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Tipitaka The Pali Canon-Pārājika-8 for Bhikkhunis-Digha Nikaya The Long Discourses-BSP not against upper castes-Leading geologist warns some regions are quake-prone
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8 for Bhikkhunis

Pārājika [go up]

1 [1].
Should any bhikkhunī willingly engage in sexual intercourse, even with
a male animal, she is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

2 [2].
Should any bhikkhunī, in what is reckoned a theft, take what is not
given from an inhabited area or from the wilderness — just as when, in
the taking of what is not given, kings arresting the criminal would
flog, imprison, or banish her, saying, “You are a robber, you are a
fool, you are benighted, you are a thief” — a bhikkhunī in the same way
taking what is not given is defeated and no longer in affiliation.

3 [3].
Should any bhikkhunī intentionally deprive a human being of life, or
search for an assassin for him, or praise the advantages of death, or
incite him to die, saying, “My good man, what use is this evil,
miserable life to you? Death would be better for you than life,” or
with such an idea in mind, such a purpose in mind, should in various
ways praise the advantages of death or incite him to die, she also is
defeated and no longer in affiliation.

4 [4].
Should any bhikkhunī, without direct knowledge, boast of a superior
human state, a truly noble knowledge and vision as present in herself,
saying, “Thus do I know; thus do I see,” such that regardless of
whether or not she is cross-examined on a later occasion, she — being
remorseful and desirous of purification — might say, “Ladies, not
knowing, I said I know; not seeing, I said I see — vainly, falsely,
idly,” unless it was from over-estimation, she also is defeated and no
longer in affiliation.

5. Should any bhikkhunī, lusting,
consent to a lusting man’s rubbing, rubbing up against, taking hold of,
touching, or fondling (her) below the collar-bone and above the circle
of the knees, she also is defeated and no longer in affiliation for
being “one above the circle of the knees
.” [See Bhikkhus’ Saṅghādisesa 2]

6. Should any bhikkhunī, knowing that
(another) bhikkhunī has fallen into an act (entailing) defeat, neither
accuse her herself nor inform the group, and then — whether she (the
other bhikkhunī) is still alive or has died, has been expelled or gone
over to another sect — she (this bhikkhunī) should say, “Even before,
ladies, I knew of this bhikkhunī that ‘This sister is of such-and-such
a sort,’ and I didn’t accuse her myself nor did I inform the group,”
then she also is defeated and no longer in affiliation for being “one
who concealed a fault.” [See Bhikkhus’ Pācittiya 64]

7. Should any bhikkhunī follow a
bhikkhu who has been suspended by a united Community (of bhikkhus) in
line with the Dhamma, in line with the Vinaya, in line with the
teacher’s instructions, and who is disrespectful, has not made amends,
has broken off his friendship (with the bhikkhus), the bhikkhunīs are
to admonish her thus: “Lady, that bhikkhu has been suspended by a
united Community in line with the Dhamma, in line with the Vinaya, in
line with the teacher’s instructions. He is disrespectful, he has not
made amends, he has broken off his friendship. Do not follow him, lady.”

And should that bhikkhunī, thus admonished by the bhikkhunīs,
persist as before, the bhikkhunīs are to rebuke her up to three times
so as to desist. If while being rebuked up to three times she desists,
that is good. If she does not desist, then she also is defeated and no
longer in affiliation for being “a follower of a suspended (bhikkhu).”
(§¶•) 1

8. Should any bhikkhunī, lusting,
consent to a lusting man’s taking hold of her hand or touching the edge
of her outer robe, or should she stand with him or converse with him or
go to a rendezvous with him, or should she consent to his approaching
her, or should she enter a hidden place with him, or should she dispose
her body to him — (any of these) for the purpose of that unrighteous
act (Comm: physical contact) — then she also is defeated and no longer
in affiliation for “(any of) eight grounds.
” (§)

Digha Nikaya
The Long Discourses

The Digha Nikaya, or “Collection of Long Discourses” (Pali digha = “long”) is the first division of the Sutta Pitaka, and consists of thirty-four suttas, grouped into three vaggas, or divisions:

  1. Silakkhandha-vagga — The Division Concerning Morality (13 suttas)
  2. Maha-vagga — The Large Division (10 suttas)
  3. Patika-vagga — The Patika Division (11 suttas)

An excellent modern translation of the complete Digha Nikaya is Maurice Walshe’s The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya (formerly titled: Thus Have I Heard) (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1987). A fine anthology of selected suttas is Handful of Leaves (Vol. 1), by Thanissaro Bhikkhu (distributed by the Sati Center for Buddhist Studies).

The translator appears in the square brackets []. The braces {} contain the volume and starting page number in the PTS romanized Pali edition.

  • DN 2: Samaññaphala Sutta — The Fruits of the Contemplative Life {D i 47} [Thanissaro].
    King Ajatasattu asks the Buddha, “What are the fruits of the
    contemplative life, visible in the here and now?” The Buddha replies by
    painting a comprehensive portrait of the Buddhist path of training,
    illustrating each stage of the training with vivid similes.
  • DN 9: Potthapada Sutta — About Potthapada {D i 178} [Thanissaro].
    The wandering ascetic Potthapada brings to the Buddha a tangle of
    questions concerning the nature of perception. The Buddha clears up the
    matter by reviewing the fundamentals of concentration meditation and
    showing how it can lead to the ultimate cessation of perception.
  • DN 11: Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta — To Kevatta (Kevaddha) {D i 211} [Thanissaro].
    This discourse explores the role of miracles and conversations with
    heavenly beings as a possible basis for faith and belief. The Buddha
    does not deny the reality of such experiences, but he points out that —
    of all possible miracles — the only reliable one is the miracle of
    instruction in the proper training of the mind. As for heavenly beings,
    they are subject to greed, anger, and delusion, and so the information
    they give — especially with regard to the miracle of instruction — is
    not necessarily trustworthy. Thus the only valid basis for faith is the
    instruction that, when followed, brings about the end of one’s own
    mental defilements. The tale that concludes the discourse is one of the
    finest examples of the early Buddhist sense of humor. [This summary provided by Thanissaro Bhikkhu]
  • DN 12: Lohicca Sutta — To Lohicca {D i 224} [Thanissaro].
    A non-Buddhist poses some good questions: If Dhamma is something that
    one must realize for oneself, then what is the role of a teacher? Are
    there any teachers who don’t deserve some sort of criticism? The
    Buddha’s reply includes a sweeping summary of the entire path of
  • DN 15: Maha-nidana Sutta — The Great Causes Discourse {D ii 55} [Thanissaro].
    One of the most profound discourses in the Pali canon, which gives an
    extended treatment of the teachings of dependent co-arising (paticca
    samuppada) and not-self (anatta) in an outlined context of how these
    teachings function in practice. An explanatory preface is included.
  • DN 16: Maha-parinibbana Sutta — The Last Days of the Buddha {D ii 72} [Vajira/Story (complete text) | Thanissaro (chapters 5-6)].
    This wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes
    the events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death
    and final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful
    narrative contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s
    final instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and
    practiced long after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this
    sutta also depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that
    unfolds among the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of
    the death of their beloved teacher.
  • DN 20: Maha-samaya Sutta — The Great Meeting {D ii 253} [Piyadassi | Thanissaro].
    A large group of devas pays a visit to the Buddha. This sutta is the
    closest thing in the Pali canon to a “who’s who” of the deva worlds,
    providing useful material for anyone interested in the cosmology of
    early Buddhism.
  • DN 21: Sakka-pañha Sutta — Sakka’s Questions (excerpt) {D ii 263} [Thanissaro].
    Sakka, the deva-king, asks the Buddha about the sources of conflict,
    and about the path of practice that can bring it to an end. This
    discourse ends with a humorous account about Sakka’s frustration in
    trying to learn the Dhamma from other contemplatives. It’s hard to find
    a teacher when you’re a king.
  • DN 22: Maha-satipatthana Sutta — The Great Frames of Reference (The Great Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness) {D ii 290} [Thanissaro].
    This sutta offers comprehensive practical instructions on the
    development of mindfulness in meditation. The Buddha describes how the
    development of continuous mindfulness of the four satipatthana
    (”foundations of mindfulness” or “frames of reference”) — mindfulness
    of the body, of feelings, of the mind, and of mind-objects — can lead
    ultimately to full Awakening. [The text of this sutta is identical to
    that of the Satipatthana Sutta
    (MN 10), except that the Majjhima version omits the exposition of the
    Four Noble Truths (sections 5a,b,c and d in part D of this version).]
  • DN 26: Cakkavatti Sutta — The Wheel-turning Emperor (excerpt) {D iii 58} [Thanissaro].
    In this excerpt the Buddha explains how skillful action can result in
    the best kind of long life, the best kind of beauty, the best kind of
    happiness, and the best kind of strength.
  • DN 31: Sigalovada Sutta — To Sigala/The Layperson’s Code of Discipline {D iii 180} [Narada | Kelly/Sawyer/Yareham].
    The householder’s code of discipline, as described by the Buddha to the
    layman Sigala. This sutta offers valuable practical advice for
    householders on how to conduct themselves skillfully in their
    relationships with parents, spouses, children, pupils, teachers,
    employers, employees, friends, and spiritual mentors so as to bring
    happiness to all concerned.
  • DN 32: Atanatiya Sutta — The Discourse on Atanatiya {D iii 194} [Piyadassi]. One of the “protective verses” (paritta) that are chanted to this day for ceremonial purposes by Theravada monks and nuns around the world. See Piyadassi Thera’s The Book of Protection (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1999).
Abhidhamma Pitaka
Baskets of Abhidhamma

Note: At present there are no translations from the Abhidhamma Pitaka available here at Access to Insight.

The seven books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, the third division of the Tipitaka,
offer an extraordinarily detailed analysis of the basic natural
principles that govern mental and physical processes. Whereas the Sutta and Vinaya
Pitakas lay out the practical aspects of the Buddhist path to
Awakening, the Abhidhamma Pitaka provides a theoretical framework to
explain the causal underpinnings of that very path. In Abhidhamma
philosophy the familiar psycho-physical universe (our world of “trees”
and “rocks,” “I” and “you”) is distilled to its essence: an intricate
web of impersonal phenomena and processes unfolding at an inconceivably
rapid pace from moment to moment, according to precisely defined
natural laws.

According to tradition, the essence of the Abhidhamma was formulated
by the Buddha during the fourth week after his Enlightenment.1
Seven years later he is said to have spent three consecutive months
preaching it in its entirety in one of the deva realms, before an
audience of thousands of devas (including his late mother, the former
Queen Maya), each day briefly commuting back to the human realm to
convey to Ven. Sariputta the essence of what he had just taught.2
Sariputta mastered the Abhidhamma and codified it into roughly its
present form. Although parts of the Abhidhamma were recited at the
earlier Buddhist Councils, it wasn’t until the Third Council (ca. 250 BCE) that it became fixed into its present form as the third and final Pitaka of the canon.3

Despite its relatively late entrance into the Canon, the Abhidhamma
stands as an essential pillar of classical Theravada Buddhist thought.
Its significance does, however, vary considerably across regional and
cultural boundaries. In Thai Buddhism, for example, the Abhidhamma
(and, for that matter, many of the Commentaries as well) play a
relatively minor role in Buddhist doctrine and practice. In Sri Lanka
and Myanmar (Burma), however, they hold the same venerated status as
the Vinaya and Sutta Pitakas themselves. The modern Burmese approach to
the teaching and practice of Satipatthana meditation, in particular,
relies heavily on an Abhidhammic interpretation of meditative
experience. Regardless of the Abhidhamma’s position on the shelf of
Buddhist canonical texts, the astonishing detail with which it
methodically constructs a quasi-scientific model of mind (enough, by
far, to make a modern systems theorist or cognitive scientist gasp in
awe), insures its place in history as a monumental feat of intellectual

The Abhidhamma Pitaka is divided into seven books, although it is
the first (Dhammasangani) and last (Patthana) that together lay out the
essence of Abhidhamma philosophy. The seven books are:

  1. Dhammasangani (”Enumeration of Phenomena”). This book enumerates all the paramattha dhamma (ultimate realities) to be found in the world. According to one such enumeration these amount to:

    • 52 cetasikas (mental factors), which, arising together in various combination, give rise to any one of…
    • …89 different possible cittas (states of consciousness)
    • 4 primary physical elements, and 23 physical phenomena derived from them
    • Nibbana

    Availability of English translations:

    • Buddhist Psychological Ethics, translated from the Pali by C.A.F. Rhys Davids (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1900).
  2. Vibhanga (”The Book of Treatises”). This book continues the analysis of the Dhammasangani, here in the form of a catechism.

    Availability of English translations:

    • The Book of Analysis, translated from the Pali by Ven. U Thittila (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1969).
  3. Dhatukatha (”Discussion with Reference to the Elements”). A reiteration of the foregoing, in the form of questions and answers.

    Availability of English translations:

    • Discourse on Elements, translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1962).
  4. Puggalapaññatti (”Description of Individuals”). Somewhat out
    of place in the Abhidhamma Pitaka, this book contains descriptions of a
    number of personality-types.

    Availability of English translations:

    • A Designation of Human Types, translated from the Pali by B.C. Law (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1922).
  5. Kathavatthu (”Points of Controversy”). Another odd inclusion
    in the Abhidhamma, this book contains questions and answers that were
    compiled by Moggaliputta Tissa in the 3rd century BCE, in order to help
    clarify points of controversy that existed between the various
    “Hinayana” schools of Buddhism at the time.

    Availability of English translations:

    • Points of Controversy, translated from the Pali by S.Z. Aung and C.A.F. Rhys Davids (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1915).
  6. Yamaka (”The Book of Pairs”). This book is a logical
    analysis of many concepts presented in the earlier books. In the words
    of Mrs. Rhys Davids, an eminent 20th century Pali scholar, the ten
    chapters of the Yamaka amount to little more than “ten valleys of dry

    Availability of English translations: None.

  7. Patthana (”The Book of Relations”). This book, by far the
    longest single volume in the Tipitaka (over 6,000 pages long in the
    Siamese edition), describes the 24 paccayas, or laws of conditionality, through which the dhammas interact. These laws, when applied in every possible permutation with the dhammas described in the Dhammasangani, give rise to all knowable experience.

    Availability of English translations:

    • Conditional Relations (vol I), translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1969). Part I of the Tika-patthana section of the Patthana.
    • Conditional Relations (vol II), translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1981). Part II of the Tika-patthana section of the Patthana.
    • A Guide to Conditional Relations, translated from the Pali by Ven. U Narada (Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1978). An introduction and guide to the first 12 pages (!) of the Patthana.

The Abhidhamma Pitaka has a well-deserved reputation for being dense
and difficult reading. The best way to begin studying Abhidhamma is not
to dive right into its two key books (Dhammasangani and Patthana), but
to explore some of the more modern — and readable — commentarial texts.
These will help you get oriented to the Abhidhamma’s challenging

  • The Abhidhamma in Practice, by N.K.G. Mendis (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society Wheel Publication 322, 1985).
  • Buddhist Philosophy of Relations, by Ven. Ledi Sayadaw (Wheel publication No. 331; Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1986). An excellent introduction to the Patthana, the most difficult of the Abhidhamma books, which explains each of the 24 conditional relations by which the dhammas interact.
  • Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, A: The Abhidhamma Sangaha of Acariya Anuruddha, Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed. (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993). This book, an expanded treatment of Ven. Narada’s classic A Manual of Abhidhamma
    (see below), should be required reading for every Abhidhamma student.
    It gives a remarkably lucid and insightful overview of Abhidhamma
    philosophy. Even if you read no further than the Introduction, your efforts will be well rewarded.
  • Dhamma Theory, The: Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, by Y. Karunadasa (Wheel
    publication No. 412/413; Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1996).
    The Dhamma Theory is the fundamental principle on which the entire
    Abhidhamma is based: that all empirical phenomena are made up of a
    number of elementary constituents — dhammas — the ultimate
    realities that lie behind manifest phenomena. This short book offers a
    good overview of the philosophical and analytical methods used in
  • Guide Through the Abhidhamma Pitaka, by Ven. Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983).
  • Manual of Abhidhamma, A: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha
    of Anuruddhacariya

    (fourth edition), translated from the Pali by Ven. Narada Maha Thera
    (Kuala Lumpur: Buddhist Missionary Society, 1979). Available online at » BuddhaSasana.
    A classic work that provides an excellent introduction to the
    essentials of Abhidhamma study. Largely superseded by Bhikkhu Bodhi’s
    expanded and more thoroughly annotated A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhamma Sangaha of Acariya Anuruddha (see above) but useful in its compactness.
  • Psychology and Philosophy of Buddhism, The: An Introduction to the Abhidhamma, by Dr. W.F. Jayasuriya (Kuala Lumpur: Buddhist Missionary Society, 1988).


1. Handbook of Pali Literature, by Somapala Jayawardhana (Colombo: Karunaratne, 1994), p. 1.
2. From the Atthasalini, as described in Great Disciples of the Buddha, by Nyanaponika Thera and Hellmuth Hecker (Somerville: Wisdom Publications, 1997), pp. 45-46.
3. The Katthavatthu, composed during the Third Council, was the final addition to the Abhidhamma Pitaka. See Guide Through the Abdhidhamma Pitaka, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1983), p xi.

‘BSP not against upper castes’

Bilaspur: Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) supremo and Uttar Pradesh Chief
Minister Mayawati on Sunday said her party is not against the upper
castes as several political parties have been trying to project it.

“The BSP’s policies are never against any caste or community, the
party is committed to the welfare of all sections and castes. Some
other parties are now spreading false rumours that the BSP is against
the upper castes,” she stated at a public rally in Bilaspur.

Ms. Mayawati said, “BSP wants development of all the castes; in
Uttar Pradesh the party has taken care of backward Muslims and we
maintain we will amend the Constitution if we form a government at the
Centre to provide reservation to backward people from the upper castes.”

Leading geologist warns some regions are quake-prone

‘The Indian plate is pushing at about 5 centimetres every year’

Lucknow: Pointing to the geology of the Indian subcontinent, a
leading geologist on Saturday warned that some regions of Himachal
Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh near Nepal could be prone to an

Collision course

Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology Director B. R. Arora who
delivered the 54th Sir Albert Charles Seward Memorial Lecture as part
of the Foundation Day celebrations of the Birbal Sahni Institute of
Palaeobotany here, said the Indian and the Eurasian plates were on a
collision course.

“The youngest mountains of the world, Himalayas, formed as a result
of collision between Indian and Eurasian plate. The Indian plate is
pushing at about 5 centimetres every year but the Eurasian plate is
shifting only about 3 centimetres which leaves a strain of about 2
centimetres,” he said.

This strain is a matter of concern as such strains are released in
earthquakes and there are areas in Himachal, Eastern UP (near Nepal)
and Uttarakhand where a strain has been building but has no history of
earthquakes in the past hundred years, Dr. Arora said.


A centre has been established at Kuttu in New Tehri to research
into the phenomenon and hopefully predict earthquakes, he said. – PTI

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