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Āraññaka Sutta — A forest-dweller — Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
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Posted by: site admin @ 11:15 am

AN 5.98 (A iii 121)
Āraññaka Sutta
— A forest-dweller —
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.

Note: info·bubbles on “underdotted” English words

Pāli

“pañcahi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu ānāpānassatiṃ āsevanto nacirasseva akuppaṃ paṭivijjhati. katamehi pañcahi?

idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu appaṭṭho hoti appakicco subharo susantoso jīvitaparikkhāresu.

appāhāro hoti anodarikattaṃ anuyutto.

appamiddho hoti jāgariyaṃ anuyutto.

āraññako hoti pantasenāsano.

imehi kho, bhikkhave, pañcahi dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu ānāpānassatiṃ āsevanto nacirasseva akuppaṃ paṭivijjhatī”ti.

“He is a person of only a little sloth, committed
“He lives in the wilderness, in an isolated dwelling place.

yathāvimuttaṃ cittaṃ paccavekkhati.

“He reflects on the mind as it is released.{1}

“Endowed with these five qualities, a monk pursuing mindfulness of breathing will in no long time penetrate the Unprovoked.”

https://youtube.com/watch?v= wRIJQ4ZDy2c&feature=share

அரஞ்ச சுத்தா
- காடு -

ஐந்து குணங்களைக் கொண்ட, ஒரு துறவி, சுவாசத்தின் நினைவாற்றலைப் பின்தொடர்ந்தால், எந்த நேரத்திலும் தூண்டப்படாத [விடுதலை] ஊடுருவ முடியாது. எந்த ஐந்து?

“அவர் சிறிதளவு மட்டுமே [மற்றவர்கள் மீது] திணிப்பவர்: சில கடமைகள் மற்றும் திட்டங்களில் ஒன்று, ஆதரிக்க எளிதானது, வாழ்க்கைத் தேவைகளில் எளிதில் திருப்தி அடைகிறது.

“அவர் சிறிது உணவை மட்டுமே சாப்பிடுபவர், வயிற்றைச் சாப்பிடக்கூடாது என்பதில் உறுதியாக இருக்கிறார்.

“அவர் ஒரு சிறிய சோம்பேறி, உறுதியான நபர்
“அவர் வனாந்தரத்தில், தனிமைப்படுத்தப்பட்ட குடியிருப்பில் வாழ்கிறார்.

“அவர் மனம் வெளியிடப்படும்போது அதைப் பிரதிபலிக்கிறார்.{1}

“இந்த ஐந்து குணங்களைக் கொண்ட ஒரு துறவி, சுவாசத்தின் நினைவாற்றலைத் தொடரும் ஒரு துறவி, எந்தக் காலத்திலும் தூண்டப்படாதவற்றை ஊடுருவிச் செல்ல மாட்டார்.”

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‘Would they do this if it was a temple?’ Anger mounts among Buddhists of Tamil Nadu over attack on Vihara
Ira Anbazhagan 19 Apr 2018

The Southern India Buddhist Vihar re-opened in Perambur after renovations in January this year, going from a 1-storey to a 4-storey structure in Perambur, Tamil Nadu to celebrations, offerings, and prayers by Buddhist monks from 40 different countries.

However, a few weeks ago, two men entered the building during worship hours while people were chanting and announced themselves as members of Chennai City Corporation. They loudly claimed that the vihara had been “occupying” land that wasn’t their own. “They barged in and began measuring the walls and the floors and things with measuring bars right during our prayers! ” recalls La. Jayabalan, a congregant, “If this was a Hindu temple, would they have dared to do something like that? Would they have barged in and interrupted a pooja? ” He expresses deep anger and anguish over the way that his faith and practice is being disrespected.

The members assert that the vihara was not “occupied” as the two officials claimed. “The Southern India Buddhist Association first began in the 1800s under Ayothidasar, a Tamil Buddhist revivalist. It was an initiative of faith run and sustained largely by SC/STs in the Perambur area. It is said that one ‘Sakya family’ who are related to K.Armstrong, who is currently serving as Tamil Nadu’s BSP state president, first donated 31204 sq ft. of land in Perambur.” says a Vihara member, G. Meena.

Dr.Ambedkar does mention this vihara in Dr.Ambedkar Speeches and Writings, Vol 17, Part III. The vihara also has long established rules and bylaws for the membership, the second edition of which was published as early as 1954. This is the same copy currently being used.

It remains a vibrant part of the Perambur community but recently has begun seeing attacks.

“If we are occupying this place, shouldn’t the complaint be filed by another disputing local owner, a neighbour, or another community member? Why is the complainant the Commissioner of Police? What does he know about this neighbourhood and its history? What is his interest in filing this particular complaint? ” asks Sarada Devi, another local member.

After countering the two men from the corporation, the members were able to raise enough voice and show enough strength to prevent them from taking further action. They sent them off with a copy of Dr.Ambedkar’s Writings and Speeches Volume 17, Part 3. “Here, take this. This is published by your government. Read what it says. Babasaheb mentions that he visited this Vihara in 1954. In fact, he stayed here from 6th July 1954 to 14th July 1954. And we are much older than that as well!” G.Meena says she told them.

Since the incident with these two men, several cases and legal orders have been filed. Several more government officials have been harassing them. State authorities have sent a letter saying that the vihara could be destroyed at any time.

The problem appears to be that the vihara is largely a Dalit Buddhist initiative. The Vihara serves not just as a centre for practice and meditation but also a political hub and a SC/ST organising hub. The second floor hosts an “Anitha Intellectual Center” – a whole floor that memorializes the passing away of the brilliant young Dalit girl S.Anitha in 2017. Here students study and prepare for exams. The floor above it serves as a monastery and houses Buddhist bhikkhus or monks

Many SC/ST community members hold meetings and events in this space. Crucially, this vihara also performs “conversions” of SC/ST community members to Buddhism officially.

Members feel this is the real reason for the harassment and not anything else. People seem uneasy and on edge even as they go about their activities routinely.

K.Armstrong, Tamil Nadu BSP leader states – ” They can demolish our vihara if they want, but let them know that if they do, every single SC/ST home in this area will sprout up as its own vihara!”

Dr B.R.Ambedkar thundered “Main Bharat Baudhmay karunga.” (I will make this country Buddhist)

Today after the 125th South India Buddhist Congregation
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder ” Hum Prapanch Prabuddha
Prapanchmay karunge.” (We will make the whole world Prabuddha Vishwa)
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Iyothee Thass - Wikipedia

Iyothee Thass - Wikipedia

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C. Iyothee Thass (20 May 1845 – 1914) was a prominent Tamil anti-caste activist and a practitioner of Siddha medicine. In Tambaram (Sanitorium) there is a huge Government Siddha Hospital named after Pandit Iyothee Thass. He famously converted to Buddhism and called upon the aboriginal societies to do the same, arguing that this was their original religion. He also founded the Panchamar Mahajana Sabha in 1891 along with Rettamalai Srinivasan. Panchamas are the ones who do not come under Varna system; they are called as Avarna communities.

Early life

Iyothee Thass possessed deep knowledge in Tamil, Siddha medicine and philosophy, and literary knowledge in languages such as English, Sanskrit and Pali.

Iyothee Thass was born Kathavarayan on 20 May 1845 in Thousand Lights, a neighbourhood in Madras (now Chennai), and later migrated to the Nilgiris district. His family followed Vaishnavism and on that basis he named his children Madhavaram, Pattabhiraman, Janaki, Raman and Rasaram. His grandfather worked for George Harrington in Ootacamund (now Ooty) and little Kathavarayan profited immensely from this association.

Assumption of leadership of Scheduled Caste

In the 1870s, Iyothee Thass organized the Todas and other tribes of the Nilgiri Hills into a formidable force. In 1876, Thass established the Advaidananda Sabha and launched a magazine called Dravida Pandian in collaboration with Rev. John Rathinam.

In 1886, Thass issued a revolutionary declaration that Scheduled caste people were not Hindus. Following this declaration, he established the “Dravida Mahajana Sabha” in 1891. During the 1891 census, he urged the members of Scheduled castes to register themselves as “Casteless Dravidians” instead of identifying themselves as Hindus. His activities served as an inspiration to Sri Lanka’s Buddhist revivalist Anagarika Dharmapala.

Conversion to Buddhism

Iyothee Thass met Colonel H. S. Olcott with his followers and expressed a sincere desire to convert to Buddhism. According to Thass, the Paraiyars of Tamilakam were originally Buddhists and owned the land which had later been robbed from them by Aryan invaders. With Olcott’s help, Thass was able to visit Ceylon and obtain diksha from the Sinhalese Buddhist monk Bikkhu Sumangala Nayake. On returning, Thass established the Sakya Buddhist Society in Madras with branches all over South India. The Sakya Buddhist Society was also known as the Indian Buddhist Association and was established in the year 1898.

On 19 June 1907, Iyothee Thass launched a weekly Tamil newspaper called Oru Paisa Tamizhan or One Paise Tamilian and Dravidia Pandian, later known simply as The Tamilan, which he ran until his death in 1914. This newspaper became the main instrument of his criticism against caste power. In addition to hosting Iyothee Thass’ editorials, the newspaper gave a voice to the public, including members of the SC/ST community, who had the opportunity to publish articles on areas such as “religion, law, Tamil literature, economy, agriculture and a Ladies Column”The newspaper enjoyed a wide reach among marginalized communities and took an explicit anti-caste stance, also reflected in its refusal to use caste names.

Iyothee Thass claimed that his grandfather Kandappan, who worked as a butler of George Harrington, a European Civil Servant possibly in Madurai district, later complained to Francis Whyte Ellis, a British civil servant in the Madras Presidency and a scholar of Tamil and Sanskrit who had established a Tamil sangam (academy) in Madras in 1825 and asked Tamil enthusiasts to “bring to him ancient Tamil manuscripts for publication”, that “four new verses had been added to the original version of Thiruvalluvar Malai”. He also noted that Ellis’ omissions about Valluvar’s possible parentage as the son of a brahmin father and a pariah mother contributed to historical distortion and “co-opting [Thiruvalluvar] and his work into the brahminical Hindu value system”. Between 1825 and 1831, Kandappan discovered handwritten manuscripts of the Thirukkural as well as the Tiruvalluva Maalai (a hagiographic anthology of Valluvar and his work) and the Naaladi Naannurru (also known as Naalatiyaar, a poetry collection from the Sangam period).According to popular sources, Kandappan preserved the works from destruction after finding the manuscripts written on palm leaves in a pile of leaves used for cooking. Kandappan had them delivered to Ellis. The books were finally published in print for the first time in 1831 thanks to the collaboration between Ellis, his manager Muthusamy Pillai, and Tamil scholar Tandavaraya Mudaliar.

Iyothee Thass fought (unsuccessfully) with the Madras Mahajana Sabha for the right of Parayars to enter Vishnu and Shiva temples, traditionally denied to SC/ST communities, and advocated with the British for free education up to the fourth grade and allocation of unused lands to oppressed Parayars.

Iyothee Thass died in 1914 at the age of 69.

Legacy Edit

Iyothee Thass remains the first recognized anti-caste leader of the Madras Presidency. In many ways, Periyar, Dravidar Kazhagam, and B. R. Ambedkar are inheritors of his legacy. He was also the first notable Scheduled Caste leader to embrace Buddhism.

However, Iyothee Thass was largely forgotten until recent times when the SC/ST Sahitya Academy, a publishing house owned by SC Ezhilmalai, published his writings.Ezhilmalai, then the Union Health Minister, also made a desired to name the planned National Center for Siddha Research after the leader.However, the proposal did not come into effect until 2005, when vehement protests by Se. Ku. Tamilarasan of the Republican Party of India (RPI) forced the Government to take serious note of the matter. The institute for Siddha Research (National Institute of Siddha) was subsequently inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Anbumani Ramadoss the then Union Health Minister on 3 September 2005 and named it after the anti-caste Buddhist leader.At its inauguration, the hospital had 120 beds.The patients were treated as per the traditional system of Siddha medicine.

A commemorative postage stamp on him was issued on 21 October 2005.His works are nationalized and solatium was given to their legal heirs in 2008.

Criticism

In the early part of the 20th century, he indulged in vehement condemnation of the Swadeshi movement and the nationalist press remarking that he could “locate the power of the modern secular brahmin in the control he wielded over public opinion.”

On 125th South India Buddhist Celebration Unity March led by Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis from South India and Armstrong Ji President of South India Buddhist Council made all attendees as part of not only Prabuddha Bharat but also Prabuddha Vishwa as all were with Lord Buddha, Pandit Iyothee Thaas, Baba Saheb Dr BR Ambedkar, Manyavar Kanshi Ram Ji, Maha Mayawati Ji, all Bhikkhus, Bhikkhunis, Upasakas and Upasikas full of happiness and were in the path leading to Eternal Bliss

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ஒரு முதல்வராக ஆயிரம் பணிகளை காட்டி காரணம் சொன்னாலும், கொளத்தூர் சட்டமன்ற உறுப்பினராக கொளத்தூர் தொகுதியில் 60 ஆண்டுகளாக வசித்துவரும் அவ்வை நகர் மக்கள் அகற்றப்பட்டது குறித்து மௌனம் காப்பது மு.க.ஸ்டாலின் அவர்களுக்கு அழகல்ல. அந்த தொகுதி மக்களின் பிரச்சனை குறித்து பேச வேண்டியது சட்டமன்ற உறுப்பினர் என்கிற வகையிலாவது அவரது தலையாய கடமை.

அது ஒரு மேம்பாலம் அமைப்பதற்காக இடத்தை விஸ்தரிப்பதற்காகவே அந்த இடங்களை அரசு எடுக்கிறது என்றே ஒரு வாதத்துக்கு வைத்துக் கொள்வோம். முறையாக அவர்களுக்கான மாற்று ஏற்பாடு செய்யாமல் எதேச்சதிகார முறையில் குடியிருப்புகளை இடித்து அப்புறப்படுத்துவது எப்படி சரியாகும்?

அரசாங்கத்தை அமைக்கும் கட்சிகளின் தலைமை மாறினாலும், எளிய மக்களின் பிரச்சனைகளை அணுகும் முறையில் அந்த அரசாங்கத்திடம் எந்த மாற்றமும் இல்லை என்பதை இதுபோன்ற நிகழ்வுகள் காட்டுகின்றன.

Even though he shows thousands of jobs as a Chief Minister and gives reasons, the people of Avvai Nagar who have been living in Kolathur constituency for 60 years are silent. K. Stalin is not beautiful for them. It is his head duty as a member of legislative assembly to talk about the problems of the people of that constituency.

Let’s have an argument that the government takes over those places to expand it to build a flyover. How is it okay to demolish and dismantle apartments without arranging proper replacement for them?

Even though the leadership of parties that form government changes, events like this show that the government has no change in the way of approaching the problems of simple people.

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