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30-9-2021 - Suttas word by word. - Dhammapada chapter 1-14
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Suttas word by word

This page lists the suttas in which each Pali word has its own info·bubble.

Abhijāna Sutta (SN 22.24)
Two conditions (doubled as four with synonyms) for the destruction of suffering: full understanding and abandoning. One should remain aware not to focus on only one of these two.
Abhinanda Sutta (SN 35.20)
There is no escape for whoever delights in sense objects.
Accharāsaṅghāta Peyyāla (AN 1.53-55)
Practicing goodwill makes one worthy of gifts.
Adantāgutta Sutta (SN 35.94)
Here is one of those advises which are so easy to understand with the intellect, yet so difficult to understand at deeper levels because our wrong views constantly interfere in the process. Therefore we need to get it repeated often, even though that may seem boring to some.
Ajjhattānattahetu Sutta (SN 35.142)
How investigating the causes for the arising of the sense organs, in which the characteristic of nonself may be easier to understand, allows a transfer of this understanding to their case.
Akammaniya Vagga (AN 1.21-30)
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Ānāpānassati Sutta (MN 118)
The famous sutta about the practice of ānāpānassati, and how it leads to the practice of the four satipaṭṭhānas and subsquently to the fulfillment of the seven bojjhaṅgas.
Anattalakkhana Sutta (SN 22.59)
In this very famous sutta, the Buddha expounds for the first time his teaching on anatta.
Aṅga Sutta (SN 55.50)
The four sotāpattiyaṅgas (factors for stream-entry).
Āṇi Sutta (SN 20.7)
A very important thing is reminded to us by the Buddha: for our own benefit as well as for the benfit of the generations yet to come, we must give most importance to his own actual words, and not so much to whoever else pretends nowadays or has pretended in the past to be a proper (Dhamma) teacher.
Aniccanibbānasappāya Sutta (SN 35.147)
Here are hardcore vipassanā instructions dealing with the perception of impermanence for advanced meditators who are looking forward to attaining Nibbāna.
Avijjāpahāna Sutta (SN 35.53)
A very simple discourse, yet very deep, on what to know and see to abandon ignorance and produce knowledge.
Bahuvedanīya Sutta (MN 59) {excerpt}
In this short excerpt, the Buddha defines the five kāmaguṇās and makes an important comparison with another type of pleasure.
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (SN 56.11)
This is certainly the most famous sutta in the Pali litterature. The Buddha expounds the four ariya-saccas for the first time.
Dhammānupassī Sutta (AN 6.118)
It is worth having repeated the message given in this sutta: six habits without abandoning which it is not possible to practice the satipaṭṭhānas properly. Quite some cleaning may be advisable here.
Gītassara Sutta (AN 5.209)
This sutta has been largely overlooked by the various buddhist traditions: the Buddha explains why he does not allow the bhikkhus to perform any melodic chanting.
Indriyabhāvanā Sutta (MN 152)
This sutta offers three approaches to the practice of sense restraint, that contain additional instructions complementing the Indriyesu Guttadvāratā formulae.
Kālāmā Sutta (AN 3.66)
See Kesamutti Sutta.
Kammapatha Sutta (AN 3.164)
It is demonstrated here that the view according to which there is nothing wrong in being non-vegetarian is erroneous.
Kasiṇa Sutta (AN 10.25)
This is the standard description of the practice on the ten kasiṇas.
Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta (AN 3.66)
In this famous sutta, the Buddha reminds us to ultimately trust only our own direct experience of the reality, not what is declared by others, even if they happen to be our ‘revered teacher’.
Khajjanīya Sutta (SN 22.79) {excerpt}
This sutta provides a succinct definition of the five khandhas.
Kusala Sutta (SN 46.32)
All that is advantageous unite in one thing.
Kusala Suttas (AN 1.56-73)
What produces and what eliminates wholesome and unwholesome mental states.
Mahānāma Sutta (AN 8.25) {excerpt}
Mahānāma asks the Buddha to define what is a lay follower and in what respect a lay follower is expected to be virtuous.
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta (DN 16) {excerpts}
This sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set of instructions for us nowadays.
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22)
This sutta is widely considered as a fundamental reference for meditation practice.
Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN 43) {excerpt}
Sāriputta answers various interesting questions asked by āyasmā Mahākoṭṭhika, and in this excerpt, he explains that Vedanā, Saññā and Viññāṇa are not clearly delineated but deeply interwoven.
Migajāla Sutta Sutta (SN 35.64) {excerpt}
Some neophytes (and we may often count ourselves among them) sometimes want to believe that it is possible to delight in sensual pleasures without giving rise to attachment nor suffering. The Buddha teaches Migajāla that this is downright impossible.
Nanda Sutta (AN 8.9) {excerpt}
The Buddha describes how Nanda, though being prey to fierce sense desire, practices throroughly in accordance to his instructions. This sutta contains a definition of satisampajañña.
Nandikkhaya Sutta (SN 22.51)
How to operate the destruction of delight.
Nirāmisa Sutta (SN 36.31) {excerpt}
We can understand here that pīti, though being often listed as a bojjhaṅga, can also sometimes be akusala. This passage also includes a definition of the five kāmaguṇā.
Nīvaraṇa Sutta (AN 9.64)
How to remove the five hindrances.
Nīvaraṇappahāna Vagga (AN 1.11-20)
The five dhammas that nourish most efficiently the five hindrances, and the five most effective ways to dispell them.
Padhāna Sutta (AN 4.13)
In this sutta, the Buddha gives a definition of the sammappadhānas.
Padīpopama Sutta (SN 54.8)
Here the Buddha explains ānāpānassati and recommands it for various purposes: from abandoning gross impurities, through developing all the eight jhānas.
Pamādavihārī Sutta (SN 35.97)
What makes the difference between one who lives with negligence and one who lives with vigilance.
Pamādādi Vagga (AN 1.81-97)
The Buddha repetedly warns us against heedlessness.
Paṭisallāna Sutta (SN 56.2)
The Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus to practice paṭisallāna, for it leads to understanding the four noble truths in their true nature.
Phassamūlaka Sutta (SN 36.10)
The three types of feelings are rooted in three types of contacts.
Pubbesambodha Sutta (SN 35.13)
The Buddha defines what he means by allure, drawback and emancipation in the case of the internal sense spheres, and then declares that his awakening was nothing more nor less than understanding them.
Ruṇṇa Sutta (AN 3.108)
Here the Buddha explains what is singing and dancing in the discipline of the noble ones, and then gives his instrunction regarding laughing and smiling.
Rūpādi Vagga (AN 1.1-10)
There are five types of sense objects that overpower the mind of (most) human beings more than any others.
Rūpārāma Sutta (SN 35.137)
The Buddha explains for us once more, in yet another way, the cause and the cessation of suffering. It takes place right in the middle of what we keep doing all day and all night.
Sabbupādānapariññā Sutta (SN 35.60)
The Buddha, while expounding the complete understanding of all attachment, gives a deep and yet very clear explanation: contact arises on the basis of three phenomena.
Sakkapañhā Sutta Sutta (SN 35.118)
The Buddha gives a rather simple answer to Sakka’s question: what is the reason why some people attain the final goal while others don’t?
Samādhi Sutta (SN 56.1)
The Buddha exhorts the bhikkhus to practice samādhi, for it leads to understanding the four noble truths in their true nature.
Samādhi Sutta (SN 22.5)
The Buddha exhorts his followers to develop concentration so that they can practice insight into the arising and passing away of the five aggregates, after which he defines what he means by arising and passing away of the aggregates, in terms of dependent origination.
Samādhibhāvanā Sutta (AN 4.41)
The four types of concentration that the Buddha commends. It is quite obvious here that no clear distinction is made between samādhi and paññā.
Saṅkhitta Sutta (AN 8.53)
The Buddha gives here to his former nurse eight criteria to discriminate whether a given statement belongs to his teaching or not, which may happen to be handy nowadays.
Sati Sutta (SN 47.35)
In this sutta, the Buddha reminds the bhikkhus to be satos and sampajānos, and then defines these two terms.
Satthusāsana Sutta (AN 7.83)
Here is a very concise sevenfold instruction to discriminate what is the Teaching of the Buddha from what is not.
Sikkhādubbalya Sutta (AN 9.63)
What to do if one is not yet perfect in the five precepts.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.90)
The Buddha defines the three trainings, i.e. adhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā and adhipaññāsikkhā.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.91)
Here the Buddha gives an alternate definition of adhipaññāsikkhā.
Siṃsapāvana Sutta (SN 56.31)
The famous sutta where the Buddha states that he has no interest in baroque teachings which are not immediately connected with attaining the goal.
Upādāparitassanā Sutta (SN 22.8)
The arising and cessation of suffering takes place in the five aggregates.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 12.2)
A detailed explanation of paṭicca samuppāda, with a definition of each of the twelve links.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 45.8)
Here the Buddha defines precisely each factor of the eightfold noble path.
Vibhaṅga Sutta (SN 47.40)
The satipaṭṭhānas taught in short.
Vijjābhāgiya Sutta (AN 2.32)
Here the Buddha relates Samatha with rāga and cetovimutti, and Vipassanā with avijjā and paññāvimutti.
Vipallāsa Sutta (AN 4.49)
In this sutta, the Buddha describes the fourfold distortion of saññā, citta and diṭṭhi.
Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.14)
Here are defined the five balas.

Bodhi leaf

Verse 1. Suffering Follows The Evil-Doer

Mind precedes all knowables,
mind’s their chief, mind-made are they.
If with a corrupted mind
one should either speak or act
dukkha follows caused by that,
as does the wheel the ox’s hoof.

Explanation: All that we experience begins with thought. Our words and deeds spring from thought. If we speak or act with evil thoughts, unpleasant circumstances and experiences inevitably result. Wherever we go, we create bad circumstances because we carry bad thoughts. This is very much like the wheel of a cart following the hoofs of the ox yoked to the cart. The cart-wheel, along with the heavy load of the cart, keeps following the draught oxen. The animal is bound to this heavy load and cannot leave it.

Verse 2. Happiness Follows The Doer of Good

Mind precedes all knowables,
mind’s their chief, mind-made are they.
If with a clear, and confident mind
one should speak and act
as one’s shadow ne’er departing.

Explanation: All that man experiences springs out of his thoughts. If his thoughts are good, the words and the deeds will also be good. The result of good thoughts , words and deeds will be happiness. This happiness will never leave the person whose thoughts are good. Happiness will always follow him like his shadow that never leaves him.

Verse 3. Uncontrolled Hatred Leads to Harm

Who bears within them enmity:
“He has abused and beaten me,
defeated me and plundered me”,
hate is not allayed for them.

Explanation: When a person holds that he was insulted, assaulted, defeated, or robbed, his anger continues to increase. The anger such a person has no way of subsiding. The more he goes over his imaginary trouble the greater becomes his desire to avenge it.

Verse 4. Overcoming Anger

Who bears within no enmity:
“He has abused and beaten me,
defeated me and plundered me”,
hate is quite allayed for them.

Explanation: Living in human society, people often quarrel with one another. When such conflicts occur, people often keep thinking about the wrongs done to them by others. When that happens, their anger tends to grow. But in those who forgive and forget the wrongs done to them, anger quickly vanishes. They are then at peace.

Verse 5. Hatred is Overcome Only by Non-hatred

Never here by enmity
are those with enmity allayed,
they are allayed by amity,
this is the timeless Truth.

Explanation: Those who attempt to conquer hatred by hatred are like warriors who take weapons to overcome others who bear arms. This does not end hatred, but gives it room to grow. But, ancient wisdom has advocated a different timeless strategy to overcome hatred. This eternal wisdom is to meet hatred with non-hatred. The method is of overcoming hatred through non-hatred is eternally effective. That is why that method is described as eternal wisdom.

Verse 6. Recollection of Death Brings Peace

Still others do not understand
that we must perish in this world,
those who understand this,
there quarrels are allayed.

Explanation: Most of us are not prepared to face the reality of impermanence and death. It is because we forget this fact that our lives are transitory, that we quarrel with each other, as if we are going to live for ever. But, if we face the fact of death, our quarrels will come to an end. We will then realize the folly of fighting when we ourselves are doomed to die. Excited by emotions our thoughts being clouded, we cannot see the truth about life. When we see the truth, however, our thoughts become free of emotions.

Verse 7. Laziness Defeats Spirituality

One who beauty contemplates,
whose faculties are unrestrained,
in food no moderation knows,
is languid, who is indolent:
that one does Mara overthrow
as wind a tree of little strength.

Explanation: Those who dwell on the attractiveness of sensual enjoyment, and live with the senses unguarded, and are immoderate in eating, they are slothful and weak in perseverance and will-power. Emotions overpower such persons easily as the wind overpowers a weak tree.

Verse 8. Spiritual Strength is Undefeatable

One who foulness contemplates,
whose faculties are well-restrained,
in food does moderation know,
is full of faith, who’s diligent:
that one no Mara overthrows,
as wind does not a rocky mount.

Explanation: Those who dwell on the unattractiveness of sensual enjoyment, and live with the senses well guarded, and are moderate in eating, they are devoted to the Teaching and to persistent methodical practice. Such persons are not overpowered by emotions just as a rocky mountain is not shaken by the wind.

Verse 9. Those Who Do Not Deserve the Stained Robe

One who wears the stainless robe
who’s yet not free from stain,
without restraint and truthfulness
for the stainless robe’s unfit.

Explanation: A monk may be stained by defilements, bereft of self-control and awareness of reality. Such a monk, though he may wear the ’stained cloth’ ( the monk’s robe which has been specially coloured with dye obtained from wild plants), he is not worthy of such a saintly garb.

Verse 10. The Virtuous Deserve the Stained Robe

But one who is self-cleansed of stain,
in moral conduct firmly set,
having restraint and truthfulness
is fit for the stainless robe.

Explanation: Whoever dons the ’stained cloth’, being free of defilements, who is well conducted and tranquil within, having emotions under control and aware of reality, such a person is worthy of the sacred ’stained cloth’.

Verse 11. False Values Bar Spiritual Progress

Conceiving the real in unreality
while seeing unreal the truly real,
roaming fields of thoughts ill-formed:
never they at the real arrive.

Explanation: A person interested in spiritual progress must be aware of spiritual values. It is true that material things are also necessary. But they are not the values to be sought after for spiritual progress. If people were to give prominence to material values they cannot attain any spiritual heights.

Verse 12. Truth Enlightens

That which is real they know as real,
that unreal, to be unreal;
roaming fields of thought well-formed
they at the real arrive.

Explanation: The wise person who is able to recognize the true values leading to spiritual attainment, is capable of attaining to spiritual heights. Such a person is possessed of right views.

Verse 13. Lust Penetrates Untrained Mind

Even as the rain does penetrate
a house that’s badly thatched,
likewise lust does penetrate
the mind uncultivated.

Explanation: It is quite necessary that a house should have a well-thatched roof. If the thatching is weak, rain seeps through the house. Just as a badly thatched roof lets in the rain, the uncultured temperament too is open to passions. The temperament that is not cultured is penetrated easily by lust.

Verse 14. The Disciplined Mind Keeps Lust Away

As rain does never penetrate
a house that is well-thatched,
so lust does never penetrate
the mind well cultivated.

Explanation: When the house is well protected by a well-thatched roof, it is not harmed by the rain, because rain-water cannot seep though it. In the same way, the well-cultured temperament too does not allow passion to come through. Therefore, the well-cultured temperament cannot be penetrated by passions.

Verse 15. Sorrow Springs From Evil Deeds

Here one grieves, one grieves hereafter,
in both ways does the evil-doer grieve;
one grieves and is afflicted,
one’s own base kammas seeing.

Explanation: People who commit evil actions are unaware of their consequences at the moment of performance. Therefore, they tend to repent on seeing the consequences of what they did. This creates grief. This does not mean that one must always suffer the consequences of one’s deeds, without any hope. If that is the case, there is no benefit in leading a religious life, nor is there any opportunity to work for one’s emancipation.

Verse 16. Good Deeds Bring Happiness

Here one joys, one joys hereafter,
in both ways does the merit-maker joy;
one joys and one rejoices,
one’s own pure kammas seeing.

Explanation: A wise person does good deeds. Having done those good deeds he rejoices here in this world. He rejoices in the life after as well. Seeing the purity of his virtuous actions, he rejoices. He is thoroughly joyous seeing the goodness of his deeds.

Verse 17. Evil Action Leads to Torment

Here one burns, one burns hereafter,
in both ways does the evil-doer burn;
evil I’ve done, remorsefully one burns,
and more one burns passed to realms of woe.

Explanation: Those who do evil, those given to wrong doings, are tortured in mind both here and hereafter. Being born in a state of woe after death the doer of evil keeps on torturing himself more with the thought “I have done evil deeds. ”

Verse 18. Virtuous Deeds Make One Rejoice

Here one’s glad, one’s glad hereafter,
in both ways is the merit-maker glad;
‘Merit I’ve made’, serenely one is glad,
and more one’s glad passed to blissful states.

Explanation: The person who has done good and virtuous deeds rejoices in this world. Gone to a pleasant state of existence after death, he rejoices exceedingly. This way he rejoices here and in the next world. In both worlds he rejoices realizing that he has done virtuous deeds.

Verse 19. Fruits of Religious Life Through Practice

Though many sacred texts he chants
the heedless man’s no practiser,
as cowherd counting other’s kine
in samanaship he has no share.

Explanation: Some persons may know the words of the Buddha extensively and can repeat it all. But through utter neglect they do not live up to it. In consequence they do not reach any religions attainments. They do not enjoy the fruit of the recluse life. This is exactly like the way of life of a cowherd who looks after another’s cattle. The cowherd takes the cattle to the pastures in the morning, and in the evening he takes them back to the owner’s house. He gets only the wages.

Verse 20. Practice Ensures Fulfilment

Though few of the sacred texts he chant
in Dhamma does his practice run,
clear of delusion, lust and hate,
wisdom perfected, with heart well-freed.

Explanation: A true seeker of truth through he may speak only little of the Buddha’s word. He may not be able to recite extensively from religious texts. But, if he belongs to the teaching of the Buddha assiduously, lives in accordance with the teaching of the Buddha, if he has got rid of passion, ill-will and delusion, he has well penetrated experience and is free from clinging to worldly things, he is a partaker of the life of a renunciate.

Verse 21. Freedom Is Difficult

Heedfulness is the Deathless path,
heedlessness, the path to death.
Those who are heedful do not die,
heedless are like the dead.

Explanation: The path to the Deathless is the perpetual awareness of experience. The deathless does not imply a physical state where the body does not die. When an individual becomes totally aware of the process of experiencing, he is freed from the continuity of existence. Those who do not have that awareness are like the dead, even if they are physically alive.

Verse 22. Freedom Is Difficult

The wise then, recognizing this
as the distinction of heedfulness,
pleased with the spheres of Nobles Ones,
in heedfulness rejoice.

Explanation: Those who are truly wise are especially aware of the need for sanity. They take delight in sanity. They take pleasure in the pursuit of sanity because it is the region of the supernormal.

Verse 23. Freedom Is Difficult

They meditate persistently,
constantly they firmly strive,
the steadfast to Nibbana reach,
the Unexcelled Secure from bonds.

Explanation: Those wise individuals who steadfastly practice meditation, reach a level of understanding that enables them to experience Nibbana. Those wise individuals who unceasingly continue in their meditation, firmly and steadfastly, experience Nibbana, which is the supreme release from all bonds.

Verse 24. Glory Of The Mindful Increase

Assiduous and mindful,
pure kamma making, considerate,
restrained, by Dhamma heedful living,
for one such spread renown.

Explanation: If a person is persevering, attention focused within, if his physical and spiritual actions are unblemished, if he is restrained and if he is living in accordance with the Teaching and is sane, his glory will grow.

Verse 25. Island Against Floods

By energy and heedfulness,
by taming and by self-control,
the one who’s wise should make as isle
no flood can overwhelm.

Explanation: The whole world is full of defilements. The sensualities of life are a vast and forceful flood. But the wise person builds steadfastly for himself an Island that cannot be washed away by those vast floods. The Island is built of steadfastness, mindfulness, restraint and discipline. Once steadily established on that island, the flood cannot overwhelm the wise.

Verse 26. Treasured Mindfulness

Foolish folk of little wit
in heedlessness indulge,
the one who’s wise guards heedfulness
kin to the greatest wealth.

Explanation: Those who are foolish and indiscriminating indulge in heedlessness. But the wise cherish mindfulness as a great treasure. The foolish people live a life of sensual pleasure. They indulge in pursuits that are not at all conductive to spiritual advancement. To obtain worldly acquisitions, people need wealth. In the same way, to obtain high spiritual acquisitions we need some wealth, and that wealth is mindfulness.

Verse 27. Meditation Leads To Bliss

Don’t indulge in heedlessness!
Don’t come near to sexual joys!
The heedful and contemplative
attains abundant bliss.

Explanation: Do not indulge in heedlessness. Avoid craving for sensual pleasures, whatever their nature. The mindful person is tranquil in mind. He will attain the great bliss.

Verse 28. The Sorrowless View The World

When one who’s wise does drive away
heedlessness by heedfulness,
having ascended wisdom’s tower
steadfast, one surveys the fools,
griefless, views the grieving folk,
as mountaineer does those below.

Explanation: The wise person is always mindful. Through this alertness he discards the ways of the slothful. The wise person ascends the tower of wisdom. Once he has attained that height he is capable of surveying the sorrowing masses with sorrowless eyes. Detached and dispassionate he sees these masses like a person atop a mountain peak, surveying the ground below.

Verse 29. The Mindful One Is Way Ahead Of Others

Among the heedless, heedful,
among the sleepy, wide awake.
As the swift horse outruns a hack
so one of good wisdom wins.

Explanation: The extremely wise individual of deep wisdom is always alert and mindful. He is therefore like a wide-awake individual among those who are deep in sleep. That wise person, who possesses supreme insight overtakes in spirituality all those ordinary masses, just as a fast horse overtakes a weak one.

Verse 30. Mindfulness Made Him Chief Of Gods

Heedfulness is always praised,
heedlessness is ever blamed.
By heedfulness did Magha go
to lordship of the gods.

Explanation: The brahmin youth Magha, through his mindfulness, was born as the Chief of Gods. Therefore mindfulness is always praised, and sloth and unmindfulness are always condemned.

Verse 31. The Heedful Advance

The bhikkhu liking heedfulness,
seeing fear in heedlessness,
advances as a conflagration
burning fetters great and small.

Explanation: The monk, as the seeker after the truth, is frightened of mindlessness because he knows that if one is unmindful, one is caught up in the unending suffering of samsara. Therefore, he forges ahead diligently, and mindfully burning away those bonds that fetter people to worldliness.

Verse 32. The Heedful Advances To Nibbana

The bhikkhu liking heedfulness,
seeing fear in heedlessness,
never will he fall away,
near is he to Nibbana.

Explanation: The monk as the seeker after the truth, see fear in lack of mindfulness. He will certainly not fall back from any spiritual heights he has already reached. He is invariably in the proximity of Nibbana.

Verse 33. The Wise Person Straightens The Mind

Mind agitated, wavering,
hard to guard and hard to check,
one of wisdom renders straight
as arrow-maker a shaft.

Explanation: In the Dhammapada there are several references to the craftsmanship of the fletcher. The Buddha seems to have observed the process through which a fletcher transforms an ordinary stick into an efficient arrow-shaft. The disciplining of the mind is seen as being a parallel process. In this stanza the Buddha says that the wise one straightens and steadies the vacillating mind that is difficult to guard, like a fletcher straightening an arrow-shaft.

Verse 34. The Fluttering Mind

As fish from watery home
is drawn and cast upon the land,
even so flounders this mind
while Mara’s Realm abandoning.

Explanation: When making an effort to abandon the realm of Mara (evil), the mind begins to quiver like a fish taken out of the water and thrown on land.

Verse 35. Restrained Mind Leads To Happiness

The mind is very hard to check
and swift, it falls on what it wants.
The training of the mind is good,
a mind so tamed brings happiness.

Explanation: The mind is exceedingly subtle and is difficult to be seen. It attaches on whatever target it wishes. The wise guard the mind. The guarded mind brings bliss.

Verse 36. Protected Mind Leads To Happiness

The mind is very hard to see
and find, it falls on what it wants.
One who’s wise should guard the mind,
a guarded mind brings happiness.

Explanation: The mind moves about so fast it is difficult to get hold of it fully. It is swift. It has a way of focusing upon whatever it likes. It is good and of immense advantage to tame the mind. The tame mind brings bliss.

Verse 37. Death’s Snare Can Be Broken By Tamed Mind

Drifting far, straying all alone,
formless, recumbent in a cave.
They will be free from Mara’s bonds
who restrain this mind.

Explanation: The mind is capable of travelling vast distances - up or down, north or south, east or west - in any direction. It can travel to the past or the future. It roams about all alone. It is without any perceptible forms. If an individual were to restrain the mind fully, he will achieve freedom from the bonds of death.

Verse 38. Wisdom Does Not Grow If the Mind Wavers

One of unsteady mind,
who doesn’t know True Dhamma,
who is of wavering confidence
wisdom fails to win.

Explanation: If the mind of a person keeps on wavering, and if a person does not know the doctrine, if one’s enthusiasm keeps on fluctuating or flagging,, the wisdom of such a person does not grow.

Verse 39. The Wide-Awake Is Unfrightened

One of unflooded mind,
a mind that is not battered,
abandoning evil, merit too,
no fear for One Awake.

Explanation: For the person who’s mind is not dampened by passion, unaffected by ill-will and who has risen above both good and evil, there is no fear because he is wide-awake.

Verse 40. Weapons To Defeat Death

Having known this urn-like body,
made firm this mind as fortress town,
with wisdom-weapon one fights Mara
while guarding booty, unattached.

Explanation: It is realistic to think of the body as vulnerable, fragile, frail and easily disintegrated. In fact, one must consider it as a clay vessel. The mind should be thought of as a city. One has to be perpetually mindful to protect the city. Forces of evil have to be fought with the weapons of wisdom. After the battle, once you have achieve victory, live without being attached to the mortal self.

Verse 41. Without The Mind, Body Is Worthless

Not long alas, and it will lie
this body, here upon the earth.
Discarded, void of consciousness,
useless as a rotten log.

Explanation: Soon, this body, without consciousness, discarded like a decayed worthless log, will lie on the earth.

Verse 42. All Wrong Issue Out Of Evil Mind

Whatever foe may do to foe,
or haters those they hate
the ill-directed mind indeed
can do one greater harm.

Explanation: When one bandit see another, he attacks the second bandit. In the same way, one person sees someone he hates, he also does harm to the hated person. But what the badly deployed mind does to the possessor of that mind is far worse than what a bandit would do to another bandit or what one hater will do to another hater.

Verse 43. Well-Trained Mind Excels People

What one’s mother, what one’s father,
whatever other kin may do,
the well directed mind indeed
can do greater good.

Explanation: Well directed thoughts can help a person better than one’s father or one’s mother.

Verse 44. The Garland-Maker

Who will comprehend this earth,
the world of Yama, and the gods?
Who will discern the well-taught Dhamma
as one who’s skilled selects a flower.

Explanation: An expert in garland making will select, pluck and arrange flowers into garlands. In the same way who will examine the nature of life penetratingly? Who will perceive the real nature of life in the world, along with the realms of the underworld and heavenly beings? Who will understand and penetratively perceive the well-articulated doctrine, like an expert maker of garlands, deftly plucking and arranging flowers.

Verse 45. The Seeker Understands

One Trained will comprehend this earth,
the world of Yama, and the gods,
One Trained discern the well-taught Dhamma
as one who’s skilled selects a flower.

Explanation: In the previous stanza the question was raised as to who will penetrate the well-articulated doctrine? The present stanza provides the answer: the student, the learner, the seeker, the person who is disciplined. He or she will perceive the doctrine, like the expert garland-maker who recognizes and arranges flowers. It is the learner, the seeker, the student who will perceive the world of Yama, the realm of heavenly beings and existence on earth. He will discard and determine the various areas of the doctrine, life a deft garland-maker who plucks and arranges the flowers into garlands.

Verse 46. Who Conquers Death?

Having known this froth-like body
and awakening to its mirage nature,
smashing Mara’s flowered shafts
unseen beyond the Death-king go.

Explanation: This body of ours is like froth, bubbles, or foam. It disintegrates quickly. The nature of life is like a mirage, an illusion. Therefore, one must give up these unrealities. To achieve that one must destroy Mara’s flower-arrows by which he tempts men and women. It is necessary that the truth-seeker should go beyond Mara’s region, to areas unseen by him. Mara knows only the realm of death. The truth seeker goes beyond that region to the ‘deathless’ (Nibbana) - a domain Mara has never seen.

Verse 47. Pleasure Seeker Is Swept Away

For one who has a clinging mind
and gathers only pleasure-flowers,
Death does seize and carry away
as great flood a sleeping village.

Explanation: Those men and women , fascinated by worldly things, go about seeking pleasure, like a garland-maker picking the flowers of his choice in a garden. But, gradually and silently, death overcomes them like a flood in the night sweeping away a village asleep.

Verse 48. Attachment To Senses If Folly

For one of desires insatiate
who gathers only pleasure-flowers,
for one who has a clinging mind
Death the sovereign overpowers.

Explanation: Those who pursue worldly pleasures are like garland-makers who pick flowers here and there in the garden according to their preference. Those given to pleasures of the senses are not satisfied. They seek still more. In consequence of their endless pleasure-seeking they come under the spell of Antaka, or ‘ender of all’, i.e. death.

Verse 49. The Monk In The Village

Just as a bee in a flower
harming neither hue nor scent
gathers nectar, flies away,
so in towns a Wise One fares.

Explanation: The bee extracts honey from flowers without damaging either the colour or the fragrance of the flower and in so doing helps the tree bear much fruit. Similarly, the silent sage goes about the village collecting alms without harming anyone even minutely, and in so doing helps people gain much merit and happiness.

Verse 50. Look Inwards And Not At Others

Not others’ opposition
nor what they did or failed to do,
but in oneself should be sought
things done, things left undone.

Explanation: Do not find fault with others. Do not worry about what others do or not do. Rather, look within yourself to find out what you yourself have done or left undone. Stop doing evil; do good.

Verse 51. Good Words Attract Only Those Who Practice

Just as a gorgeous blossom
brilliant but unscented,
so fruitless the well-spoken words
of one who does not act.

Explanation: A flower may be quite attractive, alluring. It may possess a brilliant hue. But, if it is devoid of fragrance, and has no scent, it is of no use. So is the well spoken word of him who does not practice it. It turns out to be useless.

Verse 52. Good Words Profit Only Those Who Practise

Just as a gorgeous blossom
brilliant and sweet-scented,
so fruitful the well-spoken words
of one who acts as well.

Explanation: A flower may be quite attractive, alluring and possessing a brilliant hue. In addition, it may be also full of fragrance. So is the person who is well spoken and practises what he preaches. His words are effective and they are honoured.

Verse 53. Those Born Into This World Must Acquire Much Merit

As from a mass of flowers
many a garland may be made,
so by one born mortal
should many good deeds be done.

Explanation: The deft maker of garlands takes a variety of flowers. Out of these he creates garlands of different strands and variegated arrangements. In the same way, those who are born into this world should, out of their lives, create good, wholesome, meritorious actions of a vast variety.

Verse 54. Fragrance of Virtue Spreads Everywhere

The fragrance of flowers drifts with the wind
as sandalwood, jasmine of lavender.
The fragrance of virtue o’ersweeps the wind,
all pervasive is virtue of the good.

Explanation: The world knows, many a sweet smelling flower and fragrant object. But, the fragrance of these moves only leeward. None of these, however strong their fragrance may be, spread their sweet smell against the wind. But, in contrast, the sweet smell of virtue of a spiritually evolved individual spreads in all directions and is universally experienced.

Verse 55. Fragrance Of Virtue Is The Sweetest Smell

Sandalwood or lavender,
lotus or the jasmine great,
of these many fragrances
virtue’s fragrance is supreme.

Explanation: Sandalwood, lavender, water-lily and the jasmine exude fragrance. Of all these varieties of fragrances the sweet-smell of virtue is the most supreme. This is because the fragrance of virtue is universally favoured. Besides, the fragrance of virtue spreads in all directions, even against the wind.

Verse 56. Fragrance Of Virtue Wafts To Heaven

Faint is this fragrance
of lavender and sandalwood,
but fragrance of the virtuous
soars sublime amongst the gods.

Explanation: The fragrance of lavender and sandalwood is quite slight. Why? Because it is limited in this world. Such a fragrance can spread only on earth. This way it is a very slight fragrance. But, the sweet smell of virtue is, in contrast, supreme, because it spreads not only throughout the earth, it rises even to the highest heavens.

Verse 57. Death Cannot Trace The Path Of Arahats

Of those with perfect virtue
who dwell in heedfulness,
freed by Final Knowledge
Mara cannot know their path.

Explanation: Of those noble one, who are perfect in behaviour, living constantly alert, fully aware of the experience within, Mara, the evil one, does not know their destiny. Mara can trace only the slothful dead. He cannot trace those who have reach the Deathless.

Verse 58. Lotus Is Attractive Though In A Garbage Heap

As beside the highroad
where rubbish in a pit is flung
there flourishes the lotus bloom
fragrant and the mind’s delight.

Explanation: Someone is likely to dump refuse on a high road. In that heap of refuse, a sweet-smelling lotus is likely to grow.

Verse 59. Arahats Shine Wherever They Are

So among rubbish-beings,
common humans blind-become,
the Perfect Buddha’s pupil
outshines with wisdom bright.

Explanation: In the same way, in the heap of rubbish made up of various types of foolish people, the disciple of the Buddha shines above all others.

Verse 60. Samsara Is Long To The Ignorant

Long is the night for the sleepless,
long is the league for the weary one,
samsara’s way is long for fools
who know not the Dhamma True.

Explanation: To a sleepless person the night is very long. To the weary the league seems quite long. To the ignorant, bereft of an awareness of the Dhamma, the cycle of existence is very long, as he is not aware of how to shorten it.

Verse 61. Do Not Associate With The Ignorant

If a wayfarer fails to find
one better or equal,
steadfast he should fare alone
for a fools no fellowship.

Explanation: People need companions. But if one does not find a person who is better than, or at least equal to oneself, it is better to be alone rather than keep company with foolish people. There is no profitable companionship with fools.

Verse 62. Ignorance Brings Suffering

“Sons have I, wealth have I”,
thus the fool is fretful.
He himself is not his own,
how then are sons, how wealth?

Explanation: The fool worries “I have sons,” “I have wealth.” When the self is not his own, then how can he claim, “I have sons,” “I have wealth”?

Verse 63. Know Reality. Be Wise

Conceiving so his foolishness
the fool is thereby wise,
while ‘fool’ is called that fool
conceited that he’s wise.

Explanation: If a foolish person were to become aware that he is foolish, by virtue of that awareness, he could be described as a wise person. On the other hand, if a foolish person were to think that he is wise, he could be described as a foolish person.

Verse 64. The Ignorant Cannot Benefit From The Wise

Though all through life the fool
might wait upon the wise,
no more Dhamma can he sense
than spoon the taste of soup.

Explanation: The fool, even if he kept the company of a wise person intimately over a life-time, will not become aware of the nature of experience, just as a spoon will not know the taste of soup.

Verse 65. Profit From The Wise

Though briefly one intelligent
might wait upon the wise,
quickly Dhamma he can sense
as tongue the taste of soup.

Explanation: If a wise person were to associate with a wise person, even for a moment, he will quickly understand the Teaching. This is very much like the tongue being able to discern the subtle flavours of soup. This stanza could be further appreciated when you contrast it with the previous one. In the previous one the image used is the soup. Though it serves tasty food endlessly, it just cannot appreciate how food tastes, very much like a foolish individual being unable to appreciate the teaching even when he keeps company with the wise. An intelligent man, even though he is associated with a wise man only for a moment, quickly understands the Dhamma, just as the tongue knows the taste of soup.

Verse 66. A Sinner Is One’s Own Foe

Fools of feeble wisdom fare
enemies to themselves,
making evil kamma
which is of bitter fruit.

Explanation: Those unwise foolish people behave in a manner that is harmful to themselves. Their sinful actions yield bitter fruit. They are their own enemy.

Verse 67. Do What Brings Happiness

That kamma’s not well-made
from which there is remorse,
of which one senses the result
with weeping and a tear-stained face.

Explanation: It is good if one were to avoid committing such actions which would later lead to regret. When one regrets one weeps.

Verse 68. Happiness Results From Good Deeds

But well-made is that kamma
which done brings no remorse,
of which one senses the result
with glad mind and with joy.

Explanation: It is good if one were to do such actions that would not bring repentance later. One should do things that bring pleasant consequences.

Verse 69. Sin Yields Bitter Results

When evil kamma’s immature
the fool thinks it is honeyed,
but when the evil has matured
then to the fool comes dukkha.

Explanation: When a sinful act is being done, the ignorant person enjoys it as if it were honey. But the suffering comes when it begins to yield its evil results.

Verse 70. The Unconditioned Is The Highest Achievement

Month after month with blady-grass tip
the fool may take his food;
he’s not worth the slightest bit
of one who Dhamma knows.

Explanation: A foolish person sets out to attain the highest reward of spiritual life. As an austere ascetic, he eats a mere morsel of food with the tip of a blade of grass. And, that too, only once a month. Still that kind of misguided ascetic will not at all be nearer liberation than when he started. With all that, he is not worth even one-sixteenth part of an Arahant who has achieved the Unconditioned.

Verse 71. Sin Is Like Sparks Of Fire Hidden In Ashes

As milk, is evil kamma done,
so slowly does it sour.
Smouldering does it follow the fool
like fire with ashes covered.

Explanation: When an ignorance person commits an act of sin, it does not immediately yield bad results. This is like the freshly extracted milk, which does not curdle immediately on being extracted from the cow’s udder. The sin that has been committed remains concealed like the sparks covered with ashes, and continues to follow and burn the doer of sins.

Verse 72. The Knowledge Of The Wicked Splits His Head

Truly to his detriment
skill is born to the fool;
ruined is his better nature
and scattered are his wits.

Explanation: Whatever is learned by the ignorant is conducive to harm. It brings about his own downfall. Misplaced learning destroys whatever potential the learner possesses and renders him useless in terms of real knowledge.

Verse 73. Desire For Pre-Eminence

For position a fool may wish:
among the bhikkhus precedence,
in monasteries authority,
from other families honours.

Explanation: He is fond of being recognized for what he, in reality, is not. Yearns for pre-eminence among peers. He craves for preference in matters relating to residences. He is enamoured of the idea of receiving gifts and requisites from other families as well.

Verse 74. The Ignorant are Ego-Centred

Both monks and laymen, let them think
‘This was done by me,
whatever the works, both great and small,
let them depend on me’.
Such the intention of a fool,
swollen his greed and conceit.

Explanation: The ignorant has this attitude of mind: “Let everybody know that this was done by me alone. In whatever activity small or big my leadership shall prevail. Everybody must follow me.” This conceit of the ignorant leads to craving, uncontrolled desire and to a groundless pride, to a false sense of superiority. These begin to grow.

Verse 75. Path To Liberation

One is the way to worldly gain,
another to Nibbana goes.
Clearly comprehending this
the bhikkhu, Buddha’s follower
should wallow not in proffered gifts,
surrendering instead to solitude.

Explanation: There is one way to worldly and material progress and profit. But the way to Nibbana is quite different than that. The monk, who is the Buddha’s disciple, should be clearly aware of this difference. He must not take delight in the worldly gifts with which he is being enticed. He must on the other hand seek solitude.

Verse 76. Treasure The Advice Of The Wise

Should one a man of wisdom meet
who points out faults and gives reproof,
who lays a hidden treasure bare,
with such a sage should one consort.
Consorting so is one enriched
and never in decline.

Explanation: If one discovers a wise person who points out one’s errors and sternly corrects one, he should be looked upon as a benign revealer of a treasure. His company should be sought. Such association would make better persons of men.

Verse 77. The Virtuous Cherish Good Advice

Let him exhort, let him instruct,
and check one from abasement.
Dear indeed is he to the true,
not dear is he to the false.

Explanation: The wise and good person who reproaches and warns, and prevents a person from getting into anti-social behaviour, is liked by virtuous individuals - and disliked by those who are evil.

Verse 78. In The Company Of The Virtuous

Don’t go around with evil friends,
with rogues do not resort.
Spend your time with noble friends,
and worthy ones consort.

Explanation: Do not associate with people who have evil ways. Avoid the company of wicked, evil people who are mean and bad. Associate with worthy friends. Keep the company of noble persons who are superior in quality and virtue and who will be able to elevate you.

Verse 79. Living Happily In The Dhamma

Happy is he who Dhamma drinks
with heart that’s clear and cool.
One so wise e’er delights
in Dhamma declared by the Noble.

Explanation: One who delights in “The Teaching” lives happily with a pure mind. The experience of the “Sublime Ones” the wise always enjoy.

Verse 80. The Wise Control Themselves

Irrigators govern waters,
fletchers fashion shafts,
as joiners shape their timber
those who are wise tame themselves.

Explanation: The irrigator who manages water is skilled in directing water to whatever place he wants. The fletcher skilfully shapes a very straight arrow-shaft out of a piece of wood by working skilfully on it. The carpenter selects a block of wood and constructs whatever he wants out of it, depending on his need. In the same way, the wise person works upon their mind, restraining it the way they desire.

Verse 81. The Wise Are Steadfast

Just as a mighty boulder
stirs not with the wind,
so the wise are never moved
either by praise or blame.

Explanation: The wise remain unmoved and unruffled both by praise and humiliation. The wise remain unshaken under all vicissitudes of life, like the solid rock that withstands the buffetings of wind, unmoved.

Verse 82. The Wise Are Happy

Even as a fathomless lake,
a lake so calm and clear,
so dhammas having heard
serene the wise become.

Explanation: The exceedingly deep oceans are tranquil, calm and are not agitated. In the same way whose wise ones who listen to the word of the Buddha acquire deep awareness and are extremely calm and tranquil.

Verse 83. The Wise Are Tranquil

Everything the good renounce,
the peaceful chatter not of fond delights,
and whether touched by pleasure or pain
nor joy or woe in the wise is seen.

Explanation: The noble and wise persons are not attached to anything whatsoever in the world. The disciplined persons do not talk desiring worldly things, material benefits or sensual delights. Whatever fortune or ill-fortune may touch them, they remain calm, neither depressed or elated.

Verse 84. The Wise Live Correctly

Neither for one’s own, nor for another’s sake
one should wish for children, wealth, estate,
nor success desire by means unjust,
thus virtuous, and wise, righteous one would be.

Explanation: Not for one’s own benefit nor for that of others, does he desire children, wealth or kingdom. Nor does he desire self-glory. Thus he is realistic, penetrative and well behaved.

Verse 85. A Few Reach The Other Shore

Among folk they are few
who go to the Further Shore,
most among humanity
scurry on this hither shore.

Explanation: Of those who wish to cross over to the other side only a handful are successful. Those others who are left behind keep running along this shore. Those masses who have not been able to reach liberation continue to be caught up in Samsara.

Verse 86. Those Who Follow The Dhamma Are Liberated

But they who practise Dhamma
according to Dhamma well-told,
from Death’s Domain hard to leave
they’ll cross to the Further Shore.

Explanation: The realms over which Mara has sway, are difficult to be crossed. Only those who quite righteously follow the way indicated in the well-articulated Teachings of the Buddha, will be able to cross these realms that are so difficult to cross.

Verse 87. Liberation Through Discipline

Abandoning the dhammas dark
the wise should cultivate the bright,
having from home to homeless gone
in solitude unsettling.

Explanation: The wise person abandons fully and totally those tainted views and questionable ways of behaviour and moves away from the known comforts of lay life into the unfamiliar way of life of the renunciate. He practises virtue conducive to the achievement of liberation.

Verse 88. Purify Your mind

Let them desire that rare delight
renouncing pleasures, owing nought,
those wise ones should cleanse themselves
from all defilements of the mind.

Explanation: He takes interest in liberation. He gives up all preferences for sensualities. This way, he is without any possessions. The wise person proceeds to cleanse his mind from those defilements that blemish the mind.

Verse 89. Arahats Are Beyond Worldliness

Those who come to Wakening
with mind full-cultivated,
delight, no longer clinging,
in relinquishing attachment:
they, without pollution, radiant,
in this world have reach Nibbana.

Explanation: There are those wise individuals who have practiced extremely well the factors conducive to the attainment of liberation. They do not cling to anything emotionally or mentally. They are opposed to the tendency to be greedy and grasping, They take delight in non-grasping. They, the shining ones, who are totally bereft of blemishes, have attained liberation in this world itself.

Verse 90. Passion’s Fever Gone

With journey finished and sorrowless,
from everything completely free,
for one who has loosened all the ties
passion’s fever is not found.

Explanation: The are at the journey’s end - their quest for liberation has succeeded. They are sorrowless and totally released in mind. They have got rid of all knots and no bonds bind them. In them no anxiety exists.

Verse 91. Saints Are Non-Attached

Mindful Ones exert themselves,
in no abode do they delight,
as swans abandoning their lake
home after home they leave behind.

Explanation: Those mindful ones make the effort to keep their attentiveness always in trim. They are not at all attached to abodes or settlements. Giving up all places of settled living, they leave like the swans who fly away free in mind.

Verse 92. Blameless Is The Nature Of Saints

For those who don’t accumulate,
who well reflect upon their food,
they have as range the nameless and
the void of perfect freedom too.
As birds that wing through space,
hard to trace their going.

Explanation: With full understanding that nature is empty and objectless the mind is free of craving and leaves no trace of its whereabouts like the paths of birds in flight.

Verse 93. Arahat’s State Cannot Be Traced

For whom pollutions are destroyed,
not attached to any food,
he has as range the nameless and
the void of perfect freedom too.
As birds that wing through space,
hard to trace his going.

Explanation: If one is totally free of influences, internal or external, that motivates human behaviour, and is not attached even to food, that kind of individual focuses his mind on emptiness, objectlessness and freedom of thought. The path of such saints is difficult to be traced, like the path of birds flying through the sky.

Verse 94. The Gods Adore Arahats

Whose faculties are pacified
as steeds by charioteers well-tamed,
with pride abandoned, unpolluted,
to even devas this One’s dear.

Explanation: Those who senses are calmed as a horse trained by a horse-tamer, who have fully given up judgment, who is free of influences, the sight of those mentally stable ones please even the gods.

Verse 95. Arahats Are Noble

Like earth is one who’s well-behaved,
secure and not resentful,
as city-post, as filth-free lake,
no wanderings-on for One Who’s Thus.

Explanation: The noble Arahats never lose their temper whatsoever is done to them. They are firm and unshaken as the gate-pillars that secure the city gates. They are as lucid and tranquil as the ocean and the lakes devoid of mud. That kind of person ceases to wander in the round of existence - samsara.

Verse 96. The Tranquillity Of The Saints

Peaceful his mind and peaceful
his speech and actions too,
perfect in knowledge of freedom,
One Thus is of utmost peace.

Explanation: A noble arahat, who is freed by ‘disknowing’, or freedom from knowing, is calm and unshaken by the impact of changing circumstances. His mind is at peace. His words are peaceful. His actions are peaceful.

Verse 97. Exalted Are The Unblemished

With no beliefs, the Unmade known,
with fetters finally severed,
with kammas cut and craving shed,
attained to humanity’s heights.

Explanation: He has no faith in anybody but in himself. He is aware of deathlessness - the unconditioned. He is a breaker of connections, because he has severed all worldly links. He has destroyed all the opportunities for rebirth. He has given up all desires. Because of these, the arahat, is a truly noble person.

Verse 98. Dwelling Of The Unblemished Is Alluring

Whether in town or woods,
whether in vale, on hill,
wherever dwell the Arahats
so pleasing there the earth.

Explanation: Whether in the village, in the forest, in a valley or in the plain, wherever arahats - noble saints - dwell, that place is alluring in the extreme.

Verse 99. The Passionless Delight In Forests

Delightful are the forests
where folk do not delight,
there the Passionless delight,
they’re not pleasure-seekers.

Explanation: Those fascinating forests that do not capture the mind of the worldly masses and in which they do not take worldly delight are attractive to the passionless ones. The Arahats take delight in the forests, because they are not pursuers of sensual pleasures.

Verse 100. One Pacifying Word Is Noble

Through a thousand speeches be
composed of meaningless lines,
better the single meaningful line
one hears, then comes to calm.

Explanation: Expressions replete with thousands of words are of no value. One single meaningful word is more valuable, if hearing it one is pacified.

Verse 101. One Useful Verse Is Better Than A Thousand Useless Verses

Though a thousand verses be
composed of meaningless lines,
better the single line of verse
one hears, then comes to calm.

Explanation: A poem replete with thousands of verses is of no value if it has no useful meaning. One single stanza pregnant with wisdom is more valuable, if hearing it one is pacified.

Verse 102. A Dhamma-Word Is Noble

Though a thousand verses chant
composed of meaningless lines,
better the single Dhamma-line
one hears, then comes to calm.

Explanation: One may recite hundreds of verses replete with meaningless expressions. If one recites one line of verse pregnant with wisdom, which is pacifying, it will be more valuable and nobler.

Verse 103. Self-Conquest Is The Highest Victory

Though thousand times a thousand
in battle one may conquer,
yet should one conquer just oneself
one is the greatest conqueror.

Explanation: One may conquer a thousand men in a thousand battles. But the person who conquers just one person, which is one’s own self, is the greatest conqueror.

Verse 104. Victory Over Oneself Is Unequalled

Greater the conquest of oneself
than subjugating others,
that one who’s always self-restrained,
that one who’s tamed of self .

Explanation: Self conquest is greater than the conquest of others. The victory of one who conquers himself cannot be turned into defeat. He remains a self controlled individual who lives ever disciplined.

Verse 105. Victory Over Self Cannot Be Undone

Neither deva nor minstrel divine,
nor Mara together with Brahma,
can overthrow the victory
of such a one as this.

Explanation: Such conquest cannot be turned into defeat either by a god, spirit, a Mara (devil) or a Brahma (creator).

Verse 106. The Greatest Offering

Month by month for a hundred years
a thousand one might sacrifice,
but if for only a moment one
might honour the self-developed,
such honour were better by far
than century of sacrifice.

Explanation: One may make sacrifice every month for a hundred years; but, the honoured paid to one spiritually developed person, for a moment, is greater than oblations made for a hundred years.

Verse 107. Even Brief Adoration Of An Arahat Is Fruitful

One might tend for a hundred years
the forest’s sacred fire,
but if for only a moment one
might honour the self-developed,
such honour were better by far
than centuries of sacrifice.

Explanation: A person may perform fire-worship ritual in the forest for a hundred years. Yet, for a person who adores just for a moment, a self-restrained, disciplined Arahat, that moment’s adoration of the Arahat is far nobler than the fire-worship of hundred years.

Verse 108. Worshipping An Unblemished Individual Is Noble

Whatever one who merit seeks
should for a year make sacrifice,
all comes not to a quarter part
of honouring the Noble.

Explanation: In this world, an individual seeking merit may give alms and offerings during a religious festival. Or else that person may conduct an elaborate sacrifice for a whole year. But the merit from all those activities put together is not even one-fourth the merit one gets by paying homage to a person who walks straight - an arahat.

Verse 109. Saluting Venerables Yields Four Benefits

For one of respectful nature
who ever the elders honours,
long life and beauty, joy and strength,
these qualities increase.

Explanation: If a person is in the habit of constantly honouring and respecting those who are developed and mature, their lives improve in four ways. Their life span soon increases. Their complexion becomes clearer. Their good health and comfort will improve. Their vigour and stamina too will increase.

Verse 110. Virtuous Life Is Noble

Though one should live a hundred years
foolish, uncontrolled,
yet better is life for a single day
moral and meditative.

Explanation: A single day lived as a virtuous, meditative person is greater than a hundred years as an individual bereft of virtue and uncomposed in mind.

Verse 111. A Wise One’s Life Is Great

Though one should live a hundred years
foolish, uncontrolled,
yet better is life for a single day
wise and meditative.

Explanation: A single day’s life of a wise person, who is aware of reality, is greater than even a hundred years of life of an individual who is bereft of wisdom and insight.

Verse 112. The Person Of Effort Is Worthy

Though one should live a hundred years
lazy, of little effort,
yet better is life for a single day
strongly making effort.

Explanation: A single day’s life of a wise person who is capable of strenuous effort, is nobler than even a hundred years of life of an individual who is lazy, incapable of making an effort and is wanting in initiative.

Verse 113. Who Knows Reality Is Great

Though one should live a hundred years
not seeing rise and fall,
yet better is life for a single day
seeing rise and fall.

Explanation: A single day’s life of a person who perceives the arising and disappearance of things experienced is nobler and greater than the hundred-year life-span of a person who does not perceive the process of the rising and disappearance of things.

Verse 114. The Seer Of The Deathless Is A Worthy One

Though one should live a hundred years
not seeing the Deathless State,
yet better is life for a single day
seeing Deathlessness.

Explanation: A single day’s life of a person who sees the state of deathlessness is far greater and nobler than the hundred -years life-span of a person who does not perceive the deathless state.

Verse 115. Life Of One Who Knows The Teaching is Noble

Though one should live a hundred years
not seeing Dhamma Supreme,
yet better is life for a single day
seeing Dhamma Supreme.

Explanation: A single day’s life of a seer of the Noble Teaching of the Buddha is by far greater than the life of a hundred years of a person who does not see the Noble Teaching.

Verse 116. Never Hesitate To Do Good

Make haste towards the good
and check the mind for evil.
The one who’s is slow to make merit
delights in the evil mind.

Explanation: In the matter of performing virtuous, meritorious actions, be alert and act quickly. Guard the mind against evil. If one were to perform meritorious actions hesitantly, his mind will begin to take delight in evil things.

Verse 117. Do No Evil Again And Again

If one some evil does
then do it not again and again.
Do not wish for it anew
for evil grows to dukkha.

Explanation: A person may do some evil things. But he should not keep on doing it over and over, repeatedly. He should not take delight in it. Accumulation of evil is painful.

Verse 118. Accumulated Merit Leads To Happiness

If one should some merit make
do it again and again.
One should wish for it anew
for merit grows to joy.

Explanation: A person may do some meritorious activity. He must keep on repeating it, over and over. He must take delight in that meritorious action. Accumulation of merit leads to happiness.

Verse 119. Evil Seems Sweet Until It Ripens

As long as evil ripens not
even the evil one goodness knows,
but when the evil ripens
then the person evil knows.

Explanation: The evil doer even see evil as good. When evil begins to mature, the evil doer will understand evil to be evil.

Verse 120. Good May Seem Bad Until Good Mature

As long as goodness ripens not
even the good one evil knows,
but when the goodness ripens
then that person knows the good.

Explanation: A person may do good things. But those good things may at first seem evil. But when the good matures, then the good will be seen to be actually good.

Verse 121. Take Not Evil Lightly

Think lightly not of evil,
‘It will not come to me’,
for by the falling of water drops
a water jar is filled.
The fool with evil fills himself,
he soaks up little by little.

Explanation: Some tend to believe that evil can be taken lightly. There attitude to wrong-doing is that they can get away with anything whatsoever. They say in effect: “I will behave in the way I want. Evil results will never come my way.” But evil accumulates little by little - very much like a water-pot being filled drop by drop. Little by little the evil accumulates, until he is filled with it.

Verse 122. Merit Grows Little By Little

Think lightly not of goodness,
‘It will not come to me’,
for by the falling of water drops
a water jar is filled.
The sage with goodness fills himself,
he soaks up little by little.

Explanation: Some tend to think that virtue can be taken lightly, and that virtue practiced is not likely to bring about any spectacular good results. This view is not quite correct. The good done by an individual accumulates little by little. The process is very much like the filling of a water-pot, drop by drop. As time goes on, the little acts of virtue accumulate, until the doer of good is totally filled with it.

Verse 123. Shun Evil As Poison

As merchant on a perilous path,
great wealth having little guard,
as life-loving man with poison
so with evil heedful be.

Explanation: A rich and wise trader carrying goods will scrupulously avoid a risky road, especially if he does not have an adequate escort to ensure safety. Again an individual fond of his life will very carefully avoid poison. In the same way, one must totally avoid evil.

Verse 124. Evil Results From Bad Intentions

If in the hand’s no wound
poison one may bear.
A woundless one is poisoned not,
non-doers have no evil.

Explanation: If a person has no wound in his palm, that person can carry poison in his hand. In the same way, to a person who has not committed an evil action, there is no fear of evil consequences.

Verse 125. Wrong Done To Others Returns To Doer

Who offends the inoffensive,
the innocent and blameless one,
upon that fool does evil fall
as fine dust flung against the wind.

Explanation: If an ignorant person were to become harsh and crude towards a person who is without blemishes, pure, and is untouched by corruption, that sinful act will return to the evil-doer. It is very much like the fine dust thrown against the wind. The dust will return to the thrower.

Verse 126. Those Who Pass Away

Some find birth within a womb,
evil-doer quicken in hell,
good-farers to the heavens go,
the Unpolluted wholly cool.

Explanation: Some, after death, receive conception in wombs, Those who have committed sins in their lifetime are reborn in hell. Those whose ways have been virtuous when they were alive go to heaven when they die. These blemishless ones who are totally free of taints and corruptions, achieve total Nibbana, on giving up their mortal lives.

Verse 127. Shelter Against Death

Neither in sky nor surrounding by sea,
nor by dwelling in a mountain cave,
nowhere is found that place in earth
where one’s from evil kamma free.

Explanation: There is not a single spot on Earth an evil-doer can take shelter in to escape the results of evil actions. No such place is seen out there in space, or in the middle of the ocean. Neither in an opening, a cleft or a crevice in a rocky mountain can he shelter to escape the results of his evil action.

Verse 128. No Escape From Death

Neither in sky nor surrounding by sea,
nor by dwelling in a mountain cave,
nowhere is found that place in earth
where one’s by death not overcome.

Explanation: Not in the sky, nor in the ocean midst, not even in a cave of a mountain rock, is there a hiding place where one could escape death.

Verse 129. Of Others Think Of As Your Own Self

All tremble at force,
of death are all afraid.
Likening others to oneself
kill not nor cause to kill.

Explanation: All tremble at violence, all fear death. Comparing oneself with others do not harm, do not kill.

Verse 130. To All Life Is Dear

All tremble at force,
dear is life to all.
Likening others to oneself
kill not nor cause to kill.

Explanation: All are frightened of being hurt or any threat to one’s life. To all life is dear. Seeing that others feel the same way as oneself, equating others to oneself, refrain from harming or killing.

Verse 131. Those Who Do Not Receive Happiness

Whoever harms with force
those desiring happiness,
as seeker after happiness
one gains no future joy.

Explanation: People who like to be happy and are in search of pleasure hurt others through various acts of violence for their own happiness. These victims too want to be happy as much as those who inflict pain on them. Those who inflict pain do not achieve happiness even in their next birth.

Verse 132. Those Who Do Not Receive Happiness

Whoever doesn’t harms with force
those desiring happiness,
as seeker after happiness
one gains future joy.

Explanation: If people who are in search of pleasure and happiness for themselves, do not hurt or torture others or give pain to others, then they achieve happiness in the next life too.

Verse 133. Retaliation Brings Unhappiness

Speak not harshly to other folk,
speaking so, they may retort.
Dukkha indeed is quarrelsome speech
and force for force may hurt you.

Explanation: Never speak harsh words. If you do, you will also be replied to in the same vein. This kind of cross-talk is painful. It may lead to an exchange of blows.

Verse 134. Tranquillity Should Be Preserved

If like a broken gong
never you reverberate,
quarrelling’s not part of you,
that Nibbana’s reached.

Explanation: When an individual is tranquil and silent like a flattened out metal pot, it is as if he has already attained Nibbana. Such a person does not engage in vain talk. Even when it is struck, the flattened out metal pot cannot make a sound in return.

Verse 135. Decay And Death Terminate Life

As with force the cowherds drive
their cattle out to graze,
like this decay and death drive out
the life from all beings.

Explanation: The cowherd drive the cattle along to the pasture with the goad. In the same way, decay and death drive the life span of beings.

Verse 136. Results Of Evil Torment The Ignorant

When the fool does evil deeds
their end he does not know,
such kamma burns the one unwise
as one who’s scorched by fire.

Explanation: Fools, unaware that evil rebounds, through evil acts they hurt themselves. As flies leap into fire and burn, their own executioners they become.

Verse 137. The Evil Results of Hurting The Pious

Whoever forces the forceless
or offends the inoffensive,
speedily comes indeed
to one of these ten states:

Explanation: If one attacks one who is harmless, or ill-treat innocent beings, ten woeful states lie here and now to one of which he shall befall.

Verse 138. Evil Results Of Hurting Harmless Saints

Sharp pain or deprivation,
or injury to body,
or to a serious disease,
derangement of the mind;

Explanation: The following ten forms of suffering will come to those who hurt the harmless, inoffensive saints: severe pain; disaster; physical injury; serious illness, mental disorder.

Verse 139. Harming The Holy Is Disastrous

Troubled by the government,
or else false accusation,
or by loss of relatives,
destruction of one’s wealth;

Explanation: Trouble from rulers; grave charges; loss of relatives; property loss.

Verse 140. Woeful States In The Wake Of Evil Doing

Or one’s houses burn
on raging conflagration,
at the body’s end, in hell
arises that unwise one.

Explanation: Or else, his houses will be burnt by fire and, upon death, that person will be reborn in hell.

Verse 141. Practices That Will Not Lead To Purity

Not going naked, nor matted hair, nor filth,
nor fasting, not sleeping on bare earth,
no penance on heels, nor sweat nor grime
can purify a mortal still overcome by doubt.

Explanation: A person seeking the purification of his soul may practice the ritual of wandering about naked; or else he may wear turbans; he may even smear his body with mud; he may even refrain from partaking of food as an austerity to obtain purity; he may lie on bare earth; or else he may throw dust all over his body. And again, some may practice a squatting posture. All of these will not wash a person into spiritual purity if his wavering of mind is not overcome.

Verse 142. Costumes Do Not Mar Virtue

Even though adorned, if living in peace
calm, tamed, established in the holy life,
for beings all laying force aside:
one pure, one peaceful, a bhikkhu is he.

Explanation: Although a person may be attractively dressed, he behave in a harmonious manner. He is tranquil, restrained: assured of liberation. He leads the religious life. He is not violent towards beings. Such a person is truly a priest (brahmana) and a mendicant monk (bhikkhu).

Verse 143. Avoid Evil Through Shame

Where in the world is found
one restrained by shame,
awakened out of sleep
as splendid horse with whip?

Explanation: Rarely in the world is that person who is restrained by shame. Like a well-breed horse who avoids the whip, he avoids disgrace.

Verse 144. Effort Is Necessary To Avoid Suffering

As splendid horse touched with whip,
be ardent, deeply moved,
by faith and virtue, effort too,
by meditation, Dhamma’s search,
by knowledge, kindness, mindfulness;
abandon dukkha limitless!

Explanation: Like a well-bred horse duly disciplined by the whip, you shall be persistent and earnest. Possessed of devotion, discipline and persistence and with composure examine experience. Attain to conscious response with well established introspection.

Verse 145. Those Who Restrain Their Own Mind

Irrigators govern water,
fletchers fashion shafts,
as joiners shape their timber
those of good conduct tame themselves.

Explanation: Irrigators direct the water. Fletchers shape the arrows.

Verse 146. One Pacifying Word Is Noble

Why this laughter, why this joy,
when it’s ever blazing?
Shrouded all about in gloom
won’t you look for the light?

Explanation: When you are perpetually burning with the flames of passion, what laughter, what pleasure? When you are enveloped in the darkness of ignorance, why do you not seek the light of Wisdom to dispel that darkness?

Verse 147. Behold The True Nature Of The Body

See this body beautiful
a mass of sores, a congeries,
much considered but miserable
where nothing’s stable, nothing persists.

Explanation: This body has no permanent existence. It is in fact a body of sores. It is diseased. It is propped up by many kinds of bones. It is considered by many to be good. It is well thought of by many. It is glamorously made up. Observe the true nature of the body.

Verse 148. Life Ends In Death

All decrepit is this body,
diseases’ nest and frail;
this foul mass is broken up
for life does end in death.

Explanation: This form - this body - is fully broken down. It is truly a den of diseases. It disintegrates easily. Out of its nine orifices, putrid matter oozes constantly. It breaks apart. Death puts an end to it.

Verse 149. A Sight That Stops Desire

These dove-hued bones
scattered in Fall,
like long white gourds,
what joy in seeing them?

Explanation: In the dry autumnal season, one can see bones and skulls strewn around. These dry grey-hued skulls are like gourds thrown here and there. Seeing this, whoever will lust?

Verse 150. The Body Is A City Of Bones

This city’s made of bones
plastered with flesh and blood,
within are stored decay and death,
besmearing and conceit.

Explanation: This body is made of bones which form its structure. This bare structure is plastered and filled with flesh and blood. Inside this citadel are deposited decay, death, pride and ingratitude.

Verse 151. Buddha’s Teaching Never Decays

Even royal chariots rot,
the body too does rot, decay,
but undecaying’s Dhamma of the Good
who to the good declare.

Explanation: Such beautiful and attractive objects as the carriages of kings also disintegrate. The human body too decays. But, the experience of truth never decays. The calm ones experience this truth.


Verse 152. Body Fattens - Mind Does Not

Just as the ox grows old
so this man of little learning:
his fleshiness increases,
his wisdom doesn’t grow.

Explanation: The person who has scarcely heard the Teaching grows in physique, like a fattened bull. Although his body grows, his self understanding does not.

Verse 153. Seeing The Builder of The House

Trough many of samsara’s births
I hasten seeking, finding not
the builder of this house:
pain is birth again, again.

Explanation: This tour, this cycle of existence, has run through numerous births without encountering, the builder, the creator of the world and self. For repeated birth is painful.

Verse 154. Thy Building Material Is Broken

O builder of this house you’re seen,
you shall not build a house again,
all your beams have given away,
rafters of the ridge decayed,
mind to the unconditioned gone,
exhaustion of craving has it reached.

Explanation: Verses 153 and 154 were spoken by the Buddha immediately after his enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, and at a later time was recited to Venerable Ananda in an answer to a question).

Verse 155. Regrets In Old Age

Who have not led the holy life
nor riches won while young,
they linger on as aged cranes
around a fished-out pond.

Explanation: In youth they did not lead the higher spiritual life. Nor did they acquire wealth when they were young. Now they are old and incapable. They are similar to those old emaciated, old flightless storks who are sighing away at the bank of a lake without fish. The fish are gone because others have caught them.

Verse 156. Nostalgia For Past Glory

Who have not led the holy life
nor riches won while young,
they languish on, worn-out bows,
sighing for the past.

Explanation: This verse captures a situation that is universally true. Most people tend to spend their youth squandering the precious days with no though about the inevitable old-age that will overtake them. Youth is allow to slip by without having garnered either material or spiritual wealth. The Buddha’s admonition to mankind in this passage, is that they must, in time, become mindful of the passage of time and the speedy fading of the glamour of youth.

Verse 157. Safeguard Your Own Self

If one holds oneself as dear,
protected, one protects oneself.
One who’s wise should be aware
through all the watches three.

Explanation: If you are aware that you are fond of your own self then protecting it is the best safeguard. You must take measures to protect your self in one of the three stages of life - namely childhood, youth and old age. The best safeguard is the acquisition of virtue.

Verse 158. Giver Advice While Being Virtuous Yourself

One should first establish
oneself in what is proper.
One may then teach others,
and wise, one is not blamed.

Explanation: If you are keen to advise others, in the first instance establish yourself in the proper virtues. It is only then that you become fit to instruct others.

Verse 159. Discipline Yourself Before You Do Others

As one teaches others
so should one do oneself.
Well-tamed, on may tame others,
oneself to tame is hard.

Explanation: If you are keen to discipline others in the same way, you must yourself behave in that manner. It is the best disciplined person, who will disciplined others best. The most difficult to be disciplined is one’s own self indeed.

Verse 160. One Is One’s Best Saviour

Oneself is refuge of oneself,
who else indeed could refuge be?
By good training of oneself
one gains a refuge hard to gain.

Explanation: The saviour of oneself is one’s own self. What other person could be your saviour? This is a difficult kind of help - being your own saviour. It can be achieved only through self discipline.

Verse 161. The Unwise Person Comes To Grief On His Own

By oneself is evil done,
it’s born of self and self-produced.
Evil grinds the unwise one
as diamond does the hardest gem.

Explanation: The diamond is born of, produced and is sprung from stone. But it cut the precious stone. The evil action is born of, produced by, and sprung from the evil doer.

Verse 162. Evil Action Crushes The Doer

He whose conduct’s very bad
like oak-tree choked with ivy,
so he does towards himself
what enemies would wish.

Explanation: The extremely evil action of the person lacking in virtue is similar to that of the parasitic maluva creeper. The creeper grows on the tree and crushes in into destruction. The evil doer’s action too crushes himself in that way.

Verse 163. Doing Good Unto One’s Own Self Is Difficult

Easy is what’s bad to do,
what’s harmful to oneself.
But what is good, of benefit,
is very hard to do.

Explanation: Those actions which are very bad and harmful to one’s own self can be very easily done. But if some action is good for one’s own self; that kind of right action will be found to be difficult to do.

Verse 164. The Wicked Are Self-Destructive

Whatever man unwise relies
on evil views and so condemns
the Teaching of the Arahats,
or Noble Ones who Dhamma live,
he, as a bamboo fruiting,
fruits to self-destruction.

Explanation: There are some ignorant ones who, due to some harmful views, obstruct the teachings of noble saints, who conduct their lives righteously. They, like the bamboo plant that are destroyed when they bear fruit, are self-destructing.

Verse 165. Purity, Impurity Self-Created

By oneself is evil done,
by oneself defiled,
by oneself it’s left undone,
by self alone one purified.
Purity, impurity on oneself depend,
no one can purify another.

Explanation: It is by one’s own self that evil is done. It is one’s own actions that defiles a person. If a person does not commit evil action, one is purified. A person is cleansed entirely by one’s own self. One cannot purify another. Purity and impurity both depend on one’s own self.

Verse 166. Help Others - But Promote One’s Own Good

Let none neglect their good
for others’ good however great.
Know well oneself’s own good
and to that good attend.

Explanation: One should not neglect one’s own spiritual progress in the course of many acts of service to others. Be fully aware of one’s own spiritual interest, and promote one’s own higher goals

Verse 167. Do Not Cultivate The Worldly

Do not follow base desires,
nor live with heedlessness,
do not follow wrong beliefs
to grow in worldly ways.

Explanation: Stoop not to depraved ways, to practices that promote lower urges. Do not live slothfully. Do not associate yourself with those who hold false views.

Verse 168. The Righteous Are Happy - Here And Hereafter

Rouse yourself, be diligent,
in Dhamma faring well.
Who dwells in Dhamma’s happy
in this birth and the next.

Explanation: Wake up to reality; do not be delude. Live in accordance with reality. The realistic person lives happily in this world and in the next.

Verse 169. Behave According To The Teaching

Fare in Dhamma coursing well,
in evil courses do not fare.
Who dwells in Dhamma’s happy
in this birth and the next.

Explanation: Practice the dhamma to perfection. Do not practice it in a faulty manner. He who follows the teaching in the proper manner will live in peace and comfort both in this world and in the next.

Verse 170. Observe The Impermanence Of Life

Just as a bubble may be seen,
just as a faint mirage,
so should the world be viewed
that the Death-king sees one not.

Explanation: Look at a bubble. How impermanent is it? Look at a mirage. What an illusion! If you look at the world in this way, even the king of death will not see you.

Verse 171. The Disciplined Are Not Attached To The Body

Come, look upon this world
like to a rich , royal chariot
wherein fools lounge at ease
but alert ones linger not.

Explanation: The spiritually immature ones are fully engrossed in this world the glamour of which is deceptively like a decorated royal carriage. Those who are aware of reality do not cling to those worldly things. See the world as it really is.

Verse 172. The Diligent Illumine The World

Whoso was heedless formerly
but later lives with heedfulness
illuminates the world
as moon when free of clouds.

Explanation: An individual may have been deluded in the past. But later corrects his thinking and becomes a disillusioned person. He, therefor, is like the moon that has come out from behind a dark cloud; thus, he illuminates the world.

Verse 173. Evil Is Overcome By Good

Who by wholesome kamma
covers up the evil done
illumines the world
as moon when free from clouds.

Explanation: If the evil habits of behaviour of an individual get replaced by his good behaviour, he will illuminate the world.

Verse 174. Without Eye of Wisdom, This World Is Blind

This world is blind-become
few are here who see within
as few the birds break free from net
so those who go to heavens.

Explanation: Most people in this world are unable to see. They cannot see reality properly. Of those, only a handful are capable of insight. Only they see well. A few, like a stray bird escaping the net, can reach heaven.

Verse 175. The Wise Travel Beyond The Worldly

Swans upon the sun’s path fly,
the powerful through space,
conquering Mara and his host
away from the world the wise are led.

Explanation: The swans fly away in the sky - as the path of the sun. Those possessing psychic power travel through the sky. Those diligent, wise saint conquer death with his armies and leave the world and reach Nibbana.

Verse 176. A Liar Can Commit Any Crime

For one who falsely speaks,
who disregards the Dhamma,
who other lives denies:
no evil this one will not do.

Explanation: The evil person who has given up the virtue of truthfulness has abandoned all hope of the next world.

Verse 177. Happiness Through Partaking In Good Deeds

To heavenly realms the mean don’t fare,
fools magnanimity ne’er acclaim,
but the one of wisdom rejoices at giving
and happy will be in future lives.

Explanation: The extreme misers do not reach the heavenly worlds. The evil ignorant ones do not approve acts of charity. But those noble ones approve and partake of charity. In consequence, they are happy in the next birth.

Verse 178. Being Stream-Winner Is Supreme

Than o’er the earth sole sovereignty,
than going to heaven,
than lordship over all the worlds:
better the Steam-winner’s fruit.

Explanation: The achievement of the stream-winner is the primary stage in the attainment of spiritual success. The state is greater than being a universal monarch, or reaching heaven.

Verse 179. The Buddha Cannot Be Tempted

That Buddha traceless of infinite range
whose victory none may e’er undo,
whose vanquished follow to no world,
then by which track will you trace him?

Explanation: The Buddha’s victory has not been won incorrectly. No one can turn Buddha’s victory into defeat. Nothing that he has conquered can return, or pursue him, because his conquest is so complete: His ken infinite, In what way can you tempt or ensnare him.

Verse 180. The Buddha Cannot Be Brought Under Sway

That Buddha traceless of infinite range
in whom’s no entangling craving
and no ensnaring not anywhere lead,
then by which track will you trace him?

Explanation: The Buddha, in whom there is no thirst (tanha) for grasping to the net that lures, whose ken is infinite, in what way can you lure him away?

Verse 181. Gods And Men Adore The Buddha

E’er intent on concentration,
joyful in peace of letting go,
mindful, wise, the perfect Buddhas,
to even devas they are dear.

Explanation: Those noble and wise ones are intent on meditation. They are bent on conquering defilements - that is achieving Nibbana. They are mindful; and such enlightened ones are beloved by everyone.

Verse 182. Four Rare Opportunities

Human birth is hard to gain,
hard for mortals is their life,
to come to Dhamma True is hard,
rare the Buddha’s arising.

Explanation: It is rare that one is born a human being, in this cycle of rebirth. It is difficult and rare to get the opportunity to hear the good teaching, It is, indeed, rare for the birth of a Buddha to occur.

Verse 183. The Instructions Of The Buddha

Every evil never doing
and in wholesomeness increasing
and one’s heart well-purifying:
this is the Buddha’s Teaching.

Explanation: Abandoning all evil and purifying one’s own mind by oneself - this is the Teaching of the Buddha.

Verse 184. Patience Is A Great Ascetic Virtue

Patience’s the austerity supreme,
Nibbana’s supreme the Buddhas say.
One who irks or others harms
is not ordained or monk become.

Explanation: Enduring patience is the highest asceticism. The Buddhas say that imperturbability (Nibbana) is the most supreme. One is not a renunciate if he hurts another. Only one who does not harm others is a true saint (samana).

Verse 185. Noble Guidelines

Not reviling, neither harming,
restrained to limit ‘freedom’s’ way,
knowing reason in one’s food,
dwelling far in solitude,
and striving in the mind sublime:
this is the Buddha’s Teaching.

Explanation: To refrain from finding fault with others; to refrain from hurting others, to be trained in the highest forms of discipline and conduct; to be moderate in eating food; to take delight in solitude; and to engage in higher thought (which is meditation). This is the Buddha’s Teaching.

Verse 186. Sensual Pleasures Never Satiated

Not by rain of golden coins
is found desires’ satiety,
desires are dukkha, of little joy,
thus a wise one understands.

Explanation: Insatiable are sensual desires. Sensual desires will not be satisfied even with a shower of gold. The wise knows that sensual pleasure bring but little satisfaction and much pain.

Verse 187. Shun Worldly Pleasures

Even with pleasures heavenly
that one finds no delight,
the perfect Buddha’s pupil
delights in craving’s end.

Explanation: The discipline of the Buddha does not even go after heavenly pleasures. The discipline of the Buddha has his mind fixed only on the process of ending cravings.

Verse 188. Fear Stricken Masses

Many a refuge do they seek
on hills, in woods, to sacred trees,
to monasteries and shrines they go.
Folk by fear tormented.

Explanation: Human beings who tremble in fear seek refuge in mountains, forests, parks, trees, and shrines.

Verse 189. Those Refuges Do Not Help

Such refuge isn’t secure,
such refuge isn’t supreme.
From all dukkha one’s not free
unto that refuge gone.

Explanation: These are not secure refuges. The are not the supreme refuge. One who takes refuge in them is not released from all sufferings.

Verse 190. Seeing Four Noble Truths

But going for refuge to Buddha,
to Dhamma and the Sangha too,
one sees with perfect wisdom
the tetrad of the Noble Truths:

Explanation: If a wise person were to take refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha, he will observe the four Noble Truths with high wisdom.

Verse 191. The Noble Path

Dukkha, its causal arising,
the overcoming of dukkha,
and the Eight-fold Path that’s Noble
leading to dukkha’s allaying.

Explanation: The four extraordinary realities are suffering; the arising of suffering; the ending of suffering; the eight-fold path leading to the ending of suffering.

Verse 192 The Refuge That Ends All Suffering

Such refuge is secure,
such refuge is supreme.
From all dukkha one is free
unto that refuge gone.

Explanation: This refuge in the Triple Refuge is, of course, totally secure. This is the supreme refuge. Once you take this refuge you gain release from all your sufferings.

Verse 193. Rare Indeed Is Buddha’s Arising

Hard to find the pure and noble
who isn’t born just anywhere,
wherever one so wise is born
that family thrives happily.

Explanation: The Buddha is rare indeed. Such a rare person is not born everywhere. If such a noble and wise person were born in a clan, that clan will reap happiness.

Verse 194. Four Factors of Happiness

Blessed is the birth of Buddhas,
blest True Dhamma’s Teaching,
blest the Sangha’s harmony
and blessed is their striving.

Explanation: The arising of the Buddha is joyful. The proclamation of the Dhamma is joyful. The concord of the Sangha is joyful. Joyful indeed is spiritual practice in harmony.

Verse 195. Worship Those Who Deserve Adoration

Who venerates the venerable
Buddhas or their disciples,
have overcome the manifold,
grief and lamentation left.

Explanation: Those who have gone beyond apperception ( the normal way of perceiving the world), who have crossed over grief and lamentation. They deserve to be worshipped; namely, the Buddhas and their disciples.

Verse 196. Worship Brings Limitless Merit

They who are ‘Thus’, venerable,
cool and free from every fear -
no one is able to calculate
their merit as ‘just-so-much.

Explanation: One who worships those who have attained imperturbability and do not tremble or fear, earns much merit. The merit earned by such a person cannot be measured by anyone.

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