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06/23/21
ESSON 4010 Thu 24 Jun 2021 Swim Mindfully Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did 8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal. Positive good news June24th Phowa Practice with H.E. Choeje Ayang Rinpoche This will become true According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka
Posted by: site admin @ 2:50 pm

LESSON 4010 A Thu 24 Jun 2021

Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed.

Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as did by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

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Buddha said “Hunger is the worst kind of illness” Manimegalai fed the hungry with AMUDHA SURABI which never became empty even as many people were fed.

Earth is AMUDHA SURABI where vegetables and fruit trees could be planted as did by Ashoka Chakravarti. Like the birds humans can feed on raw fruits and vegetables and live happily with peace and attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

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Swim Mindfully

Propagate growing vegan and dwarf fruit bearing trees in homes and spread all over the world like Samrat Ashoka did

8800662528 Registration to be part of largest Kushinara NIBBĀNA reclining Awakened One with Awareness Universe for Welfare, Happiness and Peace for all Societies by 3-12-2021 and for them to attain Eternal Bliss as their Final Goal.

Positive good news

June24th Phowa Practice with H.E. Choeje Ayang Rinpoche

This will become true

According to the University of Singapore survey/review based on 131 countries. From June 18, world will be 100% free and happy from December 8th. Their predictions about Italy and Spain fit exactly.

Positive good news

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Theravada Buddha Sasana – The State Samgha Maha Nayaka Committee

Theravada Buddha Sasana – The State Samgha Maha Nayaka Committee

Theravada Buddha Sasana
The Bhikkhu Subhadda, a recluse, said that the Buddha demised (entered the Parinibbana) so we do not need to follow the rules which were laid down by the Buddha. Ashin Mahakassapa Mahathera remorsed about the speech of the recluse. Therefore, Ashin Mahakasappa Mahathera exhorted to hold the First Buddhist Council. “Handa Mayam avuso dhammanca Sangayissama, Pure adhammo dibbati, dhammo patibahiyyati, pure avinayo dibbati, vinayo patibahiyyati, Pure adhammavadino balavanto honti, vinayavadino dubbala honti. (Vi-4, 481, VI, tha, 1; 6)
Ashin Mahakassapa Mhathera preached as follow:
”O Bhikkhu! Before the Adhammavada which is not the Teaching of the Buddha would strengthen; before the Dhamma, the Teaching of the Buddha would be forbidden; before the wrong disciplines (Vinaya) would prevail; before the right disciplines (Vinaya) would be forbidden; before the persons who are Adhammavadi (Micchaditthi) would strengthen; before the persons who are Dhammavadi (Right persons) would become weaker; before the Bhikkhus who do not practise laws or disciplines (Vinaya) would strengthen; before the Bhikkhus who do practise laws or disciplines (Vinaya) would become weaker; Let us hold the First Buddhist Council in the Buddha‘s Dhammavinaya.”
”Samgho apannattam nappannapeti, pannattam na samucchindati, yatha pannattesu sikkhapadesu samadaya vattati” (Vi, 4, 485)
Ashin Mahakassapa Mahathera laid down the policy thus: ”The Samgha do not lay down the laws or disciplines (Vinaya) which the Buddha had not laid down; do not reject the laws or disciplines (Vinaya) which the Buddha had laid down. We should practise in the following disciplines (Vinaya) which were laid down by the Buddha.” And the First Buddhist Council was held by the admonishment of Ashin Mahakassapa.
As Ashin Mahakassapa preached the Pitaka, the Dhamma Vinaya of the Buddha which contains Pali, Atthakatha, Tika, and these were collectively recorded by reciting from the First to the Six Buddhist Council is called ” Theravada Buddha Sasana.”

https://www.lkouniv.ac.in/site/writereaddata/siteContent/202003281457068261piyush_Buddhism_Myanmar2.pdf

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PĀLI CANON
• Pali Canon: Vinaya Piṭaka – Bộ Luật tạng
TIPIṬAKA

PĀLI CANON
• Pali Canon: Vinaya Piṭaka – Bộ Luật tạng
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Digha Nikaya – Kinh Trường Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Majjhima Nikaya – Kinh Trung Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Anguttara Nikaya – Kinh Tăng Chi Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Samyutta Nikaya – Kinh Tương Ưng Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Khuddaka Nikaya – Kinh Tiểu Bộ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Dhammasangani | Dhammasaṅgaṇī (Buddhist Psychological Ethics) – Bộ Pháp Tụ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Vibhanga | Vibhaṅga (The Book of Analysis) – Bộ Phân Tích
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Patthana | Tikapaṭṭhāna (Conditional Relations) – Bộ Vị Trí
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Dhatukatha | Dhātukathā (Discourse on Elements) – Bộ Chất Ngữ
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Puggalapannatti | Puggalapaññatti (A Designation of Human Types) – Bộ Nhân Chế Định
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Kathavatthu | Kathāvatthu (Points of Controversy) – Bộ Ngữ Tông
TIPIṬAKA
• Pali Canon: Yamaka (The Book of Pairs) – Bộ Song Đối
TIPIṬAKA
SANSKRIT CANON
• The Titles of The Taisho Tripitaka
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 阿含部 | Āgama | Bộ A Hàm | T.001 – T.0151
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 本緣部 | Jātaka | Bộ Bản Duyên | T.0152 – T.0219
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 般若部 | Prajñāpāramitā | Bộ Bát Nhã | T.0220 – T.0261
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 法華部 | Saddharma Puṇḍarīka | Bộ Pháp Hoa | T.0262 – T.0277
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 華嚴部 | Avataṃsaka | Bộ Hoa Nghiêm | T.0278 – T.0309
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 寶積部 | Ratnakūṭa | Bộ Bảo Tích | T.0310 – T.0373
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 單譯經 | Parinirvāṇa | Bộ Niết Bàn | T.0374 – T.0396
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 大集部 | Mahāsannipāta | Bộ Đại Tập | T.0397 – T.0424
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 集義論 | Collected Sūtras | Bộ Kinh Tập | T.0425 – T.0847
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 密教部 | Esoteric Teachings | Bộ Mật giáo | T.0848 – T.1420
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 律部 | Vinaya | Bộ Luật Tạng | T.1421 – T.1504
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 釋經論部 | Interpreting Sutras Shastra Division | Bộ Thích Kinh Luận | T.1505 – T.1535
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 毗曇部 | Abhidharma Division | Bộ Tỳ Đàm | T.1536 – T.1563
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 中觀部類 | Madhyamika Division | Bộ Trung Quán | T.1564 – T.1578
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 瑜伽部類 | Yogacari Division | Bộ Du Già | T.1579 – T.1627
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 論集部 | Shastra Accumulation Division | Bộ Luận Tập | T.1628 – T.1692
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 經疏部 | Sutra Shastra Division | Bộ Kinh Sớ | T.1693 – T.1803
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 律疏部 | Vinaya Shastra Division All | Bộ Luật Sớ | T.1804 – T.1815
TRIPIṬAKA
• Sanskrit Canon: 論疏部 | Treatises Shastra Division | Bộ Luận Sớ | T.1816 – T.1851

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)
Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana) in Theravada Buddhism By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara Introduction Buddhism is the teaching of the Lord Gautama Buddha who lived in Norther…

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)

ariubey
2 years ago
Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana)
in Theravada Buddhism
By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara
Introduction
Buddhism is the teaching of the Lord Gautama Buddha who lived in Northern India during the sixth and fifth centuries BC. The Buddha attained full enlightenment and became a Samma Sambuddha, meaning that the Buddha realised the four Noble Truths without assistance from any teacher. Theravada Buddhism, “Thera” meaning elders and “Vada” meaning doctrine and hence the “Doctrine of the Elders” is the most conservative and oldest known tradition of Buddhism which is based on the original doctrine of the Buddha recorded in the form of three baskets (tipitaka) in the Pali language. Theravada Buddhism is also known as “Southern Buddhism” as it is mainly practised by the Buddhists in South and Southeast Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.
Throughout the 45 years from enlightenment at the age of 35 to passing away at the age of 80, Lord Gautama Buddha comforted the bereaved with consoling words, ministered to the sick that were deserted, helped the poor that were neglected, ennobled the lives of the deluded, purified the corrupted lives of criminals, encouraged the feeble, united the divided, enlightened the ignorant, clarified the mystic, guided the benighted, elevated the base and dignified the noble (1). The Buddha through compassion for other beings travelled from place to place mainly in North Eastern India teaching the path out of suffering to a diverse range of people including kings and rulers, followers of other religions and ordinary people from all walks of life. After listening to the Buddha’s teaching, vast numbers of people became the Buddha’s disciples and followers many of whom attained various stages of the path of liberation or Nibbana and escaped from suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara).
Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana)
Dispensation of a Buddha is generally known by the term “sasana” deriving from the root “sas” in the Pali language meaning to preach or to instruct. Buddha’s dispensation, which can also be described as Buddhist doctrine, Buddha’s instructions or the legacy of the Buddha, includes the teachings consisting of the Buddhist doctrine discovered and preached by the Buddha and the disciplinary rules formulated by the Buddha for the benefit of the Buddhist monastic community. The dispensation of a Buddha is named after the name of the last Buddha to have existed. In the Buddhist literature at least 28 previous Buddhas including the Lord Gautama Buddha had been mentioned and the present dispensation is known as the Gautama Buddha sasana as it consists of the teachings of the Lord Gautama Buddha.
In the Buddhist literature it can be noted that there are a few different interpretations attached to the term Buddha sasana. One such interpretation is that it denotes the period of 5000 years following the passing away (parinibbana) of a Buddha during which the dispensation of a particular Buddha is said to exist. It is said that during this period of 5000 years it is possible for those interested to practise the Buddhist teachings and attain the expected result of enlightenment (Nibbana) and escape from suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara). Another interpretation is that it refers to the community of Buddhist monastics consisting of Buddhist monks and nuns. In this paper the Buddha sasana is considered in terms of the tri-partite division of the doctrine of the Lord Gautama Buddha into the teaching, practice and the realisation of the teaching as a result of the practice.
Three Aspects of the Buddha’s dispensation (buddha sasana)
1 Pariyatti sasana – the theory of the Buddhist doctrine
2 Patipatti sasana – the practice of the Buddhist doctrine

In addition to observing the ten precepts of moral discipline, Buddhist monks are expected to observe 227 additional rules of discipline and Buddhist nuns are expected to observe 311 additional rules of discipline.
The 227 disciplinary rules for Buddhist monks consist of the following eight groups:
1 The four rules which, if broken, will lead to expulsion from the bhikkhu community (parajika)
2 The thirteen rules which, if broken, will lead to meetings with the bhikkhus (sanghadisesa)
3 The two rules which are indefinite (aniyata)
4 The thirty rules which, if broken, will lead to redemption and penalty (nissaggiya—pacittiya)
5 The ninety two rules which, if broken, will lead to redemption (pacittiya)
6 The four rules which, if broken, will require a confession (patidesaniya)
7 The seventy five rules concerning proper behaviour (sekhiya)
8 The seven procedures for settling legal issues (adhikaranasamatha)
The basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka) contains mainly the discourses delivered by the Buddha during the forty five year period from His Enlightenment to His passing away (parinibbana). The Sutta Pitaka also contains a few discourses delivered by the chief Arahants such as the Venerable Sariputta, Venerable Moggallana and Venerable Ananda. It is divided into five collections (nikaya):
1 Collection of long discourses (digha nikaya): consisting of 34 long discourses such as Brahmajala sutta, Samannphala sutta, Mahaparinibbana sutta, Mahasatipatthana sutta, etc., divided into three sections (vaggas)
2 Collection of middle length discourses (majjhima nikaya): consisting of 152 middle length discourses divided into 15 sections (vaggas)
3 Collection of connected discourses (samyutta nikaya): consisting of 2,889 discourses divided into five sections (vaggas) and grouped into 56 specific doctrines or themes (samyuttas)
4 Collection of numerical discourses (anguttara nikaya): consisting of 2,308 suttas in 11 groups (nipatas) grouped numerically from one to eleven
5 Collection of minor discourses (khuddaka nikaya): consisting of 15 divisions of a variety of small discourses and others such as Khuddaka patha, Dhammapada, jataka stories, udana, itivuttaka, sutta nipatha, vimanavatthu, petavatthu, theragatha, therigatha, niddesa, patisambhida magga, apadana, Buddhavama and cariya pitaka.
The basket of the higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka) contains an analysis of the Buddha’s higher teachings in which He discussed the ultimate realities (paramattha dhamma) of all existing phenomena classified into four factors:
1 The mind (citta)
2 The mental factors that arise along with the mind (cetasika)
3 Materiality or physical phenomena (rupa)
4 The final goal of the unconditioned state of Bliss (nibbana) (3)
Since the time of the Buddha, the three baskets of the Pali Canon were initially preserved orally by generations of Theravada Buddhist monks. They were first written down on palm leaves following the 4th Buddhist council held in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) during the 1st century BCE. Commentaries to the three baskets (tipitaka) of the Buddhas’s teaching were first written in Ceylon in the Sinhalese language. These commentaries (atthakatha) include traditional interpretations and detailed explanations to the original Buddhist scriptures and were begun by Arahant Mahinda who brought Theravada Buddhism to Ceylon following the third Buddhist Council. It was continued by generations of Buddhist monks in Ceylon in the Sinhalese language until around the 5th century AD. At this time, a Buddhist scholar from India named Venerable Buddhaghosa visited Ceylon and collated most of the commentaries available in the Sinhalese language and translated them into the Pali language. Commentaries to the Tipitaka (atuwa) were also written by other Buddhist scholars, such as Dhammapala, Mahanama and Upasena, followed by a series of sub-commentaries (tika) on the commentaries by several Buddhist scholars, including Dhammapala.

Patipatti sasana – the practice of the Buddhist doctrine

Patipatti sasana refers to correct practice according to the teachings of the Buddha for the purpose of spiritual growth and eventual realisation of the four Noble Truths by completely eliminating the root causes of all unwholesome actions; greed (lobha), hatred (dosa) and delusion (moha). Learning and knowing all of the teachings of a Buddha do not bring any spiritual benefit unless one puts them into practice according to the instructions issued by the Buddha. The Buddha has emphasised this point well in two stanzas of the Dhammapada (a collection of the Buddha’s sayings in verse form) as follows;
“Those who recite many scriptures but fail to practise their teachings are like a cowherd counting another’s cows. They do not share in the joys of the spiritual life”
“But those who know few scripts yet practise their teachings, overcoming all lust, hatred, and delusion, live with a pure mind in the highest wisdom. They stand without external supports and share in the joys of the spiritual life” (4)
In His very first sermon called “Dhamma Chakkappavattana Sutta”, meaning “Turning the Wheel of the Truth”, the Buddha expounded the four Noble Truths.
The four Noble Truths
1 Truth of suffering (dukkha sacca)
2 Truth of the origin of suffering (samudaya sacca)
3 Truth of the cessation of suffering (nirodha sacca)
4 Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga sacca) (5)
The fourth Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering is the Noble Eight-fold Path (ariyaatthangika magga), which is also known as the Middle Path (majjhima patipada).
The eight factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path
1 Right view (samma-ditthi))
2 Right intention (samma-sankappa)
3 Right speech (samma-vaca)
4 Right action (samma-kammanta)
5 Right livelihood (samma-ajiva)
6 Right effort (samma-vayama)
7 Right mindfulness (samma-sati)
8 Right concentration (samma-samadhi) (6)
From a practical standpoint the above eight factors are divided into three groups of practice;
1 Morality (sila), consisting of right speech, right action and right livelihood
2 Concentration (samadhi), consisting of right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration
3 Wisdom (panna), consisting of right understanding and right intention
So, Patipatti sasana or the practical aspect of the Buddha’s teaching in order to follow the Buddhist spiritual path is to cultivate the Noble Eight-fold Path divided into the three training stages of morality (sila), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom (panna).
Right view (samma-ditthi)
Right view is the correct understanding of the four Noble Truths, that there is suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the path leading to the cessation of suffering.
Right intention (samma-sankappa)
Right intention or right thought naturally occurs as a result of right view and together they form the stage of the Eight-fold Path called wisdom (panna). Right intention is necessary for the development of the next stage of the path namely the moral discipline (sila), consisting of right speech, right action and right livelihood.
There are three aspects of right intention;
1 Right intention of renunciation (nekkhamma sankappa)
2 Right intention of good-will (avyapada sankappa)
3 Right intention of harmlessness (avihimsa sankappa)
Right speech (samma-vaca)
Within the Noble Eight-fold Path, right speech is guided by the first two factors of right view and right intention. Right speech is the first of the three factors of the division of moral discipline (sila). There are four aspects of right speech;
1 Abstinence from false speech or telling lies
2 Abstinence from malicious, backbiting, divisive or slanderous speech
3 Abstinence from harsh, blameful or hurtful speech
4 Abstinence from gossip, vain talk or idle chatter
Right action (samma-kammanta)
Right action, by the avoidance of unwholesome physical or bodily actions will result in an ethical life and will lead to peace and harmony between oneself and others. There are three aspects of right action;

1 Abstinence from killing any living beings
2 Abstinence from stealing
3 Abstinence from sexual misconduct
Right livelihood (samma-ajiva)
Right livelihood expects one to make one’s living by ethical, legal and honest means by following certain ethical standards and causing no harm or suffering to other living beings directly or indirectly. There are five types of trades that are to be avoided in order to maintain a right livelihood;
1 Trading in living beings including human beings and animals
2 Trading in arms and weapons
3 Trading in intoxicants including alcohol and illicit drugs
4 Trading in poisons
5 Trading in meat
Right effort (samma-vayama)
Right effort is the first of the group of three factors of concentration or mental development (samadhi), the other two factors being right mindfulness and right concentration. Right effort provides the necessary energy to develop all the other seven factors of the path but in particular it provides the energy to develop the right mental concentration which is necessary to develop right wisdom.
There are four aspects of right effort;
1 Effort to prevent the arising of un- arisen unwholesome mental states
2 Effort to abandon the unwholesome mental states that have arisen
3 Effort to develop the wholesome mental states that have not yet arisen
4 Effort to develop and maintain the wholesome mental states that have arisen
Right mindfulness (samma-sati)
Mindfulness is the deliberately paying of bare and detached attention to thoughts, emotions and feelings in the present moment non-judgementally. As taught by the Buddha in the satipatthana sutta, the right mindfulness is to be developed through the four foundations of mindfulness namely;
1 Contemplation of the body in the body (kayanupassana)
2 Contemplation of feelings in the feelings (vedananupassana)
3 Contemplation of the mind in the mind (cittanupassana)
4 Contemplation of mind objects in the mind objects (dhammanupassana)
Right concentration (samma-samadhi)
The first seven factors of the path from right view to right mindfulness, when developed successfully, become supportive and requisite conditions for the development of right concentration which in it’s turn will help to further establish moral discipline (sila), and wisdom (panna). Right concentration in the context of the Noble Eight-fold Path is different from the higher levels of concentration or one-pointedness developed in other mundane situations in life. Right concentration has to be wholesome and accompanied by suppression of mental hindrances and when developed successfully would lead to deep meditative absorption states and attainment of wisdom or insight.
The eight factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path have traditionally been presented in the order that they were discussed here, beginning with right view and ending with right concentration. However, they are not expected to be developed in a step by step manner in that order as they can be present together in any given stage of the path supporting each other. Some factors are more prominent than others at any particular stage. They can be developed simultaneously, at a pace dependent on the capacity of each individual. From a practical point of view, it is advisable for one’s spiritual development, that one begins with the factors of morality (sila), followed by factors of concentration (samadhi), then wisdom (panna) in that order.

Pativedha sasana -the realisation of the Truth
Pativedha sasana is the realisation of the Truth as the final result of learning and practising the Buddhist doctrine. The final result can be described as enlightenment by the realisation of the four Noble Truths through the paths and fruits of the four Noble spiritual states of Stream Entry (sotapanna), Once Returner (sakadagami), Non-Returner (anagami) and Arahant (arhat). These eight Noble stages (paths and fruits of each four noble spiritual states) and Nibbana are known as the Nava Lokuttara Dhamma.
Nava Lokuttara Dhamma
1 Path of Stream Entry (sotapanna magga)
2 Fruition of Stream Entry (sotapanna phala)

3 Path of Once Returner (sakadagami magga)
4 Fruition of Once Returner (sakadagami phala)
5 Path of Non-Returner (anagami magga)
6 Fruition of Non-Returner (anagami phala)
7 Path of Arahant (arhat magga)
8 Fruition of Arahant (arhat phala)
9 Nibbana
During the process of attaining full enlightenment one needs to eradicate ten mental impurities or fetters (dasasamyojana), which are obstacles to the enlightenment process and act as chains or shackles to keep us bound to the cycle of birth and death (samsara). These fetters are gradually eradicated as one progresses through the four stages of enlightenment.
The ten fetters (dasa samyojana)
1 Illusion of self (sakkaya ditthi)
2 Sceptical doubt (vicikicca)
3 Attachment to rites and rituals (silabbata paramasa)
4 Sensual desire (kama raga)
5 Ill-will (patigha)
6 Desire to be born in fine material worlds (rupa raga)
7 Desire to be born in formless worlds (arupa raga)
8 Conceit (mana)
9 Restlessness (uddacca)
10 Ignorance (avijja)
The first five fetters are called lower fetters (orambhagiya samyojana) as they bind one to the lower sensual worlds and are totally eradicated at the third stage of Non-Returner (anagami). The second five fetters are called higher fetters (uddhambhagiya samyojana) as they bind one to the fine material worlds or the formless immaterial worlds and are eradicated when one attains Arahanthood.
Stream Enterer (soatapanna)
Stream Enterer is one, who through the development of Right understanding (samma-ditthi), has attained the path and the fruit of the first stage of enlightenment and has thus entered the stream that is the Noble Eight-fold Path leading to full enlightenment. The Stream Enterer has eradicated the first three fetters of illusion of self (sakkaya ditthi), sceptical doubt (vicikicca) and attachment to rites and rituals (silabbata paramasa).
The Stream Enterer has weakened the unwholesome mental factors of greed (lobha), ill-will (dosa) and delusion (moha) to such an extent that he or she will never again be born in a lower unhappy realm of existence and will only be reborn in the human or a celestial realm of existence. According to the Buddhist teaching, a Stream Enterer, through further cultivation of the factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path will continue to progress in the spiritual path and will attain full enlightenment within a maximum of seven more births.
Once Returner (sakadagami)
Once Returner is one who, having attained the first stage of Stream Enterer has significantly weakened the next two fetters of sensual desire (kama raga) and ill-will (patigha). A Once Returner will be reborn in the human or celestial realm only once more before attaining full enlightenment.
Non-Returner (anagami)
The Non-Returner has attained the third stage of enlightenment having completely eradicated the five lower fetters of illusion of self, sceptical doubt, attachment to rites and rituals, sensual desire and ill-will, but the five higher fetters still remain with them. As the fetter of sensual desire has been completely eradicated the Non-Returner will not be reborn in the human or celestial realm but will be reborn in one of the five Brahma worlds called Pure Abodes (suddhavasa) and attain full enlightenment there.
Arahant (arahat)
Arahanthood is the final stage of the enlightenment process and one who has attained this stage is awakened and fully enlightened enjoying the bliss of Nibbana. The last five of the ten fetters namely; desire to be born in fine material worlds (rupa raga), desire to be born in formless immaterial worlds (arupa raga), conceit (mana), restlessness (uddacca) and ignorance (avijja) will be totally eradicated before one attains the Arahathood. So, an Arahant has totally eradicated the ten fetters that bind one to the cycle of birth and death (samsara).
Nibbana
Nibbana, the third Noble Truth of the complete cessation of suffering, is the final state of liberation from suffering and the repeated cycle of birth and death (samsara).

Nibbana can be attained in this life itself, here and now, and hence it is not a state that can be attained only after one’s death. The word Nibbana in the Pali language consists of two constituents Ni and Vana meaning absence of craving. Nibbana is the complete eradication of craving or thirst (tanha); craving for sensual pleasures (kama tanha), craving for existence (bhava tanha) and craving for non-existence (vibhava tanha). Nibbana can also be described as the extinguishment of the fires of the negative mental factors or basic defilements of greed (lobha), ill-will (dosa) and delusion (moha).
Nibbana is a supra-mundane state of ultimate happiness (nibbanam pramam sukham) beyond any form of conceptual thinking, which cannot be properly described or explained in worldly conventional language or through worldly logic and reasoning. As Nibbana is beyond any concepts such as time, space and definitions it can only be described in metaphorical terms. Following the attainment of full enlightenment and Nibbana, the five aggregates of materiality, feeling, perception, mental formation and consciousness that constitute the psycho-physical complex (nama-rupa) will continue to exist, but an Arahant has no attachment or clinging to them. This state of Nibbana in which an Arahant continues to live with the five aggregates intact is called Nibbana with residue (saupadisesa Nibbana). At the time of death of the physical body (parinibbana) the five aggregates will disintegrate and the Arahant will reach the end of the life process and attain the absolutely unconditioned Nibbana called Nibbana with no residue (anupadisesa Nibbana).
The three aspects of the Buddha’s dispensation (buddha sasana) are inter-related, each aspect being higher than the preceding aspect yet at the same time depending on it. The three aspects of the dispensation, theory (pariyatti), practice (patipatti) and realisation (pativedha) are essential for anyone who hopes to cultivate the Buddhist spiritual path to gain enlightenment and attain Nibbana, the final goal of a practising Buddhist in Theravada Buddhism. Learning the Buddhist doctrine is essential for the practice of the path, and only by proper practice the final realisation of the Truth can be attained.
References
1 Narada Mahathera 1982, Buddhism in a Nutshell, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
2 Maurice Walshe 1987, Thus Have I Heard, A translation of The Long Discourses of the Buddha, Wisdom Publications, London, England.
3 Webb, Russell 1975, ‘An Analysis of the Pali Canon’, Wheel Publication No: 217/218/219/220, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
4 Narada Thera 2000, The Dhammapada, Verses 19 & 20, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
5 Bhikkhu Bodhi 1999, Dhammacakkappavatthana sutta, The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Wisdom Publications.
6 Bhikkhu Bodhi 1994, The Noble Eightfold Path, The Way to the end of Suffering, The Wheel Publications No: 308/311, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
End.

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Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)
Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana) in Theravada Buddhism By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara Introduction Buddhism is the teaching of the Lord Gautama Buddha who lived in Norther…

Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (Buddha Sasana)

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Three Aspects of Lord Gautama Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana)

in Theravada Buddhism

By Dr. Ari Ubeysekara

Introduction

Buddhism is the teaching of the Lord Gautama Buddha who lived in Northern India during the sixth and fifth centuries BC. The Buddha attained full enlightenment and became a Samma Sambuddha, meaning that the Buddha realised the four Noble Truths without assistance from any teacher. Theravada Buddhism, “Thera” meaning elders and “Vada” meaning doctrine and hence the “Doctrine of the Elders” is the most conservative and oldest known tradition of Buddhism which is based on the original doctrine of the Buddha recorded in the form of three baskets (tipitaka) in the Pali language. Theravada Buddhism is also known as “Southern Buddhism” as it is mainly practised by the Buddhists in South and Southeast Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia and Laos.

Throughout the 45 years from enlightenment at the age of 35 to passing away at the age of 80, Lord Gautama Buddha comforted the bereaved with consoling words, ministered to the sick that were deserted, helped the poor that were neglected, ennobled the lives of the deluded, purified the corrupted lives of criminals, encouraged the feeble, united the divided, enlightened the ignorant, clarified the mystic, guided the benighted, elevated the base and dignified the noble (1). The Buddha through compassion for other beings travelled from place to place mainly in North Eastern India teaching the path out of suffering to a diverse range of people including kings and rulers, followers of other religions and ordinary people from all walks of life. After listening to the Buddha’s teaching, vast numbers of people became the Buddha’s disciples and followers many of whom attained various stages of the path of liberation or Nibbana and escaped from suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara).

Buddha’s Dispensation (buddha sasana)

Dispensation of a Buddha is generally known by the term “sasana” deriving from the root “sas” in the Pali language meaning to preach or to instruct. Buddha’s dispensation, which can also be described as Buddhist doctrine, Buddha’s instructions or the legacy of the Buddha, includes the teachings consisting of the Buddhist doctrine discovered and preached by the Buddha and the disciplinary rules formulated by the Buddha for the benefit of the Buddhist monastic community. The dispensation of a Buddha is named after the name of the last Buddha to have existed. In the Buddhist literature at least 28 previous Buddhas including the Lord Gautama Buddha had been mentioned and the present dispensation is known as the Gautama Buddha sasana as it consists of the teachings of the Lord Gautama Buddha.

In the Buddhist literature it can be noted that there are a few different interpretations attached to the term Buddha sasana. One such interpretation is that it denotes the period of 5000 years following the passing away (parinibbana) of a Buddha during which the dispensation of a particular Buddha is said to exist. It is said that during this period of 5000 years it is possible for those interested to practise the Buddhist teachings and attain the expected result of enlightenment (Nibbana) and escape from suffering and the cycle of birth and death (samsara). Another interpretation is that it refers to the community of Buddhist monastics consisting of Buddhist monks and nuns. In this paper the Buddha sasana is considered in terms of the tri-partite division of the doctrine of the Lord Gautama Buddha into the teaching, practice and the realisation of the teaching as a result of the practice.

Three Aspects of the Buddha’s dispensation (buddha sasana)

Pariyatti sasana – the theory of the Buddhist doctrine
Patipatti sasana – the practice of the Buddhist doctrine
Pativedha sasana – the realisation of the Truth
Pariyatti sasana – the theory of the Buddhist doctrine

This is the theoretical understanding of the Buddhist teachings by listening to them, reading the scriptures and any other form of learning. Buddhist doctrine consists of the teachings of the Buddha which was preached following personal practice and realisation of the four Noble Truths by the Buddha Himself. Correct understanding of exactly what the Buddha preached as the Buddhist doctrine of liberation is indispensable in order to practise correctly and to attain realisation as the expected result of the practice. In the Parinibbana sutta of the Digha Nikaya (Collection of the Buddha’s long discourses), the Buddha has stated that after His passing away the teaching (dhamma) and the disciplinary rules (vinaya) formulated by the Buddha should be considered as the teacher.

“Now, if it occurs to any of you — ‘The teaching has lost its authority; we are without a Teacher’ — do not view it in that way. Whatever Dhamma & Vinaya I have pointed out & formulated for you that will be your Teacher when I am gone” (2).

Pariyatti Sasana consists of all aspects of the Buddha’s teaching that was delivered by the Buddha during His ministry of 45 years. Initially, all of the Buddha’s teachings were categorised into nine parts or angas based upon their form and style known as the nine-fold dispensation of the Buddha (navanga buddha sasana or navanga satthusasana). This was before the Pali Canon (tipitaka) came into existence.

Nine-fold dispensation of the Buddha (navanga buddha sasana)

Discourses (sutta) in prose
Mixed prose and verse (geyya)
Elaboration of brief teachings (veyyakarana)
Verses (gatha)
Inspired utterances (udana) mostly in verse
Sayings of the Blessed one (itivuttaka) in mixed prose and verse
Birth stories (jataka) – Buddha’s previous lives as a bodhisatta
Extraordinary things or miracles (abbhutadhamma
Questions and answers (vedalla)
Since the first Buddhist council that was held three months after the passing away of the Buddha which was presided over by Arahant Maha Kassapa, the Buddha’s teachings were categorised into the now well-known Pali Canon consisting of the three baskets. The teaching of the Gautama Buddha which is believed to consist of around 84000 items is contained in the three baskets (tipitaka).

Basket of the disciplinary rules for the monastic community (vinaya pitaka)
Basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka)
Basket of the Buddha’s higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka)
The basket of disciplinary rules (vinaya pitaka) and the basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka) were categorised following the first Buddhist Council. It is believed that the basket of the higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka) was compiled following the third Buddhist Council which was held around 218 years after the passing away of the Buddha during the reign of King Asoka.

The basket of the disciplinary rules (vinaya pitaka) consists of:

Major offences (parajika pali)
Minor offences (pacittiya pali)
Greater section (mahavagga pali)
Lesser section (culavagga pali)
Summary and classification (parivara pali)
The basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka) consists of:

Collection of long discourses (digha nikaya)
Collection of middle length discourses (majjhima nikaya)
Collection of connected discourses (samyutta nikaya)
Collection of numerical discourses (anguttara nikaya)
Collection of minor discourses (khuddaka nikaya)
The basket of the higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka) consists of:

The book of classification (dhammasagani)
The book of analysis (vibhanga)
Discussion with reference to elements (dhathukatha)
Description of individuals (puggalapannatti)
Points of controversy (kathavatthu)
The book of pairs (yamaka)
The book of conditional relations (patthana)
The basket of the disciplinary rules (vinaya pitaka) contains the rules of discipline laid down by the Buddha for Buddhist monks and nuns. In addition to observing the ten precepts of moral discipline, Buddhist monks are expected to observe 227 additional rules of discipline and Buddhist nuns are expected to observe 311 additional rules of discipline.

The 227 disciplinary rules for Buddhist monks consist of the following eight groups:

The four rules which, if broken, will lead to expulsion from the bhikkhu community (parajika)
The thirteen rules which, if broken, will lead to meetings with the bhikkhus (sanghadisesa)
The two rules which are indefinite (aniyata)
The thirty rules which, if broken, will lead to redemption and penalty (nissaggiya—pacittiya)
The ninety two rules which, if broken, will lead to redemption (pacittiya)
The four rules which, if broken, will require a confession (patidesaniya)
The seventy five rules concerning proper behaviour (sekhiya)
The seven procedures for settling legal issues (adhikaranasamatha)
The basket of the discourses (sutta pitaka) contains mainly the discourses delivered by the Buddha during the forty five year period from His Enlightenment to His passing away (parinibbana). The Sutta Pitaka also contains a few discourses delivered by the chief Arahants such as the Venerable Sariputta, Venerable Moggallana and Venerable Ananda. It is divided into five collections (nikaya):

Collection of long discourses (digha nikaya): consisting of 34 long discourses such as Brahmajala sutta, Samannphala sutta, Mahaparinibbana sutta, Mahasatipatthana sutta, etc., divided into three sections (vaggas)
Collection of middle length discourses (majjhima nikaya): consisting of 152 middle length discourses divided into 15 sections (vaggas)
Collection of connected discourses (samyutta nikaya): consisting of 2,889 discourses divided into five sections (vaggas) and grouped into 56 specific doctrines or themes (samyuttas)
Collection of numerical discourses (anguttara nikaya): consisting of 2,308 suttas in 11 groups (nipatas) grouped numerically from one to eleven
Collection of minor discourses (khuddaka nikaya): consisting of 15 divisions of a variety of small discourses and others such as Khuddaka patha, Dhammapada, jataka stories, udana, itivuttaka, sutta nipatha, vimanavatthu, petavatthu, theragatha, therigatha, niddesa, patisambhida magga, apadana, Buddhavama and cariya pitaka.
The basket of the higher teaching (abhidhamma pitaka) contains an analysis of the Buddha’s higher teachings in which He discussed the ultimate realities (paramattha dhamma) of all existing phenomena classified into four factors:

The mind (citta)
The mental factors that arise along with the mind (cetasika)
Materiality or physical phenomena (rupa)
The final goal of the unconditioned state of Bliss (nibbana) (3)
Since the time of the Buddha, the three baskets of the Pali Canon were initially preserved orally by generations of Theravada Buddhist monks. They were first written down on palm leaves following the 4th Buddhist council held in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) during the 1st century BCE. Commentaries to the three baskets (tipitaka) of the Buddhas’s teaching were first written in Ceylon in the Sinhalese language. These commentaries (atthakatha) include traditional interpretations and detailed explanations to the original Buddhist scriptures and were begun by Arahant Mahinda who brought Theravada Buddhism to Ceylon following the third Buddhist Council. It was continued by generations of Buddhist monks in Ceylon in the Sinhalese language until around the 5th century AD. At this time, a Buddhist scholar from India named Venerable Buddhaghosa visited Ceylon and collated most of the commentaries available in the Sinhalese language and translated them into the Pali language. Commentaries to the Tipitaka (atuwa) were also written by other Buddhist scholars, such as Dhammapala, Mahanama and Upasena, followed by a series of sub-commentaries (tika) on the commentaries by several Buddhist scholars, including Dhammapala.

Patipatti sasana – the practice of the Buddhist doctrine

Patipatti sasana refers to correct practice according to the teachings of the Buddha for the purpose of spiritual growth and eventual realisation of the four Noble Truths by completely eliminating the root causes of all unwholesome actions; greed (lobha), hatred (dosa) and delusion (moha). Learning and knowing all of the teachings of a Buddha do not bring any spiritual benefit unless one puts them into practice according to the instructions issued by the Buddha. The Buddha has emphasised this point well in two stanzas of the Dhammapada (a collection of the Buddha’s sayings in verse form) as follows;

“Those who recite many scriptures but fail to practise their teachings are like a cowherd counting another’s cows. They do not share in the joys of the spiritual life”
“But those who know few scripts yet practise their teachings, overcoming all lust, hatred, and delusion, live with a pure mind in the highest wisdom. They stand without external supports and share in the joys of the spiritual life” (4)

In His very first sermon called “Dhamma Chakkappavattana Sutta”, meaning “Turning the Wheel of the Truth”, the Buddha expounded the four Noble Truths.

The four Noble Truths

Truth of suffering (dukkha sacca)
Truth of the origin of suffering (samudaya sacca)
Truth of the cessation of suffering (nirodha sacca)
Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga sacca) (5)
The fourth Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering is the Noble Eight-fold Path (ariya atthangika magga), which is also known as the Middle Path (majjhima patipada).

The eight factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path

Right view (samma-ditthi))
Right intention (samma-sankappa)
Right speech (samma-vaca)
Right action (samma-kammanta)
Right livelihood (samma-ajiva)
Right effort (samma-vayama)
Right mindfulness (samma-sati)
Right concentration (samma-samadhi) (6)
From a practical standpoint the above eight factors are divided into three groups of practice;

Morality (sila), consisting of right speech, right action and right livelihood
Concentration (samadhi), consisting of right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration
Wisdom (panna), consisting of right understanding and right intention
So, Patipatti sasana or the practical aspect of the Buddha’s teaching in order to follow the Buddhist spiritual path is to cultivate the Noble Eight-fold Path divided into the three training stages of morality (sila), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom (panna).

Right view (samma-ditthi)

Right view is the correct understanding of the four Noble Truths, that there is suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the path leading to the cessation of suffering.

Right intention (samma-sankappa)

Right intention or right thought naturally occurs as a result of right view and together they form the stage of the Eight-fold Path called wisdom (panna). Right intention is necessary for the development of the next stage of the path namely the moral discipline (sila), consisting of right speech, right action and right livelihood.

There are three aspects of right intention;

Right intention of renunciation (nekkhamma sankappa)
Right intention of good-will (avyapada sankappa)
Right intention of harmlessness (avihimsa sankappa)
Right speech (samma-vaca)

Within the Noble Eight-fold Path, right speech is guided by the first two factors of right view and right intention. Right speech is the first of the three factors of the division of moral discipline (sila). There are four aspects of right speech;

Abstinence from false speech or telling lies
Abstinence from malicious, backbiting, divisive or slanderous speech
Abstinence from harsh, blameful or hurtful speech
Abstinence from gossip, vain talk or idle chatter
Right action (samma-kammanta)

Right action, by the avoidance of unwholesome physical or bodily actions will result in an ethical life and will lead to peace and harmony between oneself and others. There are three aspects of right action;

Abstinence from killing any living beings
Abstinence from stealing
Abstinence from sexual misconduct
Right livelihood (samma-ajiva)

Right livelihood expects one to make one’s living by ethical, legal and honest means by following certain ethical standards and causing no harm or suffering to other living beings directly or indirectly. There are five types of trades that are to be avoided in order to maintain a right livelihood;

Trading in living beings including human beings and animals
Trading in arms and weapons
Trading in intoxicants including alcohol and illicit drugs
Trading in poisons
Trading in meat
Right effort (samma-vayama)

Right effort is the first of the group of three factors of concentration or mental development (samadhi), the other two factors being right mindfulness and right concentration. Right effort provides the necessary energy to develop all the other seven factors of the path but in particular it provides the energy to develop the right mental concentration which is necessary to develop right wisdom.

There are four aspects of right effort;

Effort to prevent the arising of un- arisen unwholesome mental states
Effort to abandon the unwholesome mental states that have arisen
Effort to develop the wholesome mental states that have not yet arisen
Effort to develop and maintain the wholesome mental states that have arisen
Right mindfulness (samma-sati)

Mindfulness is the deliberately paying of bare and detached attention to thoughts, emotions and feelings in the present moment non-judgementally. As taught by the Buddha in the satipatthana sutta, the right mindfulness is to be developed through the four foundations of mindfulness namely;

Contemplation of the body in the body (kayanupassana)
Contemplation of feelings in the feelings (vedananupassana)
Contemplation of the mind in the mind (cittanupassana)
Contemplation of mind objects in the mind objects (dhammanupassana)
Right concentration (samma-samadhi)

The first seven factors of the path from right view to right mindfulness, when developed successfully, become supportive and requisite conditions for the development of right concentration which in it’s turn will help to further establish moral discipline (sila), and wisdom (panna). Right concentration in the context of the Noble Eight-fold Path is different from the higher levels of concentration or one-pointedness developed in other mundane situations in life. Right concentration has to be wholesome and accompanied by suppression of mental hindrances and when developed successfully would lead to deep meditative absorption states and attainment of wisdom or insight.

The eight factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path have traditionally been presented in the order that they were discussed here, beginning with right view and ending with right concentration. However, they are not expected to be developed in a step by step manner in that order as they can be present together in any given stage of the path supporting each other. Some factors are more prominent than others at any particular stage. They can be developed simultaneously, at a pace dependent on the capacity of each individual. From a practical point of view, it is advisable for one’s spiritual development, that one begins with the factors of morality (sila), followed by factors of concentration (samadhi), then wisdom (panna) in that order.

Pativedha sasana -the realisation of the Truth

Pativedha sasana is the realisation of the Truth as the final result of learning and practising the Buddhist doctrine. The final result can be described as enlightenment by the realisation of the four Noble Truths through the paths and fruits of the four Noble spiritual states of Stream Entry (sotapanna), Once Returner (sakadagami), Non-Returner (anagami) and Arahant (arhat). These eight Noble stages (paths and fruits of each four noble spiritual states) and Nibbana are known as the Nava Lokuttara Dhamma.

Nava Lokuttara Dhamma

Path of Stream Entry (sotapanna magga)
Fruition of Stream Entry (sotapanna phala)
Path of Once Returner (sakadagami magga)
Fruition of Once Returner (sakadagami phala)
Path of Non-Returner (anagami magga)
Fruition of Non-Returner (anagami phala)
Path of Arahant (arhat magga)
Fruition of Arahant (arhat phala)
Nibbana
During the process of attaining full enlightenment one needs to eradicate ten mental impurities or fetters (dasa samyojana), which are obstacles to the enlightenment process and act as chains or shackles to keep us bound to the cycle of birth and death (samsara). These fetters are gradually eradicated as one progresses through the four stages of enlightenment.

The ten fetters (dasa samyojana)

Illusion of self (sakkaya ditthi)
Sceptical doubt (vicikicca)
Attachment to rites and rituals (silabbata paramasa)
Sensual desire (kama raga)
Ill-will (patigha)
Desire to be born in fine material worlds (rupa raga)
Desire to be born in formless worlds (arupa raga)
Conceit (mana)
Restlessness (uddacca)
Ignorance (avijja)
The first five fetters are called lower fetters (orambhagiya samyojana) as they bind one to the lower sensual worlds and are totally eradicated at the third stage of Non-Returner (anagami). The second five fetters are called higher fetters (uddhambhagiya samyojana) as they bind one to the fine material worlds or the formless immaterial worlds and are eradicated when one attains Arahanthood.

Stream Enterer (soatapanna)

Stream Enterer is one, who through the development of Right understanding (samma-ditthi), has attained the path and the fruit of the first stage of enlightenment and has thus entered the stream that is the Noble Eight-fold Path leading to full enlightenment. The Stream Enterer has eradicated the first three fetters of illusion of self (sakkaya ditthi), sceptical doubt (vicikicca) and attachment to rites and rituals (silabbata paramasa).

The Stream Enterer has weakened the unwholesome mental factors of greed (lobha), ill-will (dosa) and delusion (moha) to such an extent that he or she will never again be born in a lower unhappy realm of existence and will only be reborn in the human or a celestial realm of existence. According to the Buddhist teaching, a Stream Enterer, through further cultivation of the factors of the Noble Eight-fold Path will continue to progress in the spiritual path and will attain full enlightenment within a maximum of seven more births.

Once Returner (sakadagami)

Once Returner is one who, having attained the first stage of Stream Enterer has significantly weakened the next two fetters of sensual desire (kama raga) and ill-will (patigha). A Once Returner will be reborn in the human or celestial realm only once more before attaining full enlightenment.

Non-Returner (anagami)

The Non-Returner has attained the third stage of enlightenment having completely eradicated the five lower fetters of illusion of self, sceptical doubt, attachment to rites and rituals, sensual desire and ill-will, but the five higher fetters still remain with them. As the fetter of sensual desire has been completely eradicated the Non-Returner will not be reborn in the human or celestial realm but will be reborn in one of the five Brahma worlds called Pure Abodes (suddhavasa) and attain full enlightenment there.

Arahant (arahat)

Arahanthood is the final stage of the enlightenment process and one who has attained this stage is awakened and fully enlightened enjoying the bliss of Nibbana. The last five of the ten fetters namely; desire to be born in fine material worlds (rupa raga), desire to be born in formless immaterial worlds (arupa raga), conceit (mana), restlessness (uddacca) and ignorance (avijja) will be totally eradicated before one attains the Arahathood. So, an Arahant has totally eradicated the ten fetters that bind one to the cycle of birth and death (samsara).

Nibbana

Nibbana, the third Noble Truth of the complete cessation of suffering, is the final state of liberation from suffering and the repeated cycle of birth and death (samsara). Nibbana can be attained in this life itself, here and now, and hence it is not a state that can be attained only after one’s death. The word Nibbana in the Pali language consists of two constituents Ni and Vana meaning absence of craving. Nibbana is the complete eradication of craving or thirst (tanha); craving for sensual pleasures (kama tanha), craving for existence (bhava tanha) and craving for non-existence (vibhava tanha). Nibbana can also be described as the extinguishment of the fires of the negative mental factors or basic defilements of greed (lobha), ill-will (dosa) and delusion (moha).

Nibbana is a supra-mundane state of ultimate happiness (nibbanam pramam sukham) beyond any form of conceptual thinking, which cannot be properly described or explained in worldly conventional language or through worldly logic and reasoning. As Nibbana is beyond any concepts such as time, space and definitions it can only be described in metaphorical terms. Following the attainment of full enlightenment and Nibbana, the five aggregates of materiality, feeling, perception, mental formation and consciousness that constitute the psycho-physical complex (nama-rupa) will continue to exist, but an Arahant has no attachment or clinging to them. This state of Nibbana in which an Arahant continues to live with the five aggregates intact is called Nibbana with residue (saupadisesa Nibbana). At the time of death of the physical body (parinibbana) the five aggregates will disintegrate and the Arahant will reach the end of the life process and attain the absolutely unconditioned Nibbana called Nibbana with no residue (anupadisesa Nibbana).

The three aspects of the Buddha’s dispensation (buddha sasana) are inter-related, each aspect being higher than the preceding aspect yet at the same time depending on it. The three aspects of the dispensation, theory (pariyatti), practice (patipatti) and realisation (pativedha) are essential for anyone who hopes to cultivate the Buddhist spiritual path to gain enlightenment and attain Nibbana, the final goal of a practising Buddhist in Theravada Buddhism. Learning the Buddhist doctrine is essential for the practice of the path, and only by proper practice the final realisation of the Truth can be attained.

References

Narada Mahathera 1982, Buddhism in a Nutshell, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Maurice Walshe 1987, Thus Have I Heard, A translation of The Long Discourses of the Buddha, Wisdom Publications, London, England.
Webb, Russell 1975, ‘An Analysis of the Pali Canon’, Wheel Publication No: 217/218/219/220, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Narada Thera 2000, The Dhammapada, Verses 19 & 20, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Bhikkhu Bodhi 1999, Dhammacakkappavatthana sutta, The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Wisdom Publications.
Bhikkhu Bodhi 1994, The Noble Eightfold Path, The Way to the end of Suffering, The Wheel Publications No: 308/311, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
End.

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes
Here You Can Find Some Collections Of Swimming Captions For Instagram And Some Collections Of Swimming, Poolside, Pool Party, Beach, Sea Quotes And Captions

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes
May 13, 2021 by JEET
Swimming Captions For Instagram

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Table of Contents
Swimming Captions For Instagram

These are collections of captions for swimming pictures.

Life is cool by the pool.
Relaxed state of mind.
Keep calm and swim on.
You can’t swim with us.
The best sunrises are over swimming pools.
Pretty sure I was a mermaid in my past life.
Has anyone seen my mermaid tail?
All my troubles wash away in the water.
When you have the whole pool to yourself.
Do you even make waves, bro?
Find me wherever the pool floats are.
Life is cool by the pool.
Anyone looking for someone to test out their pool? I’m available.
You’re one in a watermelon.
You’re only one swim away from a good mood.
You can’t swim with us.
Lifeguard on beer break.
How do you get a beach body? Go to the beach!

Swimming Instagram Captions

Here are these swimming captions for Instagram.

Always be yourself. Unless you can be a mermaid, then be a mermaid.
Summer is always good for lazy days.
Happy as a clam.
A splashing good time!
My favorite part of the day is playing in the pool.
Swimming is my therapy.
Sorry, no lifeguard on duty.
Hey, summer. We think about you all the time.
Penguins have so much fun time in the water, they don’t even want to fly!40
Don’t worry – I’ve been splashing since the 90s.
“When I dip, you dip, we dip!” — Freak Nasty, “Da Dip”
I can’t control how everyone else swims but if all goes well I know there are no limits.
Enjoying my summer one splash at a time.
“We’ll figure this out, I promise. I won’t let you sink.” – Kiera Cass
I could swim all day long if there were more hours to spare.
Cooling off with my dude!
Want seconds? Follow me!
Home is where the pool is.
Hey, summer. We think about you all the time.
Pool Captions For Instagram

These are some pool captions for Instagram.

An ocean breeze puts a mind at ease.
Don’t get tied down. Have a pool party.
Floating into summer-like…
Forget the glass slippers – this princess wears flippers.
Don’t ever miss a chance to be sun-kissed.
Is that new perfume? No, that’s chlorine.
I got 99 bikinis and I can’t choose one.
The land of endless summer.
Girls just wanna have pool parties.
Swimming is cheaper than therapy.
What the shell. This isn’t the beach!
“The man who is swimming against the stream knows the strength of it.” – Woodrow Wilson
BRB: Quitting everything so that we can be mermaids.
If in doubt, swim on out.
Splashing the day away.

Pool Instagram Captions

Here we collect these captions for pool pictures.

Life looks better from a lounge chair.
Making a splash to beat the heat!
I don’t come from the sea, but I live in the water.
I think there is no such pressure in the underwater I feel it.
In the water, my body becomes a river.
Keep calm and go swim.
When life gives you lemons, make lemonade and have a pool party
Be a mermaid and make waves.
You’re one in a watermelon.
“Being happy outside the pool means fast swimming in the pool.” – Eric Shanteau
Peace, love, and pineapple pool floats.
We swim not to escape life, but so that life doesn’t escape us.
Pool Side Swimming Captions

These are pool side swimming captions for Instagram.

So this is the mermaid life
Life is better when you’re swimming.
Water is purifying.
Keep calm, lie down
Great vibes on the tides.
The only BS we need is bikinis and sandals.
Can sitting by the pool be my day job already?
Eat my turbulence.
I’ve never met a pool float that I didn’t like.
There are a million fish in the sea, but I’m a mermaid.
Time is a pool to swim and dream and create in.
This is what summer is for?
Oxygen is overrated.
I’ve never met a pool float that I didn’t like.
Swimming is dancing under the water.
Sunshine, poolside, downtime.
Summer, it has been way too long, my love.
Mermaid off-duty.

If you didn’t splash, did a pool day even happen?
I got 99 bikinis and I can’t choose one.
You never regret a swim.
Cooling off with my dude!
Some of the best memories are made in bathing suits.
You don’t swim in a river – it takes you places.
Just a bunch of mermaids.”
When life gives you lemons, make lemonade, and have a pool party.
Drink like a pirate. Dance like a mermaid.
We lose ourselves in the things which we love so much but we can find ourselves live too.
In the water, your only enemy is the clock.
Do not look out the right or left side until you will achieve the mainstream.
Every time you swim in a river, it’s a brand new experience.
Your swim begins at the end of your comfort zone

Swimming Captions & Quotes

These are swimming captions & quotes for Instagram. So check out.

“Life is better when you’re swimming.” – Unknown
Girls just wanna have pool parties.
Just dive in.
Put all your excuses to a side, and remember this, you are capable to do it.
Real athletes swim – the rest play games.
Be stubborn about your goals and flexible about your method.
“Swimming is simply moving meditation.” – Cesar Nikko Caharian
Life is like swimming, sometimes the wall will hit you, sometimes you make the right turn.
Mermaid kisses and starfish wishes.
Make your own sunshine.
Swim your worries away.
Rivers take my troubles downstream.
This is me before my epic cannonball.
Swimming is normal for me. I’m relaxed. I’m comfortable, and I know my surrounding It’s my home.
Just keep swimming.
Captions For Swimming Pictures

Those splash spots were there before I got here.
When I take a step in my swimming pool I feel like a fish.
Building a tradition one stroke at a time.
We’re all about the pool days and sun rays.
“I dream of summers that last forever.”
Pool lineup this weekend.
Pretty sure I was a mermaid in my past life.
Night swim pool times.
Sunshine is the best medicine that we need.
If you have a lane, you have a chance.
Sunshine on my mind.
Made for sunny days.
Water you doing this summer?
Dive into the summer blues!

Swimming Pictures Captions

Swimming makes everything better
The faces I pull whilst swimming
A pool party can’t solve everything, but it’s a good start.
Happiness is all about making your own waves.
No matter how much I complain, I will always love swimming with a passion so strong nobody can me I quit.
Enjoy, relax, soak, and unwind
Some roads are very crooked, you have to make your way.
Keep calm and go swim
Swimming is my therapy
Hair up, sunnies on.
You’re only one dip away from a good mood!
Every summer has a story to tell.
Swimming Quotes

“Swimming is my salvation.” – Lynn Sherr
“The key to success―keep swimming.” – Richelle E. Goodrich
“Swimming state on mind” – Unknown
“Just keep swimming” – Unknown
“Most men will not swim before they are able to.” – Herman Hesse
“All my troubles wash away in the water” – Unknown
“So much water, such little time” – Unknown
“Made for sunny days.” — The Weepies, “I Was Made For Sunny Days
“The water doesn’t know how old you are.” – Dara Torres
Visualization Exercise for Swimmers with Chloe Sutton

Visualization Exercise for Swimmers with Chloe Sutton
By Chloe Sutton

swimming meditation the best to attain Nibbana with pictures

https://fourgates.com/zen-robes/

https://fourgates.com/zen-robes/
ZEN ROBES Sort by: Featured Items Zen Robes and meditation clothing for the lay person or monastic are an essential part of meditation practice where you are a student, beginner, lay person and ordained Buddhist Priest. Zen meditation garments such as, Zen Lay robe, Rakusu, Jubon, aka Juban, kimono, koromo, ordained Buddhist Priest robes. By wearing the kimono beneath the outer garment, and often the Jubon, aka Juban, they protect the robe from body oils, perspiration and so forth while adding warmth when needed. The hand made Rakusu is important to reflect your vows, precepts and personal commitment to practice the Dharma. All of these are outer reminders of a deeper connection to the three jewels: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Zen monastic garments are specifically designed for the meditation tradition and enhances the experience. Your robe is the physical embodiment of your inner being. Robes acknowledge the commitment to living a life in the

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks
Awareness is possible in every situation, including swimming. With mindful swimming, you can enjoy the current moment without worry and stress.

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks
4 days ago — But you could go the extra lap and practice mindful swimming – and get the best of both worlds. With mindful swimming, instead …
You visited this page on 18/5/21

https://mindworks.org/blog/what-is-swimming-meditation/

https://mindworks.org/blog/what-is-swimming-meditation/

What Is Swimming Meditation?
Mindworks | Mindfulness Meditation Blog | Types of Meditation
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Doctors recommend swimming as one of the best exercises around, and for good reason. When we swim, the main muscle groups all go to work in a way that doesn’t put undue stress on the body. This makes it a wholesome aerobic exercise for young and old alike. The health benefits of this kind of workout include:
• Improving blood circulation around the body
• Helping get rid of excess cholesterol within the bloodstream
• Curbing obesity and its accompanying health issues
• Maintaining general fitness

Most people enjoy swimming because it’s so refreshing and good for you. But you could go the extra lap and practice mindful swimming – and get the best of both worlds. With mindful swimming, instead of just focusing on reaching a certain goal, you pay full attention to the exercise and the sensations experienced as you swim. Extending your mindfulness practice into swimming is a great way to break up the routine of sitting meditation.
Is there a link between swimming and meditation?
The answer depends on the swimmer! Meditation is about awareness, and it might be argued that awareness is possible in every situation, including swimming. With mindful swimming, you can enjoy the current moment without worrying about any stressful issues at work, home or elsewhere.
Instead of mindlessly plunging into the water and doing your laps, take a few moments to formulate the intention of being entirely present in the water. Once you’ve begun swimming, see if you can maintain awareness of the here and now. Enjoy the feeling of buoyancy as you glide across the pool and take note of other physical sensations – wetness, scent, sound, etc. Remain present as your arms enter and leave the water, your legs propel your body forward and your head follows the rhythm of the movement. How does it feel? Acknowledging sensations that you don’t usually notice is part of what makes swimming as meditation so enjoyable. Alternatively, when swimming laps or floating, you may also choose to focus on your breath.
The joy of mindful swimming
When you meditate, the mind is no longer bound by the anxieties and stresses that usually take up so much mental space. Instead, the mind is spacious and refreshed, and you feel rejuvenated. This naturally inspires you to work on bettering yourself and improving the lives of others. By incorporating the exercise of swimming as meditation into your mindfulness regime, you train in extending your “on-the-cushion” practice into your everyday life.
Professional swimmers tend to repeat the same movements every time they train. It’s easy for them to give their minds free rein to wander as they swim instead of being mindfully aware of their breath and physical sensations. In her article “Mindful Swimming” in Swimming World Magazine, former competitive swimmer Tonya Nascimento believes that mindfulness can help athletes while training as well as while competing. “At all levels, swim meets can have a multitude of distractions that capture your mind and direct your attention away from your races. [ …] The goal of mindfulness is to develop a sense of calm in the midst of the storm; it is to gain control over one’s own thoughts. By becoming aware of your thoughts, you can decide to let go of those thoughts that hinder your performance, and decide to concentrate on only those thoughts that help you improve,” she writes.
A number of national swimming teams (including the U.S. Olympic team) have incorporated mindfulness in their training sessions. The feedback has been positive: athletes have reported improved performances when they focus on being fully present rather than focusing on the goal (winning!) alone. Mindful presence helps swimmers maintain balance, and balance fosters peak performance.
Before trying mindful swimming, make sure your swimming level is good enough.

Once you get the groove of it, you’ll realize that swimming and meditation are an awesome match. Most importantly, remember that swimming – and meditating – should be enjoyable!
By reading this article it’s clear that you’re interested in the practice of meditation and its results: experiencing genuine joy and well-being. You’ve come to the right place. Mindworks is a non-profit with a mission to share the most authentic and proven meditation guidance to you and our worldwide community.
As meditation practice develops the most fundamental axis of our being, it’s essential to rely on clear, progressive and genuine meditation methods from authentic guides. In order to fully transmit to you the full potential of genuine meditation, we created the 9-level Mindworks Journey to Well-Being.
We’re so sure you’ll benefit we now offer you Mindworks Journey Level 1: Meditation Fundamentals course for Free. Click the link below to learn more.

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images • 7ESL

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images • 7ESL
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.
Food is one of the most important parts of our lives and when learning a foreign language, it is vital that we learn how to refer to different types of foods. One of the most important foods are vegetables, with people now living much healthier lives and some even having a plant-based diet, you are likely to need to know a much wider range of English vegetable names.
A useful list of fruits and vegetables in English with images and examples.
Table of Contents

Vegetable Names
Types of Vegetables
Vegetable List
List of Vegetables with Pictures
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video

Types of Vegetables
Vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food such as peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes…
• Root Vegetables
• Onion Family
• Leafy Vegetables
• Squash
• Peas & Beans
Vegetable List
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English.
• Corn
• Mushroom
• Broccoli
• Cucumber
• Red pepper/red bell pepper
• Pineapple
• Tomato
List of Vegetables | Vegetables Images

• Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)
• Carrot
• Brussels sprout
• Pumpkin
• Cabbage
• Potato
• Eggplant
• Sweet potato
• Turnip
• Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
• Green chilli
• Onion
• Lettuce
• Radish
• Pea
• Asparagus
• Celery
• Green pepper
• French beans
• Spinach
• Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
• Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
• Bean
List of Vegetables with Pictures
Learn vegetable names with vegetables images and example sentences.

positive pranic food - Negative and positive pranic food list - energy diet

positive pranic food - Negative and positive pranic food list - energy diet
Positive pranic food. Negative and Positive pranic food list and info on an energy diet. How daily food choices support energy levels. Sattvic food

Pranic Food List
Positive Pranic

Winter melon (Ash Goard)
Lemon
Coconut
Dates
Raw and dried fruits
Ripe vegetables
Legumes (peas, beans, lentils, etc.)

Positive Pranic

Positive Pranic food ignites life energy within.

Vegetables

This food group includes pretty much most of the vegetables

Fruits and berries

All the fruits and berries (fresh and dry varieties) are considered to be highly pranic.

Inline image

Inline image

Legumes

This category includes mung beans, lentils, yellow split peas, chickpeas, beans, organic tofu, etc.

Inline image

Positive Pranic Fundamentals
Positive pranic food is nourishing, easily digestible, flavourful, and contains only ingredients beneficial for health. The methods of food preparation, as well as the emotional and mental state of a person making it, holds the same importance as the ingredients. For me, cooking was never a chore, rather an opportunity for a beautiful offering, a creative outlet, an expression of love and appreciation.
Lastly, the most essential part of the meal is in the way you consume it. The way you receive your meal, how conscious you are, the level of your appreciation in a lot of ways will determine the way digestion happens in this miraculous body of yours.

Above all, we should enjoy the food we eat without being paranoid about the calorie count or the number of carbs, fats, or whatever the latest dietary fad is. A healthy relationship with food is essential, so enjoy it fully without hesitation. The harm of stress during eating is far more damaging to your system than any ingredient ever could be.

How about you?

What is your relationship with food? Have you noticed how certain foods affect you? Or just let me know if this article was helpful to you.Let me know in the comments below

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https://www.dwms.org/uploads/8/7/8/7/87873912/transformation-healing2-1.pdf

How to Grow Buddhas Hand Citron

How to Grow Buddhas Hand Citron
Growing Buddhas hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

How to Grow Buddha’s Hand | Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron
Growing Buddha’s hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

Citrons (whose variety is Hand of Buddha) are large and true citruses, which produces less acidic fruit covered in thick peels and fragrant flowers that are appreciated by perfumers.

Propagation Method: Seeds, cuttings

Height: 3-5 m

Exposure: Full to partial sun

Soil pH: Slightly acidic (pH level around 5.5 to 6)

Soil Type: Well-drained, loamy

Other Names: Citrus medica, bushukan, fingered citron, fragrant citron, five finger mandarin, goblin fingers

Growing Habit

Buddha’s hand citron is an evergreen, large thorny shrub or small tree that grows up to 3 to 5 meters tall. Native to North East India and China, Buddha’s Hand is a member of the citrus family and also called as Buddha’s Finger because of its unusual and fragmented finger like fruits. These fingers form a cluster like a hand and can be between 5 to 20 in numbers.

Growing Buddha’s Hand

Buddha’s hand plant can be grown from cuttings and seeds. But it’s best to find a plant from the nursery.

Note: Lot of misinformation on the web that Buddha’s hand cannot be grown from seed, but it is false. You can grow Buddha’s hand from fresh seeds. However, it is true that its seeds are rare.

Planting

Planting Buddha’s hand properly is an initial but most important step because it determines the proper growth of the tree, flowering and the production of citrons.

If you’re about to grow it in a cold climate, planting should be done in spring to early summer when the temperature starts to warm up in containers.

In tropical climates planting can be done in any season except summer, right after the end of summer is best planting time.

Requirements for Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron

Buddha’s hand citron needs a well-drained, rich acidic soil to grow well.
If you’re about to grow Buddha’s Hand in a colder zone below 10, remember it is not resistant to frost and begin to suffer when the temperature falls down below 5 °C.
Choose a sunny and sheltered position from the wind to grow it. Water citron tree regularly for the first 2 years after planting.
Citron Care

Buddha’s Hand citron is quite easy to maintain. If the plantation is done well and plant assimilates the climate, it’s a tree that brings great satisfaction with its heavenly scented flowers and prolific fruits.

It does not require special watering, except in warm climates and those suffering from severe droughts in summer. It grows best when watered only at the time when the top surface of soil begins to dry.

Growing Buddhas Hand Fruit Trees in Australia (Citron)

Growing Buddhas Hand Fruit Trees in Australia (Citron)
By daleysfr

growing Buddha’s hand fruit trees

Never do excess watering because it doesn’t like wet feet.
Fertilize it with citrus fertilizer according to the product’s instruction.
Buddha’s hand is not a houseplant, and you can’t grow it indoors, although growing this in a container is possible. If you want a citrus tree that can be grown indoors, grow lemon or calamondin.
Pests and Diseases

Buddha’s Hand has similar pests and diseases problems you see in other citrus varieties. Fruit rot, Brown rot, leaf miner, spider mites, cochineal, aphids, and scales can attack the plant.

How to Grow Buddhas Hand Citron

How to Grow Buddhas Hand Citron
Growing Buddhas hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

How to Grow Buddha’s Hand | Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron
Growing Buddha’s hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

Citrons (whose variety is Hand of Buddha) are large and true citruses, which produces less acidic fruit covered in thick peels and fragrant flowers that are appreciated by perfumers.

Propagation Method: Seeds, cuttings

Height: 3-5 m

Exposure: Full to partial sun

Soil pH: Slightly acidic (pH level around 5.5 to 6)

Soil Type: Well-drained, loamy

Other Names: Citrus medica, bushukan, fingered citron, fragrant citron, five finger mandarin, goblin fingers

Growing Habit

Buddha’s hand citron is an evergreen, large thorny shrub or small tree that grows up to 3 to 5 meters tall. Native to North East India and China, Buddha’s Hand is a member of the citrus family and also called as Buddha’s Finger because of its unusual and fragmented finger like fruits. These fingers form a cluster like a hand and can be between 5 to 20 in numbers.

Growing Buddha’s Hand

Buddha’s hand plant can be grown from cuttings and seeds. But it’s best to find a plant from the nursery.

Note: Lot of misinformation on the web that Buddha’s hand cannot be grown from seed, but it is false. You can grow Buddha’s hand from fresh seeds. However, it is true that its seeds are rare.

Planting

Planting Buddha’s hand properly is an initial but most important step because it determines the proper growth of the tree, flowering and the production of citrons.

If you’re about to grow it in a cold climate, planting should be done in spring to early summer when the temperature starts to warm up in containers.

In tropical climates planting can be done in any season except summer, right after the end of summer is best planting time.

Requirements for Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron

Buddha’s hand citron needs a well-drained, rich acidic soil to grow well.
If you’re about to grow Buddha’s Hand in a colder zone below 10, remember it is not resistant to frost and begin to suffer when the temperature falls down below 5 °C.
Choose a sunny and sheltered position from the wind to grow it. Water citron tree regularly for the first 2 years after planting.
Citron Care

Buddha’s Hand citron is quite easy to maintain. If the plantation is done well and plant assimilates the climate, it’s a tree that brings great satisfaction with its heavenly scented flowers and prolific fruits.

It does not require special watering, except in warm climates and those suffering from severe droughts in summer. It grows best when watered only at the time when the top surface of soil begins to dry.

Never do excess watering because it doesn’t like wet feet.
Fertilize it with citrus fertilizer according to the product’s instruction.
Buddha’s hand is not a houseplant, and you can’t grow it indoors, although growing this in a container is possible. If you want a citrus tree that can be grown indoors, grow lemon or calamondin.
Pests and Diseases

Buddha’s Hand has similar pests and diseases problems you see in other citrus varieties. Fruit rot, Brown rot, leaf miner, spider mites, cochineal, aphids, and scales can attack the plant.

Kumkum kesari tomato | Heirloom & Open pollinated seeds | Seed diversity

Kumkum kesari tomato | Heirloom & Open pollinated seeds | Seed diversity
By PKR Gardening

Kumkuma Keshri Tomato step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of Kumkuma Keshri Tomato

How to Grow Cluster Bean / Guar from Seeds in Container

How to Grow Cluster Bean / Guar from Seeds in Container
By Plants My Love

CLUSTER BEANS step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of CLUSTER BEANS

How to Grow Radishes (PROGRESSION) Complete Growing Guide - Giant White Radish

How to Grow Radishes (PROGRESSION) Complete Growing Guide - Giant White Radish
By Hollis and Nancys Homestead

RADISH WHITE LONG step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of RADISH WHITE LONG

How to Grow Daikon Radish | Gardener’s Path

How to Grow Daikon Radish | Gardener’s Path
If you’re looking to add some zing to your fall garden and kitchen, look no further than the easy to grow daikon radish. Read more on Gardener’s Path.

HOW TO PLANT AND GROW DAIKON: ADD SOME ZING TO YOUR GARDEN
October 12, 2019 by Briana Yablonski
Raphanus sativus var. Longipinnatus

It has always seemed to me that daikon radish is one of the easiest fall crops to grow. Sometimes I’ve sown seeds and forgotten about them, only to return to large white roots.

Daikon radish, still in the soil, with leaf tops in soft focus. Green and white text to the middle and bottom of the frame.
We link to vendors to help you find relevant products. If you buy from one of our links, we may earn a commission.

These radishes require little upkeep and store well. During the dark of winter, I love munching on them to add some zing to an otherwise dreary day.

What You’ll Learn

What Is Daikon?
Cultivation and History
How to Sow
How to Grow
Growing Tips
Cultivars to Select
Managing Pests and Disease
Harvesting
Preserving
Recipes and Cooking ideas
Quick Reference Growing Guide
What Is Daikon?

Daikon is a specific type of radish characterized by its large root. It’s no surprise that its name comes from two Japanese words: dai, which means large, and kon, which means root.

Daikon radish lying on dry soil, with it’s leaf tops attached. In the background, more tubers poking out of the soil, ready for harvesting, in bright sunshine.

It also has a longer date to maturity than other types of radish, which makes sense for its larger size.

Like all radishes, it is a member of the Brassicaceae family. Daikon also goes by other names including white radish, Chinese radish, and Japanese radish.

Cultivation and History

Although daikon is widely grown and consumed throughout East Asia, it is thought to have originated in the Mediterranean. However, these radishes soon made their way to countries including China, Japan, and Korea sometime during the third or fourth century.

Vertical image of daikon radishes with their green tops leaning up against an orange plastic basket on soil.

Since then, they have been a mainstay in certain Asian cuisines, appearing in dishes including stews, stir fries, and ferments.

Daikon is a winter radish, meaning it grows best when it is allowed to mature in colder weather. Therefore, it is typically planted in mid-summer to early fall, depending on your growing zone.

These radishes are often used as cover crops to loosen soil and reduce erosion. This has given them the name tillage radishes.

How to Sow

As with other radishes, these are best grown via direct seeding. The date when you should plant seeds depends on your growing zone. Daikon radishes can be grown in USDA Hardiness Zones 2-11.

Close up of fingers placing daikon seeds into a shallow hollow in the soil.

Aim to sow seeds around two months before your predicted first frost date. This will ensure plants mature in time for harvest.

No matter where you are located, sow one seed every inch in rows 12-18 inches apart. Seeds should be planted at a depth of 1/4 to 1/2 inch.

How to Grow

As mentioned above, this crop is best grown via direct seeding. Before you plant the seeds, you want to make sure you prepare your soil.

Daikon radishes grow best in soil with a pH of 5.8-6.8. Although their roots can loosen compacted soil, they grow best where soil is already loose. If your soil is compacted, consider loosening it with a broadfork before planting.

Since you will be harvesting the roots, avoid applying excessive amounts of nitrogen to the soil. Too much nitrogen will grow large greens, but small roots.

Choose a full sun to partial shade location for best results.

Close up of two hands gently dividing seedlings in the soil.

Once you plant your seeds, make sure you keep the soil moist, and they will germinate within a few days. Within a week of germination, thin seedlings to 4-6 inches apart.

Plants will mature in 40-70 days, depending on the variety. Don’t fret if part of the root is visible above ground; this is normal.

Close up of daikon radishes, the tuber visible above the soil, and bright green tops in gentle sunshine.

Water should be provided every few days if rain doesn’t fall. You are aiming for moist, but not wet, soil.

Growing Tips

Avoid applying excessive nitrogen, to ensure development of roots.
Thin seedlings so roots have space to size up.
Loosen soil so roots can grow large.
Cultivars to Select

Daikon come in three main types: oblong, tapered, and round.

The difference between these types is in their root shape. Some are rounded with nearly the same circumference from top to root, some have more of a narrow and tapered shape similar to a carrot, and others are nearly spherical.

Cultivars also vary in root color, with most being some combination of white and light green.

Japanese Minowase

This heirloom variety produces oblong roots that can grow up to two feet in length. The roots are all white, and can be stored for multiple weeks after harvest.

Three ‘Japanese Minowase’ daikon tubers on a wooden surface with leaf tops attached.

‘Japanese Minowase’

Ready to eat in 45-60 days, the ‘Japanese Minowase’ cultivar is also known for being adaptable to sun or shade.

Find seeds at Eden Brothers.

Long

The ‘Long’ cultivar has white tapered roots with light green tops.

Close up of four ‘Long’ daikon tubers on a hessian sack on soil. In the background are two still waiting to be harvested.

‘Long’

This type can grow up to 14 inches in length. Expect about 60 days to maturity. It can be grown in the spring as well as in the fall.

Find seeds at Burpee.

Red

This variety has oblong roots that grow 5-8 inches long. The exterior of the roots is bright red while the interior ranges from white to pink.

Close up of ‘Red’ daikon tubers, with leaf tops trimmed, on a white background.

‘Red‘

‘Red’ is an heirloom cultivar that you can expect to be ready to harvest in as little as 30 days.

Find seeds at True Leaf Market.

Watermelon

An heirloom variety of daikon with a round bulb, this type is the star of the show when added to any salad or platter of crudités.

Close up of round ‘Watermelon’ daikon radish, harvested, with leaf tops trimmed.

‘Watermelon’

White or light green on the outside, slicing into these roots reveals bright pink flesh that is reminiscent of a watermelon.

These can be harvested when they reach golf ball size, or leave them in the ground longer for whopping grapefruit-sized roots. Expect 30-80 days to harvest.

Seeds are available from True Leaf Market.

White Icicle

Icicle radishes form white, narrow, tapered roots that reach about 5 inches in length at maturity. And this cultivar grows quickly – you can expect a harvest in just 27-35 days!

‘White Icicle’ daikon radishes harvested, with leaf tops attached, on a wooden surface.

‘White Icicle‘

With a mildly pungent flavor, Burpee rates this cultivar as “Best in Class.”

Get your seeds now, available from Burpee.

Managing Pests and Disease

Pests generally don’t bother these radishes too much, however, there are some that still pop up occasionally.

Insects

Different types of insects may go after the leaves as well as the roots. Luckily, they don’t usually cause too much damage.

Flea Beetle

Flea beetles are little bugs that go after the leaves of your plants. If you see small holes in your leaves, take a closer look. You will probably see the beetles themselves, only 1/16-1/4 inch in size.

Close up of two flea beetles on a leaf. The background is of the leaf in soft focus.

Read more about flea beetles and how to control them here.

Harlequin Bug

These bugs may look pretty, but they can really do some damage to your crops. They are orange and black with shield-shaped bodies, and they feed on leafy greens.

If you only see a few bugs on your plants, simply pick them off and place them in some soapy water.

Close up of a harlequin beetle on a branch, with soft focus vegetation in the background.

If these pests take over your crop and require more intense intervention, they can be treated with a spray of neem oil, pyrethin, or insecticidal soap.

Cabbage Maggot

If you pull up your daikon only to discover that they are ridden with tiny channels, the cabbage maggot is likely to blame. These pests are the juvenile form of small flies.

To prevent infestation by these insect pests, consider employing a cover cropping routine. Another method to keep pests at bay is by using floating row covers to exclude insects from your crops.

Read more about cabbage maggot control here.

Disease

All parts of the daikon plant are susceptible to disease, both above and belowground. Again, these issues won’t usually prove to be too much of a problem for your crop.

Septoria Leaf Spot

If you see yellow spots with gray centers on your radish leaves, they are probably infected with this fungus. The best treatment is to remove infected leaves and/or plants. This will stop the spread of the fungus.

Black Root Rot

This fungus goes after your plants’ roots, turning pieces black in color and distorted in shape. If it affects small seedlings, the plants may die. Unfortunately, this disease cannot be treated once it is spotted on your plants.

However, it can be prevented using cultural methods. Don’t over water your crops and make sure they are planted in soil with good drainage.

Another way to prevent this disease is by practicing crop rotation. Since this fungus affects multiple Brassica species, make sure you don’t grow brassicas repeatedly in the same area.

Harvesting

Daikon radishes can be harvested once they meet their date of maturity. Check your seed packets for recommendations.

Close up of daikon leaf tops growing in soil.

Keep in mind that although this type of radish has more of a capacity to grow large while maintaining quality than your traditional radish varieties, they can still become pithy and spongy if they are left to grow too big. Be sure to harvest before this happens.

If hit with hard frosts, the radishes will become spongy or die. However, the time to harvest can be extended by protecting plants with floating row covers.

Close up of the top of a daikon tuber in the soil, with bright sunshine filtering through the leaf tops.

Varieties with long and slender roots are fragile and susceptible to snapping. You can prevent them from breaking by loosening the soil with a pitchfork, broadfork, or shovel.

Once your soil is adequately loose, grab the leaves where they meet the tops of the roots and gently pull. Now’s the moment when you get to see just how big your daikon have grown!

Freshly harvested daikon radishes in a plastic container in water. Sunshine bathes the leaf tops.

Once the plants are pulled from the ground, cut off the leaves at their base. With the leaves removed, the roots can be stored for multiple weeks under the right conditions.

To increase the storage life of your radishes, avoid washing the roots or leaves until you are ready to use them.

Close up of harvested daikon tubers, with their leaf tops cut off.

Daikon is best stored in a cold, moist environment. Therefore, the best way to store your harvest is to place the roots in the refrigerator with a damp paper towel or cloth.

You can wrap or cover them in the towel; the important thing is that you are providing a humid environment.

Leaves can be stored in a zip-top plastic bag in the crisper drawer of your refrigerator for a few days.

Preserving

These radishes are often fermented on their own to be eaten as a type of pickle. They are also used as a component of Napa cabbage-based kimchi.

Fermenting is a simple process that only requires three main things: salt, water, and time. You can read more about fermented foods on our sister site, Foodal.

Recipes and Cooking Ideas

Daikon radish is a versatile crop in the kitchen. It can be eaten raw or cooked, and all parts of the plant can be consumed.

You do not need to peel this vegetable, though some people choose to do so. One simple way to eat daikon is to slice it up raw into discs that can be dipped in hummus or ranch dressing.

A dark grey surface with a whole daikon radish, sliced daikon in a jar in liquid. In the foreground a white bowl with slices and a thyme leaf on top. A fabric tea towel with stripes on the right.

Another great way to eat daikon is to dice it into ½-inch cubes and then saute them in oil with garlic and ginger for a few minutes. Remove from the heat and toss with rice noodles, soy sauce, sesame oil, and your favorite fresh diced hot pepper or hot pepper flakes.

Due to their rough texture, the leaves are best enjoyed cooked via methods including sauteing and steaming. They make a great addition to Thai-inspired coconut curries.

Close up of daikon spouts, clearly showing the furry roots coming out of the seeds.

Daikon sprouts can also be enjoyed in salads and sandwiches. See our article on sprouts and microgreens for more information to grow your own.

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type:
Annual
Water Needs:
1/2 inch per week
Native To:
Mediterranean, East Asia
Maintenance:
Low
Hardiness (USDA Zone):
2-11
Soil Type:
Rich, well aerated
Season:
Fall
Soil pH:
5.8-6.8
Exposure:
Full sun to partial shade
Soil Drainage:
Well draining
Time to Maturity:
40-70 days
Companion Planting:
Marigolds, scallions
Spacing:
4-6 inches
Avoid Planting With:
Garlic, corn, potatoes, tomatoes
Planting Depth:
1/4-1/2 inch
Family:
Brassicaceae
Height:
10-20 inches
Genus:
Raphanus
Spread:
6 inches
Species and Cultivar:
R. sativus var. longipinnatus
Tolerance:
Cold, light frost, high air temperatures, depending on variety
Pests & Diseases:
Flea beetles, harlequin bugs, cabbage maggots, septoria leaf spot, black root rot
Grow Some Giant Radishes

Now that you know how to plant and grow these large radishes, it’s time to add them to your fall garden. You’ll be impressed with their size and how easy they are to grow.

Close up of daikon radishes, the tuber visible above the soil, and bright green tops in gentle sunshine.

To see how this crop can fit in with the rest of your fall plans, check out some other cool-weather-loving crops here!

And if you want to learn how to grow other fall crops, read these guides next:

How to Plant and Grow Cabbage
A Flavor You’ve Come to Love: How to Grow Brussels Sprouts
Growing Kohlrabi

How To Grow Tomatoes | Cherry Tomatoes

How To Grow Tomatoes | Cherry Tomatoes
By Urban Gardening

RED CHERRY TOMATO step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of RED CHERRY TOMATO

How To Grow Okra In Containers - Growing Okra in Pots or Containers

How To Grow Okra In Containers - Growing Okra in Pots or Containers
By California Gardening

Double Color Okra step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of Double Color Okra

How to Grow Beetroot from Seed

How to Grow Beetroot from Seed
By LearnHow2

BEETROOT step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of BEETROOT

How to Grow Okra

How to Grow Okra
Long popular in the Southern United States, okra is making inroads in vegetable gardens across the country. The pod-like fruit is a wonderful addition to soups and stews.

How to Grow Okra
Long popular in the Southern United States, okra is making inroads in vegetable gardens across the country. The pod-like fruit is a wonderful addition to soups and stews.
Cost $
Skill Level
Start to Finish 2+ Days
TOOLS
hoe
MATERIALS
okra seeds
compost
fertilizer
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
Step 1:Soak the Seeds
Step 2:Prepare the Site
Step 3:Plant the Seeds
Step 4:Cultivate the Plants
Step 5:Harvest the Okra
INTRODUCTION
Purchase the Seeds
Okra is related to the hibiscus, and as such it produces large ornamental flowers. The green pod-like fruits are very popular in the Southern United States, where they are enjoyed in soups and stews. Okra does not transplant well, so most gardeners grow their crops from seed. Popular seed varieties include Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Green Velvet.

STEP 1
Speed Up Germination Process by Soaking Okra Seeds
Soak the Seeds
Okra is easy to grow but the seeds have a hard coat that can slow germination. To speed up the process, soak the seeds overnight in warm water before planting. Wrapping the seeds in moist paper towels also works well.

STEP 2
Prepare the Site
Okras require full sun (at least 8 hours a day) and prefer soil that is loose, fertile and slightly alkaline. If the soil is more acidic, work some lime into the bed a few months before planting. Enrich the soil with compost, turning it into the bed with a rake. Finally, add a half cup of slow-release 5-10-10 fertilizer for every 20 square feet of garden space.

STEP 3
Plant the Seeds
It is best to plant okra after daytime temps hit 85 degrees and nighttime temps reach the low 60s. Use a garden hoe to make 1″-deep furrows in the garden bed. Space the furrows 24″ apart. Place the presoaked seeds into the furrows, spacing them 6″ apart. Gently rake the soil over the seeds to cover them. After lightly firming the soil, water the seeds well. Place a garden marker to indicate the crops.

STEP 4
Cultivate Okra Plants
Cultivate the Plants
When the seedlings reach approximately 2″ tall, thin the plants to one every foot. Apply a generous layer of mulch around the plants, but do not let the mulch come in contact with the stems. Okra grows very rapidly in hot weather, and the leafy plants do a great job of shading out competing weeds. Frequent watering is necessary during the germination and flowering stages, but after that okra can tolerate dry conditions. However, during extended dry periods, a deep soaking once every 10 days should be adequate.

STEP 5
Harvest Okra Pods with Garden Shears
Harvest the Okra
In warm weather the immature fruit pods grow very rapidly, often reaching full size in just a couple days. When the pods reach about 2″ to 3″ long, remove them from the plant with pruning shears. Left too long on the plant and the fruit becomes woody and tough. The pods should be picked often to encourage continued production. The plants will grow and bear fruit right up until frost.

How to Grow Beetroot from Seed

How to Grow Beetroot from Seed
By LearnHow2

BEETROOT step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of BEETROOT

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes
Here You Can Find Some Collections Of Swimming Captions For Instagram And Some Collections Of Swimming, Poolside, Pool Party, Beach, Sea Quotes And Captions

140 Swimming Captions For Instagram [2021] Swimming Pool Quotes
May 13, 2021 by JEET
Swimming Captions For Instagram

Swimming Captions: Are you looking for some collections of Swimming Captions For Instagram? Then you are in the right place because here you can find some collections of Swimming Captions & Quotes also. Here we collect these captions and quotes for swimming and pool pictures from different sources, That you can easily find some caption for your post very easily.

Here we provide some collections of Swimming Captions For Instagram and also some collections of Best Swimming Quotes also. Finding the right type of quote or caption for your swimming picture is not an easy task but here we make it simple because here you can easily find some collections of Swimming Captions & Quotes. You can easily pick a caption or quote from this list and make that your own caption for your Instagram post.

So, guys, We hope you find some collections of Swimming Captions For Instagram and also some collections of Quotes For Swimming Pictures also. Here we provide different types of swimming captions and quotes also like swimming pool, poolside, beach, and summertimes swimming captions, and quotes also. So let’s dive into it.

Table of Contents
Swimming Captions For Instagram

These are collections of captions for swimming pictures.

Life is cool by the pool.
Relaxed state of mind.
Keep calm and swim on.
You can’t swim with us.
The best sunrises are over swimming pools.
Pretty sure I was a mermaid in my past life.
Has anyone seen my mermaid tail?
All my troubles wash away in the water.
When you have the whole pool to yourself.
Do you even make waves, bro?
Find me wherever the pool floats are.
Life is cool by the pool.
Anyone looking for someone to test out their pool? I’m available.
You’re one in a watermelon.
You’re only one swim away from a good mood.
You can’t swim with us.
Lifeguard on beer break.
How do you get a beach body? Go to the beach!

Swimming Instagram Captions

Here are these swimming captions for Instagram.

Always be yourself. Unless you can be a mermaid, then be a mermaid.
Summer is always good for lazy days.
Happy as a clam.
A splashing good time!
My favorite part of the day is playing in the pool.
Swimming is my therapy.
Sorry, no lifeguard on duty.
Hey, summer. We think about you all the time.
Penguins have so much fun time in the water, they don’t even want to fly!40
Don’t worry – I’ve been splashing since the 90s.
“When I dip, you dip, we dip!” — Freak Nasty, “Da Dip”
I can’t control how everyone else swims but if all goes well I know there are no limits.
Enjoying my summer one splash at a time.
“We’ll figure this out, I promise. I won’t let you sink.” – Kiera Cass
I could swim all day long if there were more hours to spare.
Cooling off with my dude!
Want seconds? Follow me!
Home is where the pool is.
Hey, summer. We think about you all the time.
Pool Captions For Instagram

These are some pool captions for Instagram.

An ocean breeze puts a mind at ease.
Don’t get tied down. Have a pool party.
Floating into summer-like…
Forget the glass slippers – this princess wears flippers.
Don’t ever miss a chance to be sun-kissed.
Is that new perfume? No, that’s chlorine.
I got 99 bikinis and I can’t choose one.
The land of endless summer.
Girls just wanna have pool parties.
Swimming is cheaper than therapy.
What the shell. This isn’t the beach!
“The man who is swimming against the stream knows the strength of it.” – Woodrow Wilson
BRB: Quitting everything so that we can be mermaids.
If in doubt, swim on out.
Splashing the day away.

Pool Instagram Captions

Here we collect these captions for pool pictures.

Life looks better from a lounge chair.
Making a splash to beat the heat!
I don’t come from the sea, but I live in the water.
I think there is no such pressure in the underwater I feel it.
In the water, my body becomes a river.
Keep calm and go swim.
When life gives you lemons, make lemonade and have a pool party
Be a mermaid and make waves.
You’re one in a watermelon.
“Being happy outside the pool means fast swimming in the pool.” – Eric Shanteau
Peace, love, and pineapple pool floats.
We swim not to escape life, but so that life doesn’t escape us.
Pool Side Swimming Captions

These are pool side swimming captions for Instagram.

So this is the mermaid life
Life is better when you’re swimming.
Water is purifying.
Keep calm, lie down
Great vibes on the tides.
The only BS we need is bikinis and sandals.
Can sitting by the pool be my day job already?
Eat my turbulence.
I’ve never met a pool float that I didn’t like.
There are a million fish in the sea, but I’m a mermaid.
Time is a pool to swim and dream and create in.
This is what summer is for?
Oxygen is overrated.
I’ve never met a pool float that I didn’t like.
Swimming is dancing under the water.
Sunshine, poolside, downtime.
Summer, it has been way too long, my love.
Mermaid off-duty.

If you didn’t splash, did a pool day even happen?
I got 99 bikinis and I can’t choose one.
You never regret a swim.
Cooling off with my dude!
Some of the best memories are made in bathing suits.
You don’t swim in a river – it takes you places.
Just a bunch of mermaids.”
When life gives you lemons, make lemonade, and have a pool party.
Drink like a pirate. Dance like a mermaid.
We lose ourselves in the things which we love so much but we can find ourselves live too.
In the water, your only enemy is the clock.
Do not look out the right or left side until you will achieve the mainstream.
Every time you swim in a river, it’s a brand new experience.
Your swim begins at the end of your comfort zone

Swimming Captions & Quotes

These are swimming captions & quotes for Instagram. So check out.

“Life is better when you’re swimming.” – Unknown
Girls just wanna have pool parties.
Just dive in.
Put all your excuses to a side, and remember this, you are capable to do it.
Real athletes swim – the rest play games.
Be stubborn about your goals and flexible about your method.
“Swimming is simply moving meditation.” – Cesar Nikko Caharian
Life is like swimming, sometimes the wall will hit you, sometimes you make the right turn.
Mermaid kisses and starfish wishes.
Make your own sunshine.
Swim your worries away.
Rivers take my troubles downstream.
This is me before my epic cannonball.
Swimming is normal for me. I’m relaxed. I’m comfortable, and I know my surrounding It’s my home.
Just keep swimming.
Captions For Swimming Pictures

Those splash spots were there before I got here.
When I take a step in my swimming pool I feel like a fish.
Building a tradition one stroke at a time.
We’re all about the pool days and sun rays.
“I dream of summers that last forever.”
Pool lineup this weekend.
Pretty sure I was a mermaid in my past life.
Night swim pool times.
Sunshine is the best medicine that we need.
If you have a lane, you have a chance.
Sunshine on my mind.
Made for sunny days.
Water you doing this summer?
Dive into the summer blues!

Swimming Pictures Captions

Swimming makes everything better
The faces I pull whilst swimming
A pool party can’t solve everything, but it’s a good start.
Happiness is all about making your own waves.
No matter how much I complain, I will always love swimming with a passion so strong nobody can me I quit.
Enjoy, relax, soak, and unwind
Some roads are very crooked, you have to make your way.
Keep calm and go swim
Swimming is my therapy
Hair up, sunnies on.
You’re only one dip away from a good mood!
Every summer has a story to tell.
Swimming Quotes

“Swimming is my salvation.” – Lynn Sherr
“The key to success―keep swimming.” – Richelle E. Goodrich
“Swimming state on mind” – Unknown
“Just keep swimming” – Unknown
“Most men will not swim before they are able to.” – Herman Hesse
“All my troubles wash away in the water” – Unknown
“So much water, such little time” – Unknown
“Made for sunny days.” — The Weepies, “I Was Made For Sunny Days
“The water doesn’t know how old you are.” – Dara Torres
Visualization Exercise for Swimmers with Chloe Sutton

Visualization Exercise for Swimmers with Chloe Sutton
By Chloe Sutton

swimming meditation the best to attain Nibbana with pictures

https://fourgates.com/zen-robes/

https://fourgates.com/zen-robes/
ZEN ROBES Sort by: Featured Items Zen Robes and meditation clothing for the lay person or monastic are an essential part of meditation practice where you are a student, beginner, lay person and ordained Buddhist Priest. Zen meditation garments such as, Zen Lay robe, Rakusu, Jubon, aka Juban, kimono, koromo, ordained Buddhist Priest robes. By wearing the kimono beneath the outer garment, and often the Jubon, aka Juban, they protect the robe from body oils, perspiration and so forth while adding warmth when needed. The hand made Rakusu is important to reflect your vows, precepts and personal commitment to practice the Dharma. All of these are outer reminders of a deeper connection to the three jewels: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. Zen monastic garments are specifically designed for the meditation tradition and enhances the experience. Your robe is the physical embodiment of your inner being. Robes acknowledge the commitment to living a life in the

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks
Awareness is possible in every situation, including swimming. With mindful swimming, you can enjoy the current moment without worry and stress.

What Is Swimming Meditation? Mindful Swimming | Mindworks
4 days ago — But you could go the extra lap and practice mindful swimming – and get the best of both worlds. With mindful swimming, instead …
You visited this page on 18/5/21

https://mindworks.org/blog/what-is-swimming-meditation/

https://mindworks.org/blog/what-is-swimming-meditation/

What Is Swimming Meditation?
Mindworks | Mindfulness Meditation Blog | Types of Meditation
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Doctors recommend swimming as one of the best exercises around, and for good reason. When we swim, the main muscle groups all go to work in a way that doesn’t put undue stress on the body. This makes it a wholesome aerobic exercise for young and old alike. The health benefits of this kind of workout include:
• Improving blood circulation around the body
• Helping get rid of excess cholesterol within the bloodstream
• Curbing obesity and its accompanying health issues
• Maintaining general fitness

Most people enjoy swimming because it’s so refreshing and good for you. But you could go the extra lap and practice mindful swimming – and get the best of both worlds. With mindful swimming, instead of just focusing on reaching a certain goal, you pay full attention to the exercise and the sensations experienced as you swim. Extending your mindfulness practice into swimming is a great way to break up the routine of sitting meditation.
Is there a link between swimming and meditation?
The answer depends on the swimmer! Meditation is about awareness, and it might be argued that awareness is possible in every situation, including swimming. With mindful swimming, you can enjoy the current moment without worrying about any stressful issues at work, home or elsewhere.
Instead of mindlessly plunging into the water and doing your laps, take a few moments to formulate the intention of being entirely present in the water. Once you’ve begun swimming, see if you can maintain awareness of the here and now. Enjoy the feeling of buoyancy as you glide across the pool and take note of other physical sensations – wetness, scent, sound, etc. Remain present as your arms enter and leave the water, your legs propel your body forward and your head follows the rhythm of the movement. How does it feel? Acknowledging sensations that you don’t usually notice is part of what makes swimming as meditation so enjoyable. Alternatively, when swimming laps or floating, you may also choose to focus on your breath.
The joy of mindful swimming
When you meditate, the mind is no longer bound by the anxieties and stresses that usually take up so much mental space. Instead, the mind is spacious and refreshed, and you feel rejuvenated. This naturally inspires you to work on bettering yourself and improving the lives of others. By incorporating the exercise of swimming as meditation into your mindfulness regime, you train in extending your “on-the-cushion” practice into your everyday life.
Professional swimmers tend to repeat the same movements every time they train. It’s easy for them to give their minds free rein to wander as they swim instead of being mindfully aware of their breath and physical sensations. In her article “Mindful Swimming” in Swimming World Magazine, former competitive swimmer Tonya Nascimento believes that mindfulness can help athletes while training as well as while competing. “At all levels, swim meets can have a multitude of distractions that capture your mind and direct your attention away from your races. [ …] The goal of mindfulness is to develop a sense of calm in the midst of the storm; it is to gain control over one’s own thoughts. By becoming aware of your thoughts, you can decide to let go of those thoughts that hinder your performance, and decide to concentrate on only those thoughts that help you improve,” she writes.
A number of national swimming teams (including the U.S. Olympic team) have incorporated mindfulness in their training sessions. The feedback has been positive: athletes have reported improved performances when they focus on being fully present rather than focusing on the goal (winning!) alone. Mindful presence helps swimmers maintain balance, and balance fosters peak performance.
Before trying mindful swimming, make sure your swimming level is good enough.

Once you get the groove of it, you’ll realize that swimming and meditation are an awesome match. Most importantly, remember that swimming – and meditating – should be enjoyable!
By reading this article it’s clear that you’re interested in the practice of meditation and its results: experiencing genuine joy and well-being. You’ve come to the right place. Mindworks is a non-profit with a mission to share the most authentic and proven meditation guidance to you and our worldwide community.
As meditation practice develops the most fundamental axis of our being, it’s essential to rely on clear, progressive and genuine meditation methods from authentic guides. In order to fully transmit to you the full potential of genuine meditation, we created the 9-level Mindworks Journey to Well-Being.
We’re so sure you’ll benefit we now offer you Mindworks Journey Level 1: Meditation Fundamentals course for Free. Click the link below to learn more.

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images • 7ESL

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images • 7ESL
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.

List of Vegetables: Useful Vegetable Names in English with Images
Vegetables in English! List of vegetables with images and examples. Learn these vegetables names to increase your vocabulary words about fruits and vegetables in English. Also, interesting vegetables images help you remember the new words better.
Food is one of the most important parts of our lives and when learning a foreign language, it is vital that we learn how to refer to different types of foods. One of the most important foods are vegetables, with people now living much healthier lives and some even having a plant-based diet, you are likely to need to know a much wider range of English vegetable names.
A useful list of fruits and vegetables in English with images and examples.
Table of Contents

Vegetable Names
Types of Vegetables
Vegetable List
List of Vegetables with Pictures
List of Vegetables | Vegetable Images
Fruits & Vegetables Names | List of Vegetables Video

Types of Vegetables
Vegetables are certain parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food such as peas, beans, cabbage, potatoes…
• Root Vegetables
• Onion Family
• Leafy Vegetables
• Squash
• Peas & Beans
Vegetable List
Learn vegetable vocabulary in English.
• Corn
• Mushroom
• Broccoli
• Cucumber
• Red pepper/red bell pepper
• Pineapple
• Tomato
List of Vegetables | Vegetables Images

• Swede/rutabaga (U.S.)
• Carrot
• Brussels sprout
• Pumpkin
• Cabbage
• Potato
• Eggplant
• Sweet potato
• Turnip
• Courgette (U.K.)/zucchini (U.S.)
• Green chilli
• Onion
• Lettuce
• Radish
• Pea
• Asparagus
• Celery
• Green pepper
• French beans
• Spinach
• Beetroot/beet (U.S.)
• Red chillies/red chili peppers (U.S.)
• Bean
List of Vegetables with Pictures
Learn vegetable names with vegetables images and example sentences.

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