎ ይሄዳል; የዘመዶቹን ክብ ፣ ትልቅ ወይም ትንሽ
ይተዋል; ፀጉሩንና ጺሙን shaሞ ጮማውን አውልቆ ፣ ልብሱንም ለብሶ ከቤት ወደ ቤት እጦታ ይወጣል ፡፡

“እንደዚህ በወጣ ጊዜ በትንሽ ስህተቶች ውስጥ አደጋን በማየት በገዳሙ ሕግጋት ተገድቦ ይኖራል ፡፡ በበጎነቱ የተሟላ
፣ የስሜት ሕዋሳትን በሮች ይጠብቃል ፣ በአስተሳሰብ እና በንቃት የተሞላ እና ደስተኛ ነው ፡፡

በበጎነት ላይ ያለው አነስተኛው ክፍል

“እናም መነኩሴ በበጎነት እንዴት ፍፁም ነው? ሕይወትን ከመውሰድ በመተው ሕይወትን ከመውሰድ ይታቀባል ፡፡ እሱ
ዱላውን በተዘረጋ ፣ ቢላዋው በተዘረጋ ፣ ቁጣ ፣ ርህሩህ ፣ ለህያዋን ፍጥረታት ሁሉ ርህሩህ ሆኖ ይኖራል።

ይህ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው ፡፡

ያልተሰጠውን መውሰድ ትቶ ያልተሰጠውን ከመቀበል ይታቀባል ፡፡ እሱ የተሰጠውን ብቻ ይወስዳል ፣ የሚሰጠውን ብቻ
ይቀበላል ፣ በስውር ሳይሆን በንጹህ በሆነ በራስ ሕይወት ይኖራል።

ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

አለመቻቻልን በመተው የመንደሩ ነዋሪ መንገድ የሆነውን የወሲብ ድርጊት በመቆጠብ ፣ ገለልተኛ ፣ ገለልተኛ ሕይወት
እየኖረ ነው ፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“የሐሰት ንግግሩን በመተው ከሐሰት ንግግር ይታቀባል ፡፡ እሱ እውነትን ይናገራል ፣ በእውነት ላይ ተጣብቋል ፣ ጽኑ
፣ አስተማማኝ ፣ ዓለምን የማያታልል። ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

ከፋፋይ ንግግርን በመተው ከከፋፋይ ንግግር ይታቀባል ፡፡ እዚህ የሰማውን ነገር እነዚያን ሰዎች ከእነዚህ ሰዎች ጋር
እዚህ ለማለያየት እዚያ አይናገርም ፡፡

እዚያ የሰማውን እኒህን ሰዎች እዚያ ካሉ እነዚያ ሰዎች ነጥሎ ለማለያየት እዚህ አይናገርም ፡፡

ስለሆነም የፈረሱትን ማስታረቅ ወይም የተዋሃዱትን በሲሚንቶ ማዋሃድ እሱ ኮንኮርድን ይወዳል ፣ በስምምነት ይደሰታል ፣
በስምምነት ይደሰታል ፣ ስምምነት የሚፈጥሩ ነገሮችን ይናገራል።

ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“ከስድብ ንግግር በመተው ከስድብ ንግግሮች ይታቀባል። እሱ ጆሮን የሚያረጋጋ ፣ ፍቅር የሚንጸባርቅ ፣ ወደ ልብ
የሚሄድ ፣ ጨዋ የሆኑ ፣ በሰዎች ሁሉ ዘንድ የሚማርኩ እና ደስ የሚያሰኙ ቃላትን ይናገራል ፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ
በጎነት አካል ነው።

ስራ ፈት ወሬ በመተው ከስራ ፈትቶ ጫወታ ይታቀባል። እሱ በወቅቱ ይናገራል ፣ እውነቱን ይናገራል ፣ ከግብ ጋር
የሚስማማውን ፣ ደማምን እና ቪየንያ እሱ ግምታዊ ፣ ወቅታዊ ፣ ምክንያታዊ ፣ በክብ የተጠረጠሩ ፣ ከግብ ጋር
የተገናኙ ቃላትን ይናገራል።

ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“ዘርን ከመጉዳት እና ከእፅዋት ሕይወት ይታቀባል።

“የሚበላው ከምሽቱ ምግብ እና በቀን ባልተገባ ሰዓት ከምግብ በመቆጠብ በቀን አንድ ጊዜ ብቻ ነው ፡፡

“ከዳንስ ፣ ከመዝፈን ፣ ከመሣሪያ ሙዚቃ እና ትዕይንቶችን ከመመልከት ይታቀባል። “የአበባ ጉንጉን ከመልበስ እና
በመዓዛ እና በመዋቢያዎች እራሱን ከማጌጥ ይታቀባል ፡፡

ከከፍተኛ እና የቅንጦት አልጋዎችና መቀመጫዎች ይታቀባል ፡፡

“ወርቅና ገንዘብን ከመቀበል ይታቀባል ፡፡

“ያልበሰለ እህል… ጥሬ ሥጋ… ሴቶችንና ልጃገረዶችን… ወንድና ሴት ባሪያዎችን… ፍየሎችንና በግን l ወፎችን እና
አሳማዎችን… ዝሆኖችን ፣ ከብቶችን ፣ ፈረሰኞችን እና ማሮችን… እርሻዎችን እና ንብረቶችን ከመቀበል ይታቀባል ፡፡


ከሐሰተኛ
ሚዛን ፣ ከሐሰት ብረቶችና ከሐሰተኛ ዕርምጃዎች dealing ከጉቦ ፣ ከማታለል እና ከማጭበርበር ጋር የተያያዙ
ጉዳዮችን ከማስተላለፍ messages ከመግዛትና ከመሸጥ ይርቃል ፡፡

“አካልን ከማጉደል ፣ ከማስፈፀም ፣ ከማሰር ፣ ከአውራ ጎዳናዎች ዝርፊያ ፣ ከዘረፋ እና ሁከት የራቀ ነው ፡፡
“ይህ እንዲሁ የእሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

መካከለኛነት በጎነት ላይ “አንዳንድ ካህናት እና
አስተሳሰብ ያላቸው ፣ በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ ውጭ እነዚህን የመሰሉ የዘር እና የእፅዋት ሕይወት ሱስ ናቸው -
ከሥሮች ፣ ከጅማቶች ፣ ከመገጣጠሚያዎች ፣ ከቡድኖች እና ከዘሮች የተባዙ እጽዋት - እንደነዚህ ያሉትን ዘሮችን
ከመጉዳት ይታቀባል ፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስማተኞች በእምነት ከተሰጠ ምግብ ውጭ በመኖር እነዚህን የመሳሰሉ የተከማቹ እቃዎችን -
የተከማቸ ምግብ ፣ የተከማቹ መጠጦች ፣ የተከማቹ ልብሶችን ፣ የተከማቹ ተሽከርካሪዎችን ፣ የተከማቸ አልጋን ሱስ
ይይዛሉ ፣ የተከማቹ ሽታዎች እና የተከማቸ ሥጋ - እንደነዚህ ያሉ የተከማቹ ምርቶችን ከመብላት ይታቀባል ፡፡
ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተሳሰብ ያላቸው ሰዎች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ ውጭ እነዚህን የመሳሰሉ ዝግጅቶችን
የመመልከት ሱሰኛ ናቸው - ጭፈራ ፣ ዘፈን ፣ የሙዚቃ መሳሪያ ፣ ተውኔቶች ፣ የባላድባን ንባብ ፣ የእጅ ማጨብጨብ ፣
ጸናጽል እና ከበሮ ፣ አስማታዊ ፋኖስ ትዕይንቶች ፣ አክሮባቲክ እና አስማተኛ ብልሃቶች ፣ የዝሆኖች ውጊያዎች ፣
የፈረስ ውጊያዎች ፣ የጎሽ ውጊያዎች ፣ የበሬ ውጊያዎች ፣ የፍየሎች ውጊያዎች ፣ የበግ ጠበቆች ፣ የዶሮ ውጊያዎች ፣
ድርጭቶች ድብድቦች; በትር ፣ በቦክስ ፣ በትግል ፣ በጦርነት-ጨዋታዎች ፣ በተከታታይ ጥሪ ፣ በጦር ሜዳዎች እና
በሪመራል ክለሳዎች መታገል - እንደነዚህ ያሉትን ትዕይንቶች ከመመልከት ተቆጥቧል ፡፡
ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስማተኞች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ በመመገብ እንደነዚህ ያሉ ግዴለሽነት የጎደላቸው እና
ስራ ፈት ሱስ ሱሰኞች ናቸው - ስምንት ረድፍ ቼዝ ፣ አሥር ረድፍ ቼዝ ፣ ቼዝ በአየር ላይ ፣ ሆፕስኮት ፣ ስፒኪን
፣ ዳይ ፣ ዱላ ጨዋታ ፣ እጅ - ስዕሎች ፣ የኳስ ጨዋታዎች ፣ በአሻንጉሊት ቧንቧዎች በኩል መንፋት ፣
በአሻንጉሊት ማረሻዎች መጫወት ፣ መሰናክሎችን ማዞር ፣ በአሻንጉሊት ነፋስ ወፍጮዎች ፣ በአሻንጉሊት መለኪያዎች ፣
በአሻንጉሊት ሰረገላዎች ፣ በአሻንጉሊት ቀስቶች መጫወት ፣ በአየር ላይ የተሳሉ ፊደሎችን መገመት ፣ ሀሳቦችን
መገመት ፣ የአካል ጉዳተኞችን መኮረጅ - እንደነዚህ ያሉ ግድየለሾች እና ሥራ ፈቶች ጨዋታዎች ፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ
የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስማተኞች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ ውጭ በመኖር እንደነዚህ ላሉት ከፍ ያሉ እና የቅንጦት
ዕቃዎች ሱስ ያላቸው ናቸው - ከመጠን በላይ የሆኑ ሶፋዎች ፣ በተቀረጹ እንስሳት የተጌጡ አልጋዎች ፣ ረዥም ፀጉር
መሸፈኛዎች ፣ ባለብዙ ቀለም ንጣፍ ሽፋን ፣ ነጭ የሱፍ ሽፋን ፣ በአበቦች ወይም በእንስሳት ቅርጾች የተጌጡ የሱፍ
መሸፈኛዎች ፣ የተሞሉ ብርድ ልብሶች ፣ በፍራፍሬ ላይ የሽፋን ወረቀቶች ፣ ከከበሩ ዕንቁዎች ጋር የተጌጡ የሐር
ክዳን ትላልቅ የሱፍ ምንጣፎች; ዝሆን ፣ ፈረስ እና የሰረገላ ምንጣፎች ፣ የሰዎች ዝንጀሮዎች መሸፈኛ ፣ የአጋዘን
ድብቅ ምንጣፎች; ሶፋዎች ከአውራ ጎዳናዎች ፣ ሶፋዎች ጋር
ለጭንቅላቱ እና ለእግሮቹ ከቀይ ጎጆዎች ጋር - እንደነዚህ ያሉ ከፍተኛ እና የቅንጦት እቃዎችን ከመጠቀም ይታቀባል
፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተሳሰብ ያላቸው ሰዎች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ ውጭ የሚኖሩት እነዚህን የመሰሉ መዓዛዎች
፣ መዋቢያዎች እና እነዚህን የመሳሰሉ የማስዋቢያ መንገዶች ሱስ ናቸው - ዱቄቶችን በሰውነት ውስጥ ማሻሸት ፣
ዘይት መቀባትን ፣ ጥሩ መዓዛ ባለው ውሃ መታጠብ ፣ እጆቹንና እግሮቹን ማሸት ፣ መስታወት መጠቀም ፣ ቅባቶች ፣
የአበባ ጉንጉኖች ፣ ሽታዎች ፣ ክሬሞች ፣ የፊት ዱቄቶች ፣ ማስካራ ፣ አምባሮች ፣ የጭንቅላት ባንዶች ፣ ያጌጡ
የእግር ዱላዎች ፣ በጌጣጌጥ የተሠሩ የውሃ ጠርሙሶች ፣ ጎራዴዎች ፣ የሚያምሩ የፀሐይ ጥላዎች ፣ ያጌጡ ጫማዎች ፣
ጥምጣሞች ፣
እንቁዎች ፣ ያክ-ጅራት ሹክሹክታ ፣ ረዥም የተጠረዙ ነጭ ልብሶች - እሱ ሽታ ፣ መዋቢያ እና እንደነዚህ ያሉትን
የመዋቢያ መንገዶች ከመጠቀም ይታቀባል ፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተሳሰብ ያላቸው ሰዎች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ ስለእነዚህ ባሉት ዝቅተኛ ርዕሶች
ማውራት ሱስ ነው - ስለ ነገሥታት ፣ ዘራፊዎች ፣ ስለ ሚኒስትር ዴኤታዎች ማውራት ፣ ሠራዊት ፣ ማንቂያዎች እና
ጦርነቶች ምግብ እና መጠጥ; አልባሳት ፣ የቤት ዕቃዎች ፣ የአበባ ጉንጉኖች እና ሽታዎች; ዘመዶች; ተሽከርካሪዎች;
መንደሮች ፣ ከተሞች ፣ ከተሞች ፣ ገጠሮች; ሴቶች እና ጀግኖች; የጎዳና እና የጉድጓድ ወሬ; የሟቾች ተረቶች;
የልዩነት ተረቶች [ያለፈውን እና የወደፊቱን ፍልስፍናዊ ውይይቶች] ፣ ዓለምን እና የባህርን መፍጠር ፣ እና ነገሮች
ይኖሩ ወይም አይኑሩ የሚሉ ወሬ - ስለ ዝቅተኛ ርዕሶች ከመናገር ተቆጥቧል
እንደ እነዚህ ፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተዋዮች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ እንደነዚህ ላሉት ክርክሮች ሱስ ናቸው -‘
ይህንን ትምህርት እና ተግሣጽ ተገንዝበዋል? እኔ ይህንን ዶክትሪን እና ስነ-ስርዓት የተረዳሁት እኔ ነኝ ፡፡
ይህንን ትምህርት እና ስነ-ስርዓት እንዴት ሊረዱት ቻሉ? በስህተት እየተለማመዱ ነው። በትክክል እየተለማመድኩ ነው
፡፡ እኔ ወጥነት ያለው ነኝ. አንተ አይደለህም. መጨረሻ ላይ የተናገርከው መጀመሪያ ምን ማለት አለበት ፡፡
ለመጨረሻ ጊዜ ምን ማለት አለብዎት መጀመሪያ የተናገሩት። ለማሰብ ይህን ያህል ጊዜ የወሰዱት ነገር ተከልክሏል ፡፡
አስተምህሮዎ ተገሏል። ተሸንፈሃል ፡፡ ሂድ እና ዶክትሪንህን ለማዳን ሞክር; ከቻልክ ራስህን አስወግድ! ’-
እንደነዚህ ካሉ ክርክሮች ይታቀባል። ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።


“አንዳንድ
ካህናት እና አስተሳሰብ ያላቸው ሰዎች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ በመመገብ እንደነዚህ ላሉት ሰዎች - ነገሥታት ፣
የመንግሥት ሚኒስትሮች ፣ ክቡር ተዋጊዎች ፣ ካህናት ፣ የቤት ባለቤቶች ወይም ወጣቶች“ እዚህ ሂዱ ”የሚሉ
መልእክቶችንና መልዕክቶችን ሱስ ይይዛሉ ፡፡ ፣ እዚያ ይሂዱ ፣ ይህንን እዚያ ይሂዱ ፣ ያንን ያመጣሉ - -
መልዕክቶችን ከማሰራጨት ይታቀባል እና
እንደነዚህ ላሉት ሰዎች መልእክቶች ፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስማተኞች በእምነት ከተሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ ፣ በማሴር ፣ በማግባባት ፣ በመጥቀስ ፣
በማቃለል እና በጥቅም በማትረፍ ሲሳተፉ ፣ ከሸፍጥ ዓይነቶች እና ከማሳመን ይታቀባል [ከለጋሾች ቁሳዊ ድጋፍ
ለማግኘት የሚሞክሩ ተገቢ ያልሆኑ መንገዶች] እንደነዚህ ያሉት. ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

ስለ በጎነት ትልቁ ክፍል

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተዋዮች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ በተሳሳተ የኑሮ አኗኗር ራሳቸውን በመጠበቅ
ራሳቸውን ዝቅ ያደርጋሉ ፡፡
በእግሮቹ ላይ የንባብ ምልክቶች [ለምሳሌ ፣ ፓልምስቲሪ];
ምልክቶችን እና ምልክቶችን ማንበብ;
የሰማይ ክስተቶችን መተርጎም [የወደቁ ኮከቦች ፣ ኮሜቶች];
ህልሞችን መተርጎም;
በሰውነት ላይ የንባብ ምልክቶች [ለምሳሌ ፣ ፍረኖሎጂ];
በአይጦች በተጠመቀው ጨርቅ ላይ የንባብ ምልክቶች;
የእሳት መባዎችን ፣ ከላሌ መስጠትን ፣ ከቅርፊት ቅርፊት ፣ ሩዝ ማቅረብ
ዱቄት ፣ የሩዝ እህሎች ፣ ጋይ እና ዘይት;
ከአፍ ውስጥ መባዎችን መስጠት;
የደም መስዋእት ማቅረብ;
በጣቶች ላይ በመመርኮዝ ትንበያዎችን ማድረግ;
ጂኦማናዊነት;
በመቃብር ውስጥ አጋንንትን ማኖር;
በድግምት ላይ መናፍስትን ማኖር;
የቤት-ጥበቃ ማራኪዎችን በማንበብ;
እባብ ማራኪ ፣ መርዝ-አፍቃሪ ፣ ጊንጥ-ሎሬ ፣ አይጥ-ሎሬ ፣ ወፍ-ሎሬ ፣ ቁራ-ሎሬ;
በራእዮች ላይ የተመሠረተ ትንበያ;
የመከላከያ ማራኪዎችን መስጠት;
የአእዋፍና የእንስሳትን ጥሪ በመተርጎም - እሱ ከስህተት ይታቀባል
መተዳደሪያ ፣ እንደነዚህ ካሉ ዝቅተኛ ሥነ-ጥበባት ፡፡

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተሳሰብ ያላቸው ሰዎች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ በተሳሳተ የኑሮ ኑሮ ራሳቸውን
በመጠበቅ ፣ እንደ ዕድለኞች እና ዕድለኞች የሆኑ ዕንቁዎችን ፣ ልብሶችን ፣ ዱላዎችን ፣ ጎራዴዎችን ፣ ጦርን ፣
ቀስቶችን ፣ ቀስቶችን እና ሌሎች መሣሪያዎችን መወሰን ፡፡ ሴቶች ፣ ወንዶች ልጆች ፣ ሴቶች ልጆች ፣ ወንድ ባሮች ፣
ሴት ባሮች; ዝሆኖች ፣ ፈረሶች ፣ ጎሾች ፣ በሬዎች ፣ ላሞች ፣
ፍየሎች ፣ አውራ በጎች ፣ ወፎች ፣ ድርጭቶች ፣ እንሽላሊቶች ፣ ረዥም ጆሮአቸው ያላቸው አይጦች ፣ ኤሊዎች እና
ሌሎች እንስሳት - ከተሳሳተ የኑሮ ኑሮ ፣ እንደነዚህ ባሉት ዝቅተኛ ሥነ-ጥበባት ይታቀባል ፡፡

አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተሳሰብ ያላቸው ሰዎች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ በተሳሳተ የኑሮ ኑሮ ራሳቸውን
በመጠበቅ እንደ ትንበያዎች ባሉ ዝቅተኛ ሥነ-ጥበባት
ገዢዎች ወደ ሰልፍ ይወጣሉ;
ገዢዎች ወጥተው ይመለሳሉ ፤
ገዢዎቻችን ጥቃት ይሰነዝራሉ ፣ ገዥዎቻቸውም ወደ ኋላ ይመለሳሉ ፣
ገዥዎቻቸው ጥቃት ይሰነዝራሉ ፣ ገዢዎቻችንም ወደ ኋላ ይመለሳሉ ፣
ለገዥዎቻችን ድል እና ለገዥዎቻቸው ሽንፈት ይሆናል ፡፡
ለገዥዎቻቸው ድል እና ለገዥዎቻችን ሽንፈት ይሆናል ፡፡
ስለሆነም ድል ይነሳል ፣ ስለሆነም ሽንፈት ይሆናል - እሱ ከተሳሳተ ኑሮ ፣ እንደነዚህ ካሉ ዝቅተኛ ሥነ-ጥበባት
ይታቀባል።

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተዋዮች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ በተሳሳተ የኑሮ ኑሮ ራሳቸውን እንደሚጠብቁ ፣
እንደ ትንበያ ባሉ ዝቅተኛ ሥነ-ጥበባት
የጨረቃ ግርዶሽ ይሆናል;
የፀሐይ ግርዶሽ ይሆናል;
የኮከብ ቆጠራ ሥነ ምግባር (ምስጢር) ይከሰታል ፡፡
ፀሐይና ጨረቃ መደበኛ ልምዶቻቸውን ያካሂዳሉ ፡፡
ፀሐይና ጨረቃ ይስታሉ ፡፡
አስትሪኮቹ መደበኛ ትምህርታቸውን ያካሂዳሉ ፡፡
አስቴሪዎች ይስታሉ;
የሚቲየር ሻወር ይኖራል ፡፡
የሰማይ ጨለማ ይሆናል ፡፡
የመሬት መንቀጥቀጥ ይከሰታል;
ከጠራ ሰማይ የሚመጣ ነጎድጓድ ይሆናል ፡፡
መነሳት ፣ መምጣት ፣ ጨለማ ፣ ፀሐይ ፣ ጨረቃ እና ኮከብ ቆጠራዎች ይሆናሉ ፡፡
ይህ የጨረቃ ግርዶሽ ውጤት ይሆናል… መነሳት ፣ መነሳት ፣ ጨለማ ፣ ፀሀይ ፣ ጨረቃ እና አስትሪኮዎች - እንደነዚህ
ካሉ ዝቅተኛ ስነ-ጥበባት ከመንገድ ይርቃል ፡፡

አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተዋዮች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ በተሳሳተ የኑሮ ኑሮ ራሳቸውን እንደሚጠብቁ
በመተንበይ እንደ ዝቅተኛ ሥነ-ጥበባት
በዚያም ብዙ ዝናብ ይሆናል ፡፡ ድርቅ ይከሰታል ፡፡
ብዙ ይሆናል; ረሃብ ይሆናል;
እረፍት እና ደህንነት ይኖራል; አደጋ ይኖራል;
በሽታ ይኖራል; ከበሽታ ነፃ ይሆናል;
ወይም በመቁጠር ፣ በሒሳብ ፣ በስሌት ፣ በግጥም በማቀናበር ወይም ሥነ ጥበባዊ ትምህርቶችን እና ትምህርቶችን
በማስተማር ኑሯቸውን ያገኛሉ -
እንደነዚህ ካሉ ዝቅተኛ ሥነ-ጥበባት ከመጥፎ ኑሮ ይርቃል ፡፡

“አንዳንድ ካህናት እና አስተዋዮች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ በተሳሳተ የኑሮ አኗኗር ራሳቸውን በመጠበቅ
ራሳቸውን ዝቅ ያደርጋሉ ፡፡
ለትዳሮች ፣ ለጋብቻ እጮኞች ፣ ለፍቺ የሚመች ቀናትን ማስላት; ዕዳዎችን ለመሰብሰብ ወይም ኢንቬስትሜንት እና ብድር
ለማግኘት; ለመማረክ ወይም ለመማረክ; የፅንስ መጨንገፍ ወይም ፅንስ ያስወረዱ ሴቶችን መፈወስ; የሰውን ምላስ
ለማሰር ፣ መንጋጋውን ሽባ ለማድረግ ፣ እጆቹን መቆጣጠር እንዳይችል ለማድረግ ወይም መስማት የተሳናቸው እንዲሆኑ
ለማድረግ ድግምተሮችን በማንበብ;
ለመስታወት ፣ ለአንዲት ወጣት ልጃገረድ ወይም ለመናፍስት ጠንቋይ ለተነገረላቸው ጥያቄዎች በአፍ የሚሰጥ መልስ
ማግኘት
ፀሐይን ማምለክ ፣ ታላቁን ብራማ ማምለክ ፣ ማምጣት
የዕድል እንስት አምላክን በመጥራት ከአፉ ነበልባል ይወጣል -
እንደነዚህ ካሉ ዝቅተኛ ሥነ-ጥበባት ከመጥፎ ኑሮ ይርቃል ፡፡


“አንዳንድ
ካህናት እና አስተዋዮች በእምነት ከሚሰጡት ምግብ እየኖሩ በተሳሳተ የኑሮ አኗኗር ራሳቸውን በመጠበቅ ራሳቸውን ዝቅ
ያደርጋሉ ፡፡
ተስፋ ሰጭ
ለበጎ ምላሾች ለዴሳዎች ስጦታዎች; እንደዚህ ያሉትን ተስፋዎች ማሟላት;
ዲሞኖሎጂ;
የቤት-ጥበቃ ጥንቆላዎችን ማስተማር;
ደካማነትን እና አቅመቢስነትን ማነሳሳት;
ለግንባታ መቀደስ ሥፍራዎች;
የሥርዓት አፋቸውን መታጠብ እና ሥነ ሥርዓታዊ ገላ መታጠብ;
የመሥዋዕት እሳትን ማቅረብ;
ኤሚሜቲክስ ፣ ማጽጃዎች ፣ ተስፋ ሰጪዎች ፣ ዲዩቲክቲክስ ፣ ራስ ምታት ፈውሶችን ማዘጋጀት;
የጆሮ ዘይት ፣ የአይን ጠብታዎች ፣ በአፍንጫ ፣ ለሕክምና እና ለፀረ-መድኃኒቶች ለሕክምና ዘይት ማዘጋጀት; የዓይን
ሞራ ግርዶሽን መፈወስ ፣ የቀዶ ጥገና ሥራ መሥራት ፣ የልጆች ሐኪም ሆነው መለማመድ ፣ ውጤቶቻቸውን ለመፈወስ
መድኃኒቶችንና ሕክምናዎችን መስጠት -
እንደነዚህ ካሉ ዝቅተኛ ሥነ-ጥበባት ከመጥፎ ኑሮ ይርቃል ፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ የእርሱ በጎነት አካል ነው።

አንድ መነኩሴ በዚህ መንገድ ይጠናቀቃል
በጎነት በጎነት በኩል ከተገደበበት ቦታ የትኛውንም አደጋ አያይም ፡፡ ልክ የእርሱን እንደ ድል የተቀባ ክቡር ተዋጊ
ንጉስ
ጠላቶች ከጠላቶቻቸው በየትኛውም ሥጋት ላይ ምንም ዓይነት አደጋ አያዩም ፣ በተመሳሳይ መንገድ መነኩሴው በበጎነት
መጠናቀቁ በበጎ አድራጎት ከመገደብ የትም ሥጋት አይታይም ፡፡

በዚህ የከበሬታ በጎነት ድምር የተሰጠው ፣ ያለ ነቀፋ የመሆን ደስታን ውስጡን ይገነዘባል። አንድ መነኩሴ በበጎ
ምግባር የተጠናቀቀ እንደዚህ ነው ፡፡

ስሜት ማገድ

“እናም አንድ መነኩሴ የስሜቱን በሮች እንዴት ይጠብቃል? ቅፅን ከዓይን ጋር ሲያይ በየትኛው ጭብጥ ወይም ዝርዝር
ጉዳዮች ላይ አይረዳም - በአይን ችሎታ ላይ ያለ ገደብ ቢኖር - እንደ ስግብግብነት ወይም ጭንቀት ያሉ መጥፎ ፣
ብልሃተኛ ያልሆኑ ባህሪዎች ሊጠቁበት ይችላሉ ፡፡ ድምፅን በጆሮ ሲሰማ… በአፍንጫው የሚሸት ሽታ ሲሰማ… በምላስ
ጣዕሙ ላይ… ከሰውነት ጋር ንክኪ ያለው ስሜት በሚነካበት ጊዜ the አንድን ሀሳብ ከአእምሮ ጋር በማወቅም
በየትኛውም ጭብጥ ወይም ዝርዝር መረጃ አይረዳም በየትኛው - ያለገደብ የሚኖር ከሆነ
በአእምሮ ችሎታ ላይ - እንደ ስግብግብነት ወይም ጭንቀት ያሉ መጥፎ ፣ ብልሃተኛ ያልሆኑ ባህሪዎች ሊጠቁበት
ይችላሉ። በስሜታዊ ችሎታዎች ላይ በዚህ ክቡር መገደብ ተሰጥቶት ፣ ያለ ነቀፋ የመሆን ደስታ ውስጡ ስሜታዊ ነው ፡፡

አንድ መነኩሴ የስሜቱን በሮች የሚጠብቀው በዚህ መንገድ ነው ፡፡

ማስተዋል እና ማስጠንቀቂያ

“እናም አንድ መነኩሴ በአእምሮ እና በንቃት የተያዘ እንዴት ነው? ወደፊት ሲሄድ እና ሲመለስ በንቃት ይሠራል ፡፡
የውጭ ልብሱን ፣ የላይኛውን መጎናጸፊያውን እና ሳህኑን ሲሸከም ፣ ወደ ጎን ሲመለከት እና ሲመለከት ፣ ሲወጣ ፣
ሲቀመጥ ፣ ሲቀመጥ ፣ ሲጸልይ ፣ ሲመኝ እና ሲቀምስ outer መተኛት ፣ መንቃት ፣
ሲናገር እና ዝም ብሎ በንቃት ይሠራል።

መነኩሴ በአእምሮ እና በንቃት የተያዘው እንደዚህ ነው ፡፡
እርካታው

“እናም የመነኩሴ ይዘት እንዴት ነው? ልክ ወፍ በሄደበት ሁሉ እንደ ብቸኛ ሸክሙ በክንፎቹ እንደሚበር ፣ እንዲሁ
ሰውነቱን በማሟላት ረሃቡን ለማቅረብ በልብስ ስብስብ ይረካል ፡፡ በሄደበት ሁሉ እጅግ በጣም የሚያስፈልጋቸውን ብቻ
ይወስዳል ፡፡ መነኩሴ እንዴት ይረካል እንደዚህ ነው ፡፡

የሂንዱዎችን መተዋል

“በዚህ ክቡር የበጎነት ስብስብ ፣ በስሜታዊ ችሎታዎች ላይ ይህ ክቡር መከልከል ፣ ይህ ክቡር አስተሳሰብ እና ንቃት
እና ይህ ክቡር እርካታ ገለልተኛ መኖሪያን ይፈልጋል-ጫካ ፣ የዛፍ ጥላ ፣ ተራራ ፣ ዕለታዊ ፣ አንድ ኮረብታ
ያለው ዋሻ ፣ የቻርካ መሬት ፣ የደን ጫካ ፣ ክፍት አየር ፣ የገለባ ክምር ፡፡ ከምግቡ በኋላ ፣ ከምጽዋው ዙር
ተመልሶ ይቀመጣል ፣ እግሮቹን ያቋርጣል ፣ ሰውነቱን ይይዛል
ቀጥ ያለ እና አእምሮን ወደ ፊት ያመጣል ፡፡

“ዓለምን ከመመኘት በመተው ፣ ከስግብግብነት ነፃ በሆነ ግንዛቤ ውስጥ ይቀመጣል።

አእምሮውን ከስግብግብነት ያነጻል ፡፡ መጥፎ ፈቃድን እና ቁጣን ትቶ ፣ ሕያዋን ፍጥረታትን ሁሉ የሚደግፍ መጥፎ
ፈቃድ በሌለበት ግንዛቤ ውስጥ ይቀመጣል አእምሮውን ከመጥፎ ፍላጎት እና ቁጣ ያጸዳል። ስቶት እና ድብታ መተው ፣
ስሎዝ እና ድብታ የሌለበት ግንዛቤ ያለው ፣ አስተዋይ ፣ ንቁ ፣ የብርሃን አምላኪ ነው። አዕምሮውን ከድካምና
ከእንቅልፍ ያነፃል ፡፡ ዕረፍትን እና ጭንቀትን ትቶ ፣ ሳይረበሽ ይቀመጣል ፣ አዕምሮው ውስጠኛው ውስጡ ውስጠ ፡፡
አእምሮን ከመረበሽ እና ከጭንቀት ያጸዳል ፡፡

እርግጠኛ አለመሆንን በመተው ችሎታ ያላቸውን የአእምሮ ባሕርያትን በተመለከተ ግራ መጋባት ሳይኖር እርግጠኛ
አለመሆንን ተሻግሮ ይኖራል ፡፡ እሱ እርግጠኛ ካልሆን አእምሮውን ያነጻል ፡፡

አንድ ሰው ብድር ወስዶ በንግድ ሥራው ላይ ኢንቬስት ቢያደርግ እንበል ፡፡ የንግድ ሥራዎቹ ይሳካሉ ፡፡

የቀድሞ ዕዳዎቹን ይከፍላል እና ሚስቱን ለመንከባከብ ተጨማሪ ይቀራል። ሀሳቡ በእሱ ላይ ይከሰታል ፣ ‹ከዚህ በፊት
ብድር ከመውሰዴ በፊት በንግድ ሥራዬ ላይ ኢንቬስት አደረግኩ ፡፡ አሁን የእኔ የንግድ ጉዳዮች ተሳክተዋል ፡፡ እኔ
የድሮ ዕዳዬን ከፍዬልኛል እናም ባለቤቴን ለመንከባከብ የሚያስችለው ተጨማሪ ነገር ይቀራል ፡፡ ’

በዚህ ምክንያት እሱ ደስታን እና ደስታን ያጣጥማል።


“አሁን
አንድ ሰው በጠና እና በጠና ከታመመ ይታመማል ፡፡ እሱ ምግቦቹን አያስደስተውም ፣ እናም በሰውነቱ ውስጥ ጥንካሬ
የለውም። ጊዜ እያለፈ ሲሄድ በመጨረሻ ከዚያ በሽታ ይድናል ፡፡ እሱ በምግቦቹ ይደሰታል እናም በሰውነቱ ውስጥ
ጥንካሬ አለ። ሀሳቡ በእሱ ላይ ይከሰት ነበር ፣ ‘ከዚህ በፊት ታምሜ ነበር… አሁን ከዚያ በሽታ አገገምኩ ፡፡
በምግቦቼ ደስ ይለኛል እናም በሰውነቴ ውስጥ ጥንካሬ አለ። ’በዚህ ምክንያት እሱ ደስታ እና ደስታ ያገኛል።

“አሁን አንድ ሰው እስር ቤት ታስሯል እንበል ፡፡ ጊዜ እያለፈ ሲሄድ ውሎ አድሮ ከዚያ እስራት ነፃ እና ጤናማ ሆኖ
ንብረቱ ሳይጠፋ ይለቃል ፡፡

ሀሳቡ በእሱ ላይ ይከሰት ይሆናል ፣ ‘ከዚህ በፊት እስር ቤት ነበርኩ ፡፡ አሁን ንብረቴን ሳላጣ ከእዚያ እስራት ፣
በደህና እና በጤንነት ተለቅቄአለሁ። ’በዚህ ምክንያት እሱ ደስታ እና ደስታ ያገኛል።

“በተመሳሳይ ሁኔታ ፣ እነዚህ አምስት መሰናክሎች በራሱ ሳይተዉ ሲቀሩ መነኩሴው እንደ ዕዳ ፣ በሽታ ፣ እስር ቤት ፣
ባርነት ፣ ባድማ በሆነ ሀገር ውስጥ እንደ አንድ ጎዳና ይቆጥረዋል ፡፡ ነገር ግን እነዚህ አምስት መሰናክሎች
በራሱ ሲተዉ ፣ እንደ ጉድለት ፣ ጥሩ ጤንነት ፣ ከእስር እንደተለቀቀ ፣ ነፃነት ፣ የደህንነት ቦታ እንደሆነ
አድርጎ ይመለከታል ፡፡

በእሱ ውስጥ እንደተተዉ አይቶ ደስ ይለዋል ፡፡ ደስ ይለዋል ፣ ይሳባል ፡፡ ተቀር ,ል ፣ ሰውነቱ ፀጥ ይላል ፡፡
ሰውነቱ ፀጥ ያለ ፣ ለደስታ ስሜታዊ ነው ፡፡ ደስታ ተሰማው ፣ አዕምሮው ያተኩራል ፡፡

አራቱ ጃናዎች

“ከስሜታዊነት የተላቀቀ ፣ ችሎታ ከሌለው የአእምሮ ባህሪዎች የተላቀቀ ፣ እሱ በመጀመሪያ ጃሃ ውስጥ ገብቶ
ይቀራል-ከመነጠቁ የተወለደው መነጠቅ እና ደስታ ፣ በተመራ አስተሳሰብ እና ግምገማ የታጀበ ፡፡

እሱ ዘልቆ ገብቶ ይንሰራፋል ፣ ይሟላል እናም ከመልቀቅ በሚወጣው መነጠቅ እና ደስታ ይህን አካል ይሞላል። ልክ
አንድ የተዋጣለት ገላ መታጠቢያ ወይም ገላ መታጠቢያ ሥልጠና የባኞን ዱቄት በናስ ገንዳ ውስጥ አፍስሰው አንድ ላይ
ቢደባልቁትም ደግመው ደጋግመው በውኃ ይረጩታል ፣ ስለዚህ የመታጠቢያ ዱቄቱ ኳስ - ሙሌት ፣ እርጥበት የተሸከመ ፣
በውስጥም በውጭም ይረጫል - ሆኖም ያንጠባጥባሉ አይደለም;
እንደዚያም ሆኖ መነኩሴው very ይህ አካል በመገለል የተወለደው መነጠቅ እና ደስታ ያለው ነው ፡፡

ከመነጠቁ በተወለደ መነጠቅና ደስታ ያልተገረፈው መላ አካሉ ምንም ነገር የለም ፡፡

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።

ቀጥሎም የቀጥታ ሀሳቦችን እና ግምገማዎችን በማየት ወደ ሁለተኛው ጀሃና ይገባል እና ይቀራል-ከፅናት የተወለደ
መነጠቅ እና ደስታ ፣ ከቀጥታ አስተሳሰብ እና ግምገማ ነፃ የግንዛቤ ውህደት - የውስጥ ዋስትና ፡፡ እሱ ዘልቆ
ገብቶ ይንከባለላል ፣ ይበቃዋል እናም ይህን አካል በመነጠቅ እና በደስታ ይሞላል
ከመረጋጋት የተወለደ ልክ እንደ ፀደይ-የውሃ ጉድጓድ እንደ አንድ ሐይቅ
ከሐይቁ ውስጥ የሚፈልቀው አሪፍ የውሃ ፍሰት እንዲስፋፋ እና እንዲሞላ ፣ እንዲሞላ እና እንዲሞላ ፣ ከምሥራቅ ፣
ከምዕራብ ፣ ከሰሜን ወይም ከደቡብ ምንም ፍሰት ስለሌለው ፣ እና ብዙ ጊዜ ዝናብ በሚዘንብበት ሰማይ ላይ እና
ደጋግመው ያቅርቡ ፡፡ በቀዝቃዛው ውሃ ያልወረደው የሐይቁ ክፍል ስላልነበረ በቀዝቃዛ ውሃ ያጠጣዋል ፡፡ እንደዚያም
ሆኖ መነኩሴው very ይህ አካል ከቅጥነት በተወለደ መነጠቅ እና ደስታ ተሞልቷል ፡፡ ከመፅናናት በተወለደ መነጠቅና
ደስታ የማይወደድ የመላ አካሉ ነገር የለም ፡፡

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።

“እና በተጨማሪ ፣ መነጠቅ እየከሰመ በነበረበት እኩል ፣ አስተዋይ ፣ ንቁ እና ከሰውነት ጋር ደስታን ይሰማዋል።
በሦስተኛው ጃና ውስጥ ገብቶ ይቀራል ፣ ከእነዚህም ውስጥ ክቡር ሰዎች ‘እኩልነት እና አእምሮ ያለው ፣ እሱ ደስ
የሚል መኖር አለው’ ብለው ያውጃሉ።
እሱ ዘልቆ ገብቶ ይረከባል ፣ ይሟገታል እናም በመነጠቅ በተዘረጋው ደስታ ይህንን በጣም ይሞላል። ልክ በሎተስ ኩሬ
ውስጥ እንዳሉት አንዳንዶቹ
በውኃ ውስጥ የተወለዱ እና የሚያድጉ ሎጣዎች በውኃው ውስጥ ተጠምቀው ይቆዩ እና ውሃው ሳይነሱ ያብባሉ ፣ ስለሆነም
እንዲተነፈሱ እና እንዲበዙ ፣ እንዲሞሉ እና ከሥሮቻቸው እስከ ጥቆማዎቻቸው ድረስ በቀዝቃዛ ውሃ እንዲሞሉ እና
ከእነዚህ የእነዚያ ዕጣዎች ምንም በቀዝቃዛ ውሃ ያልታሸገ ይሆናል; ቢሆንም መነኩሴው very ይህ አካል በተነጠቀ
ደስታ በተሞላ ደስታ ይሞላል ፡፡

ከመነጠቁ የመነጨ ደስታ በተሞላበት መላው አካሉ ያልተወለደ ነገር የለም ፡፡

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።

“እና በተጨማሪ ፣ ደስታን እና ውጥረትን በመተው - ልክ እንደ ቀድሞ ደስታ እና ጭንቀት እንደጠፋ - በአራተኛው
ጃሃ ውስጥ ገብቶ ይቀራል-የእኩልነት እና የአዕምሮ ንፅህና ፣ ደስታም ሆነ ጭንቀት። እሱ ተቀምጧል ፣ ሰውነትን
በንጹህ ፣ በብሩህ ንቃተ ህሊና ይሞላል ፡፡
ነጭው ጨርቅ ያልዘረጋው የሰውነቱ ክፍል እንዳይኖር አንድ ሰው ከጭንቅላቱ እስከ እግሩ ድረስ በነጭ ጨርቅ ተሸፍኖ
እንደሚቀመጥ ሁሉ; እንደዚያም ሆኖ መነኩሴው በንጹህ ብሩህ ግንዛቤ ሰውነትን እየሞላ ይቀመጣል ፡፡

በመላ አካሉ በንጹህ ፣ በብሩህ ግንዛቤ ያልተወገደ ነገር የለም ፡፡

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።


እውቀት
እውቀት

“በዚህ አእምሮው የተከማቸ ፣ የተስተካከለ ፣ እና እንከን የለሽ ፣ እንከን የለሽ ፣ ታጋሽ ፣ ተለዋዋጭ ፣
የማይለዋወጥ እና ያለመታደል ችሎታ በደረሰበት አቅጣጫ እየመራ ወደ እውቀት እና ራዕይ ያዘነብላል። እሱ ያስተውላል:
- ‘ይህ የእኔ አካል የተዋቀረ መልክ ያለው ነው
ከእናት እና ከአባት የተወለዱት ፣ በሩዝ እና ገንፎ ከተመገቡት አራቱ ዋና ዋና ንጥረ ነገሮች የማይመች ፣ የማሸት ፣
የመጫን ፣ የመፍረስ እና የመበታተን ችግር አለባቸው ፡፡ እናም ይህ የእኔ ንቃተ ህሊና እዚህ የተደገፈ እና እዚህ
የታሰረ ነው ፡፡ ’ልክ እንደ ንፁህ ውሃ የሚያምር የከበረ ዕንቁ እንዳለ - ስምንት ገጽታ ያላቸው ፣ በደንብ
የተወለወሉ ፣ ጥርት ያሉ ፣ የብልሹዎች ፣ በሁሉም ገፅታዎች የተጠናቀቁ እና በመካከል መካከል ያልፋሉ ፡፡ ሰማያዊ ፣
ቢጫ ፣ ቀይ ፣ ነጭ ወይም ቡናማ ክር ነበር - እናም ጥሩ የማየት ችሎታ ያለው ሰው በእጁ ይዞ ይዞት በዚህ ላይ
ማሰላሰል ነበረበት-‹ይህ ከስሩ ንፁህ ውሃ የሚያምር የከበረ ዕንቁ ነው ፡፡ በደንብ የተወለወለ ፣ ጥርት ያለ ፣
ለስላሳ ነው ፣ በሁሉም ጎኖቹ የተሟላ ነው ፡፡ እናም ይህ በመካከለኛው በኩል የሚያልፍ ሰማያዊ ፣ ቢጫ ፣ ቀይ ፣
ነጭ ወይም ቡናማ ክር ነው። ’

በተመሳሳይ ሁኔታ - በአዕምሮው እንዲሁ ተሰብስቦ ፣ ተጣራ ፣ እና እንከን የለሽ ፣ እንከን የሌለበት ፣ ታዛዥ ፣
ተለዋዋጭ ፣ የተረጋጋ እና ያለመታመን ሁኔታ በደረሰበት - መነኩሴው ወደእውቀት እና ወደ ራዕይ ይመራዋል ፡፡ እሱ
ያስተውላል: - ‘ይህ የእኔ አካል ከእናት እና ከአባት የተወለዱትን አራት ዋና ዋና ንጥረ ነገሮችን የያዘ ቅርፅ
ያለው ነው ፣ በሩዝ እና ገንፎ የተመጣጠነ ፣ የማይመች ፣ የማሸት ፣ የመጫን ፣ የመፍረስ እና የመበታተን ችሎታ
ያለው። እናም ይህ የእኔ ንቃተ-ህሊና እዚህ የተደገፈ እና እዚህ የታሰረ ነው ፡፡ ’

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።

በአእምሮ የተሠራ አካል

“በዚህ አእምሮው የተከማቸ ፣ የተጣራ እና ብሩህ ፣ እንከን የለሽ ፣ ከጉድለቶች የፀዳ ፣ በቀላሉ የሚለዋወጥ ፣
የማይለዋወጥ እና የማይነቃነቅ የመሆን ችሎታ በመያዝ በአእምሮ የተሰራ አካል እንዲፈጥር ይመራዋል ፡፡ ከዚህ አካል
ሌላ አካልን ይፈጥራል ፣ ቅርፅን የተሰጠው ፣ በአእምሮ የተሠራ ፣ በሁሉም ክፍሎቹ የተሟላ ፣ ከአካላቱ ያነሰ
አይደለም ፡፡
ፋኩልቲዎች

ልክ አንድ ሰው ሸምበቆን ከሴጣው ላይ እንደሚስበው ፡፡ ሀሳቡ በእሱ ላይ ይከሰት ይሆናል-‘ይህ ሽፋን ፣ ይህ
ሸምበቆ ነው።

ሽፋኑ አንድ ነገር ነው ፣ ሸምበቆው ሌላ ነው ፣ ግን ሸምበቆው ከሴጣው ውስጥ ተዘርግቷል። ’ወይም አንድ ሰው
ጎራዴውን ከእሷ ላይ እንደሚወስድ
ቅርፊት ሀሳቡ በእሱ ላይ ይከሰት ይሆናል-‘ይህ ጎራዴ ነው ፣ ይህ ቅርፊት ነው። ጎራዴው አንድ ነገር ነው ፣
ሌላኛው ቅርፊት ሌላ ነው ፣ ግን ጎራዴው ከእቃው ውስጥ ተዘርግቷል። ’ወይም አንድ ሰው እባብን ከጉድጓዱ ውስጥ
እንደሚያወጣ ይመስል። ሀሳቡ በእሱ ላይ ይከሰት ይሆናል-‘ይህ እባብ ነው ፣ ይህ ደላላ ነው። እባቡ አንድ ነገር
ነው ፣ ቁፋሮው ሌላ ነው ፣ እባቡ ግን ከጉድጓዱ ውስጥ ተነቅሏል ፡፡ ’በተመሳሳይ ሁኔታ - በአዕምሮው እንዲሁ
ተሰብስቦ ፣ ተጣራ ፣ እና እንከን የለሽ ፣ ጉድለቶች የሌለበት ፣ ረጋ ያለ ፣ የሚለዋወጥ ፣ የማይለዋወጥ ፣ እና
ወደ አለመታመንነት ደርሷል ፣ መነኩሴው አእምሮ-የተሰራ አካልን እንዲፈጥር ይመራዋል ፡፡ ከዚህ አካል ሌላ አካልን
ይፈጥራል ፣ ቅርፅን የተሰጠው ፣ በአእምሮ የተሠራ ፣ በሁሉም ክፍሎቹ የተሟላ ፣ በአካል ችሎታው የበታች አይደለም
፡፡

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።

ልዕለ-መደበኛ ኃይሎች

“አእምሮው በዚህ መንገድ በማተኮር ፣ በተጣራ እና ምንም እንከን የሌለበት ፣ እንከን የለሽ ፣ ተጣጣፊ ፣ በቀላሉ
ሊለዋወጥ የሚችል ፣ የተረጋጋ እና ያለመታመን ችሎታ በደረሰበት አቅጣጫ ወደ ልዕለ-ኃይሎች ሞዶች ይመራዋል ፡፡

እሱ ልዩ ልዩ ልዕለ-ኃይሎችን ይጠቀማል ፡፡ አንድ ሆኖ ብዙ ይሆናል; ብዙ ሆኖ አንድ ይሆናል ፡፡ እሱ ይገለጣል
፡፡ ይጠፋል ፡፡ እሱ በጠፈር በኩል እንደሚሄድ በግድግዳዎች ፣ በግድግቦች እና በተራሮች ሳይገታ ያልፋል ፡፡ እሱ
በምድር ውስጥ እና ከምድር ውስጥ ይወርዳል
ውሃ እንደ ሆነ ፡፡ ደረቅ ምድር ይመስል ሳይሰምጥ ውሃ ላይ ይራመዳል ፡፡

እግሮቹን በመስቀል ላይ ተቀምጦ እንደ ክንፍ ወፍ በአየር ላይ ይበርራል ፡፡ በጣም ኃይለኛ እና ኃይለኛ ፀሐይን እና
ጨረቃን እንኳ በእጁ ይነካል እና ይደበድባል።

እስከ ብራህማ ዓለም ድረስ እንኳን ከሰውነቱ ጋር ተጽዕኖ ያሳርፋል ፡፡

ልክ አንድ የተዋጣለት ሸክላ ሠሪ ወይም ረዳቱ ሥራ መሥራት እንደሚችሉ ሁሉ
በጥሩ ሁኔታ የተዘጋጀ ሸክላ ማንኛውንም ዓይነት የሸክላ ዕቃ ይወዳል ፣ ወይም
ችሎታ ያለው የዝሆን ጥርስ ሰሪ ወይም ረዳቱ በደንብ ከተዘጋጀ የእጅ ሥራ መሥራት ይችላል
የዝሆን ጥርስ ማንኛውንም ዓይነት የዝሆን ጥርስ ሥራን ይወዳል ፣ ወይም እንደ ችሎታ ወርቅ አንጥረኛ
ወይም ረዳቱ እሱ ከሚወዳቸው የወርቅ መጣጥፎች በጥሩ ሁኔታ ከተዘጋጀ ወርቅ ሊሠራ ይችላል ፤ በተመሳሳይ መንገድ -
በአዕምሮው የተከማቸ ፣ የተጣራ እና ብሩህ ፣ እንከን የለሽ ፣ ከጉድለቶች የፀዳ ፣ ተለዋዋጭ ፣ የማይለዋወጥ እና
የማይነቃነቅ የመሆን ችሎታ ያለው - መነኩሴው ይመራና ወደ ልዕለ-ኃይሎች ሁነቶች ያዘነብላል… እሱ ተጽዕኖ ያሳድራል
፡፡ እስከ ብራህማ ዓለማት ድረስ ሰውነቱ ፡፡

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።


አእምሮ
ማንበብ

“በዚህ አእምሮው የተከማቸ ፣ የተጣራ ፣ እና እንከን የለሽ ፣ እንከን የለሽ ፣ ታጋሽ ፣ ተለዋዋጭ ፣ የተረጋጋ
እና ያለመታመን ችሎታ በደረሰበት ፣ እሱ የሌሎችን ፍጥረቶች ግንዛቤ ወደ እሱ ይመራዋል ፡፡ የሌሎችን ግንዛቤ
ያውቃል
ፍጥረታት ፣ ሌሎች ግለሰቦች ፣ በራሱ ግንዛቤ ውስጥ ከበውት ፡፡

አእምሮን በፍላጎት እንደ አዕምሮ በስሜታዊነት ፣ እና ያለ ስሜት ያለ አእምሮ እንደ ፍቅር ያለ አእምሮን ይገነዘባል
፡፡ አእምሮን በመቃወም አእምሮን እንደ መቃወም አእምሮን ያለ ማወቅም አእምሮን እንደሚለይ ይገነዘባል ፡፡

አእምሮን በተሳሳተ አእምሮ እንደ አእምሮ ፣ እና ያለ አእምሮ እንደ አእምሮ ያለ አእምሮ ይገነዘባል ፡፡ የተከለከለ
አእምሮን እንደ የተከለከለ አእምሮ ፣ የተበተነ አእምሮም እንደ ተበተነ አእምሮ ይገነዘባል ፡፡ የተስፋፋ አእምሮን
እንደሰፋ አእምሮ ፣ እና የተስፋፋ አእምሮን እንደሰፋ አእምሮ ይገነዘባል ፡፡

የላቀ አእምሮን [እጅግ በጣም ጥሩ በሆነ ደረጃ ላይ የሌለውን] እንደ የላቀ አእምሮ ፣ እና ያልተመረመረ አዕምሮን
እንደ ያልተለየ አእምሮ ይገነዘባል ፡፡ የተጠናከረ አእምሮን እንደ የተከማቸ አእምሮ ፣ እና ያልተማከለ አእምሮን
እንደ ያልተማከለ አእምሮ ይገነዘባል ፡፡

የተለቀቀ አእምሮን እንደ የተለቀቀ አእምሮ ፣ እና ያልተለቀቀ አእምሮን እንደ ተለቀቀ አእምሮ ይገነዘባል ፡፡

ልክ አንዲት ወጣት ሴት ወይም ወንድ ጌጣጌጦችን እንደወደደች ፣ በደማቅ መስታወት ወይም በንጹህ ውሃ ጎድጓዳ ውስጥ
የገዛ ፊቷን ነፀብራቅ እንደመረመረች ከሆነ ጉድለት ካለበት ‘ጉድለት’ ወይም ‘ጉድለት የሌለበት’ እንደሆነ ያውቃል።
በተመሳሳይ ሁኔታ - በአዕምሮው እንዲሁ ተሰብስቦ ፣ ተጣራ ፣ እና ብሩህ ፣ እንከን የለሽ ፣ ከጉድለቶች የፀዳ ፣
ተለዋዋጭ ፣ ተለዋዋጭ እና የማያቋርጥ ችግር ደርሷል - መነኩሴው ይመራል እና
ስለ ሌሎች ፍጥረታት ግንዛቤ ወደ እውቀት ያዘነብላል ፡፡ እሱ በራሱ ግንዛቤ ውስጥ ስለተከበበው የሌሎች ፍጥረታት ፣
የሌሎች ግለሰቦችን ግንዛቤ ያውቃል ፡፡

አእምሮን በስሜታዊነት እንደ አእምሮ በስሜት ፣ እና ያለ ስሜት በስሜት እንደ አእምሮ ይገነዘባል… የተለቀቀ አእምሮ
እንደ የተለቀቀ አእምሮ ፣ እና ያልተለቀቀ አዕምሮ እንደ ያልተለቀቀ አዕምሮ ፡፡

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።

ያለፉትን ህይወቶች ማስታወስ

“አእምሮው በዚህ መንገድ በማተኮር ፣ በተጣራ ፣ እና ምንም እንከን የሌለበት ፣ እንከን የለሽ ፣ ተጣጣፊ ፣
በቀላሉ ሊለዋወጥ የሚችል ፣ የተረጋጋ እና ያለመታመን ሁኔታ በደረሰበት ጊዜ ያለፈ ህይወቶችን በማስታወስ እውቀት
ይመራዋል (የቀደሙ ቤቶችን) ፡፡

እሱ ያለፉትን የተለያዩ ህይወቶቹን ማለትም አንድ ልደት ፣ ሁለት ልደቶች ፣ ሶስት ልደቶች ፣ አራት ፣ አምስት ፣
አስር ፣ ሃያ ፣ ሰላሳ ፣ አርባ ፣ ሃምሳ ፣ አንድ መቶ ፣ አንድ ሺህ ፣ አንድ መቶ ሺዎች ፣ ብዙ የዓለማችን
የጠፈር መቀነስ ፣ ብዙ አ የጠፈር ማስፋፊያ ፣ ብዙ ቁጥር ያላቸው የጠፈር መንቀጥቀጥ እና መስፋፋት ፣
[በማስታወስ] ፣ ‘እዚያ እንደዚህ ዓይነት ስም ነበረኝ ፣ እንደዚህ ዓይነት ጎሳ አባል ነበር ፣ እንደዚህ ዓይነት
ገጽታ ነበረኝ።

የእኔ ምግብ እንደዚህ ነበር ፣ እንደዚህ የመደሰት እና የህመም ልምዴ ፣ እንደዚህ የህይወቴ ፍፃሜ።

ከዚያ ግዛት በማለፍ እንደገና እዚያ ተነሳሁ ፡፡ እዚያም እንደዚህ የመሰለ ስም ነበረኝ ፣ የእንደዚህ ዓይነት ጎሳ
አባል ፣ እንደዚህ አይነት ገጽታ ነበረኝ። የእኔ ምግብ እንደዚህ ነበር ፣ እንደዚህ የመደሰት እና የህመሜ ልምዴ ፣
እንደዚህ የህይወቴ ፍፃሜ።

ከዚያ ሁኔታ ተሻግሬ እንደገና እዚህ ተነሳሁ ፡፡ ’ስለሆነም እሱ ያለፉትን በርካታ ህይወቶች በአለባበሳቸው እና
በዝርዝራቸው ያስታውሳል ፡፡ ልክ አንድ ሰው ከመኖሪያ መንደሩ ወደ ሌላ መንደር ፣ ከዚያ ከዚያ መንደር ወደ ሌላ
መንደር ፣ ከዚያ ከዚያ መንደር ወደ ትውልድ መንደሩ እንደሚሄድ ሁሉ ፡፡

ሀሳቡ በእርሱ ላይ ይመጣል ፣ ‘እኔ ከመኖሪያ መንደሬ ወደዚያ መንደር እዚያ ሄድኩ።

እዚያ እኔ በእንደዚህ ዓይነት መንገድ ቆሜ ፣ በእንደዚህ አይነት መንገድ ተቀመጥኩ ፣ በእንደዚህ ዓይነት መንገድ
ተነጋገርኩ እና በእንደዚህ አይነት መንገድ ዝም አልኩ ፡፡ ከዚያ መንደር እዚያ ወደዚያ መንደር ሄድኩ ፣ እዚያም
በእንደዚህ ዓይነት መንገድ ቆሜ ፣ በእንደዚህ ዓይነት መንገድ ተቀመጥኩ ፣ በእንደዚህ ዓይነት መንገድ ተነጋገርኩ
እና በእንደዚህ አይነት መንገድ ዝም አልኩ ፡፡ ከዚያ መንደር ተመል home ወደ ቤቴ ተመለስኩ ፡፡ ’በተመሳሳይ
ሁኔታ - በአዕምሮው እንዲሁ የተከማቸ ፣ የተጣራ እና ብሩህ ፣ እንከን የለሽ ፣ ከጉድለቶች የፀዳ ፣ የሚለዋወጥ ፣
የሚለዋወጥ ፣ የተረጋጋ እና ያለመተማመን ችሎታ የደረሰ - መነኩሴው
ያለፈ ህይወቶችን በማስታወስ ወደ እውቀት ይመራዋል ፡፡

እሱ ያለፉትን በርካታ ህይወቶች mod በእነሱ ሁኔታ እና በዝርዝር ያስታውሳል።

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።


የአእምሮ
እርሾዎች ማብቂያ

“አእምሮው በዚህ መንገድ የተከማቸ ፣ የተጣራ ፣ እና እንከን የለሽ ፣ እንከን የሌለበት ፣ ተንከባካቢ ፣ ተለዋዋጭ
፣ የተረጋጋ እና ያለመታመን ችሎታ በደረሰበት መነኩሴው የአእምሮን እርሾ ማብቂያ ወደሚያውቅ አቅጣጫ ይመራዋል ፡፡
እሱ እንደ ሆነ ያስተውላል ፣ ‘ይህ ጭንቀት ነው… ይህ የጭንቀት መነሻ ነው… ይህ
የጭንቀት መቋረጥ ነው… ወደ መቋረጥ የሚወስደው ይህ ነው
ጭንቀት… እነዚህ የአእምሮ እርሾዎች ናቸው…

ይህ የመፍላት አመጣጥ ነው… ይህ የመፍላት መቋረጥ ነው… ይህ ወደ እርሾ መቆም የሚወስደው መንገድ ነው ፡፡ ልቡ
ስለሆነም በማየቱ ከስሜታዊነት እርሾ ተለቅቋል ፣ የመሆን እርሾ ፣ እርሾው ድንቁርና. ከእስር ጋር እውቀት አለ ፣
‘የተለቀቀ።’ እሱ ‘ልደት እንደ ተጠናቀቀ ፣ የተቀደሰ ሕይወት እንደተፈጸመ ፣ ሥራው እንደተከናወነ ያስተውላል።
ለዚህ ዓለም ከዚህ በላይ ምንም ነገር የለም። ’ልክ እንደዚያ ከሆነ
በተራራ አንፀባራቂ ውስጥ የውሃ ገንዳ ነበሩ - ግልፅ ፣ ለስላሳ እና ያልተነካ - በባህር ላይ ቆሞ ማየት የተሳነው
ሰው ቅርፊቶችን ፣ ጠጠሮችን እና ጠጠሮችን እንዲሁም የዓሳ ጫወታዎችን ሲዋኝ እና ሲያርፍ ማየት ይችላል ፣ እናም
ይከሰታል ለእሱ ‘ይህ የውሃ ገንዳ ግልፅ ፣ ለስላሳ እና ያልተነካ ነው።

እነዚህ ቅርፊቶች ፣ ጠጠሮች እና ጠጠሮች እንዲሁም እነዚህ የአሳ ጫፎች እዚህ ሲዋኙ እና ሲያርፉ እዚህ አሉ ፡፡
’በተመሳሳይ ሁኔታ - በአዕምሮው እንዲሁ የተከማቸ ፣ የተጣራ ፣ እና ምንም እንከን የሌለበት ፣ ጉድለት የሌለበት ፣
የሚለዋወጥ ፣ ሊለዋወጥ የሚችል ፣ የማይለወጥ እና ወደ አለመታመንነት ደርሷል - መነኩሴው የአእምሮ እርሾ
ማብቃቱን ወደ እዉቀቱ ይመራዋል እንዲሁም ያዘነብላል ፡፡ እሱ እንደ ሆነ ያስተውላል ፣ ‘ይህ ጭንቀት ነው… ይህ
የጭንቀት መነሻ ነው… ይህ ማቆም ነው
የጭንቀት… ወደ ውጥረቱ መቆም የሚወስደው ይህ ነው… እነዚህ የአእምሮ እርሾዎች ናቸው… ይህ የመፍላት አመጣጥ ነው…
ይህ የመፍላት መቆሙ ነው fer ወደ ፍላት መቆም የሚወስደው ይህ ነው ፡፡ ’ልቡ ፣ ስለሆነም በማየቱ ፣
ከስሜታዊነት እርሾ ፣ የመብላት እርሾ ፣ የድንቁርና እርሾ ተለቋል ፡፡ በመለቀቅ ፣ ‘የተለቀቀ’ ዕውቀት አለ።
‘ልደት እንደ ተጠናቀቀ ፣ የተቀደሰ ሕይወት እንደተፈፀመ ፣ የተከናወነው ተግባር’ እንዳለ ይገነዘባል።

ለዚህ ዓለም ከዚህ በላይ ምንም ነገር የለም ፡፡ ’

“ይህ እንዲሁ የትምህርት ተአምር ተብሎ ይጠራል።

“ኬቫታ እኔ በቀጥታ የማውቃቸውን እና ለእራሴ የተገነዘብኳቸው እነዚህ ሦስቱ ተአምራት ናቸው ፡፡

ውይይቶች ከአማልክት ጋር

“አንድ ጊዜ ኬቫታ ፣ ይህ የአስተሳሰብ ባቡር በዚህ በጣም የመነኮሳት ማህበረሰብ ውስጥ በአንድ መነኩሴ ግንዛቤ
ውስጥ ተነስቷል-‘ እነዚህ አራት ታላላቅ አካላት - የምድር ንብረት ፣ የፈሳሽ ንብረት ፣ የእሳት ንብረት እና
የነፋስ ንብረት የት ናቸው? ሳይቀሩ? ’ከዚያም ወደ አማልክት የሚወስደው መንገድ በማእከላዊ አእምሮው ውስጥ
እስኪታይ ድረስ እንዲህ ዓይነቱን የትኩረት ሁኔታ ደርሶ ነበር። ስለዚህ ወደ አማልክት ቀረበ
የአራቱ ታላላቅ ነገሥታት ተመራማሪዎች እና በደረሱ ጊዜ ‹ጓደኞች ፣ እነዚህ አራት ታላላቅ አካላት - የምድር
ንብረት ፣ የፈሳሽ ንብረት ፣ የእሳት ንብረት እና የነፋስ ንብረት ያለ ምንም ቅሪት የት ነው?› ብለው ጠየቋቸው
፡፡

“ይህ በተነገረ ጊዜ የአራቱ ታላላቅ ነገሥታት ቅጥረኞች አማልክት መነኩሴውን“ እኛ ደግሞ አራቱ ታላላቅ አካላት
rema ያለማቋረጥ የት እንደሚቆሙ አናውቅም ፡፡ ግን ከእኛ የሚበልጡ እና ከፍ ከፍ ያሉ አራት ታላላቅ ነገሥታት
አሉ ፡፡

አራቱ ታላላቅ አካላት rema ያለማቋረጥ የሚያቆሙበትን ማወቅ አለባቸው ፡፡

“ስለዚህ መነኩሴው ወደ አራቱ ታላላቅ ነገሥታት ቀረበና ሲደርስም‹ ጓደኞች ፣ እነዚህ አራት ታላላቅ አካላት rema
ያለማቋረጥ የት ያቆማሉ? ’ሲል ጠየቃቸው ፡፡

“ይህ በተባለ ጊዜ አራቱ ታላላቅ ነገሥታት መነኩሴውን“ እኛ ደግሞ አራቱ ታላላቅ አካላት rema ያለማቋረጥ የት
እንደሚቆሙ አናውቅም ፡፡ ግን ከእኛ የሚበልጡ እና ከፍ ያሉ የሰላሳ ሦስት አማልክት አሉ ፡፡ ማወቅ አለባቸው… ’

“ስለዚህ መነኩሴው ወደ ሰላሳ ሦስቱ አማልክት ቀረበና ሲደርስም“ ጓደኞች ፣ እነዚህ አራት ታላላቅ ነገሮች rema
ያለማቋረጥ የት ይቋረጣሉ? ”ሲል ጠየቃቸው።

“ይህ በተነገረ ጊዜ የሰላሳ ሦስቱ አማልክት መነኩሴውን“ እኛ ደግሞ አራቱ ታላላቅ አካላት rema ያለማቋረጥ የት
እንደሚቆሙ አናውቅም ፡፡ ግን ከእኛ የበለጠ ከፍ ያለና የላቀ የአማልክት ገዥ ሳካ አለ ፡፡ ማወቅ አለበት…

“ስለዚህ መነኩሴው የአማልክት ገዥ ወደሆነው ወደ ሳካ ቀርቦ በመጣ ጊዜ‘ ጓደኛ ፣ እነዚህ አራት ታላላቅ አካላት
rema ያለማቋረጥ የት ያቆማሉ? ’ብሎ ጠየቀው።

“ይህ በተነገረ ጊዜ የአማልክት ገዥ ሳካ ለ መነኩሴው“ እኔ ደግሞ አራቱ ታላላቅ አካላት rema ያለማቋረጥ የት
እንደሚቆሙ አላውቅም ፡፡ ግን ከእኔ የሚበልጡ እና ከፍ ያሉ የያማ አማልክት አሉ እነሱ ማወቅ አለባቸው… ’…

“የያማ አማልክት እኛ ደግሞ አናውቅም said ግን ሱያማ የሚባል አምላክ አለ know ማወቅ አለበት…’…

“ሱያማ አለች እኔ ደግሞ አላውቅም… ግን ሳንቱሳታ የተባለ አምላክ አለ know ማወቅ አለበት…’…

“ሳንቱሺታ“ እኔ ደግሞ አላውቅም said ግን የኒማናራቲ አማልክት አሉ…
ማወቅ አለባቸው… ’…
“ንማናራቲ አማልክት
አለ ፣ ‘እኛም አናውቅም… ግን ሱኒሚሚታ የሚባል አምላክ አለ…
ማወቅ አለበት… ’…


“ታዲያ
ታላቁ ብራማ መነኩሴውን በእጁ በመያዝ ወደ አንድ ወገን ወሰደውና“ እነዚህ የብራህ ረዳቶች አማልክት ያምናሉ ፣
“ታላቁ ብራህ የማያውቀው ነገር የለም ፡፡

ታላቁ ብራማ የማያየው ነገር የለም ፡፡

ታላቁ ብራማ የማያውቀው ነገር የለም ፡፡

ታላቁ ብራማ ያልተገነዘበው ምንም ነገር የለም ፡፡ ለዚያም ነው እኔ በአራቴ ታላላቅ አካላት without ያለማቋረጥ
የት እንደሚቆሙ እኔ እንደማላውቅም በእነሱ ፊት አልናገርም ፡፡

ስለዚህ የተሳሳተ እርምጃ ወስደዋል ፣ የተሳሳተ እርምጃ ወስደዋል ፣ የ
ሌላ ቦታ ለዚህ ጥያቄ መልስ ፍለጋ ብፁዕ ፡፡ ወደ ብፁዕው ቀኝ ተመለሱ እና ሲደርሱም ይህን ጥያቄ ይጠይቁት ፡፡
እሱ ቢመልስም ግን ልብ ውስጥ መውሰድ አለብዎት ፡፡

“ያኔ - - አንድ ጠንካራ ሰው የተጣጣመ እጁን እንደሚዘረጋ ወይም የተዘረጋውን እጁን እንደሚገታ - መነኩሴው
ከብራህማ ዓለም ተሰወረ እና ወዲያውኑ ከፊቴ ታየ ወደ እኔ ከሰገደ በኋላ በአንድ በኩል ተቀመጠ ፡፡ እዚያ በተቀመጠ
ጊዜ ‹ጌታ ሆይ እነዚህ አራት ታላላቅ አካላት - የምድር ንብረት ፣ የፈሳሽ ንብረት ፣
የእሳቱ ንብረት እና የነፋሱ ንብረት - ሳይቀሩ ይቆማሉ? ’

የንጉስ አሾካ ለዛፎች የሕይወት ስጦታ

ኦፊሴላዊ ሆኖ በመቆረጥ ደስተኛ መንገዶቹ ላይ አንድ እይታ እንዲወስድ ያደረገው ከሞራሪያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት አሾካ በቀር
ሌላ አይደለም ፡፡ መላው ዓለም በከተማ እና በከተማ ውስጥ በመንገድ ዳር ፍሬ የሚሰጡ ቡቃያዎችን / ዛፎችን
በመንከባከብ እና በመጠበቅ ረገድ የአሾካን መርሆዎችን ያጠቃልላል ፡፡ አካባቢዎች የሞሪያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት የመንገድ
ዳር ዛፎችን ፅንሰ-ሀሳብ ለማራመድ እና ለመደገፍ የመጀመሪያው ነበር “በየቀኑ ዛፎቻችንን በምናጣበት ወቅት ወደ ኋላ
ተመልሰን እርሱ ያደረገውን መመልከት አለብን ፡፡

ከአሾካ ፍንጭ መውሰድ ፣ በአንድ ወቅት በሞሪያን መንግሥት ወይም በዴልሂ የተሸፈኑባቸውን አካባቢዎች ከተመለከቱ
ዓለም የመንገድ ዳር ዛፎችን አስፈላጊነት ያደንቃል ፣ ““ የአሾካን መርሆዎች የደን ክፍልን ለረጅም ጊዜ ዛፎችን
በመጠበቅ ረገድ ይረዷቸዋል ፡፡

ለእያንዳንዱ መንገድ ሆን ብሎ አንድ ዝርያ መርጧል ፡፡ በቅርብ ርቀት ላይ ዝርያዎችን መቀላቀል የዛፎችን መኖር ላይ
ተጽዕኖ ያሳድራል ፡፡ ለሙሉ ዝርጋታ በአንድ ዝርያ ላይ እናተኩራለን ፡፡

“አሾካ በአካባቢው ሰዎች የመንገድ ዳር ዛፎች ባለቤትነት መብት አልነበራቸውም ፡፡ መንግስት የችግኝ እድገቱን
በበላይነት የሚቆጣጠር ቢሆንም የኋላ ኋላ የዛፉ ባለቤትነት ለአከባቢው ሰዎች ይሰጣል ”ብለዋል ፡፡

“ዛፎችን መቁረጥ ሙሉ በሙሉ መከልከል አይቻልም ፣ ግን (በአዲሶቹ እርምጃዎች) በከፍተኛ ደረጃ ይቀነሳል ፡፡”
ደኖች የሰው ልጆችን ጨምሮ ለሁሉም እናት ሕያዋን መሠረታዊ የሕይወት ድጋፍ ሥርዓት ይሰጣሉ ፡፡

የደን ​​ሥነ-ምህዳሮች ንጹህ አየር ፣ የውሃ ሀብቶች ፣ ለም መሬት ለግብርና ፣ ለቢዮ ብዝሃነት ፣ ለአየር ንብረት
ለውጥ ቅነሳ እና ለሌሎች በርካታ የስነምህዳር አገልግሎቶች ይሰጣሉ ፡፡

በጣም ብዙ የገጠር ህብረተሰብ ክፍሎች ፣ አብዛኞቹን ጎሳዎች ጨምሮ በቀጥታ ለኑሮአቸው በደን ላይ ጥገኛ ናቸው ፡፡

የዓለም ደን ዲፓርትመንቶች ደኖችን እና የዱር እንስሳትን የመጠበቅ ፣ የዓለምን ብዝሃ ብዝሃ ሕይወት የመጠበቅ እና
የደን ሥነ-ምህዳራዊ ሥነ-ምህዳራዊ ሚዛን እንዲጠበቅ የማድረግ ተቀዳሚ ተልእኮ አላቸው ፡፡

ሁሉም የዓለም የደን መምሪያዎች መምራት አለባቸው የደን ዋና አስተባባሪ ፣ የደን ኃይል (HOFF) ኃላፊ ፡፡

መምሪያዎቹ የዓለም ደን አገልግሎት መኮንኖች እና የተለያዩ ካድሬዎች መኮንኖች / የመስክ ሰራተኞችን ጨምሮ የሥራ
ጥንካሬ ሊኖራቸው ይገባል ፡፡
ዓለም የተጠበቁ አካባቢዎች አውታረ መረብ ከነብር መጠባበቂያዎች ፣ ከዱር እንስሳት መፀዳጃ ቤቶች ፣ ከጥበቃ ማቆያ
እና 1 የማህበረሰብ መጠባበቂያ ጋር

በዲፓርትመንቶች የሚከናወነው ሥራ በሚከተሉት ምድቦች በስፋት ሊመደብ ይችላል-የቁጥጥር ፣ ጥበቃ ፣ ጥበቃ እና ዘላቂ
አስተዳደር ፡፡

የቁጥጥር ሥራዎች አካል እንደመሆናቸው መምሪያዎቹ እንደ የዓለም ደን ሕግ ፣ የዱር እንስሳት ጥበቃ ሕግ ፣ ደን
(ጥበቃ) ሕግ ፣ የዓለም የዛፎች ጥበቃ ሕግ ፣ ወዘተ እና ተጓዳኝ ደንቦችን የመሳሰሉ የተለያዩ ሕጎችን ድንጋጌዎች
ማስፈፀም አለባቸው ፡፡ የጥበቃ ተግባሮች ፣ የድንበር ማጠናከሪያ ፣ የደን አከባቢዎችን ከመጥበብ መከላከል ፣
ህገ-ወጥነትን መቁረጥ ፣ የሰው-ዱር እንስሳት ግጭት መቀነስ ፣ የእሳት አደጋ መከላከል እና የቁጥጥር እርምጃዎችን
መውሰድ ወዘተ ያካትታሉ ፡፡

የጥበቃ ተግባሩ የተከላ ስራዎችን ፣ የአፈር እርጥበት ጥበቃን እና የተፋሰስ ልማት ስራዎችን ለውሃ ደህንነት ፣
ብርቅዬ ፣ ለአደጋ እና ለአደጋ የተጋለጡ (RET) ዝርያዎችን በመጠበቅ እና ሁሉንም የህብረተሰብ ክፍሎች በጫካዎች
አስፈላጊነት ላይ ግንዛቤ ለማስጨበጥ የግንዛቤ ማስጨበጫ ሥራዎችን ማከናወን ፣ የዱር እንስሳት እና ብዝሃ ሕይወት.
በክፍለ-ግዛቶች አከባቢዎች እንደ የሥራ ዕቅዶች ዝርዝር መሠረት የእንጨት እና ሌሎች የደን ምርቶችን በዘላቂነት
ማውጣትና ግብይት ውስጥ መሳተፍ አለባቸው ፡፡

መምሪያዎቹም የአርሶ አደሩን ገቢ ለመደገፍ በማበረታታት አግሮ-ደንን በማስተዋወቅ በስፋት መሰማራት አለባቸው ፡፡


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140408122316.htm

ሰዎች ቋንቋን የማግኘት ችሎታቸው ልዩ ነው ፡፡ ግን እንዴት? በብሔራዊ የሳይንስ አካዳሚ ቀጣይነት የታተመ አዲስ
ጥናት በእውነቱ እኛ በቋንቋ መሠረታዊ መሠረታዊ ዕውቀት እንደተወለድን የዘመኑን የቋንቋ “ተፈጥሮን መንከባከብ”
ክርክር ላይ ብርሃን ፈሰሰ ፡፡

ቋንቋዎች እርስ በርሳቸው በብዙ መንገዶች ቢለያዩም የተወሰኑ ገጽታዎች በመላ ቋንቋዎች ሲጋሩ ይታያሉ ፡፡

እነዚህ ገጽታዎች በሁሉም የሰው አእምሮ ውስጥ ከሚሰሩ የቋንቋ መርሆዎች ሊመነጩ ይችላሉ ፡፡

ተፈጥሮአዊ ጥያቄ ይነሳል-ሕፃናት የሰዎች ቃላት እንዴት እንደሚመስሉ በእውቀት የተወለዱ ናቸው?

ሕፃናት የተወሰኑ የድምፅ ቅደም ተከተሎችን ከሌሎች ይልቅ እንደ ቃል የመሰሉ አድርገው ይመለከታሉ? በቦስተን
የሚገኘው የሰሜን ምስራቅ ዩኒቨርስቲ ፕሮፌሰር አይሪስ በሬን በበኩላቸው “የዚህ አዲስ ጥናት ውጤት እንደሚያመለክተው
የሰው ቋንቋዎች የድምፅ ዘይቤዎች ልክ እንደ ወፎች ዝማሬ የመሰለ የተወለደ ባዮሎጂያዊ ተፈጥሮአዊ ውጤት ናቸው”
ብለዋል ፡፡ በዶ / ር ዣክ መለር የሚመራው ጣሊያን ውስጥ ከሚገኘው ዓለም አቀፍ የከፍተኛ ትምህርት ትምህርት ቤት
የምርምር ቡድን ፡፡

የጥናቱ የመጀመሪያ ደራሲ ዶ / ር ዴቪድ ጎሜዝ ብላ ፣ ሽባ ፣ ቢ.ቢ.ሲ.ኤስ. ለምሳሌ በቃላቱ መጀመሪያ ላይ
የሚከሰቱትን የድምፅ-ውህዶች ነው ፡፡

ብዙ ቋንቋዎች በብሌ የሚጀምሩ ቃላት ቢኖሯቸውም (ለምሳሌ ፣ በጣሊያንኛ ብላንዶ ፣ በእንግሊዝኛ ብልጭ ድርግም እና
በስፓኒሽኛ blusa) ፣ ጥቂት ቋንቋዎች በ lb የሚጀምሩ ቃላት አሏቸው ፡፡ ሩሲያኛ እንደዚህ ያለ ቋንቋ ነው
(ለምሳሌ ፣ ሉቡ ፣ ከሎብ ጋር የሚዛመድ ቃል ፣ “ግንባር”) ፣ ግን በሩስያኛ እንኳን እንደዚህ ያሉ ቃላት እጅግ
በጣም አናሳ ናቸው እና ከብል በመጀመር ቃላት ይበልጣሉ። የቋንቋ ሊቃውንት እንደዚህ ዓይነቶቹ ቅጦች የሚከሰቱት
የሰዎች አንጎል እንደ ብላ በላይ ያሉ ቃላትን ለመደገፍ ስለሆነ ነው ፡፡

ከዚህ አጋጣሚ ጋር ተያይዞ ከዚህ በፊት ከዶክተር በረንት ላብራቶሪ የተደረገው የሙከራ ምርምር እንደሚያሳየው ጎልማሳ
ተናጋሪዎች ምንም እንኳን የትውልድ ቋንቋቸው ብሌ ወይም ሊባ የሚሉ ቃላት ባይኖራቸውም እንደዚህ አይነት ምርጫዎችን
ያሳያሉ ፡፡ ግን ይህ እውቀት የሚመነጨው ከየት ነው? በአንዳንድ ሁለንተናዊ የቋንቋ መርሆዎች ምክንያት ነው ወይስ
የአዋቂዎች የዕድሜ ልክ ተሞክሮ ማዳመጥ እና የአፍ መፍቻ ቋንቋቸውን በማፍራት?
ሙከራው
እነዚህ ጥያቄዎች ቡድናችን ትናንሽ ሕፃናት የተለያዩ የቃላት ዓይነቶችን እንዴት እንደሚገነዘቡ በጥንቃቄ እንዲመለከት
አደረጉ ፡፡ የጣሊያን አዲስ የተወለደውን የአንጎል ምላሾችን ለመመልከት (ኢንፍራሬድ አቅራቢያ በሚታየው መነፅር) ፣
ዝምተኛ እና ወራሪ ያልሆነ ዘዴ የአንጎል ኮርቴክስ ኦክስጅንን (ከጭንቅላቱ በታች ያሉት በጣም የመጀመሪያ
ሴንቲሜትር ግራጫ ንጥረነገሮች) በጊዜ ውስጥ እንዴት እንደሚለወጡ የምንጠቀምበት ነበር ፡፡ ከላይ እንደተገለፀው ጥሩ
እና መጥፎ ቃል እጩዎችን ሲያዳምጡ ሕፃናት (ለምሳሌ ፣ ቢሊፍ ፣ ሊቢፍ) ከጣሊያን አዲስ የተወለዱ ሕፃናት እና
ቤተሰቦቻቸው ጋር ስንሠራ ፣ አዲስ የተወለዱ ሕፃናት አዋቂዎች ከሚያደርጉት ዓይነት ጋር በመልካም እና በመጥፎ ቃል
እጩዎች ላይ የተለየ ምላሽ እንደሚሰጡ ተመልክተናል ፡፡

ትንንሽ ሕፃናት ገና ምንም ቃል አልተማሩም ፣ ገና አያጉረመርሙም ፣ አሁንም ቢሆን ቃላት እንዴት መሰማት
እንዳለባቸው ከእኛ ጋር ይጋራሉ ፡፡

ይህ ግኝት የሚያሳየው ስለ ሰው ቋንቋዎች የድምፅ አሠራር መሠረታዊ ፣ መሠረታዊ ዕውቀት እንደተወለድን ነው። እኛ
በማድረጋችን ዕድለኞች ነን ፣ ስለሆነም ልጆቻችን የቃላት የድምፅ ዘይቤዎችን በቀላሉ እንደሚገነዘቡ በእርግጠኝነት
በማመን ወደ ዓለም መምጣት ይችላሉ - ምንም እንኳን እነሱ የሚያድጉበት ቋንቋ ምንም ይሁን ምን ፡፡

በዓለም ውስጥ ስንት ቋንቋዎች አሉ?

ዛሬ 7,117 ቋንቋዎች ይነገራሉ ፡፡

ይህ ቁጥር በየጊዜው እየተለዋወጠ ነው ፣ ምክንያቱም በየቀኑ ስለ ዓለም ቋንቋዎች የበለጠ እንማራለን። እና ከዚያ
ባሻገር ቋንቋዎቹ እራሳቸው እየተለዋወጡ ናቸው ፡፡

እነሱ የሚኖሩት እና ተለዋዋጭ ናቸው ፣ በማህበረሰቦች የሚነገረዉ ጠቃሚ ምክሮች በፍጥነት በሚለዋወጥ ዓለማችን
የተቀረፁ ናቸው ፡፡
ይህ ተሰባሪ ጊዜ ነው
በግምት 40% የሚሆኑት ቋንቋዎች በአሁኑ ጊዜ አደጋ ላይ ናቸው ፣ ብዙውን ጊዜ ከ 1,000 ያነሱ ተናጋሪዎች
ይቀራሉ ፡፡ ይህ በእንዲህ እንዳለ ፣ 23 ቋንቋዎች ብቻ ከግማሽ በላይ የዓለም ህዝብ ናቸው።

ገና የተወለደ ህፃን ማንም ከህፃኑ ጋር ሳይገናኝ እንዲገለል ከተደረገ ከጥቂት ቀናት በኋላ ክላሲካል መጋሂ መጋዲ /
ክላሲካል ቻንዳሶ ቋንቋ / መጋዲሂ ፕራክት ፣ ክላሲካል ሄላ ባሳ (ሄላ ቋንቋ) በመባል የሚታወቅ እና ተፈጥሯዊ
ተፈጥሮአዊ (ፕራክሪት) ፣ ተመሳሳይ ናቸው ክላሲካል ፓሂ ቡድሃ በማጋዲ ተናገረ ፡፡

ሁሉም የ 7111 ቋንቋዎች እና ዘዬዎች ከ Classical Magahi Magadhi የተተኮሱ ናቸው። ስለዚህ ሁሉም
ሌሎች የኑሮ ፍጥነቶች ለግንኙነት የራሳቸው የተፈጥሮ ቋንቋዎች እንዳላቸው ሁሉ ሁሉም ሁሉም የሰው ልጅ ተፈጥሮአዊ
(ፕራክሪት) ናቸው ፡፡ 116 ቋንቋዎች በ https://translate.google.com ተተርጉመዋል

https://am.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_language

የቋንቋ አመጣጥ እና በዝግመተ ለውጥ በሰው ልጅ ዝርያ ውስጥ መገኘቱ ለበርካታ ምዕተ ዓመታት የግምት ርዕሰ ጉዳዮች
ነበሩ ፡፡ ቀጥተኛ ማስረጃ ባለመኖሩ ርዕሱ ለማጥናት አስቸጋሪ ነው ፡፡


ስለሆነም
የቋንቋን አመጣጥ ማጥናት የሚፈልጉ ምሁራን ከሌሎች የቅሪተ አካላት መዝገብ ፣ የአርኪኦሎጂ ማስረጃ ፣ የወቅቱ
የቋንቋ ብዝሃነት ፣ የቋንቋ ማግኛ ጥናት እና በሰው ቋንቋ እና በእንሰሳት መካከል ያሉ የግንኙነት ሥርዓቶች
ንፅፅሮች (ለምሳሌ ሌሎች) ፕሪቶች) ብዙዎች የቋንቋ አመጣጥ ምናልባት ከዘመናዊው የሰዎች ባህሪ አመጣጥ ጋር በጣም
የተዛመደ ነው ብለው ይከራከራሉ ፣ ግን ስለዚህ የግንኙነት አንድምታ እና አቅጣጫ ብዙም ስምምነት የለም ፡፡

የቋንቋ መነሻ መላምቶች

ቀደምት ግምቶች

ቋንቋ በተፈጥሮ እና በምልክቶች ፣ በተለያዩ የተፈጥሮ ድምፆች ፣ የሌሎች እንስሳት ድምፆች እና የሰው ልጅ
በተፈጥሮአዊ ጩኸቶች በመታገዝ በማስመሰል እና በመሻሻል ምክንያት የመነሻ እዳ እንዳለበት አልጠራጠርም ፡፡
- ቻርለስ ዳርዊን ፣ 1871. የሰው ልጅ መውረድ እና ከግብረ ሥጋ ግንኙነት ጋር መመረጥ ፡፡

በ 1861 የታሪካዊው የቋንቋ ምሁር ማክስ ሙለር የንግግር ቋንቋ አመጣጥን አስመልክቶ ግምታዊ ፅንሰ-ሀሳቦችን
ዝርዝር አሳተሙ-ቦው-ዋው ፡፡ ሙለር ለጀርመናዊው ፈላስፋ ዮሃን ጎትሬድድ ሄርደር የሰጠው የቀስት-ዋው ወይም የኩኩዎ
ንድፈ ሀሳብ የመጀመሪያ ቃላትን እንደ አራዊት እና አእዋፍ ጩኸት አስመስሎ ነበር ፡፡ Pooh-pooh. የ
“pooh-pooh” ንድፈ ሃሳብ የመጀመሪያዎቹን ቃላት በስሜታዊነት ጣልቃ-ገብነት እና በህመም ፣ በደስታ ፣
በመደነቅ ፣ ወዘተ ዲንግ-ዶንግ እንደ ተቀሰቀሰ የስሜት ጣልቃገብነቶች እና ምሬት ነው ፡፡ ሙለር ሁሉንም ነገሮች
የሚርገበገብ ተፈጥሮአዊ ድምጽ እንዳላቸው የሚገልጽ የዲን-ዶንግ ቲዎሪ ብለው የጠሩትን ሀሳብ ጠቁመዋል ፣ በጥንት
ቃላቱ በሆነ መንገድ በሰው ተስተጋብቷል ፡፡ ዮ-ሄ-ሆ.

የዮ-ሂ-ሆ ቲዎሪ ቋንቋ ከቡድን አመጣጥ የጉልበት ሥራ እንደወጣ ይናገራል ፣ ይህም እንደ ‹ሀ› ከሚሉት ድምፆች ጋር
እንደ ተለዋጭ ድምፆችን የሚያስከትለውን የጡንቻን ጥረት ለማመሳሰል የሚደረግ ሙከራ ነው ፡፡ ታ-ታ

ይህ እ.ኤ.አ. በ 1930 በሰር ሪቻርድ ፓጌት የቀረበውን በማክስ ሙለር ዝርዝር ውስጥ ይህ አልተካተተም ፡፡

በ “ታ-ታ” ቲዎሪ መሠረት የሰው ልጆች የእጅ ምልክቶችን በሚኮርጁ በምላስ እንቅስቃሴዎች የመጀመሪያዎቹን ቃላቶች
ያሰሙ ነበር ፣ ይህም የመስማት ችሎታን ያዳብራል ፡፡ በዛሬው ጊዜ ያሉ አብዛኞቹ ምሁራን እነዚህን የመሰሉ
ጽንሰ-ሐሳቦችን ያን ያህል የተሳሳቱ ናቸው ብለው ያስባሉ - አልፎ አልፎም እንዲሁ የጎንዮሽ ግንዛቤዎችን እንደ
ቀላል እና አግባብነት የለውም ፡፡ በእነዚህ ንድፈ ሐሳቦች እነሱ በጣም ጠባብ ሜካኒካዊ ናቸው ፡፡ አባቶቻችን
ድምፆችን ከትርጉሞች ጋር ለማገናኘት አግባብ ባለው ብልሃታዊ ዘዴ ከተደናቀፉ በኋላ ቋንቋ በራስ-ሰር ተለወጠ እና
ተቀየረ ፡፡
https://countercurrents.org/2020/12/rss-affiliate-backs-protesting-farmers-says-new-acts-only-favour-companies/
ዲያቢሎስ ስክሪፕትን በመጥቀስ ፡፡

ፓውሎ ፍሬሬ እንደዚህ ያሉ አሳፋሪ ድርጊቶችን “የውሸት ልግስና” ይላቸዋል ፡፡ ጨቋኙ በተቃውሞው ሲያስፈራራ
ተቃውሞውን ለማቆም እንዲህ ያሉ ርካሽ ዘዴዎችን ይጠቀማል ፡፡ ተበዳዩ ቢሸነፍ ፣ የተጨቆነም ሆነ ጨቋኙ ነፃ
አይወጣም ፡፡

ቢጄፒ ተቃዋሚ በሚሆንበት ጊዜ ተመሳሳይ RSS ን ከማጣቀሻ ጋር
https://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/India/20100828/1575461.html
አለ
የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች ጥያቄ ያነሱትን የኤሌክትሮኒክስ የምርጫ ማሽኖች (ኢ.ቪ.ኤሞች) አስተማማኝነትን አስመልክቶ
ውዝግብን በመቀላቀል RSS የምርጫ ካርዶችን ፣ የኢ.ቪ.ኤም.ዎችን ለህዝብ ምርመራ ያጋልጣል ፡፡ RSS ለምርጫ
ኮሚሽን (ኢ.ሲ.) ወደ ተሞከረና በተፈተነው የወረቀት የምርጫ ካርድ እንዲመለስ ዛሬ ጠየቀ ፡፡ እነዚህ መግብሮች
የተዛባ ማረጋገጫ ስለመሆናቸው ኢቪኤሞችን ለሕዝብ ምርመራ ያካሂዳሉ ፡፡ የአር.ኤስ.ኤስ አፈ-ጉባ our ‹በእኛ
ኢቪኤሞች ላይ እምነት ሊጣልብን ይችላልን› በሚለው አርታኢ ጽሑፍ ውስጥ እስከዛሬ ድረስ ፍፁም የተዛባ ማረጋገጫ
ማሽን አልተፈለሰቀም እና የማንኛውም ስርዓት ተዓማኒነት በ ‹ግልፅነት ፣ ትክክለኛነት እና እምነት በማይጣልበት እና
በጭካኔው ላይ እምነት በሚጣልበት እምነት። ጉዳዩ ‘የግል ጉዳይ’ ስላልሆነ የወደፊቱን ህንድን ይመለከታል ፡፡
የኢ.ቪ.ኤም.ዎች እውነተኛ ቢሆኑም እንኳ ኢ.ሲ. (EC) በዚህ ጉዳይ ላይ የሚነካበት ምንም ምክንያት አልነበረም
ሲል ጋዜጣው አስተያየቱን ሰጠ ፡፡ ከመራጩ በፊት ብቸኛው አማራጭ መንግሥት እና ኢ.ሲ.ኤም. በሕንድ ዴሞክራሲ ላይ
እንደ ወጭ ተባባሪነት ኢቪኤሞችን መጫን አይችሉም ፡፡ ሀገሪቱን ወደ ኢ.ቪ.ኤም. እንድትቀይር በሚመራው የምርጫ
መስጫ የምርጫ ስርዓት ውስጥ እንደ ዳስ መያዝ ፣ ማጭበርበር ፣ የውሸት ድምጽ መስጠትን ፣ ማዛባት እና የድምፅ
መስጫ ወረቀቶች ያሉ ስህተቶች ነበሩ እና እነዚህ ሁሉ ችግሮችም በኢቪኤሞች ውስጥም ተገቢ ነበሩ ፡፡ በመቁጠር
ደረጃም ቢሆን መቅዘፍ ይቻል ነበር ፡፡ የምርጫ ወረቀቶችን ለምርጫ ተስማሚ ያደረገው ነገር ሁሉም ጥሰቶች በህዝብ
ፊት እየተከናወኑ ስለነበሩ ለእርማት የተከፈቱ ሲሆን በኤቪኤምዎች ውስጥ የሚፈጸሙ ማጭበርበሮች ግን ሙሉ በሙሉ ባሉ
ስልጣኖች እጅ ያሉ እና ስልጣኑን በሚይዙት የፖለቲካ ተteesሚዎች ነው ፡፡ .


ኢቪኤም
አንድ ጥቅም ብቻ አለው - ‹ፍጥነት› ግን ያ ጥቅሙ በተዛባው ምርጫ ከሦስት እስከ አራት ወራቶች በተሰራጩት
ተዳክሟል ፡፡ ጋዜጣው “ይህ የምርጫውን ሂደት ቀድሞውንም ገድሏል” ብሏል ጋዜጣው ፡፡ በአገሪቱ ከተካሄዱት አስራ
ሁለት አጠቃላይ ምርጫዎች መካከል በኢ.ቪ.ኤም. በኩል የተካሄዱት ሁለቱ ብቻ በመሆናቸው በታዋቂ ተቋማትና ባለሙያዎች
የሚሰነዘሩትን ጥርጣሬዎች በምክንያታዊነት ከመመለስ ይልቅ ‹በሐሰተኛ ክሶች ላይ በማስፈራራትና በማሰር›
ተችዎቻቸውን ዝም ለማሰኘት መወሰኑን ጋዜጣው ተመልክቷል ፡፡ , በሃይባራድ ላይ የተመሠረተ የቴክኖሎጂ ባለሙያ ሃሪ
ፕራስድ በሙምባይ ፖሊስ መያዙን በማስታወስ ፡፡ የፕራስድ ምርምር ኢቪኤሞች ‹ለማጭበርበር ተጋላጭ› እንደነበሩ
አረጋግጧል ፡፡ ባለሥልጣኖቹ ኢ.ሲን የሚገዳደር ማንኛውም ሰው ለስደት እና ለጉዳት ተጋላጭነት እንደሚጋለጥ መልእክት
መላክ ይፈልጋሉ ሲል RSS አስታውቋል ፡፡ አብዛኛዎቹ የአለም ሀገሮች ኢቪኤሞችን በጥርጣሬ የተመለከቱ ሲሆን እንደ
ኔዘርላንድስ ፣ ጣሊያን ፣ ጀርመን እና አየርላንድ ያሉ ሀገሮች ኢቪኤሞችን ከመከልከል ወደ ወረቀት ምርጫዎች
ተመልሰዋል ‘ምክንያቱም እነሱ ለማጭበርበር ቀላል ፣ ለአደጋ የተጋለጡ የመስማት ችግር እና ግልጽነት የጎደላቸው
ናቸው’ ፡፡ ዴሞክራሲ ለፍላጎቶች ወይም ለደህንነት አስተማማኝ ያልሆኑ የጂዝሞስ ማቋቋሚያ እና አውታረ መረብ አሳልፎ
ለመስጠት በጣም ውድ ነው ፡፡ ለህንድ ዲሞክራሲ ጤና ወደ ተሞከሩ እና ወደተፈተኑ ዘዴዎች መመለስ የተሻለ ነው ፣
ወይም ለወደፊቱ ምርጫዎች ወደ ግብዣነት ሊለወጡ ይችላሉ ብለዋል ፡፡

- (UNI) - 28DI28.xml ወደ
https://www.freepressjournal.in/analysis/rss-doesnt-see-eye-to-eye-with-bjp-on-farmers-protest-writes-bhavdeep
-kang የዴሞክራሲ ተቋማት እብድ ነፍሰ ገዳይ (ሞዲ) የመጀመሪያ የማጭበርበር ኢ.ቪ.ኤም.ኤስ p. ower
የጀመረው በ RSS (Rowdy Swayam Sevaks) የፊት ለፊት ድርጅቶች እና በቢጄፒ (ቤቫኮፍ ጁሆት
ሳይኮፓትስ) መካከል በ 2014 የመሬት ግዥ ድንጋጌ ላይ ነው ፡፡ ከስድስት ዓመታት በኋላ እንደገና ከስዋዲሺ
ጃግራን ማንች ጋር በእርሻ ፖሊሲ ላይ እንደገና አለመግባባት ላይ ናቸው ፡፡ (ኤስጄኤም) እና ለባራቲያ ኪሳን ሳንግ
(ቢኬስ) ለአምራቾች የዋጋ ድጋፍ ህጋዊ ዋስትና ይጠይቃሉ ፡፡ ማጭበርበሩን ኢ.ቪ.ኤም. በ ‹RSS› በተጠቀሰው
ጊዜ ‹BJP› ን በርቀት መቆጣጠሪያ እንደሚጠቁመው ግን አሁን አይደለም ፡፡ ብቸኛው የተሻለው መፍትሔ ትክክለኛውን የ
0.1% ታጋሽ ፣ ጠበኛ ፣ ታጣቂ ፣ በዓለም ቁጥር አንድ አሸባሪዎችን በጭራሽ በመተኮስ ፣ በሕዝብ ላይ ምሳ
በመብላት ፣ እብዶች ፣ በአእምሮ ዘገምተኛ የውጭ ዜጎች ከቤን እስራኤል ፣ ከቲቤት ፣ ከአፍሪካ ፣ ከምሥራቅ አውሮፓ
፣ ከምዕራብ ጀርመን የተባረሩ ማስገደድ ነው ፡፡ ፣ የሰሜን አውሮፓ ፣ የደቡብ ሩሲያ ፣ የሃንጋሪ ወዘተ ፣ RSS
(Rowdy Swayam Sevaks) የ chitpavan brahmins የገዛ የእናትን የሥጋ ተመጋቢዎች በርቫኮፍ
ጁሆት ሳይኮፓትስ (ቢጄፒ) በማድ ገዳይ የዴሞክራቲክ ተቋማት (ሞዲ) ፕራዱዳን ለማቆም በመሞከር ይመራሉ ፡፡ ባህራት


Friends

December
25, 1927 Dr Ambedkar burned Manusmriti as a symbol of rejection of the
religious basis of untouchability. The event was arranged during the
Mahad Satyagraha. Satyagraha was a fight to assert the “Untouchables”
right to access public water, & to embrace humanity & dignity.

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Friends

english.madhyamam.com
25th December 1927, Manusmriti Dahan Divas: A historical day to remember


Friends

Prabuddha
Bharat witnessed a milestone event of burning Manusmriti in public on
December 25, exactly 92 years ago. Under the leadership of ‘The father
of Modern India’ Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar, thousands gathered in a small
town called Mahad in Konkan, a coastal region of Maharashtra to show
their hatred towards the Hindu religious text Manusmriti, that brutally
treats women and ‘Aboriginal’ (SC/STs).
Repeated attempts by the RSS-driven Sangh Parivar to appropriate Dr BR Ambedkar throw up contradictions and evasions.
Why did Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar publicly burn the Manu Smruti on Dec. 25, 1927?
This
story was first published on January 26, 2016. (Towards Equality: Why
did Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar publicly burn the Manu Smruti on December 25,
1927?). We are re-publishing it today, December 24, 2017.
Manusmruti Dahan Din
Eight-eight
(now 89!) years ago, on December 25, 1927, huge strides were made in
the movement for self-dignity of Dalits. Under the leadership of Dr
Babasaheb Ambedkar, a small town/village, Mahad in Konkan, the coastal
region of Maharashtra, made history.
Manusmurti
Dahan Din. The day that the text of caste Hindus epitomizing hegemony,
indignity and cruelty to Dalits and mlecchas (that included women) was
publicly burned in a specially constructed symbolic funeral pyre before
Dr Ambedkar and thousands of volunteers gathered to protest and agitate.
The
Mahad satyagraha (peaceful agitation and protest) had been organised so
that Dalits (untouchables) could drink from the Mahad (Chavadar) water
tank, a public water source open to all. A previous legal notification
of the Collectorate authorised free access to all. Despite the existence
of this order, caste hegemony and oppression had not created conditions
for access to this facility for the oppressed. On the eve of the
protest, caste Brahmins had obtained a stay order from a local court
against untouchables accessing water from the tank!
Pressure
of an unimaginable kind was put by caste Hindus to somehow abort the
protest. This included tightening access to any public ground for the
proposed meeting. Finally, a local gentleman Mr. Fattekhan, who happened
to be a Muslim, gave his private land for the protest, extending
solidarity with the struggle. Arrangements for food and water as also
other supplies had to be made meticulously by the organisers facing a
revolt in the village. A pledge of sorts had to be taken by the
volunteers who participated in the protest. This pledge vowed the
following:
I do not believe on Chaturvarna based on birth.
I do not believe in caste distinctions.
I believe that untouchability is an anathema to Hinduism and I will honestly try my best to completely destroy it.
I will not follow any restrictions about food and drink among at least all Hindus.
I believe that untouchables must have equal rights to access to temples, water sources, schools and other amenities.
The
arrival of Dr. Ambedkar to the site of the protest was cloaked in high
drama, faced with the possibilities of all kinds of sabotage from other
sections of society. He came from Bombay on the boat “Padmavati” via
Dasgaon port, instead of Dharamtar (the road journey), despite the
longer distance. This was a well-planned strategy, because, in the event
of boycott by bus owners, the leaders could walk down five miles to
Mahad.
In
front of the pandal where Dr Ambedkar made his soul-stirring address,
the “vedi” (pyre) was created beforehand to burn the Manusmruti. Six
people had been labouring for two days to prepare it. A pit six inches
deep and one and half foot square was dug in, and filled with
sandlewood pieces.
On its four corners, poles were erected, bearing banners on three sides. The banners said,
1. “Manusmruti chi dahan bhumi”, i.e. Crematorium for Manusmruti.
2. Destroy Untouchability and
3. Bury Brahmanism.
It
was on December 25, 1927, in the late evening, at the conference, that
the resolution to burn the Manusmruti was moved by Brahmin associate of
Ambedkar, Gangadhar Neelkanth Sahastrabuddhe and was seconded by PN
Rajabhoj, an untouchable leader. Thereafter, the book Manusmruti was
kept on this pyre and burned. The Brahmin associate of Ambedkar,
Gangadhar Neelkanth Sahastrabuddhe and five six other Dalit sadhus
completed the task. At the pandal, the only photo placed was that of
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. This has been interpreted to mean that, at
this stage the Dalit leadership, including Dr. Ambedkar had yet to be
disillusioned with Gandhi.
In
his presidential speech Ambedkar said that the aim of the movement was
not only to gain access to the water or the temple or to remove the
barriers to commensality; the aim was to break down the varna system
which supported inequality in society. He then told his audience about
the French Revolution, and explained the main points of the Charter of
Human Rights enunciated by the French Revolutionary Council. He pointed
out the danger of seeking temporary and inadequate solutions by relating
how the rebellion of the plebians of Rome against the patricians
failed, primarily because the plebians sought only to gain a tribune of
their choice instead of seeking to abolish the system dividing society
into patricians and plebians.
In
the February 3, 1928 issue of the Bahishkrit Bharat (his own newspaper)
he explained the action saying that his reading of the Manusmriti had
convinced him that it did not even remotely support the idea of social
equality.
The
root of untouchabilty lies in prohibition of inter-caste marriages,
that we have to break, said Ambedkar in that historic speech. He
appealed to higher varnas to let this “Social Revolution” take place
peacefully, discard the sastras, and accept the principle of justice,
and he assured them peace from our side. Four resolutions were passed
and a Declaration of Equality was pronounced. After this, the copy of
the Manusmruti was burned
One
sees here a definite broadening of the goal of the movement. In terms
of the ultimate goal of equality and of the eradication of the varna
system, the immediate programme of drinking water from the Mahad water
reservoir was a symbolic protest, to herald the onset of a continuing
struggle for dignity.
The other crucial points of Dr. Ambedkar’s speech were:
“…So
long as the varna system exists the superior status of the Brahmans is
ensured….Brahmans do not have the same love of their country that the
Samurai of Japan had. Hence one cannot expect them to give up their
special social privileges as the Samurai did in the interest of social
equality and national unity of Japan. We cannot expect this of the
non-Brahman class either. The non-Brahman classes like the Marathas and
others are an intermediate category between those who hold the reins of
power and those who are powerless. Those who wield power can
occasionally be generous and even self-sacrificing. Those who are
powerless tend to be idealistic and principled because even to serve
their own interest they have to aim at a social revolution. The
non-Brahman class comes in between; it can neither be generous nor
committed to any principles. Hence they are preoccupied in maintaining
their distance from the untouchables instead of with achieving equality
with Brahmans. This class is weak in its aspiration for a social
revolution…..We should accept that we are born to achieve this larger
social purpose and consider that to be our life’s goal. Let us strive to
gain that religious merit. Besides, this work (of bringing about a
social revolution) is in our interest and it is our duty to dedicate
ourselves to remove the obstacles in our path.
There
was a strong reaction in the section of the press, perceived to be
dominated by the entrenched higher caste interests. Dr Ambedkar was
called “Bheemaasura” by one newspaper. Dr. Ambedkar justified the
burning of Manusmruti in various articles that he penned after the
satyagraha. I n the February 3, 1928 issue of the Bahishkrit Bharat (his
own newspaper) he explained the action saying that his reading of the
Manusmriti had convinced him that it did not even remotely support the
idea of social equality. To burn a thing was to register a protest
against the idea it represented. By so doing one expected to shame the
person concerned into modifying his behaviour. He said further that it
would be futile to expect that any person who revered the Manusmriti
could be genuinely interested in the welfare of the Untouchables. He
compared the burning of the Manusmriti to the burning of foreign cloth
recommended by Gandhi. Protests the world over had used the burning of
an article that symbolised oppression to herald a struggle. This was
what the Manusmurti Dahan was.
| SabrangIndia
| SabrangIndia
Bangaru
Laxman’s statement, after he formally took over as the president of the
BJP, that “Nagpur is a place of both Ambedkar and Hegdewar” must have
come as a surprise to the upper caste leaders of the RSS, particularly
its chief, KS Sudharshan, who must all be Ambedkar haters. Nagpur,
ironic…


Friends
The Status Of Women As Depicted By Manu In The Manusmriti
August 27, 2011by Hirday N. Patwari
The
Manusmriti also known as Manav Dharam Shastra, is the earliest metrical
work on Brahminical Dharma in Hinduism. According to Hindu mythology,
the Manusmriti is the word of Brahma, and it is classified as the most
authoritative statement on Dharma .The scripture consists of 2690
verses, divided into 12 chapters. It is presumed that the actual human
author of this compilation used the eponym ‘Manu’, which has led the
text to be associated by Hindus with the first human being and the first
king in the Indian tradition.
Although
no details of this eponymous author’s life are known, it is likely that
he belonged to a conservative Brahman class somewhere in Northern
India. Hindu apologists consider the Manusmriti as the divine code of
conduct and, accordingly, the status of women as depicted in the text
has been interpreted as Hindu divine law. While defending Manusmriti as
divine code of conduct for all including women, apologists often quote
the verse: “yatr naryasto pojyantay, ramantay tatr devta [3/56] (where
women are provided place of honor, gods are pleased and reside there in
that household), but they deliberately forget all those verses that are
full of prejudice, hatred and discrimination against women.
Here are some of the ‘celebrated’ derogatory comments about women in the Manusmriti :
1.
“Swabhav ev narinam …..” – 2/213. It is the nature of women to seduce
men in this world; for that reason the wise are never unguarded in the
company of females.
2.
“Avidvam samlam………..” – 2/214. Women, true to their class character,
are capable of leading astray men in this world, not only a fool but
even a learned and wise man. Both become slaves of desire.
3.
“Matra swastra ………..” – 2/215. Wise people should avoid sitting alone
with one’s mother, daughter or sister. Since carnal desire is always
strong, it can lead to temptation.
4.
“Naudwahay……………..” – 3/8. One should not marry women who has have
reddish hair, redundant parts of the body [such as six fingers], one
who is often sick, one without hair or having excessive hair and one who
has red eyes.
5.
“Nraksh vraksh ………..” – 3/9. One should not marry women whose names are
similar to constellations, trees, rivers, those from a low caste,
mountains, birds, snakes, slaves or those whose names inspires terror.
6.
“Yasto na bhavet ….. …..” – 3/10. Wise men should not marry women who
do not have a brother and whose parents are not socially well known.
7.
“Uchayangh…………….” – 3/11. Wise men should marry only women who are free
from bodily defects, with beautiful names, grace/gait like an elephant,
moderate hair on the head and body, soft limbs and small teeth.
8.
“Shudr-aiv bharya………” – 3/12.Brahman men can marry Brahman, Kshatriya,
Vaish and even Shudra women but Shudra men can marry only Shudra women.
9.
“Na Brahman kshatriya..” – 3/14. Although Brahman, Kshatriya and Vaish
men have been allowed inter-caste marriages, even in distress they
should not marry Shudra women.
10.
“Heenjati striyam……..” – 3/15. When twice born [dwij=Brahman, Kshatriya
and Vaish] men in their folly marry low caste Shudra women, they are
responsible for the degradation of their whole family. Accordingly,
their children adopt all the demerits of the Shudra caste.
11.
“Shudram shaynam……” – 3/17. A Brahman who marries a Shudra woman,
degrades himself and his whole family ,becomes morally degenerated ,
loses Brahman status and his children too attain status of shudra.
12.
“Daiv pitrya………………” – 3/18. The offerings made by such a person at the
time of established rituals are neither accepted by God nor by the
departed soul; guests also refuse to have meals with him and he is bound
to go to hell after death.
13.
“Chandalash ……………” – 3/240. Food offered and served to Brahman after
Shradh ritual should not be seen by a chandal, a pig, a cock,a dog, and a
menstruating women.
14.
“Na ashniyat…………….” – 4/43. A Brahman, true defender of his class,
should not have his meals in the company of his wife and even avoid
looking at her. Furthermore, he should not look towards her when she is
having her meals or when she sneezes/yawns.
15.
“Na ajyanti……………….” – 4/44. A Brahman in order to preserve his energy
and intellect, must not look at women who applies collyrium to her eyes,
one who is massaging her nude body or one who is delivering a child.
16.
“Mrshyanti…………….” – 4/217. One should not accept meals from a woman who
has extra marital relations; nor from a family exclusively
dominated/managed by women or a family whose 10 days of impurity because
of death have not passed.
17.
“Balya va………………….” – 5/150. A female child, young woman or old woman is
not supposed to work independently even at her place of residence.
18.
“Balye pitorvashay…….” – 5/151. Girls are supposed to be in the custody
of their father when they are children, women must be under the custody
of their husband when married and under the custody of her son as
widows. In no circumstances is she allowed to assert herself
independently.
19.
“Asheela kamvrto………” – 5/157. Men may be lacking virtue, be sexual
perverts, immoral and devoid of any good qualities, and yet women must
constantly worship and serve their husbands.
20.
“Na ast strinam………..” – 5/158. Women have no divine right to perform
any religious ritual, nor make vows or observe a fast. Her only duty is
to obey and please her husband and she will for that reason alone be
exalted in heaven.
21.
“Kamam to………………” – 5/160. At her pleasure [after the death of her
husband], let her emaciate her body by living only on pure flowers,
roots of vegetables and fruits. She must not even mention the name of
any other men after her husband has died.
22.
“Vyabhacharay…………” – 5/167. Any women violating duty and code of
conduct towards her husband, is disgraced and becomes a patient of
leprosy. After death, she enters womb of Jackal.
23.
“Kanyam bhajanti……..” – 8/364. In case women enjoy sex with a man from a
higher caste, the act is not punishable. But on the contrary, if women
enjoy sex with lower caste men, she is to be punished and kept in
isolation.
24.
“Utmam sevmansto…….” – 8/365. In case a man from a lower caste enjoys
sex with a woman from a higher caste, the person in question is to be
awarded the death sentence. And if a person satisfies his carnal desire
with women of his own caste, he should be asked to pay compensation to
the women’s faith.
25.
“Ya to kanya…………….” – 8/369. In case a woman tears the membrane [hymen]
of her Vagina, she shall instantly have her head shaved or two fingers
cut off and made to ride on Donkey.
26.
“Bhartaram…………….” – 8/370. In case a women, proud of the greatness of
her excellence or her relatives, violates her duty towards her husband,
the King shall arrange to have her thrown before dogs at a public place.
27.
“Pita rakhshati……….” – 9/3. Since women are not capable of living
independently, she is to be kept under the custody of her father as
child, under her husband as a woman and under her son as widow.
28.
“Imam hi sarw………..” – 9/6. It is the duty of all husbands to exert
total control over their wives. Even physically weak husbands must
strive to control their wives.
29.
“Pati bharyam ……….” – 9/8. The husband, after the conception of his
wife, becomes the embryo and is born again of her. This explains why
women are called Jaya.
30.
“Panam durjan………” – 9/13. Consuming liquor, association with wicked
persons, separation from her husband, rambling around, sleeping for
unreasonable hours and dwelling -are six demerits of women.
31.
“Naita rupam……………” – 9/14. Such women are not loyal and have extra
marital relations with men without consideration for their age.
32.
“Poonshchalya…………” – 9/15. Because of their passion for men, immutable
temper and natural heartlessness, they are not loyal to their husbands.
33.
“Na asti strinam………” – 9/18. While performing namkarm and jatkarm,
Vedic mantras are not to be recited by women, because women are lacking
in strength and knowledge of Vedic texts. Women are impure and represent
falsehood.
34.
“Devra…sapinda………” – 9/58. On failure to produce offspring with her
husband, she may obtain offspring by cohabitation with her
brother-in-law [devar] or with some other relative [sapinda] on her
in-law’s side.
35.
“Vidwayam…………….” – 9/60. He who is appointed to cohabit with a widow
shall approach her at night, be anointed with clarified butter and
silently beget one son, but by no means a second one.
36.
“Yatha vidy……………..” – 9/70. In accordance with established law, the
sister-in-law [bhabhi] must be clad in white garments; with pure intent
her brother-in-law [devar] will cohabitate with her until she conceives.
37.
“Ati kramay……………” – 9/77. Any women who disobey orders of her
lethargic, alcoholic and diseased husband shall be deserted for three
months and be deprived of her ornaments.
38.
“Vandyashtamay…….” – 9/80. A barren wife may be superseded in the 8th
year; she whose children die may be superseded in the 10th year and she
who bears only daughters may be superseded in the 11th year; but she
who is quarrelsome may be superseded without delay.
39.
“Trinsha……………….” – 9/93. In case of any problem in performing religious
rites, males between the age of 24 and 30 should marry a female between
the age of 8 and 12.
40.
“Yambrahmansto…….” – 9/177. In case a Brahman man marries Shudra woman,
their son will be called ‘Parshav’ or ‘Shudra’ because his social
existence is like a dead body.
The Status Of Women As Depicted By Manu In The Manusmriti | Nirmukta
The Status Of Women As Depicted By Manu In The Manusmriti | Nirmukta
Hindu
apologists consider the Manusmriti as the divine code of conduct and,
accordingly, the status of women as depicted in the text has been
interpreted as Hindu divine law.

https://asiatimes.com/2020/12/systematic-collapse-of-the-worlds-largest-democracy/

Asia Times


Systematic collapse of the world’s largest democracy
Lack
of transparency on such issues as EVMs (Electronic voting machine)
software and its source code has cast doubt on the reliability of
election results in Prabuddha Bharat states
Josef
Stalin has been quoted as saying, “It’s not the people who vote that
count, it’s the people who count the votes.” In Stalin’s Russia, this
was the common norm and also the reason behind his massive success as a
politician.
Fair
elections in those days were a luxury enjoyed only by Western
democracy, as much of the world had just come out of colonization and
some were still part of it. The idea of fundamental rights and
rule-based order with institutional autonomy as well as smooth
transition of power was a complex concept for these new societies, which
had a history of bloody power transfers.
Western
critics had similar apprehensions about Prabuddha Bharat as it was
taking baby steps toward democracy in the mid-1950s. A country with
diverse languages, religions, castes and creeds, it was viewed with
skepticism as to whether it would be able to survive as a democracy.
Citing the recent Partition of erstwhile British Prabuddha Bharat,
Western liberal pundits predicted more partition of Prabuddha Bharatian
states. These doubts prevailed until India held its first parliamentary
election in 1952.
Over
the next four decades, Prabuddha Bharat not only proved those critics
wrong but also made a mark at the international level by becoming the
world’s largest democracy, with institutional credibility, freedom of
the press, and protection of civil rights.
Certainly,
there were also some dark moments, such as when Indira Gandhi didn’t
honor the commitments under the constitution and declared the Emergency
in the mid-1970s, citing the reason as internal and external threats to
the country.
Prabuddha
Bharat has come a long way since then. At the dawn of the 21st century,
India‘s vibrant democracy with a multiparty system, a large young
population, and a growing economy put the country into the global
spotlight.
But
what’s important about this democracy is a young demographic, which is
its strength but also a cause of weakness. Despite constituting a large
part of the electorate, the younger generation lacks experience of those
black days of democracy. Much of this segment is not aware that in a
democracy, the people’s responsibility doesn’t end with voting but
starts from there.
As
well, the optimistic vision of liberals that the Internet and digital
access would empower democracy and usher in a new era of freedom has not
been realized. Instead, we find ourselves in a dramatically different
set of circumstances; the digital era is not shaped by openness, but
rather by manipulation.
So
the idea of suspension of democracy through draconian laws and
emergency measures has become naive in the 21st century. In our new
democratic systems, such a situation can be created through a softer and
invisible replay of previous experiences through a systematic collapse
of the pillars of democracy, rather than military action or a coup as in
the past.
Subverting
the pillars of democracy mainly takes three forms: influencing the
umpire’s decision (constitutional body), sidelining of players, and
weakening or rewriting the rules of the game.
Russia
under President Vladimir Putin, Peru under Alberto Fujimori, and
Hungary under Viktor Orban are some of the best examples of this in
recent times. One new entrant to this list is India under Mad murderer
of democratic institutions (Modi) remotely controlled by just 0.1%
intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the world, ever
shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded full of
hatred,anger,jealousy, delusion, stupidity towards 99.9% Aboriginal
people are the anti-national foreigners chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy
Swayam Sevaks (RSS) kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Eastern,
Europe, Western Germany, Northern Europe, South Russia, Hungary Etc.
The autonomy of essential institutions has witnessed a steady decline
due to the cult personality culture of country’s Modi. There are several
incidents where Prabudha Bharatian institutional credibility has been
questioned openly.
The death of Prabudha Bharat’s credible institutions
One
of the key pillars of any democracy is the judiciary. It’s the one that
provides a reality check to power. But lately, the behavior of this
institution is protecting Modi of Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP)/RSS
interests rather than the public interest, which should be its prime
objective.
In
the last six years, the court has ceased to confront the Modi/BJP/RSS
on many controversial decisions such as the electoral bonds case, the
Citizenship Amendment Act, demonetization, the migrant crisis, and so
on. None of its decisions have come as a reality check to power.
In
a few days, the attorney general will proceed with a contempt-of-court
case against a comedian who questions the chief justice of India. In
2018, for the first time in history, four judges of the Supreme Court
had to organize a press conference to share their grievances against the
chief justice. Cases having far-reaching consequences for the nation
and judiciary were selectively assigned to benches of preference without
any rational basis.
This
clearly shows the house is not in order. We are also aware of the
strength Indian media have shown toward the government in the last few
years. Prabudha Bharat’s rank of 142 out of 180 on the world Presstitute
Freedom Index is a small testimony forgetting what Napolean had said “I
can face two battalions but not two scribes “. The consistent drop on a
year-on-year basis in presstitute freedom depicts the harsh reality of
the arrest of a journalist who dares to question the status quo.
But
a more recent blow came to the credibility of the Election Commission
(Election Criminals) in the Bihar Assembly election held in late October
and early November, where there were reports of massive rigging and
allegations of poll fraud.
The
Election Commission is an autonomous constitutional authority
responsible for administering the election process in Prabudha Bharat at
national and state elections. In Bihar, there were serious charges made
against the EC by the opposition. The opposition made a list of 119
candidates who won after the completion of counting and the returning
officer congratulated them for their victory. But when they went to take
their certificates, officers told them they had lost the election.
But
before we go into details, let’s look at the backdrop of the issue to
get a clear picture. We all have seen the failure of the Indian
government in dealing with the migrant crisis during the Covid-19
outbreak.
Amid
the horrific scenes of millions of migrant workers trying to reach
their respective states on foot, the majority of them were from Bihar.
More than 3 million migrant workers returned to Bihar.
It
was the first state to hold a legislative assembly election after the
outbreak. The election was held in the last week of October to the first
week of November in three phases. This was significant for both the
opposition and the ruling party, as the result would be treated as a
mandate on the performance of Modi and the coalition government in Bihar
on the pandemic, which has failed to live up to expectations, as the
economy is in tatters and unemployment has reached new heights.
There
was a wave in favor of young opposition leader Tejshawi Yadav. Hundreds
of thousands of people came to his rallies held across Bihar,
especially youth and migrant workers, who were looking for a change in
leadership. Meanwhile his counterpart, incumbent Chief Minister Nitish
Kumar was booed in almost every successive rally.
But
when the result came out it was not only surprising for all the
political pundits who were predicting the opposition would win under
Tejashawi Yadav but for the rest of the Indian masses. It defies logic,
as there were some serious inconsistencies, which cannot be ignored.
If
the people of Bihar were openly opposing Nitish, then why would they
vote for his coalition partner the Bevkoof Jhoothye Psychopathys (BJP),
which would again make him the chief minister? More than a dozen
opposition members of the legislative assembly lost re-election by
margins of tens or a hundred votes; one lost by 13 votes. This rarely
happens in a state election, and never in Bihar.
The
ruling party retained power with just 0.03% more votes than the
opposition. All the political pundits were predicting the opposition
would win, as there was a wave for the opposition leader on the ground.
Few people were coming to the ruling party’s rallies. But the BJP has
hailed the Modi Magic and silent voters for its win. But the real
question is on the handling of affairs by the EC and the EVMs
(electronic voting machines).
The secret behind Modi’s success
In
recent years, all accusations against the EC and EVMs were shrugged off
as baseless allegations. But mishandling of the Bihar election has put a
serious question mark on the EC’s credibility. It puts it into the
spotlight as to whether it was acting neutrally.
A
closer analysis of how the EC functions will help us determine the
reality of its tall claims of credibility, which has deteriorated over
time. An electoral system that was once highly transparent, supporting
public scrutiny and ease of understanding its functions and policies has
undergone an “enclosure of transparency.”
Voting
system software is one of the most opaque aspects of electronic voting,
as it is quite technical, complex, and generally unavailable for
inspection. Access to source codes supports independent technical
evaluation of voting systems that, in turn, facilitates oversight and
accountability of software.
Most
developed countries put source-code audit reports of their electronic
voting systems in the public domain so that transparency is maintained.
But the Indian electronic voting system is highly opaque, as much of the
information is not disclosed in the public domain apart from that it is
made by government institutions. But it doesn’t give a guarantee that
source code is fully transparent until there is an independent audit
review by a third party.
Regarding
this, a plea was filed in the Supreme Court stating that not conducting
a software review of EVMs, VVPATs (voter verifiable paper audit
trails), and ETSs (EVM tracking systems) in an election “infringes” on
citizens’ freedom of expression and affects democratic rights.
The
petitioner claimed that “if the source code of all these devices were
to be subverted in concert, then the process of randomization process
would no longer maintain its randomness, rather it will become
deterministic and systematic.” This would make it possible to achieve a
predetermined outcome of the election.
Despite
such a strong argument, on February 24, the Supreme Court disposed of
the petition and asked the petitioner to approach the EC, and if the
poll body did not order an audit of its EVM source code by an
independent auditor, then the petitioner would be at liberty to approach
the court again after three weeks.
But to date, the EC has not taken any action over this, which raises a serious question on its neutrality.
What’s
the point of hiding from the Indian people? More so, Article 19 (1) (a)
of the Constitution of India provides a guarantee to every Indian of
the right to freedom of expression.
But
what is interesting is that the EC violates this right with its Rule
49MA, which gives it the power to prosecute a voter for making a false
complaint of malfunction of an EVM or VVPAT. This means that if the
voter claims a mismatch in an EVM result but fails to prove the
mismatch, then a poll official can initiate action under Section 177 of
the Indian Penal Code for giving a “false submission,” which may invite
six months in jail or a fine of 1,000 rupees (US$13.50) or both.
So
it’s like intimidation and against the very fundamentals of democracy.
Until such important issues are addressed, the credibility of the
Election Commission will remain in question and the fairness of Indian
elections will remain under suspicion.
Transparency
and accountability are the signs of a healthy democracy, but currently,
both are missing from the world’s largest democracy. Until there is
transparency in the counting of votes, those who vote don’t matter.
Asia
Times Financial is now live. Linking accurate news, insightful analysis
and local knowledge with the ATF China Bond 50 Index, the world’s first
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asiatimes.com
Systematic collapse of the world’s largest democracy
Josef
Stalin has been quoted as saying, “It’s not the people who vote that
count, it’s the people who count the votes.” In Stalin’s Russia, this
was the common norm and also the reason …

https://www.mangobaaz.com/this-german-tv-channel-just-called-modi-the-son-of-hitler-and-people-cant-stop-trolling-him?utm_source=whatsapp


Friends


This
German TV Channel Just Called Modi The Son Of Hitler And “We alone can
challenge and defeat the fascist, casteist, communal and pro-capitalist
BJP! Get ready!”Ms Mayawati
Behanji’s clarion call to the BSP workers to liberate the country from the clutches of fascist rule.
Adolf
Hitler has become infamous as the most cruel leader that modern history
has witnessed. He is the epitome of inhumanity and insensitivity.
Indian Mad murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) of BJP (Bevakoof
Jjoothe Psychopaths) remotely controlled by just 0.1% intolerant,
violent, militant, number one terrorists of the world, ever shooting,
mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded full of hatred,anger,jealousy,
delusion, stupidity towards 99.9% Aboriginal people are the
anti-national foreigners chitpavan brahmins of Rowdy Swayam Sevaks (RSS)
kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Eastern, Europe, Western
Germany, Northern Europe, South Russia, Hungary Etc. is now being
compared to Hitler after recent events. Modi has exhibited callousness
and still persistently exhibits brutality by occupying Kashmir and for
the recent laws against Muslims in Prabuddha Bharat.
Recent events in India have put Modi out of favor of quite a few people around the world.
The
way Modi has handled the citizenship act, targeting Muslims has finally
woken up the world. Even though Pakistan has long been trying to
counter the foolishness he has exhibited over recent years, particularly
by falsely accusing Pakistan and putting the two countries at the brink
of war just to win elections.
A German news channel just compared Modi to Hitler by showing him as Hitler’s son
Although
Modi isn’t exactly receiving a lot of love these days for his
government’s recent actions but this image has caused quite the
controversy because of how everyone understands Nazi Germany’s leader
Hitler to be.
In
the image propagated by the German channel, Modi was held by Hitler
like the Lion King scene therefore implying that he would be taking
Hitler’s legacy forward. The headline, accompanying the image, literally
translates into “More and more dead in Prabuddha bharat.”
this german news channel showed modi as son of hitler pic.twitter.com/9N4mpRLYAR
— RiderOnTheStorm (@swatieyz) December 23, 2019
Now
that comparison between Modi and Hitler can be made because of how
Modi’s recent laws are directly targeting Muslims and his followers are
claiming a “pure hindutva” country would be achieved. Hitler, back in
his day, had led the infamous holocaust targeting Jews because he was
looking for a “pure” Germany.

mangobaaz.com
This German TV Channel Just Called Modi The Son Of Hitler And People Are Loving The Burn 🔥🔥🔥
Modi and Hitler are being compared these days because today’s fascist government of India is reminding people of Nazi Germany.
https://countercurrents.org/2020/12/rss-affiliate-backs-protesting-farmers-says-new-acts-only-favour-companies/   
                                                                                                                                                            
The Devil quoting the Script.

Paulo Freire calls such shameful acts as “false generosity”. When the oppressor is threatened by the resistance, he will use such cheap tactics to put off the resistance. If the oppressed succumb, neither oppressed nor the oppressor will be freed.

When BJP was in opposition the same RSS with reference to
https://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/India/20100828/1575461.html

said                                                          
RSS favours paper ballots, EVMs subjected to public scrutiny                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

Joining the controversy regarding the reliablity of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) which have been questioned by political parties, the RSS today asked the Election Commission (EC) to revert back to tried and tested paper ballots and subject EVMs to public scrutiny whether these gadgets are tamper proof. In an editorial titled ‘Can we trust our EVMs?’, The Organiser, the RSS mouthpiece, noted it was a fact that till date an absolutely tamper-proof machine had not been invented and credibility of any system depends on ‘transparency, verifiability and trustworthiness’ than on blind and atavistic faith in its infallibility. The issue is not a ‘private affair’ and it involves the future of India. Even if the EVMs were genuine, there was no reason for the EC to be touchy about it, the paper commented. The Government and the EC can’t impose EVMs as a fait accompli on Indian democracy as the only option before the voter. There were flaws like booth capturing, rigging, bogus voting, tampering and ballot paper snatching in the ballot paper system of polling leading the country to switch over to the EVMs and all these problems were relevant in EVMs too. Rigging was possible even at the counting stage. What made the ballot papers voter-friendly was that all aberrations were taking place before the public eye and hence open for corrections whereas the manipulations in the EVMs is entirely in the hands of powers that be and the political appointees manning the sytem, the paper commented. The EVM has only one advantage — ’speed’ but that advantage has been undermined by the staggered polls at times spread over three to four months. ‘’This has already killed the fun of the election process,'’ the paper noted. Of the dozen General Elections held in the country, only two were through the EVMs and instead of rationally addressing the doubts aired by reputed institutions and experts the Government has resorted to silence its critics by ‘intimidation and arrests on false charges’, the paper observed, recalling the arrest of Hyederabad-based technocrat Hari Prasad by the Mumbai Police. Prasad’s research has proved that the EVMs were ‘vulnerable to fraud’. The authorities want to send a message that anybody who challenges the EC runs the risk of persecution and harassment, the RSS observed. Most countries around the world looked at the EVMs with suspicion and countries like the Netherlands, Italy, Germany and Ireland had all reverted back to paper ballots shunning EVMs because they were ‘easy to falsify, risked eavesdropping and lacked transparency’. Democracy is too precious to be handed over to whims or an opaque establishment and network of unsafe gizmos. ‘’For the health of Indian democracy it is better to return to tried and tested methods or else elections in future can turn out to be a farce,'’ the editorial said.

– (UNI) — 28DI28.xml                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

With reference to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
https://www.freepressjournal.in/analysis/rss-doesnt-see-eye-to-eye-with-bjp-on-farmers-protest-writes-bhavdeep-kang                                                                                                                                                               After the Mad murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)’s first gobbling of the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs  power began with a dispute between RSS (Rowdy Swayam Sevaks)frontal organisations and the BJP (Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths) , over the land acquisition ordinance of 2014. Six years later, they are once again in disagreement on farm policy, with the Swadeshi Jagran Manch (SJM) and the Bharatiya Kisan Sangh (BKS) demanding a legal guarantee of price support for producers. Totally replace the fraud EVMs with Ballot Papers as once suggested by the RSS remotely controlling the BJP but not now. The only best solution is to force the just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lunching, lunatic, mentally retarded foreigners kicked out from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Eastern Europe, Western Germany, Northern Europe, South Russia, Hungary etc., chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Swayam Sevaks) remotely controlling own mother’s flesh eaters Bevakoof Jhoothe Psychopaths (BJP) headed by Mad murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) attempting to establish manusmriti based hindutvasthan quit Prabuddha Bharat.
https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sltp/DN_I_utf8.html#pts.211

 Tweet:

Ballot
Papers to replace EVMs to save Democracy, Liberty, Equality, Freedom
and Fraternity. Plant fruit bearing trees through out the world to kill
hunger, remove pain and fear & the for welfare, happiness and peace
for all societies and for them to attain Eternal Bliss.

Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Prabuddha Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make Prabuddha Bharat Buddhist)

      
Now
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha
Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make world Prabuddha Prapanch)


People
have started returning back to their original home Buddhism. The whole
world will follow the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness for
their happiness, welfare and peace to enable them to attain Eternal
Bliss as their Final Goal.

Kevatta
(Kevaddha) Sutta: To Kevatta

Free
Online Step by Step Guide and Practice to Attain Nibbana the Eternal
Bliss in Buddha’s Own Words for Devotees Attired in White Cloth Covered
from Head to Toe in Pure White Snow Fall Environment as in Fourth
Jhana   


Practice a Sutta a Day Keeps Dukkha Away

DN
11
PTS:
D i 211
Kevatta
(Kevaddha) Sutta: To Kevatta
translated
from the Pali by
Thanissaro
Bhikkhu    Š 1997–2011    I have heard that on one
occasion the Blessed One was staying at Nalanda in Pavarika’s mango grove.

Then
Kevatta the householder approached the Blessed One and, on arrival,
having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to
the Blessed One:
“Lord, this Nalanda is powerful, both prosperous and
populous, filled with people who have faith in the Blessed One. It
would be good if the Blessed One were to direct a monk to display a
miracle of psychic power from his superior human state so that Nalanda
would to an even greater extent have faith in the Blessed One.”   

When
this was said, the Blessed One said to Kevatta the householder,
“Kevatta, I don’t teach the monks in this way: ‘Come, monks, display a
miracle of psychic power to the lay people clad in white.’”    A second
time… A third time, Kevatta the householder said to the Blessed One: “I
won’t argue with the Blessed One, but I tell you: Lord, this Nalanda is
powerful, both prosperous and populous, filled with people who have
faith in the Blessed One. It would be good if the Blessed One were to
direct a monk to display a miracle of psychic power from his superior
human state so that Nalanda would to an even greater extent have faith
in the Blessed One.”   

A third time, the Blessed One said to
Kevatta the householder, “Kevatta, I don’t teach the monks in this way:
‘Come, monks, display a miracle of psychic power to the lay people clad
in white.’   

“Kevatta, there are these three miracles that I
have declared, having directly known and realized them for myself. Which
three? The miracle of psychic power, the miracle of telepathy, and the
miracle of instruction.

The Miracle of Psychic Power    “And what
is the miracle of psychic power? There is the case where a monk wields
manifold psychic
powers. Having been one he becomes many; having been
many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded through
walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space. He dives in and out
of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as
if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air like a
winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and
moon, so mighty and powerful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.   

“Then
someone who has faith and conviction in him sees him wielding manifold
psychic powers… exercising influence with his body even as far as the
Brahma worlds. He reports this to someone who has no faith and no
conviction, telling him, ‘Isn’t it awesome. Isn’t it astounding, how
great the power, how great the prowess of this contemplative. Just now I
saw him wielding manifold psychic powers… exercising influence with his
body even as far as the Brahma worlds.’   

“Then the person
without faith, without conviction, would say to the person with faith
and with conviction: ‘Sir, there is a charm called the Gandhari charm by
which the monk wielded manifold psychic powers… exercising influence
with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.’ What do you think,
Kevatta — isn’t that what the man
without faith, without conviction, would say to the man with faith and with conviction?”   

“Yes, lord, that’s just what he would say.”   

“Seeing
this drawback to the miracle of psychic power, Kevatta, I feel
horrified, humiliated, and disgusted with the miracle of psychic
power.   

The Miracle of Telepathy   

“And what is the
miracle of telepathy? There is the case where a monk reads the minds,
the mental events, the thoughts, the ponderings of other beings, other
individuals, [saying,] ‘Such is your thinking, here is where your
thinking is, thus is your mind.’   


“Then
someone who has faith and conviction in him sees him reading the minds…
of other beings… He reports this to someone who has no faith and no
conviction, telling him, ‘Isn’t it awesome. Isn’t it astounding, how
great the power, how great the prowess of
this contemplative. Just now I saw him reading the minds… of other beings…’   

“Then
the person without faith, without conviction, would say to the person
with faith and with conviction: ‘Sir, there is a charm called the Manika
charm by which the monk read the minds… of other beings…’ What do you
think, Kevatta — isn’t that what the man without faith, without
conviction, would say to the man with faith
and with conviction?”   
“Yes, lord, that’s just what he would say.”   

“Seeing
this drawback to the miracle of telepathy, Kevatta, I feel horrified,
humiliated, and disgusted with the miracle of telepathy.   
The
Miracle of Instruction    “And what is the miracle of instruction? There
is the case where a monk gives instruction in this way:
‘Direct your
thought in this way, don’t direct it in that. Attend to things in this
way, don’t attend to them in that. Let go of this, enter and remain in
that.’ This, Kevatta, is called the miracle of instruction.   

“Furthermore, there is the case where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy and rightly self-awakened.

He
teaches the Dhamma admirable in its beginning, admirable in its middle,
admirable in its end. He proclaims the holy life both in its
particulars and in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure.   

“A
householder or householder’s son, hearing the Dhamma, gains conviction
in the Tathagata and reflects: ‘Household life is confining, a dusty
path.

The life gone forth is like the open air. It is not easy
living at home to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally pure,
like a polished
shell. What if I were to shave off my hair and beard, put on the ochre
robes, and go forth from the household life into homelessness?’   

“So
after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large or small; leaves
his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair and beard,
puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into
homelessness.   

“When he has thus gone forth, he lives
restrained by the rules of the monastic code, seeing danger in the
slightest faults. Consummate in his virtue, he guards the doors of his
senses, is possessed of mindfulness and alertness, and is content.

The Lesser Section on Virtue   

“And
how is a monk consummate in virtue? Abandoning the taking of life, he
abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod laid down, his
knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the welfare of
all living beings.

This is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning
the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not
given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what is given, lives
not by stealth but by means of a self that has become pure.

This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning
uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof, refraining from the sexual
act that is the villager’s way. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning
false speech, he abstains from false speech. He speaks the truth, holds
to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the world. This, too,
is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning divisive speech he
abstains from divisive speech. What he has heard here he does not tell
there to break those people apart from these people here.

What he has heard there he does not tell here to break these people apart from those people there.

Thus
reconciling those who have broken apart or cementing those who are
united, he loves concord, delights in concord, enjoys concord, speaks
things that create concord.

This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning
abusive speech, he abstains from abusive speech. He speaks words that
are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate, that go to the heart,
that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at large. This, too,
is part of his virtue.   

“Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains
from idle chatter. He speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is
in accordance with the goal, the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words
worth treasuring, seasonable, reasonable, circumscribed, connected with
the goal.

This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.   

“He eats only once a day, refraining from the evening meal and from food at the wrong time of day.   

“He
abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from watching
shows.    “He abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying
himself with scents and cosmetics.   

“He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.   

“He abstains from accepting gold and money.   

“He
abstains from accepting uncooked grain… raw meat… women and girls… male
and female slaves… goats and sheep… fowl and pigs… elephants, cattle,
steeds, and mares… fields and property.   


“He
abstains from running messages… from buying and selling… from dealing
with false scales, false metals, and false measures… from bribery,
deception, and fraud.   

“He abstains from mutilating,
executing, imprisoning, highway robbery, plunder, and violence.   
“This, too, is part of his virtue.

The Intermediate Section on Virtue    “Whereas some priests and
contemplatives,
living off food given in faith, are addicted to damaging seed and plant
life such as these — plants propagated from roots, stems, joints,
buddings, and seeds — he abstains from damaging seed and plant life such
as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.       

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to consuming stored-up goods such as these — stored-up food,
stored-up drinks, stored-up clothing, stored-up vehicles, stored-up
bedding, stored-up scents, and stored-up meat — he abstains from
consuming stored-up goods such as these.
This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to watching shows such as these — dancing, singing,
instrumental music, plays, ballad recitations, hand-clapping, cymbals
and drums, magic lantern scenes, acrobatic and conjuring tricks,
elephant fights, horse fights, buffalo fights, bull fights, goat fights,
ram fights, cock fights, quail fights; fighting with staves, boxing,
wrestling, war-games, roll calls, battle arrays, and regimental reviews —
he abstains from watching shows such as these.
This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to heedless and idle games such as these — eight-row chess,
ten-row chess, chess in the air, hopscotch, spillikins, dice, stick
games, hand-pictures, ball-games, blowing through toy pipes, playing
with toy plows, turning somersaults, playing with toy windmills, toy
measures, toy chariots, toy bows, guessing letters drawn in the air,
guessing thoughts, mimicking deformities — he abstains from heedless and
idle games such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to high and luxurious furnishings such as these — over-sized
couches, couches adorned with carved animals, long-haired coverlets,
multi-colored patchwork coverlets, white woolen coverlets, woolen
coverlets embroidered with flowers or animal figures, stuffed quilts,
coverlets with fringe, silk coverlets embroidered with gems; large
woolen carpets; elephant, horse, and chariot rugs, antelope-hide rugs,
deer-hide rugs; couches with awnings, couches
with red cushions for
the head and feet — he abstains from using high and luxurious
furnishings such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to scents, cosmetics, and means of beautification such as these
— rubbing powders into the body, massaging with oils, bathing in
perfumed water, kneading the limbs, using mirrors, ointments, garlands,
scents, creams, face-powders, mascara, bracelets, head-bands, decorated
walking sticks, ornamented water-bottles, swords, fancy sunshades,
decorated sandals, turbans,
gems, yak-tail whisks, long-fringed white
robes — he abstains from using scents, cosmetics, and means of
beautification such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to talking about lowly topics such as these — talking about
kings, robbers, ministers of state; armies, alarms, and battles; food
and drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, and scents; relatives;
vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women and heroes;
the gossip of the street and the well; tales of the dead; tales of
diversity [philosophical discussions of the past and future], the
creation of the world and of the sea, and talk of whether things exist
or not — he abstains from talking about lowly topics such
as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are
addicted to debates such as these — ‘You understand this doctrine and
discipline? I’m the one who understands this doctrine and discipline.
How could you understand this doctrine and discipline? You’re practicing
wrongly. I’m practicing rightly. I’m being consistent. You’re not. What
should be said first you said last. What should be said last you said
first. What you took so long to think out has been refuted. Your
doctrine has been overthrown. You’re defeated. Go and try to salvage
your doctrine; extricate yourself if you can!’ — he abstains from
debates such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue. 

 
“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in
faith, are addicted to running messages and errands for people such as
these — kings, ministers of state, noble warriors, priests,
householders, or youths [who say], ‘Go here, go there, take this there,
fetch that here’ — he abstains from running messages and
errands for people such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith, engage
in scheming, persuading, hinting, belittling, and pursuing gain with
gain, he abstains from forms of scheming and persuading [improper ways
of trying to gain material support from donors] such as these. This,
too, is part of his virtue.   

The Great Section on Virtue   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:   
reading marks on the limbs [e.g., palmistry];
reading omens and signs;
interpreting celestial events [falling stars, comets];
interpreting dreams;
reading marks on the body [e.g., phrenology];
reading marks on cloth gnawed by mice;
offering fire oblations, oblations from a ladle, oblations of husks, rice
powder, rice grains, ghee, and oil;
offering oblations from the mouth;
offering blood-sacrifices;
making predictions based on the fingertips;
geomancy;
laying demons in a cemetery;
placing spells on spirits;
reciting house-protection charms;
snake charming, poison-lore, scorpion-lore, rat-lore, bird-lore, crow-lore;
fortune-telling based on visions;
giving protective charms;
interpreting the calls of birds and animals —    he abstains from wrong
livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:
determining lucky and unlucky gems, garments, staffs, swords, spears,
arrows, bows, and other weapons; women, boys, girls, male slaves, female
slaves; elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows,
goats, rams,
fowl, quails, lizards, long-eared rodents, tortoises, and other animals —
he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting:   
the rulers will march forth;
the rulers will march forth and return;
our rulers will attack, and their rulers will retreat;
their rulers will attack, and our rulers will retreat;
there will be triumph for our rulers and defeat for their rulers;
there will be triumph for their rulers and defeat for our rulers;
thus there will be triumph, thus there will be defeat —    he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting:   
there will be a lunar eclipse;
there will be a solar eclipse;
there will be an occultation of an asterism;
the sun and moon will go their normal courses;
the sun and moon will go astray;
the asterisms will go their normal courses;
the asterisms will go astray;
there will be a meteor shower;
there will be a darkening of the sky;
there will be an earthquake;
there will be thunder coming from a clear sky;
there will be a rising, a setting, a darkening, a brightening of the sun, moon, and asterisms;
such
will be the result of the lunar eclipse… the rising, setting,
darkening, brightening of the sun, moon, and asterisms —    he abstains
from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting:   
therewill be abundant rain; there will be a drought;
there will be plenty; there will be famine;
there will be rest and security; there will be danger;
there will be disease; there will be freedom from disease;
or
they earn their living by counting, accounting, calculation, composing
poetry, or teaching hedonistic arts and doctrines —   
he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   

“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:   
calculating
auspicious dates for marriages, betrothals, divorces; for collecting
debts or making investments and loans; for being attractive or
unattractive; curing women who have undergone miscarriages or abortions;
reciting spells to bind a man’s tongue, to paralyze his jaws, to make
him lose control over his hands, or to bring on deafness;
getting oracular answers to questions addressed to a mirror, to a young girl, or to a spirit medium;
worshipping the sun, worshipping the Great Brahma, bringing
forth flames from the mouth, invoking the goddess of luck —   
he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.   


“Whereas
some priests and contemplatives, living off food given in faith,
maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:   
promising
gifts to devas in return for favors; fulfilling such promises;
demonology;
teaching house-protection spells;
inducing virility and impotence;
consecrating sites for construction;
giving ceremonial mouthwashes and ceremonial bathing;
offering sacrificial fires;
preparing emetics, purgatives, expectorants, diuretics, headache cures;
preparing
ear-oil, eye-drops, oil for treatment through the nose, collyrium, and
counter-medicines; curing cataracts, practicing surgery, practicing as a
children’s doctor, administering medicines and treatments to cure their
after-effects —
he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.   

“A monk thus consummate
in
virtue sees no danger anywhere from his restraint through virtue. Just
as a head-anointed noble warrior king who has defeated his
enemies
sees no danger anywhere from his enemies, in the same way the monk thus
consummate in virtue sees no danger anywhere from his restraint through
virtue.

Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, he is
inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless. This is how a
monk is consummate in virtue.

Sense Restraint   

“And how
does a monk guard the doors of his senses? On seeing a form with the
eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which — if he were to
dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil, unskillful
qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On hearing a sound
with the ear… On smelling an odor with the nose… On tasting a flavor
with the tongue… On touching a tactile sensation with the body… On
cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at any theme or
details by which — if he were to dwell without restraint
over the
faculty of the intellect — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or
distress might assail him. Endowed with this noble restraint over the
sense faculties, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being
blameless.

This is how a monk guards the doors of his senses.

Mindfulness & Alertness   

“And
how is a monk possessed of mindfulness and alertness? When going
forward and returning, he acts with alertness. When looking toward and
looking away… when bending and extending his limbs… when carrying his
outer cloak, his upper robe, and his bowl… when eating, drinking,
chewing, and tasting… when urinating and defecating… when walking,
standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up,
talking, and remaining silent, he acts with alertness.

This is how a monk is possessed of mindfulness and alertness.
Contentedness   

“And
how is a monk content? Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its
wings as its only burden; so too is he content with a set of robes to
provide for his body and almsfood to provide for his hunger. Wherever he
goes, he takes only his barest necessities along. This is how a monk is
content.

Abandoning the Hindrances   

“Endowed with this
noble aggregate of virtue, this noble restraint over the sense
faculties, this noble mindfulness and alertness, and this noble
contentment, he seeks out a secluded dwelling: a forest, the shade of a
tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle
grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After his meal, returning from his
alms round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body
erect, and brings mindfulness to the fore.   

“Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness.

He
cleanses his mind of covetousness. Abandoning ill will and anger, he
dwells with an awareness devoid of ill will, sympathetic with the
welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his mind of ill will and
anger. Abandoning sloth & drowsiness, he dwells with an awareness
devoid of sloth & drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipient of light.
He cleanses his mind of sloth & drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness
and anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He
cleanses his mind of restlessness and anxiety.

Abandoning
uncertainty, he dwells having crossed over uncertainty, with no
perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities. He cleanses his
mind of uncertainty.   

“Suppose that a man, taking a loan, invests it in his business affairs. His business affairs succeed.

He
repays his old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining his
wife. The thought would occur to him, ‘Before, taking a loan, I invested
it in my business affairs. Now my business affairs have succeeded. I
have repaid my old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining my wife.’

Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.   

“Now
suppose that a man falls sick — in pain and seriously ill. He does not
enjoy his meals, and there is no strength in his body. As time passes,
he eventually recovers from that sickness. He enjoys his meals and there
is strength in his body. The thought would occur to him, ‘Before, I was
sick… Now I am recovered from that sickness. I enjoy my meals and there
is strength in my body.’ Because of that he would experience joy and
happiness.

“Now suppose that a man is bound in prison. As time
passes, he eventually is released from that bondage, safe and sound,
with no loss of property.

The thought would occur to him,
‘Before, I was bound in prison. Now I am released from that bondage,
safe and sound, with no loss of my property.’ Because of that he would
experience joy and happiness.

“In the same way, when these five
hindrances are not abandoned in himself, the monk regards it as a debt, a
sickness, a prison, slavery, a road through desolate country. But when
these five hindrances are abandoned in himself, he regards it as
unindebtedness, good health, release from prison, freedom, a place of
security.

Seeing that they have been abandoned within him, he
becomes glad. Glad, he becomes enraptured. Enraptured, his body grows
tranquil. His body tranquil, he is sensitive to pleasure. Feeling
pleasure, his mind becomes concentrated.

The Four Jhanas

“Quite
withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities,
he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from
withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation.

He
permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the
rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. Just as if a skilled bathman
or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and
knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that his
ball of bath powder — saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and
without — would nevertheless not drip;
even so, the monk permeates… this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of withdrawal.

There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

“Furthermore,
with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and
remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure,
unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation —
internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this
very body with the rapture and pleasure
born of composure. Just like a lake with spring-water welling
up
from within, having no inflow from the east, west, north, or south, and
with the skies supplying abundant showers time and again, so that the
cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate and
pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no part of
the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates…
this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is
nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of
composure.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

“And
furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous,
mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters &
remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare,
‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’
He permeates
and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure
divested of rapture. Just as in a lotus pond, some of the
lotuses,
born and growing in the water, stay immersed in the water and flourish
without standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated and
pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water from their roots to their
tips, and nothing of those lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water;
even so, the monk permeates… this very body with the pleasure divested
of rapture.

There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

“And
furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress — as with the
earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and remains in
the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness,
neither-pleasure nor stress. He sits, permeating the body with a pure,
bright awareness.
Just as if a man were sitting covered from head to
foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to
which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating
the body with a pure, bright awareness.

There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.


Insight Knowledge

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He
discerns: ‘This body of mine is endowed with form, composed
of the
four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice
and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution,
and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here and
bound up here.’ Just as if there were a beautiful beryl gem of the
purest water — eight faceted, well polished, clear, limpid, consummate
in all its aspects, and going through the middle of it was a blue,
yellow, red, white, or brown thread — and a man with good eyesight,
taking it in his hand, were to reflect on it thus: ‘This is a beautiful
beryl gem of the purest water, eight faceted, well polished, clear,
limpid, consummate in all its aspects. And this, going through the
middle of it, is a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.’

In
the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge and
vision. He discerns: ‘This body of mine is endowed with form, composed
of the four primary elements, born from mother and father, nourished
with rice and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing,
dissolution, and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported
here and bound up here.’

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

The Mind-made Body

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made
body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with form, made of
the mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its
faculties.

Just as if a man were to draw a reed from its sheath. The thought would occur to him: ‘This is the sheath, this is the reed.

The
sheath is one thing, the reed another, but the reed has been drawn out
from the sheath.’ Or as if a man were to draw a sword from its
scabbard.
The thought would occur to him: ‘This is the sword, this is the
scabbard. The sword is one thing, the scabbard another, but the sword
has been drawn out from the scabbard.’ Or as if a man were to pull a
snake out from its slough. The thought would occur to him: ‘This is the
snake, this is the slough. The snake is one thing, the slough another,
but the snake has been pulled out from the slough.’ In the same way —
with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to creating a
mind-made body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with
form, made of the mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its
faculties.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

Supranormal Powers

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the modes of supranormal
powers.

He wields manifold supranormal powers. Having been one
he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He
vanishes. He goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if
through space. He dives in and out of the earth
as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land.

Sitting
cross-legged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With his hand
he touches and strokes even the sun and moon, so mighty and powerful.

He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.

Just as a skilled potter or his assistant could craft from
well-prepared clay whatever kind of pottery vessel he likes, or
as a skilled ivory-carver or his assistant could craft from well-prepared
ivory any kind of ivory-work he likes, or as a skilled goldsmith
or
his assistant could craft from well-prepared gold any kind of gold
article he likes; in the same way — with his mind thus concentrated,
purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable,
steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk directs and
inclines it to the modes of supranormal powers… He exercises influence
with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

Mind Reading

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of other
beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness.

He
discerns a mind with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without
passion as a mind without passion. He discerns a mind with aversion as a
mind with aversion, and a mind without aversion as a mind without
aversion.

He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind with
delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He
discerns a restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as
a scattered mind. He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and
an unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind.

He discerns an
excelled mind [one that is not at the most excellent level] as an
excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind as an unexcelled mind. He discerns
a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind, and an unconcentrated mind
as an unconcentrated mind.

He discerns a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind.

Just
as if a young woman — or man — fond of ornaments, examining the
reflection of her own face in a bright mirror or a bowl of clear water
would know ‘blemished’ if it were blemished, or ‘unblemished’ if it were
not. In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and
bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and
attained to imperturbability — the monk directs and
inclines it to
knowledge of the awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of
other beings, other individuals, having encompassed it with his own
awareness.

He discerns a mind with passion as a mind with
passion, and a mind without passion as a mind without passion… a
released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an
unreleased mind.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

Recollection of Past Lives

“With
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
recollection of past lives (lit: previous homes).

He recollects
his manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two births, three births,
four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one
thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of cosmic contraction, many
aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic contraction and
expansion, [recollecting], ‘There I had such a name, belonged to such a
clan, had such an appearance.

Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life.

Passing
away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name,
belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such
my experience of pleasure and pain, such the end of my life.

Passing
away from that state, I re-arose here.’ Thus he recollects his manifold
past lives in their modes and details. Just as if a man were to go from
his home village to another village, and then from that village to yet
another village, and then from that village back to his home village.

The thought would occur to him, ‘I went from my home village to that village over there.

There
I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, talked in such a way, and
remained silent in such a way. From that village I went to that village
over there, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, talked
in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I
came back home.’ In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated,
purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable,
steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk
directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives.

He recollects his manifold past lives… in their modes and details.

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.


The Ending of Mental Fermentations

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of
the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to
be, that ‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This
is the cessation of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of
stress…  These are mental fermentations…

This
is the origination of fermentations… This is the cessation of
fermentations… This is the way leading to the cessation of
fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from
the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the
fermentation of ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge,
‘Released.’
He discerns that ‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task
done. There is nothing further for this world.’ Just as if there
were
a pool of water in a mountain glen — clear, limpid, and unsullied —
where a man with good eyesight standing on the bank could see shells,
gravel, and pebbles, and also shoals of fish swimming about and resting,
and it would occur to him, ‘This pool of water is clear, limpid, and
unsullied.

Here are these shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also
these shoals of fish swimming about and resting.’ In the same way — with
his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free
from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of
the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to
be, that ‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This is the
cessation
of stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of
stress… These are mental fermentations… This is the origination of
fermentations…
This is the cessation of fermentations… This is the
way leading to the cessation of fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing,
thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of sensuality, the
fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With release,
there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended,
the holy life fulfilled, the task done.

There is nothing further for this world.’

“This, too, is called the miracle of instruction.

“These are the three miracles that I declare, Kevatta, having directly known and realized them for myself.

Conversations with the Gods

“Once,
Kevatta, this train of thought arose in the awareness of a certain monk
in this very community of monks: ‘Where do these four great elements —
the earth property, the liquid property, the fire property, and the wind
property — cease without remainder?’ Then he attained to such a state
of concentration that the way leading to the gods appeared in his
centered mind. So he approached the gods of
the retinue of the Four
Great Kings and, on arrival, asked them, ‘Friends, where do these four
great elements — the earth property, the liquid property, the fire
property, and the wind property — cease without remainder?’

“When
this was said, the gods of the retinue of the Four Great Kings said to
the monk, ‘We also don’t know where the four great elements… cease
without remainder. But there are the Four Great Kings who are higher and
more sublime than we.

They should know where the four great elements… cease without remainder.’

“So
the monk approached the Four Great Kings and, on arrival, asked them,
‘Friends, where do these four great elements… cease without remainder?’

“When
this was said, the Four Great Kings said to the monk, ‘We also don’t
know where the four great elements… cease without remainder. But there
are the gods of the Thirty-three who are higher and more sublime than
we. They should know…’

“So the monk approached the gods of the
Thirty-three and, on arrival, asked them, ‘Friends, where do these four
great elements… cease without remainder?’

“When this was said,
the gods of the Thirty-three said to the monk, ‘We also don’t know where
the four great elements… cease without remainder. But there is Sakka,
the ruler of the gods, who is higher and more sublime than we. He should
know… ‘

“So the monk approached Sakka, the ruler of the gods,
and, on arrival, asked him, ‘Friend, where do these four great elements…
cease without remainder?’

“When this was said, Sakka, the ruler
of the gods, said to the monk, ‘I also don’t know where the four great
elements… cease without remainder. But there are the Yama gods who are
higher and more sublime than I. They should know…’…

“The Yama gods said, ‘We also don’t know… But there is the god named Suyama… He should know…’…

“Suyama said, ‘I also don’t know… But there is the god named Santusita… He should know…’…

“Santusita said, ‘I also don’t know… But there are the Nimmanarati gods…
They should know…’… 


“The Nimmanarati gods
said, ‘We also don’t know… But there is the god named Sunimmita…
He should know…’…
“Then
the Great Brahma, taking the monk by the arm and leading him off to one
side, said to him, ‘These gods of the retinue of Brahma believe, “There
is nothing that the Great Brahma does not know.

There is nothing that the Great Brahma does not see.

There is nothing of which the Great Brahma is unaware.

There
is nothing that the Great Brahma has not realized.” That is why I did
not say in their presence that I, too, don’t know where the four great
elements… cease without remainder.

So you have acted wrongly, acted incorrectly, in bypassing the
Blessed
One in search of an answer to this question elsewhere. Go right back to
the Blessed One and, on arrival, ask him this question. However he
answers it, you should take it to heart.’

“Then — just as a
strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm — the
monk disappeared from the Brahma world and immediately appeared in front
of me. Having bowed down to me, he sat to one side. As he was sitting
there he said to me, ‘Lord, where do these four great elements — the
earth property, the liquid property,
the fire property, and the wind property — cease without remainder?’

King Ashoka’s gift of life for trees

And
the exemplar who has made officialdom take a relook at at its
chopping-happy ways is none other than fabled Mauryan emperor Ashoka.The
whole world will incorporate Ashokan principles in nurturing and
safeguarding roadside fruit-bearing saplings/trees in urban and
non-urban areas.Mauryan emperor was the first to promote and champion
the concept of roadside trees.“At a time when we are losing our trees on
an everyday basis,we should go back and observe what he did.

Taking
a cue from Ashoka, If you look at the areas which once covered by the
Mauryan kingdom, or Delhi, world will appreciate the importance of
roadside trees,”“Ashokan principles will help the forest department in
conserving trees for longer periods.

He deliberately chose one
species for each road. Mixing of species at close intervals can affect
the survival of trees. We will focus on a single species for an entire
stretch.”

“Ashoka vested the ownership of roadside trees in the
local people. While the government will oversee the nurturing of the
sapling, the ownership of the tree at a later stage will be given over
to the locals.”

“It is not possible to completely ban cutting of
trees, but (with the new measures) it will be minimised to a great
extent.”Forests provide the basic life support system to all the living
beings of mother earth including mankind.

Forest ecosystems
provide fresh air, water resources, fertile soil for sustenance of
agriculture, bio-diversity, climate change mitigation and numerous other
ecosystem services.

Vast sections of rural society, including a majority of the tribals, are directly dependent on forests for their livelihood.

World
Forest Departments have the primary mandate of protecting the forests
and wildlife, conserving the rich biodiversity of the world and ensuring
that the ecological balance of the forest eco-systems is maintained.

All the world forest Departments must be headed by Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Head of Forest Force(HOFF).

The Departments must have working strength including World Forest Service Officers and officers/ field staff of various cadres.
The
world a network of Protected Areas with Tiger Reserves, Wildlife
Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and 1 Community Reserve.

The
work carried out by the Departments can be broadly classified into the
following categories: regulatory, protection, conservation and
sustainable management.

As part of the regulatory functions, the
departments must enforce provisions of various legislations such as
World Forest Act, Wildlife Protection Act, Forest (Conservation) Act,
World Preservation of Trees Act, etc. and corresponding rules.
Protection functions include, boundary consolidation, protection of
forest areas from encroachment, illicit-felling, mitigation of
human-wildlife conflict, undertaking fire prevention and control
measures etc.

The conservation functions include taking up of
plantation works, soil-moisture conservation and watershed development
works for water security, conservation of rare, endangered and
threatened (RET) species and conducting awareness activities to
sensitize all sections of the society on the importance of forests,
wildlife and biodiversity. In territorial areas, the departments must
also be involved in sustainable extraction and marketing of timber and
other forest produce as per the specifications of the Working Plans.

The
Departments must also be engaged on a large scale in promoting
agro-forestry through incentivization to support farmer’s income.


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/04/140408122316.htm

Humans
are unique in their ability to acquire language. But how? A new study
published in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences shows
that we are in fact born with the basic fundamental knowledge of
language, thus shedding light on the age-old linguistic “nature vs
nurture” debate.

While languages differ from each other in many ways, certain aspects appear to be shared across languages.

These aspects might stem from linguistic principles that are active in all human brains.

A natural question then arises: are infants born with knowledge of how the human words might sound like?

Are
infants biased to consider certain sound sequences as more word-like
than others? “The results of this new study suggest that, the sound
patterns of human languages are the product of an inborn biological
instinct, very much like birdsong,” said Prof. Iris Berent of
Northeastern University in Boston, who co-authored the study with a
research team from the International School of Advanced Studies in
Italy, headed by Dr. Jacques Mehler.

The study’s first author is
Dr. David GĂłmez.BLA, ShBA, LBAConsider, for instance, the
sound-combinations that occur at the beginning of words.

While
many languages have words that begin by bl (e.g., blando in Italian,
blink in English, and blusa in Spanish), few languages have words that
begin with lb. Russian is such a language (e.g., lbu, a word related to
lob, “forehead”), but even in Russian such words are extremely rare and
outnumbered by words starting with bl. Linguists have suggested that
such patterns occur because human brains are biased to favor syllables
such as bla over lba.

In line with this possibility, past
experimental research from Dr. Berent’s lab has shown that adult
speakers display such preferences, even if their native language has no
words resembling either bla or lba. But where does this knowledge stem
from? Is it due to some universal linguistic principle, or to adults’
lifelong experience with listening and producing their native language?
The Experiment
These
questions motivated our team to look carefully at how young babies
perceive different types of words. We used near-infrared spectroscopy, a
silent and non-invasive technique that tells us how the oxygenation of
the brain cortex (those very first centimeters of gray matter just below
the scalp) changes in time, to look at the brain reactions of Italian
newborn babies when listening to good and bad word candidates as
described above (e.g., blif, lbif).Working with Italian newborn infants
and their families, we observed that newborns react differently to good
and bad word candidates, similar to what adults do.

Young
infants have not learned any words yet, they do not even babble yet, and
still they share with us a sense of how words should sound.

This
finding shows that we are born with the basic, foundational knowledge
about the sound pattern of human languages.It is hard to imagine how
differently languages would sound if humans did not share such type of
knowledge. We are fortunate that we do, and so our babies can come to
the world with the certainty that they will readily recognize the sound
patterns of words-no matter the language they will grow up with.

How many languages are there in the world?

7,117 languages are spoken today.

That
number is constantly in flux, because we’re learning more about the
world’s languages every day. And beyond that, the languages themselves
are in flux.
 
They’re living and dynamic, spoken by communities whoselives are shaped by our rapidly changing world.
This is a fragile time:
Roughly
40% of languages are now endangered, often with less than 1,000
speakers remaining. Meanwhile, just 23 languages account for more than
half the world’s population.

When a just born baby is kept
isolated without anyone communicating with the baby, after a few days it
will speak and human natural (Prakrit) language known as Classical
Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit, Classical
Hela Basa (Hela Language), Classical Pāḡi which are the same. Buddha
spoke in Magadhi.

All the 7111 languages and dialects are off
shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in
nature (Prakrit) of Human Beings, just like all other living speices
have their own naturallanguages for communication. 116languages are
translated by https://translate.google.com

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_language

The
origin of language and its evolutionary emergence in the human species
have been subjects of speculation for several centuries. The topic is
difficult to study because of the lack of direct evidence.


Consequently,
scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences
from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record, archaeological
evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language
acquisition and comparisons between human language and systems of
communication existing among animals (particularly other primates). Many
argue that the origins of language probably relate closely to the
origins of modern human behavior, but there is little agreement about
the implications and directionality of this connection.’

Language origin hypotheses

Early speculations

 I
cannot doubt that language owes its origin to the imitation and
modification, aided by signs and gestures, of various natural sounds,
the voices of other animals, and man’s own instinctive cries.
 â€” Charles Darwin, 1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex.

In
1861, historical linguist Max MĂźller published a list of speculative
theories concerning the origins of spoken language: Bow-wow. The bow-wow
or cuckoo theory, which MĂźller attributed to the German philosopher
Johann Gottfried Herder, saw early words as imitations of the cries of
beasts and birds. Pooh-pooh. The pooh-pooh theory saw the first words as
emotional interjections and exclamations triggered by pain, pleasure,
surprise, etc. Ding-dong. MĂźller suggested what he called the ding-dong
theory, which states that all things have a vibrating natural resonance,
echoed somehow by man in his earliest words. Yo-he-ho.

The
yo-he-ho theory claims language emerged from collective rhythmic labor,
the attempt to synchronize muscular effort resulting in sounds such as
heave alternating with sounds such as ho. Ta-ta.

This did not feature in Max MĂźller’s list, having been proposed in 1930 by Sir Richard Paget.

According
to the ta-ta theory, humans made the earliest words by tongue movements
that mimicked manual gestures, rendering them audible.Most scholars
today consider all such theories not so much wrong—they occasionally
offer peripheral insights—as naïve and irrelevant.The problem with these
theories is that they are so narrowly mechanistic. They assume that
once our ancestors had stumbled upon the appropriate ingenious mechanism
for linking sounds with meanings, language automatically evolved and
changed.


King Ashoka’s gift of life for trees
And
the exemplar who has made officialdom take a relook at its
chopping-happy ways is none other than fabled Mauryan emperor
Ashoka.https://www.counterview.net/2020/12/farmers-stir-82-groups-from-25.html?
Mad
murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) must be forced to quit the
country as he gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs and
agitate to bring back Ballot Papers to save Democracy.
Farmers’ stir:
82 groups from 25 countries ask Mad Murderer of democratic institutions
(Modi) who gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs to repeal
3 laws
Thursday, December 17, 2020

International
organisations and individuals from more than 25 countries, extending
their solidarity to the ongoing farmers’ agitation, have called it “a
beacon of hope to the millions who have been ridden over roughshod by
the current government”, said Countries’ premier civil society network,
National Alliance of People’s Movements (NAPM), distributing a statement
by tens of groups from across the world.
The statement, signed by
82 people’s organisations, civil society groups, social movements and
concerned individuals, said, they consider the enactment of the three
farm laws as “subversion of democratic norms”. Calling the three laws
“pro-corporate” against “farmers, workers and toiling masses”, the
signatories urged the Government of India (GoI) to talk to farmers and
repeal the three laws immediately.

The statement comes close on
the heel of the wide global coverage of the agitation in international
media and demonstrations organized in several European and North
American cities by Indian diaspora and others, as also questions raised
in the British Parliament on the way the farmers’ protests have been
treated by the GoI.

Text:

We stand in solidarity with the
ongoing historic farmers protest in India and extend support to their
demands. On June 5, 2020, amidst the spread of Covid-19 pandemic, the
Government of India hastily passed three ordinances namely Farmers’
Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020;
Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and
Farm Services Act, 2020; and Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act,
2020.
By September 2020, these ordinances were made into law without
sufficient parliamentary discussion or any talks with the farmer’s
representative and its possible ramifications on their lives.

It
is worrying to see the subversion of democratic norms and enactment of
pro-corporate laws against farmers, workers and toiling masses. India
already witnessed a huge humanitarian crisis in wake of the strict
lockdown and millions of migrant workers, small and marginal farmers
were left to fend for themselves, as the institutional mechanisms were
not set in place to safeguard them.
There is an unfolding economic
crisis but rather than taking steps to help people, another set of
anti-people laws have been passed further affecting millions of people
again.
The farms bills are going to affect not only the farmers of
India but also the agricultural workers, small traders, and common
people and promote large scale corporate control of the farming sector
impacting the food security and sovereignty.

Farmers and workers
have been protesting these laws since its inception and then passage in
the Parliament. With the demand to repeal these three farm laws,
Thousands of farmers from across India started their march towards Delhi
on November 25, 2020. They were stopped at the State borders, brutally
lathi charged, and faced tear gas shells and water cannons on the way.
They
are camping for two weeks now at the borders of Delhi and were joined
by trade unions, small traders associations, feminist organisations and
others in their call for all India strike on December 8th. Support from
different parts of the world has been pouring in too and farmers protest
have also stood with the political prisoners in the country ,
broadening the ambit of the struggle for social justice.
We urge the
Modi to talk to farmers and repeal these anti farmer laws. We stand in
solidarity with the farmers and agrarian workers in their strike for
justice, freedom and sovereignty,

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