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2243 Tue 30 May 2017 LESSON from Rector KCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF) DPPN His mother sent word to that effect, but he did not know the meaning of the words …… The Milindapañha (p.134) mentions several illnesses of the Buddha: the …
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2243 Tue 30 May 2017 LESSON

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in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)

His mother sent word to that effect, but he did not know the meaning of the words
…… The Milindapañha (p.134) mentions several illnesses of the Buddha: the …


Excerpts from
the Dictionary of Pali proper names


One of the principal disciples of the Buddha. He was a first cousin of the Buddha and was deeply attached to him.

He came to earth from Tusita and was born on the same day as the
Bodhisatta, his father being Amitodana the Sākiyan, brother of
Suddhodana. Mahānāma and Anuruddha were therefore his brothers (or
probably step-brothers). According to the Mtu.iii.176, Ānanda was the
son of Suklodana and the brother of Devadatta and Upadhāna. His mother
was Mrgī.

Ānanda entered the Order in the second year of the Buddha’s ministry,
together with other Sākiyan princes, such as Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Bhagu,
Kimbila and Devadatta, and was ordained by the Buddha himself
(Vin.ii.182), his upajjhāya being Belatthasīsa (ThagA.i.68; also
DA.ii.418ff.; Vin.i.202; iv. 86). Soon after, he heard a discourse by
Punna Mantāniputta and became a Sotāpanna. In S.iii.105 Ānanda
acknowledges his indebtedness to Punna and gives an account of Punna’s
sermon to him.

During the first twenty years after the Enlightenment, the Buddha did
not have the same personal attendants all the time. From time to time
various monks looked after him, among them being Nāgasamāla, Nāgita,
Upavāna, Sunakkhatta, the novice Cunda, Sāgata, Rādha and Meghiya. We
are told that the Buddha was not particularly pleased with any of them.
At the end of twenty years, at an assembly of the monks, the Buddha
declared that he was advanced in years and desired to have somebody as
his permanent body-servant, one who would respect his wishes in every
way. The Buddha says that sometimes his attendants would not obey him,
and on certain occasions had dropped his bowl and robe and gone away,
leaving him.

All the great disciples offered their services, but were rejected by the
Buddha. Ānanda alone was left; he sat in silence. When asked why he
did not offer himself, his reply was that the Buddha knew best whom to
choose. When the Buddha signified that he desired to have Ānanda, the
latter agreed to accept the post on certain conditions. The Buddha was
never to give him any choice food or garment (*) gotten by him, nor
appoint for him a separate “fragrant cell” (residence), nor include him
in the invitations accepted by the Buddha. For, he said, if the Buddha
did any of these things, some would say that Ānanda’s services to the
Buddha were done in order to get clothes, good fare and lodging and be
included in the invitations. Further he was to be allowed to accept
invitations on behalf of the Buddha; to bring to the Buddha those who
came to see him from afar; to place before the Buddha all his
perplexities, and the Buddha was to repeat to him any doctrine taught in
his absence. If these concessions were not granted, he said, some
would ask where was the advantage of such service. Only if these
privileges were allowed him would people trust him and realise that the
Buddha had real regard for him. The Buddha agreed to the conditions.

(*) Ānanda did, however, accept one of the two robes given by
Pukkusa the Mallan to the Buddha (D.ii.133); Buddhaghosa explains this
by saying that Ānanda’s period of service had now come to an end, and
also he wished to be free from the accusation that even after having
served the Buddha for twenty-five years, the Buddha had never made him
any gift. It is further stated that Ānanda offered the robe to the
Buddha later (DA.ii.570).

Thenceforth, for twenty-five years (Thag.v.1039), Ānanda waited upon the
Buddha, following him like a shadow, bringing him water and toothpick,
washing his feet, accompanying him everywhere, sweeping his cell and so
forth. By day he was always at hand, forestalling the Master’s
slightest wish; at night, stout staff and large torch in hand, he would
go nine times round the Buddha’s Gandha-kuti in order to keep awake, in
case he were needed, and also to prevent the Buddha’s sleep from being

The account here given is summarised from AA.i.159ff. and from
ThagA.ii.121ff. On the boons see J.iv.96, where Ānanda had asked for
boons in the past too. The Tibetan sources give a different and
interesting version of Ānanda’s entry into the Order. See Rockhill:
Life of the Buddha, 57-8.

Many examples are given of- Ānanda’s solicitude for the Buddha,
particularly during the Buddha’s last days, as related in the Mahā
Parinibbāna Sutta. Ānanda was the Buddha’s equal in age (having been
born on the same day), and it is touching to read of this old and most
devoted attendant ministering to his eminent cousin, fetching him water,
bathing him, rubbing his body, preparing his bed, and receiving last
instructions from him on various matters of importance. It is said that
when the Buddha was ill, Ānanda became sympathetically sick (D.ii.99).
He was aware of every change that occurred in the Buddha’s body. E.g.,
the brightening of his features after Janavasabha’s visit (D.ii.204);
and the fading of his complexion just before death, which was apparent
when the Buddha put on the robe given by Pukkusa (ibid., 133).

Once, when acting on the instructions of Devadatta, the royal mahouts
let loose Nālāgiri, maddened with drink, on the Buddha’s path, so that
he might trample the Buddha to death, Ānanda, seeing the animal rushing
towards them, immediately took his stand in front of the Buddha. Three
times the Buddha forbade him to do so, but Ānanda, usually most
obedient, refused to move, and it is said that the Buddha, by his
iddhi-power, made the earth roll back in order to get Ānanda out of the
elephant’s path. .

Sometimes, the extreme zealousness of Ānanda drew on him the Buddha’s
rebuke - e.g., when he prepared tekatuka gruel (gruel with three kinds
of pungent substances) for the Buddha when he was suffering from wind in
the stomach. The gruel was prepared from food kept indoors and was
cooked by Ānanda himself, indoors; this was against the rules
(Vin.i.210-11), but Ānanda knew that the gruel would cure the Buddha.

Ānanda was most efficient in the performance of the numerous duties
attached to his post. Whenever the Buddha wished to summon the monks or
to send a message to anyone, it was to Ānanda that he entrusted the
task. See, e.g., D.ii.199; 147; Vin.i.80; M.i.456.

He reported to the Buddha any news which he beard and thought
interesting. E.g., the death of Nigantha Nātaputta, of which he learnt
from Cunda Samanuddesa (D.iii.118; M.ii.244); also Devadatta’s
conspiracy to harm the Buddha (Vin.ii.198).

Laymen and laywomen, wishing to give alms to the Buddha and the monks,
would often consult him in their difficulties, and he would always
advise them. E.g., the Andhakavinda Brāhmana (Vin.i.220-1); Roja the
Malla (ibid., 248); see also ibid., 238f.

When the monks came to him expressing their desire to hear the Buddha
preach, he did his best to grant their wish. E.g. when the Buddha
retired into the Pārileyya forest (S.iii.95; DhA.i.50f.).

Sometimes when Ānanda felt that an interview with the Buddha would be of
use to certain people, he would contrive that the Buddha should talk to
them and solve their doubts; thus, for instance, he arranged an
interview for the Nigantha Saccaka (M.i.237) and the brahmins Sangārava
and Rammaka (S.i.163; M.i.161). Similarly he took Samiddhi to the
Buddha when he found that Samiddhi had wrongly represented the Buddha’s
views (M.iii.208). When he discovered that Kimbila and a large number
of other monks would greatly benefit if the Buddha would preach to them
on ānāpānasati, he requested the Buddha that he should do so.
(S.v.323). Ānanda’s requests were, however, not always granted. Once,
for instance, though he asked the Buddha three times to recite the
Pātimokkha, the Buddha refused to do so until an offending monk had been
removed (Vin.ii.236f.).

Again, when at Vesāli, as a result of the Buddha’s talks to the monks on
asubha, a large number of them, feeling shame and loathing for their
bodies, committed suicide, Ānanda suggested to the Buddha that he might
teach the monks some method by which they might obtain insight (aññā)

In order that people might still worship the Buddha when he was away on tour, Ānanda planted the Ānanda-Bodhi (q.v.).

Ānanda was, however, careful that people should not weary the Buddha
unnecessarily. Even when he told the Buddha about the suicide of the
monks (mentioned above), he was careful to wait till the Buddha had
finished his fortnight’s solitude, because he had given orders that he
should not be disturbed.

When Subhadda wanted to see the Buddha as he lay on his death-bed,
Ānanda refused to let him in until expressly asked to do so by the
Master (D.ii.149). That same day when the Mallas of Kusinārā came with
their families to pay their last respects to the Buddha, Ānanda arranged
them in groups, and introduced each group so that the ceremony might be
gone through without delay (D.ii.148).

He often saved the Buddha from unpleasantness by preventing too pious
admirers from trying to persuade the Buddha to do what was against his
scruples. E.g., Bodhirājakumāra, when he asked the Buddha to walk over
the carpets in his mansion, Kokanada (Vin.ii.128; M.ii.94).

Among Ānanda’s duties was the task of going round to put away anything
which might have been forgotten by anyone in the congregation after
hearing the Buddha preach (DhA.i.410).

Ānanda was often consulted by colleagues on their various difficulties.
Thus we find Vangīsa (S.i.188; Thag.vers.1223-6) confiding to him his
restlessness at the sight of women and asking for his advice. Among
others who came to him with questions on various doctrinal matters were
Kāmabhū (S.iv.165-6), Udāyi (S.v.166-8; A.iv.449), Channa (S.iii.133-4),
and Bhadda (S.v.171-3; ThagA.i.474; he could not, however, be of use to
his fellow celibate Bhandu). Nor were these consultations confined to
his fellow-monks, for we find the brahmins Ghosita (S.iv.113) and
Unnābha (S.v.272), the Licchavis Abhaya and Panditakumāraka (A.i.220),
the paribbājakas Channa (A.i.215) and Kokanuda (A.v.196), the upāsikā
Migasālā (A.iii.347, and again A.v.137), a householder of Kosambī
(A.i.217) and Pasenadi Kosala (M.ii.112), all coming to him for
enlightenment and instruction. It was on this occasion that Pasenadi
presented Ānanda with a valuable piece of foreign material which had
been sent to him by Ajātasattu.

Sometimes the monks, having heard a brief sermon from the Buddha, would
seek out Ānanda to obtain from him a more detailed exposition, for he
had the reputation of being able to expound the Dhamma (A.v.225;

It is said that the Buddha would often deliberately shorten his
discourse to the monks so that they might be tempted to have it further
explained by Ānanda. They would then return to the Buddha and report to
him Ānanda’s exposition, which would give him an opportunity of
praising Ānanda’s erudition. MA.i.81; for such praise see, e.g.,
A.v.229. It is said that once when a certain landowner asked the Buddha
how he could show honour to the Dhamma, the Buddha told him to show
honour to Ānanda if he wished to honour the Dhamma (J.iv.369).

In the Sekha Sutta (M.i.353ff ) we are told that after the Buddha had
preached to the Sākiyans of Kapilavatthu till late at night, he asked
Ānanda to continue the discourse while he himself rested. Ānanda did
so, and when the Buddha awoke after his sleep, he commended Ānanda on
his ability. On another occasion, the Buddha asks Ānanda to address the
monks on the wonders attendant on a Buddha’s birth, and the
Acchari-yabbhuta-Dhamma Sutta is the result. The Buddha is mentioned as
listening with approval (M.iii.119ff).

Sometimes Ānanda would suggest to the Buddha a simile to be used in his
discourse, e.g. the Dhammayāna simile (S.v.5); or by a simile suggest a
name to be given to a discourse, e.g. the Madhupindika Sutta (M.i.114;
cp. Upavāna suggesting the name for the Pāsādika Sutta D.iii.141); or
again, particularly wishing to remember a certain Sutta, he would ask
the Buddha to give it a name, e.g. the Bahudhātuka Sutta (M.iii.67).

Several instances occur of Ānanda preaching to the monks of his own
accord (E.g., A.ii.156f.; v.6) and also to the laity (E.g., A.ii.194).
The Sandaka Sutta records a visit paid by Ānanda with his followers to
the paribbajaka Sandaka, and describes how he won Sandaka over by a
discourse. Sometimes, as in the case of the Bhaddekaratta Sutta
(M.iii.189f ) Ānanda would repeat to the assembly of monks a sermon
which he had previously heard the Buddha preach. Ānanda took the
fullest advantage of the permission granted to him by the Buddha of
asking him any question he desired. He had a very inquiring mind; if
the Buddha smiled he would ask the reason (M.ii.45, 50, 74; A.iii.214f.;
J.iii.405; iv.7).

Or if he remained silent, Ānanda had to be told the reason (S.iv.400).
He knew that the Buddha did nothing without definite cause; when
Upavāna, who stood fanning the Buddha, was asked to move away, Ānanda
wished to know the reason, and was told that Upavāna prevented various
spirits from seeing the Buddha (D.ii.139). The Buddha was always
willing to answer Ānanda’s questions to his satisfaction. Sometimes, as
in the case of his question regarding the dead citizens of Ñātikā
(D.ii.91ff.),* a long discourse would result.**

* In this case the discourse concluded with a description of the
Dhammādāsa (Mirror of Truth) to be used for all time; see also

** The Pabbajjā Sutta (Sn.72ff.), was preached because of Ānanda’s
request that the Buddha should give an account of his renunciation
(SnA.ii.381); see also Pubbayogāvacara Sutta (SnA.i.47).

Most often his consultations with the Buddha were on matters of doctrine
or were connected with it - e.g., on nirodha (S.iii.24); loka
(S.iv.53); suñña (S.iv.54; M.iii.104-24); vedanā (S.iv.219-21) ; iddhi
(S.v.282-4; 286); ānāpānasati (S.v.328-34); bhava, etc. (A.i.223f.); on
the chalabhijāti of Pūrana Kassapa (q.v.); the aims and purposes of
sīla (A.v.1f., repeated in v.311f.); the possibilities of samādhi
(A.v.7f., repeated in v.318 and in A.i.132f.); on sanghabheda
(A.v.75ff.); the qualities requisite to be a counsellor of monks
(A.iv.279ff.); the power of carrying possessed by a Buddha’s voice
(A.i.226f.); the conditions necessary for a monk’s happiness
(A.iii.132f.); the different ways of mastering the elements
(M.iii.62f.); the birthplace of “noble men” (DhA.iii.248); and the
manner in which previous Buddhas kept the Fast-day (DhA.iii.246). To
these should be added the conversations on numerous topics recorded in
the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta. Some of these questions - e.g., about
earthquakes (D.ii.107ff.; A.iv.312ff.) and the different kinds of
spirits present at the death of the Buddha (D.ii.139f.) - seem to have
been put into Ānanda’s mouth in order that they might be used as pegs on
which to hang beliefs connected with them which were current among
later-day Buddhists.

Not all the Suttas addressed to Ānanda are, however, the result of his
questions. Sometimes he would repeat to the Buddha conversations he had
had with others and talks he had overheard, and the Buddha would
expound in detail the topics occurring therein.

Thus, for instance, a conversation with Pasenadi Kosala on
Kalyānamittatā is repeated and the Buddha explains its importance
(S.i.87-9; v.2-3) ; Ānanda tells the Buddha about his visit to the
Paribbajakārāma in Kosambi and what he there heard about a bhikkhu being
called niddasa after twelve years of celibacy. The Buddha thereupon
expounds the seven niddasavatthu (A.iv.37ff.). The account conveyed by
Ānanda of Udāyī preaching to a large crowd leads to an exposition of the
difficulties of addressing large assemblies and the qualities needed to
please them (A.iii.184). A conversation between Udāyī and the
carpenter Pañcakanga on feelings is overheard by Ānanda and reported to
the Buddha, who gives a detailed explanation of his views on the subject
(S.iv.222f.; M.i.397f.). The same thing happens when Ānanda mentions
to the Buddha talks he had heard between Sāriputta and the Pāribbājakas
(S.ii.35-7) and between the same Elder and Bhūmiya (S.ii.39-41).
Sometimes - as in the case of the upāsikā Migasālā (A.iii.347; v.137) -
Ānanda would answer questions put to him as best he could, and seek the
Buddha’s advice and corrections of his interpretation of the Doctrine.

When the monks asked Ānanda whether the Buddha’s predictions regarding
the results of Devadatta’s crimes were based on actual knowledge, he
furnished them with no answer at all until he had consulted the Buddha
(A.iii.402). Similarly, when Tapussa questions him as to why household
life is not attractive to laymen, Ānanda takes him straight away to the
Buddha, who is spending his siesta in the Mahāvana in Uruvelakappa
(A.iv.438f.). Once Ānanda fancies that he knows all about causation,
and tells the Buddha how glad he is that he should understand this
difficult subject. The Buddha points out to him that he really knows
very little about it and preaches to him the Mahānidāna Sutta
(D.ii.55ff.; S.ii.92-3).

When Ānanda realises that the Buddha will die in a short while, with
childlike simplicity, he requests the Buddha to make a last
pronouncement regarding the Order (D.ii.98 ff.; S.v.152-4).

On several occasions it is news that Ānanda brings to the Buddha - e.g.,
about the death of the Nigantha Nātaputta, and about Devadatta’s plots,
already mentioned - which provoke the Buddha to preach to him: Phagguna
has died, and at his death his senses seemed very clear; so they would,
says the Buddha, and proceeds to speak of the advantages of listening
to the Dhamma in due season (A.iii.381f.). Or again, Girimānanda is ill
and would the Buddha go and see him? The Buddha suggests that Ānanda
should go and tell Girimānanda about the ten kinds of saññā (aniccasññā,
etc.), and the patient will recover (A.v.108f.). Ānanda desires to
retire into solitude and develop zeal and energy; would the Buddha tell
him on which topics to meditate? And the Buddha preaches to him the
doctrine of impermanence (S.iii.187; iv.54-5).

The Buddha, however, often preached to Ānanda without any such
provocation on various topics - e.g., on the nature of the sahkhāra
(S.iii.3740); on the impossibility of the monk without faith attaining
eminence in the sāsana (A.v.152ff.); on the power the Buddha has of
knowing which doctrines would appeal to different people and of
preaching accordingly (A.v.36f.); on immorality and its consequences
(A.i.50f.); on the admonitions that should be addressed to new entrants
to the Order (A.iii.138f.); on the advice which should be given to
friends by those desiring their welfare (A.i.222).

The various topics on which the Buddha discoursed to Ānanda as recorded
in the Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta, have already been referred to. Some of
them - e.g., on the eight assemblies, the eight positions of mastery,
the eight stages of deliverance (D.ii.112) - seem to be stereotyped
later additions. On the other hand, with regard to the accounts of the
honours to be paid to a Buddha’s dead body, the places of pilgrimage for
the pious, and various other similar subjects, it is impossible to say
how far they are authentic. In a few instances the remarks addressed to
Ānanda seem to be meant for others, to be heard by them or to be
conveyed to them - e.g., in the dispute between Udāyī and Sāriputta,
when they both seek the Buddha for him to settle the differences in
opinion between them (A.iii.192ff.); or, again, when the recalcitrant
Udāyī fails to answer the Buddha’s question on subjects of reflection
(anussatitthāna), and Ānanda gives an answer which the Buddha approves
(A.iii.322ff.). A question asked by Ānanda as to whether there are any
scents which spread even against the wind, results in the well-known
sermon about the fame of the holy man being wafted everywhere
(A.i.222f.; DhA.i.420ff.). Once or twice Ānanda intervenes in a
discussion between the Buddha and another, either to ask a question or
to suggest a simile which he feels could help the Buddha in establishing
his point - e.g., in the interviews of Uttiya Paribbājaka (A.v.194), of
the brahmin Sangārava (A.i.169), and again of Vidūdabha, son of
Pasenadi (M.ii.130).

In the Mahā Mālunkyā Sutta (M.i.433), it is Ānanda’s intervention which
evokes the discourse on the Five Fetters. Similarly he intervenes in a
discussion between the Buddha and Pārāsariya’s pupil, Uttara, and
persuades the Buddha to preach the Indriyabhāvanā Sutta on the
cultivation of the Faculties (M.iii.298ff.).

Buddhaghosa gives a list of the discourses which bring out the eminence
and skill of Ānanda; they are the Sekha, Bāhitiya, Ānañjasappāya,
Gopaka-Moggallāna, Bahudhātuka, Cūlasuññata, Mahāsuññata,
Acchariyabbhuta, Bhaddekaratta, Mahānidā-na, Mahāparinibbāna, Subha and
Cūlaniyalokadhātu. (For particulars of these see under the respective
names.) The books give accounts of several conversations between Ānanda
and his eminent colleagues, such as Sāriputta. See also his
conversation with Musīla, and Savittha and Nārada at Kosambī in the
Ghositārāma (S.ii.113f.). He seems to have felt happy in their company
and did not hesitate to take to them his difficulties; thus we find him
asking Sāriputta why only certain beings in this world reach parinibbāna
(A.ii.167); on another occasion he asks Sāriputta about the
possibilities of samādhi (A.v.8). On the other hand, at least twice
(A.iii.201f.; 361f.), when Ānanda asks his questions of Sāriputta, the
latter suggests that Ānanda himself should find the answer, and having
heard it, Sāriputta praises him highly and extols his abilities.

Ānanda’s special friends seem to have been Sāriputta, Moggallāna, Mahā
Kassapa, Anuruddha and Kankhā Revata (E.g., M.i.212f). He was the
Sangha-navaka among them all, yet they held him in high esteem
(MA.i.436). Ānanda and Sāriputta were very special friends. It is said
that Sāriputta loved Ānanda because the latter did for the Buddha what
Sāriputta would wish to have done himself, and Ānanda respected
Sāriputta because he was the Buddha’s chief disciple. Young men who
were ordained by either of them would be sent to the other to learn
under him. They shared between them any good thing given to them. Once
Ānanda was presented by a brahmin with a costly robe; immediately he
wished to give it to Sāriputta, but as the latter was away at the time,
he obtained the Buddha’s permission to keep it for him till his return
(Vin.i.289; Sp.iii.636-7; MA.i.436).

The Samyutta Nikāya (i.63-4) contains an eulogy on Sāriputta by Ānanda,
where the latter speaks of his comprehensive and manifold wisdom, joyous
and swift, of his rampant energy and readiness to accept advice. When
he hears of Sāriputta’s death from Cunda the Samanuddesa, he goes to the
Buddha with Cunda (not wishing to break the news himself) and they take
with them Sāriputta’s bowl and outer robe, Cunda carrying the ashes,
and there Ānanda confesses to the Buddha that when he heard the news he
felt as thought his body were drugged, his senses confused and his mind
become a blank (S.v.161; Thag.vers.1034-5). The Commentary adds
(SA.i.180) that Ānanda was trembling “like a cock escaping from the
mouth of a cat.”

That Mahā Kassapa was fond of Ānanda, we may gather from the fact that
it was he who contrived to have him elected on the First Council, and
when Mahā Kassapa heard of Ānanda’s attainment of arahantship, it was he
who led the applause (DA.i.11). Ānanda held him in the highest
veneration, and on one occasion refused to take part in an upasampadā
ordination because he would have to pronounce Kassapa’s name and did not
consider this respectful towards the Elder (Vin.i.92). In their
conversations, Kassapa addresses Ānanda as “āvuso”, Ānanda addresses
Kassapa as “bhante.” There is an interview recorded between them in
which Kassapa roundly abuses Ānanda, calling him- corn-trampler” and
“despoiler of families,” and he ends by up saying , this boy does not
know his own measure.” Ānanda had been touring Dahkhinagiri with a large
company of monks, mostly youths, and the latter had not brought much
credit upon them selves. When Kassapa sees Ānanda on his return to
Rājagaha, he puts on him the whole blame for the youths’ want of
training. Ānanda winces at being called “boy”; , my head is growing
grey hairs, your reverence, yet I am not vexed that you should call me
‘boy’ even at this time of day.” Thullanandā heard of this incident and
showed great annoyance. “How dare Mahā Kassapa,” she says, “who was
once a heretical teacher, chide the sage Ānanda, calling him ‘boy’?”
Mahā Kassapa complains to Ānanda of Thullanandā’s behaviour; probably,
though we are not told so, Ānanda apologised to him on her behalf

On another occasion, Ānanda, after a great deal of persuasion, took
Kassapa to a settlement of the nuns. There Kassapa preached to them,
but the nun Thullatissā was not pleased and gave vent publicly to her
displeasure. “How does Kassapa think it fit to preach the doctrine in
the presence of the learned sage Ānanda? It is as if the needle-pedlar
were to deem he could sell a needle to the needle-maker.” Kassapa is
incensed at these words, but Ānanda appeases him by acknowledging that
he (Kassapa) is in every way his superior and asks him to pardon Tissa.
“Be indulgent, your reverence,” says he, “women are foolish.”
S.ii.215ff.; the Tibetans say that when Kassapa died, Ajātasattu was
very grieved because he had not been able to see the monk’s body.
Ānanda took the king to the mountain where it had been buried and showed
it to him (Rockhill, op. cit., p.162 and n.2).

In this passage Ānanda is spoken of as Vedehamuni. The Commentary
(SA.ii.132) explains it by panditamuni, and says further, pandito hi
ñānasankhātena vedena īhati sabbakiccāni karoti, tasmā vedeho ti vuccati
; vedeho ca so muni cā ti vedehamuni. Compare with this the derivation
of Vedehiputta in connection with Ajātasattu. See also Vedehikā. The
Mtu. (iii.176-7) says that when the Buddha went away from home Ānanda
wished to join him, but his mother was unwilling, because his brother,
Devadatta, had already gone away. Ānanda therefore went to the Videha
country and became a muni. Is this another explanation of the term

It was perhaps Ānanda’s championship of the women’s cause which made him
popular with the nuns and earned for him a reputation rivalling, as was
mentioned above, even that of Mahā Kassapa. When Pajāpatī Gotamī, with
a number of Sākyan women, undaunted by the Buddha’s refusal of their
request at Kapilavatthu, followed him into Vesāli and there beseeched
his consent for women to enter the Order, the Buddha would not change
his mind.

Ānanda found the women dejected and weeping, with swollen feet, standing
outside the Kūtāgārasālā. Having learnt what had happened, he asked
the Buddha to grant their request. Three times he asked and three times
the Buddha refused. Then he changed his tactics. He inquired of the
Buddha if women were at all capable of attaining the Fruits of the Path.
The answer was in the affirmative, and Ānanda pushed home the
advantage thus gained. In the end the Buddha allowed women to enter the
Order subject to certain conditions. They expressed their great
gratitude to Ānanda (Vin.ii.253ff. Ānanda is again found as
intermediary for Pajāpatī Gotamī in M.iii.253f). In this connection,
the Buddha is reported as having said (Vin.ii.256) that had Ānanda not
persuaded him to give his consent to the admission of women to the
Order, the Sāsana would have lasted a thousand years, but now it would
last only five hundred.

This championing of the women’s cause was also one of the charges
brought against Ānanda by his colleagues at the end of the First
Council. (See below.)

Perhaps it was this solicitude for their privileges that prompted him to
ask the Buddha one day why it was that women did not sit in public
assemblies (e.g. courts of justice), or embark on business, or reap the
full fruit of their actions (A.ii.82. See also GS.ii.92, n.2, on the
interpretation of the last word).

That Ānanda was in the habit of preaching frequently to the nuns is
evident from the incidents quoted above and also from other passages
(E.g., S.v.154ff.; Thag.v.1020; ThagA.ii.129). He seems also to have
been in charge of the arrangements for sending preachers regularly to
the nuns. A passage in the Samyutta Commentary (i.210) seems to
indicate that Ānanda was a popular preacher among laywomen as well.

They would stand round him when he preached, fanning him and asking him
questions on the Dhamma. When he went to Kosambī to impose the higher
penalty on Channa, the women of King Udena’s harem, hearing of his
presence in the park, came to him and listened to his preaching. So
impressed were they that they gave him five hundred robes (Vin.ii.290).
It was on this occasion that Ānanda convinced Udena of the
conscientiousness with which the Sākyaputta monks used everything which
was given to them, wasting nothing. The king, pleased with Ānanda, gave
him another five hundred robes, all of which he distributed among the

Ananda had been a tailor in a past birth and had given a Pacceka Buddha a
piece of cloth, the size of his hand, and a needle. Because of the
gift of the needle he was wise, because of the cloth he got 500 robes

A similar story is related of the women of Pasenadi’s palace and their
gift to Ānanda. The king was at first angry, but afterwards gave Ānanda
one thousand robes (J.ii.24ff).

The Dhammapada Commentary (i.382ff ) says that once Pasenadi asked the
Buddha to go regularly to the palace with five hundred monks and preach
the Law to his queens Mallikā and Vāsabhakhattiyā and to the other women
in the palace. When the Buddha said that it was impossible for him to
go regularly to one place he was asked to send a monk, and the duty was
assigned to Ānanda. He therefore went to the palace at stated times and
instructed the queens. Mallikā was found to be a good student, but not
so Vāsabhakhattiyā.

The Jātaka Commentary (i.382) says that the women of the palace were
themselves asked which of the eighty chief disciples they would have as
their preacher and they unanimously chose Ānanda. For an incident
connected with Ānanda’s visits to the palace see the Mahāsāra Jātaka and
also Pasenadi.

According to the Anguttara Commentary (ii.533) Ānanda was beautiful to look at.

Ānanda’s services seem often to have been sought for consoling the sick.
Thus we find Anāthapindika sending for him when he lay ill
(M.iii.258), and also Sirivaddha (S.v.176f) and Mānadinna (S.v.177f).
He is elsewhere mentioned as helping the Buddha to wait on a sick monk
(Vin.i.302). We are told that when the Buddha had his afternoon siesta,
Ānanda would spend his time in waiting upon the sick and talking to
them (Sp.iii.651). Ānanda was never too busy to show gratitude to his
friends. When a certain crow-keeper’s family, members of which had been
of special service to him, had been destroyed by a pestilence, leaving
only two very young boys, he obtained the Buddha’s special permission to
ordain them and look after them, though they were under the requisite
age. (Vin.i.79; to a young monk who used to wait on him and do various
services for him, Ānanda gave five hundred robes presented to him by
Pasenadi; the monk distributed them to his colleagues).

When Ānanda discovered that his friend Roja and Malla had no real faith
in the Buddha, he was greatly grieved and interceded on his special
behalf with the Buddha that he should make Roja a believer. Later he
obtained the Buddha’s permission for Roja to offer a meal of potherbs
(Vin.i.247-9). In another place we find Roja presenting Ānanda with a
linen cloth (Vin.i.296). According to the Jātakatthakathā (ii.231) Roja
once tried to persuade Ānanda to go back to the lay-life.

His sympathy is also shown in the story of the woman who asked to have a
share in the Vihāra built by Visākhā. She brought a costly carpet, but
could find no place in which to put it; it looked so poor beside the
other furnishings. Ānanda helped her in her disappointment

Once in Jetavana, in an assembly of monks, the Buddha spoke the praises
of Ānanda, and ranked him the foremost bhikkhu in five respects:
erudition, good behaviour (gatimantānam, power of walking, according to
Dhammapāla), retentive memory, resoluteness and personal attention
(A.i.24f). Again, shortly before the Buddha’s death, he speaks
affectionately of Ānanda (D.ii.144-5; A.ii.132; A.v.229; SA.ii.94f );
Ānanda knew the right time to bring visitors to the Tathāgata; he had
four exceptional qualities, in that whoever came to see him, monks or
nuns, laymen or laywomen, they were all filled with joy on beholding
him; when he preached to them they listened with rapture and delight,
which never tired. He was called Ānanda because he brought joy to his
kinsmen (ThagA.ii.123).

But see the story of Atula (DhA.iii.327), who is not satisfied with Ānanda’s preaching.

Another proof of the Buddha’s esteem for Ānanda is the incident of his
asking Ānanda to design a robe for the monks to be in pattern like a
field in Magadha (Vin.i.287).

In spite of Ānanda having been the constant companion of the Buddha -
probably because of that very fact - it was not until after the Buddha’s
parinibbāna that Ānanda was able to realise Arahantship. Buddhaghosa
gives a long account of Ānanda’s struggle for final emancipation
(DA.i.9ff.); see also Vin.ii.286. Though he was not an arahant he had
the patisambhidā, being among the few who possessed this qualification
while yet learners (Sekhā) ( VibhA.388). When it was decided by Mahā
Kassapa and others that a Convocation should be held to systematise the
Buddha’s teachings, five hundred monks were chosen as delegates, among
them, Ānanda. He was, however, the only non-arahant (sekha) among them,
and he had been enjoined by his colleagues to put forth great effort
and repair this disqualification. At length, when the convocation
assembled, a vacant seat had to be left for him. It had not been until
late the previous night that, after a final supreme effort, he had
attained the goal. He had been occupied in consoling the laity after
the Buddha’s death and had had no time for practising meditation. In
the end it was a devatā in the woodland grove in Kosala, where he was
staying, who pointed out the urgency of the matter (S.i.199-200); but
see ThagA.i.237, where the credit for this is given to a Vajjiputta

It is said that he won sixfold abhiññā when he was just lying down to
sleep, his head hardly on the pillow, his feet hardly off the ground.
He is therefore described as having become an arahant in none of the
four postures. When he appeared in the convocation, Mahā Kassapa
welcomed him warmly and shouted three times for joy. According to the
Majjhimabhānakā, says Buddhaghosa, Ānanda appeared on his seat while the
others looked on, having come through the earth; according to others he
came through the air. According to ThagA.ii.130, it was a Brahmā of
the Suddhāvāsa who announced Ānanda’s attainment of arahantship to his
colleagues at the Convocation.

In the convocation, Ānanda was appointed to answer Mahā Kassapa’s
questions, and to co-operate with him in rehearsing the Dhamma (as
opposed to the Vinaya).

Ānanda came to be known as Dhammabhandāgārika, owing to his skill in
remembering the word of the Buddha; it is said that he could remember
everything spoken by the Buddha, from one to sixty thousand words in the
right order; and without missing one single syllable (ThagA.ii.134).

In the first four Nikāyas of the Sutta Pitaka, every sutta begins with
the words “Thus have I heard,” the “I” referring to Ānanda. It is not
stated that Ānanda was present at the preaching by the Buddha of every
sutta, though he was present at most; others, the Buddha repeated to him
afterwards, in accordance with the conditions under which he had become
the Buddha’s attendant.

We are told that Ānanda had learnt eighty-two thousand dhamma (topics)
from the Buddha himself and two thousand from his colleagues
(Thag.v.1024). He had also a reputation for fast talking; where an
ordinary man could speak one word Ānanda could speak eight; the Buddha
could speak sixteen words for each one word of Ānanda (MA.i.283).
Ānanda could remember anything he had once heard up to fifteen thousand
stanzas of sixty thousand lines (MA.i.501).

Ānanda lived to be very old (one hundred and twenty years, says
DhA.ii.99; he is bracketed with Bakkula, as having lived to a great age,
AA.ii.596); a hymn of praise sung at his death is included at the end
of the stanzas attributed to him in the Theragāthā (Vers.1047-9). That
the Buddha’s death was a great blow to him is shown by the stanzas he
uttered immediately after the event (D.ii.157). Three months earlier he
had heard for the first time that death of the Buddha was near at hand
and had besought him to live longer. The reply attributed to the Buddha
is a curious one, namely, that on several previous occasions, at
Rājagaha and at Vesālī (See, e.g., D.102f), he had mentioned to Ānanda
that he could, if he so desired, live for a whole kappa, and had hinted
that Ānanda should, if he felt so inclined, request him to prolong his
life. Ānanda, however, having failed to take the hint on these
occasions, the opportunity was now past, and the Buddha must die; the
fault was entirely Ānanda’s (Ibid., 114-18). It was when Ānanda was
temporarily absent from the Buddha’s side that the Buddha had assured
Māra that he would die in three months (Ibid., 105-6).

As the end approached, the Buddha noticed that Ānanda was not by his
side; on enquiry he learnt that Ānanda was outside, weeping and filled
with despair at the thought that the Master would soon be no more, and
that he (Ānanda) would have to work out his perfection unaided. The
Buddha sent for him and consoled him by pointing out that whatever is
born must, by its very nature, be dissolved. Three times he said, “For a
long time, Ānanda, you have been very near to me by acts of love, kind
and good, never varying, beyond all measure,” and he exhorted him to be
earnest in effort, for he would soon realise emancipation. (Ibid.,
144). It was on this occasion that the Palāsa Jātaka was preached

Once, earlier, when Udāyi had teased Ānanda for not having benefited
from his close association with the personality of the Master, the
Buddha had defended Ānanda, saying, “Say not so, Udāyi; should he die
without attaining perfect freedom from passion, by virtue of his piety,
he would seven times win rule over the devas and seven times be King of
Jambudīpa. Howbeit, in this very life shall Ānanda attain to Nibbāna.

Ānanda did his best to persuade the Buddha to die in one of the great
cities, such as Rājagaha or Sāvatthi, and not in Kusinārā, the little
wattle-and-daub town (as he called it) in the middle of the jungle. He
was not satisfied until the Buddha had revealed to him the past history
of Kusinārā, how it had once been Kusāvatī, the royal capital of the
mighty Mahā Sudassana (D.ii.146).

Just before the Buddha died, Ānanda was commissioned to inform the
Mallas of the impending event, and after the Buddha’s death, Anuruddha
entrusted him, with the help of the Mallas of Kusināāa, with all the
arrangements for the funeral (D.ii.158ff). Ānanda had earlier
(D.ii.141f) learnt from the Buddha how the remains of a Tathāgata should
be treated, and now he was to benefit by the instruction.

At the end of the First Council, the duty of handing down unimpaired the
Digha Nikāya through his disciples was entrusted to Ānanda (DA.i.15).
He was also charged with the duty of conveying to Channa the news that
the higher penalty (brahmadanda) had been inflicted on him by the
Sangha. Ānanda had been deputed by the Buddha himself to carry out
this, his last administrative act (D.ii.154), but Ānanda, not wishing to
undertake the responsibility alone (knowing that Channa had a
reputation for roughness), was granted a number of companions, with whom
he visited Channa. The latter expressed repentance and was pardoned
(Vin.ii.290-2). Perhaps it was because both the Buddha and Ānanda’s
colleagues knew of his power to settle disputes that he was chosen for
this delicate task. See S.ii.235f., where the Buddha classes him with
Sāriputta and Moggallāna for his ability to settle disputes among the

Ānanda’s popularity, however, did not save him from the recriminations
of his fellows for some of his actions, which, in their eyes,
constituted offences. Thus he was charged (Vin.ii.288-9) with: (1)
having failed to find out from the Buddha which were the lesser and
minor precepts which the Sangha were allowed to revoke if they thought
fit (See D.ii.154); (2) with having stepped on the Buddha’s rainy-season
garment when sewing it; (3) with having allowed the Buddha’s body to be
first saluted by women (not mentioned elsewhere, but see Rockhill, op.
cit., p.154); (4) with having omitted to ask the Buddha to live on for
the space of a kappa (D.ii.115); and (5) with having exerted himself to
procure the admission of women into the Order (Vin.ii.253).

Ānanda’s reply was that he himself saw no fault in any of these acts,
but that he would confess them as faults out of faith in his colleagues.

On another occasion he was found fault with (1) for having gone into the
village to beg for alms, clothed in his waist-cloth and nether garment
(Vin.i.298); (2) for having worn light garments which were blown about
by the wind (Vin.ii.136).

The last years of his life, Ānanda seems to have spent in teaching and
preaching and in encouraging his younger colleagues. Among those who
held discussions with him after the Buddha’s passing away are mentioned
Dasama of the Atthakanagara (M.i.349f), Gopaka Moggallāna (M.iii.7;
Thag.ver.1024) and Subha Todeyyaputta (D.i.204ff).

The Pāli Canon makes no mention of Ānanda’s death. Fa Hsien (Giles
trans. 44. The story also occurs in DhA.ii.99ff., with several
variations in detail), however, relates what was probably an old
tradition. When Ānanda was on his way from Magadha to Vesāli, there to
die, Ajātasattu heard that he was coming, and, with his retinue,
followed him up to the Rohini River. The chiefs of Vesali also heard
the news and went out to meet him, and both parties reached the river
banks. Ānanda, not wishing to incur the displeasure of either party,
entered into the state of tejokasina in the middle of the river and his
body went up in flames. His remains were divided into two portions, one
for each party, and they built cetiyas for their enshrinement (See also
Rockhill, op. cit., 165f).

In the time of Padumuttara Buddha Ānanda had been the son of Ānanda,
King of Hamsavatī, and was therefore a step-brother of Padumuttara. His
name was Sumana. King Ānanda allowed no one but himself to wait on the
Buddha. Prince Sumana having quelled an insurrection of the frontier
provinces, the king offered him a boon as reward, and he asked to be
allowed to entertain the Buddha and his monks for three months. With
great reluctance the king agreed, provided the Buddha’s consent was
obtained. When Sumana went to the vihāra to obtain this, he was greatly
impressed by the loyalty and devotion of the Buddha’s personal
attendant, the monk Sumana, and by his iddhi-powers. Having learnt from
the Buddha that these were the result of good deeds, he himself
determined to lead a pious life. For the Buddha’s residence Prince
Sumana bought a pleasaunce named Sobhana from a householder of that same
name and built therein a monastery costing one hundred thousand. On
the way from the capital to Sobhana Park he built vihāras, at distances
of a league from each other. When all preparations were completed, the
Buddha went to Sobhana with one hundred thousand monks, stopping at each
vihāra on the way. At the festival of dedication of the Sobhana
Vihāra, Sumana expressed a wish to become a personal attendant of a
future Buddha, just as Sumana was of Padumuttara. Towards this end he
did many good deeds. In the time of Kassapa Buddha he gave his upper
garment to a monk for him to carry his begging-bowl in it. Later he was
born in heaven and again as King of Benares. He built for eight
Pacceka Buddhas eight monasteries in his royal park (ThagA.ii.121ff) and
for ten thousand years he looked after them. The Apadāna mentions
(i.52f) that he became ruler of heaven thirty-four times and king of men
fifty-eight times.


A banker (setthi) of Sāvatthi who became famous because
of his unparalleled generosity to the Buddha. His first meeting with
the Buddha was during the first year after the Enlightenment, in
Rājagaha (the story is given in Vin.ii.154ff; SA.i.240ff, etc.), whither
Anāthapindika had come on business.

His wife was the sister of the setthi of Rājagaha, and when he arrived
he found the setthi preparing a meal for the Buddha and his monks on so
splendid a scale that he thought that a wedding was in progress or that
the king had been invited. On learning the truth he became eager to
visit the Buddha, and did so very early the next morning (Vin.ii.155-6).
He was so excited by the thought of the visit that he got up three
times during the night. When, at last, he started for Sītavana, the
road was quite dark, but a friendly Yakkha, Sīvaka, sped him on with
words of encouragement. By force of his piety the darkness vanished.

The Buddha was staying in the Sītavana, and when Anāthapindika reached
there spirits opened the door for him. He found the Buddha walking up
and down, meditating in the cool air of the early dawn. The Buddha
greeted him and talked to him on various aspects of his teaching.
Anāthapindika was immediately converted and became a Sotāpanna. He
invited the Buddha to a meal the next day, providing everything himself,
although the setthi, the Mayor of Rājagaha and King Bimbisāra asked to
be allowed to help. After the meal, which he served to the Buddha with
his own hand, he invited the Buddha to spend the rainy season at
Sāvatthi, and the Buddha accepted, saying “the Tathāgatas, o
householder, take pleasure in solitude.” “I understand, o Blessed One, I
understand,” was the reply.

When Anāthapindika had finished his business at Rājagaha he set out
towards Sāvatthi, giving orders along the way to his friends and
acquaintances to prepare dwellings, parks, rest-houses and gifts all
along the road to Sāvatthi in preparation for the Buddha’s visit. He
had many friends and acquaintances and he was ādeyyavaco (his word was
held to be of weight), loc. cit., p.158. But see J.i.92, where it is
said that Anāthapindika bore all the expenses of these preparations.
Vihāras were built costing l,000 pieces each, a yojana apart from each

Understanding the request implied in the Buddha’s words when he accepted
the invitation, Anāthapindika looked out for a quiet spot near Sāvatthi
where the Buddha and the monks might dwell, and his eye fell on the
park of Jetakumāra. He bought the park at great expense and erected
therein the famous Jetavanārāma. As a result of this and of his
numerous other benefactions in the cause of the Sāsana, Anāthapindika
came to be recognised as the chief of alms-givers (A.i.25).

Anāthapindika’s personal name was Sudatta, but he was always called
Anāthapindika (AA.i.208; MA.i.50) (feeder of the destitute) because of
his munificence; he was, however, very pleased when the Buddha addressed
him by his own name (Vin.ii.156). He spent eighteen crores on the
purchase of Jetavana and a like sum on the construction of the vihāra;
another eighteen crores were spent in the festival of dedication. He
fed one hundred monks in his house daily in addition to meals provided
for guests, people of the village, invalids, etc. Five hundred seats
were always ready in his house for any guests who might come
(AA.i.208-9. He fed 1,000 monks daily says DhA.i.128; but see J.iii.119,
where a monk, who had come from far away and had missed the meal hour,
had to starve.).

Anāthapindika’s father was the setthi Sumana (AA. loc. cit). The name of Anāthapindika’s brother was Subhūti.

Anāthapindika married a lady called Puññalakkhanā (J.ii.410; J.iii.435,
she was the sister of the setthi of Rājagaha. SA.i.240); he had a son
Kāla and three daughters, Mahā-Subhaddā, Cūla-Subhaddā and Sumanā.
(Besides Kāla, Anāthapindika had another son, who joined the Order under
Subhūti Thera; AA.ii.865). Mention is also made of a daughter-in law,
Sujātā by name, daughter of Dhanañjaya and the youngest sister of
Visākhā. She was very haughty and ill-treated the servants (J.ii.347).

The son, in spite of his father’s efforts, showed no piety until he was
finally bribed to go to the vihāra and listen to the Buddha’s preaching
(see Kāla). The daughters, on the other hand, were most dutiful and
helped their father in ministering to the monks. The two elder ones
attained to the First Fruit of the Path, married, and went to live with
the families of their husbands. Sumanā obtained the Second Fruit of the
Path, but remained unmarried. Overwhelmed with disappointment because
of her failure in finding a husband, she refused to eat and died; she
was reborn in Tusita (DhA.i.128f).

The Bhadraghata Jātaka (J.ii.431) tells us of a nephew of Anāthapindika
who squandered his inheritance of forty crores. His uncle gave him
first one thousand and then another five hundred with which to trade.
This also he squandered. Anāthapindika then gave him two garments. On
applying for further help the man was taken by the neck and pushed out
of doors. A little later he was found dead by a side wall.

The books also mention a girl, Punnā, who was a slave in Anāthapindika’s
household. On one occasion when the Buddha was starting on one of his
periodical tours from Jetavana, the king, Anāthapindika, and other
eminent patrons failed to stop him; Punnā, however, succeeded, and in
recognition of this service Anāthapindika adopted her as his daughter
(MA.i.347-8). On uposatha days his whole household kept the fast; on
all occasions they kept the pañcasīla inviolate (J.iii.257).

A story is told of one of his labourers who had forgotten the day and
gone to work; but remembering later, he insisted on keeping the fast and
died of starvation. He was reborn as a deva (MA.i.540-1).

Anāthapindika had a business village in Kāsi and the superintendent of
the village had orders to feed any monks who came there (Vin.iv.162f).
One of his servants bore the inauspicious name of Kālakanni (curse); he
and the banker had been playmates as children, and Kālakanni, having
fallen on evil days, entered the banker’s service. The latter’s friends
protested against his having a man with so unfortunate a name in his
household, but he refused to listen to them. One day when Anāthapindika
was away from home on business, burglars came to rob his house, but
Kālakanni with great presence of mind drove them away (J.i.364f).

A similar story is related of another friend of his who was also in his service (J.i.441).

All his servants, however, were not so intelligent. A slave woman of
his, seeing that a fly had settled on her mother, hit her with a pestle
in order to drive it away, and killed her (J.i.248f).

A slave girl of his borrowed an ornament from his wife and went with her
companions to the pleasure garden. There she became friendly with a
man who evidently desired to rob her of her ornaments. On discovering
his intentions, she pushed him into a well and killed him with a stone

The story of Anāthapindika’s cowherd, Nanda, is given elsewhere.

All the banker’s friends were not virtuous; one of them kept a tavern
(J.i.251). As a result of Anāthapindika’s selfless generosity he was
gradually reduced to poverty. But he continued his gifts even when he
had only bird-seed and sour gruel. The devata who dwelt over his gate
appeared before him one night and warned him of his approaching penury;
it is said that every time the Buddha or his monks came to the house she
had to leave her abode over the gate and that this was inconvenient to
her and caused her to be jealous. Anāthapindika paid no attention to
her warnings and asked her to leave the house. She left with her
children, but could find no other lodging and sought counsel from
various gods, including Sakka. Sakka advised her to recover for
Anāthapindika the eighteen crores that debtors owed him, another
eighteen that lay in the bottom of the sea, and yet eighteen more lying
unclaimed. She did so and was readmitted (DhA.iii.10ff; J.i.227ff).

Anāthapindika went regularly to see the Buddha twice a day, sometimes
with many friends (J.i.95ff.; he went three times says J.i.226), and
always taking with him alms for the young novices. But we are told that
he never asked a question of the Buddha lest he should weary him. He
did not wish the Buddha to feel obliged to preach to him in return for
his munificence (DhA.i.3). But the Buddha of his own accord preached to
him on various occasions; several such sermons are mentioned in the
Anguttara Nikāya:

on the importance of having a well-guarded mind like a well-protected gable in a house (A.i.261f);

on the benefits the recipient of food obtains (life, beauty, happiness, strength);

on the four obligations that make up the pious householder’s path of
duty (gihisāmikiccāni - waiting on the Order with robes, food,
lodgings, medical requirements. Referred to also in S.v.387, where
Anāthapindika expresses his satisfaction that he had never failed in
these obligations);

on the four conditions of success that are hard to win (wealth
gotten by lawful means, good report, longevity, happy rebirth);

on the four kinds of happiness which a householder should seek
(ownership, wealth, debtless ness, blamelessness) (these various tetrads
are given in A.ii.64ff).

on the five kinds of enjoyment which result from wealth rightfully
obtained (enjoyment - experienced by oneself and by one’s friends and
relations, security in times of need, ability to pay taxes and to spend
on one’s religion, the giving of alms to bring about a happy rebirth,

the five things which are very desirable but difficult to obtain
(long life, beauty, happiness, glory, good condition of rebirths,

the five sinful acts that justify a man’s being called wicked (hurting of life, etc. A.iii.204);

the inadvisability of being satisfied with providing requisites for
monks without asking oneself if one also experiences the joy that is
born of ease of mind (evidently a gentle warning to Anāthapindika,

The Buddha preached the Velāma Sutta to encourage Anāthapindika when he
had been reduced to poverty and felt disappointed that he could no
longer provide luxuries for the monks (A.iv.392ff). On another occasion
the Buddha tells Anāthapindika that the Sotāpanna is a happy man
because he is free from various fears: fear of being born in hell, among
beasts, in the realm of Peta or in some other unhappy state; he is
assured of reaching Enlightenment (A.iv.405f, also S.v.387f).

Elsewhere the Buddha tells Anāthapindika that it is not every rich man
who knows how to indulge in the pleasures of sense legitimately and
profitably (A.v.177ff).

There is, however, at least one sutta preached as a result of a question
put by Anāthapindika himself regarding gifts and those who are worthy
to receive them (A.i.62-3); and we also find him consulting the Buddha
regarding the marriage of his daughter, Cola Subhaddā (DhA.iii.466).

Anāthapindika died before the Buddha. As he lay grievously ill he sent a
special message to Sāriputta asking him to come (again, probably,
because he did not want to trouble the Buddha). Sāriputta went with
Ananda and preached to him the Anāthapindikovāda Sutta (M.iii.258f.; see
also S.v.380-7, which contain accounts of incidents connected with this
visit). His pains left him as he concentrated his mind on the virtuous
life he had led and the many acts of piety he had done. Later he fed
the Elders with food from his own cooking-pot, but quite soon afterwards
he died and was born in the Tusita heaven. That same night he visited
the Buddha at Jetavana and uttered a song of praise of Jetavana and of
Sāriputta who lived there, admonishing others to follow the Buddha’s
teaching. In heaven he will live as long as Visākhā and Sakka

Various incidents connected with Anāthapindika are to be found in the
Jātakas. On one occasion his services were requisitioned to hold an
inquiry on a bhikkhuni who had become pregnant (J.i.148).

Once when the Buddha went on tour from Jetavana, Anāthapindika was
perturbed because there was no one left for him to worship; at the
Buddha’s suggestion, an offshoot from the Bodhi tree at Gaya was planted
at the entrance to Jetavana (J.iv.229).

Once a brahmin, hearing of Anāthapindika’s luck, comes to him in order
to find out where this luck lay so that he may obtain it. The brahmin
discovers that it lay in the comb of a white cock belonging to
Anāthapindika; he asks for the cock and it is given to him, but the luck
flies away elsewhere, settling first in a pillow, then in a jewel, a
club, and, finally, in the head of Anāthapindika’s wife. The brahmin’s
desire is thus frustrated (J.ii.410f).

On two occasions he was waylaid by rogues. Once they tried to make him
drink drugged toddy. He was at first shocked by their impertinence,
but, later, wishing to reform them, frightened them away (J.i.268).

On the other occasion, the robbers lay in wait for him as he returned
from one of his villages; by hurrying back he escaped them (J.ii.413).
Whenever Anāthapindika visited the Buddha, he was in the habit of
relating to the Buddha various things which had come under his notice,
and the Buddha would relate to him stories from the past containing
similar incidents. Among the Jātakas so preached are: Apannaka,
Khadirahgāra, Rohinī, Vārunī, Punnapāti, Kālakanni, Akataññū, Verī,
Kusanāli, Siri, Bhadraghata, Visayha, Hiri, Sirikālakannī and Sulasā.

Anāthapindika was not only a shrewd business man but also a keen
debater. The Anguttara Nikāya (A.v.185-9) records a visit he paid to
the Paribbājakas when he could think of nothing better to do. A lively
debate ensues regarding their views and the views of the Buddha as
expounded by Anāthapindika. The latter silences his opponents. When
the incident is reported to the Buddha, he speaks in high praise of
Anāthapindika and expresses his admiration of the way in which he
handled the discussion.

During the time of Padumattara Buddha Anāthapindika had been a
householder of Hamsavatī. One day he heard the Buddha speak of a
lay-disciple of his as being the chief of alms-givers. The householder
resolved to be so designated himself in some future life and did many
good deeds to that end. His wish was fulfilled in this present life.
Anāthapindika is sometimes referred to as Mahā Anāthapindika to
distinguish him from Cūla Anāthapindika.


He was the son of a very wealthy brahmin family of
Donavatthu near Kapilavatthu and was born before the Buddha. He came to
be called by his family name Kondañña. He was learned in the three
Vedas, excelling in the science of physiognomy.

When the Buddha was born he was among the eight brahmins (the others
being Rāma, Dhaja, Lakkhana, Mantī, Bhoja, Suyāma and Sudatta. In the
Milinda (236), where the eight names are given, Kondañña appears as
Yañña) sent for to prognosticate, and though he was yet quite a novice
he declared definitely that the babe would be a Buddha. Thereafter he
lived awaiting the Bodhisatta’s renunciation. After this happened he
left the world with four others, and the five later became known as the
Pañcavaggiyā (J.i.65f.; AA.i.78-84; ThagA.ii.1ff). When, after the
Enlightenment, the Buddha visited them at Isipatana and preached the
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, Kondañña and eighteen crores of brahmas won
the Fruit of the First Path. As he was the first among humans to
realise the Dhamma the Buddha praised him saying “aññāsi vata bho
Kondañño” twice; hence he came to be known as Aññata Kondañña.
(Vin.i.12; UdA.324, 371; Mtu.iii.333).

It is interesting to note that in the Burmese MSS. the name appears as
Aññāsi-Kondañña. The Cy. explains Aññāta-Kondañña by “pativedha
Kondañña.” In the ThagA. he is called Añña-Kondañña. Mrs. Rhys Davids
suggests that Aññā was his personal name (Gotama the Man, p.102).

Five days later when the Anattalakhana Sutta was preached he became
arahant (Vin.i.13-14). He was the first to be ordained with the formula
“ehi, bhikkhu” and the first to receive higher ordination. Later, at
Jetavana, amidst a large concourse of monks, the Buddha declared him to
be the best of those who first comprehended the Dhamma (AA.i.84). He
was also declared to be pre-eminent among disciples of long-standing
(rattaññūnam) (A.i.23).

In the assembly of monks he sat behind the two chief disciples. Finding
that his presence near the Buddha was becoming inconvenient to himself
and others (For his reasons see AA.i.84; SA.i.216), he obtained the
Buddha’s permission to go and live on the banks of the Mandākini in the
Chaddanta-vana, where he stayed for twelve years, only returning at the
end of that period to obtain the Buddha’s leave for his parinibbāna.
The elephants in the forest took it in turns to bring him his food and
to look after him. Having bidden farewell to the Buddha, he returned to
Chaddanta-vana, where he passed away (SA.i.218; AA.i.84). We are told
(SA.i.219) that all Himavā wept at his death. The obsequies were
elaborately performed by eight thousand elephants with the deva
Nāgadatta at their head. All the devas from the lowest to the highest
brahma world took part in the ceremony, each deva contributing a piece
of sandalwood. Five hundred monks, led by Anuruddha, were present. The
relics were taken to Veluvana and handed over to the Buddha, who with
his own hand deposited them in a silver cetiya which appeared from the
earth. Buddhaghosa states that the cetiya existed even in his time

Several verses attributed to Kondañña are given in the Theragāthā,
admonishing fellow celibates to lead the higher life, because everything
is impermanent, bound to ill and void of soul (Thag.674-88).

On one occasion he preached to Sakka at the latter’s own request; Sakka
expressed himself as greatly pleased because the sermon was worthy even
of the Buddha.”

Vangisa once extolled his virtues in the presence of the Buddha (Thag.v.673; ThagA.ii.3).

In Padumuttara’s time Kondañña had been a rich householder, and, seeing
one of the monks given preference in seniority, he wished for a similar
rank for himself in the future. Towards this end he did many acts of
piety, one of them being to build a golden chamber over the Buddha’s
relics. In Vipassī’s time was a householder, Mahākāla, and gave to the
Buddha the first-fruits of his field in nine stages of their produce
(ThagA.ii.1; DhA.i.80).

According to the Apadāna (i.48f.; The Divy 430 mentions another previous
birth of Kondañña), he offered the first meal to Padumuttara after his

Punna Mantānīputta was his nephew and was ordained by him. ThagA.i.37.

Mantānī was Aññāta-Kondañña’s sister.


First cousin of the Buddha and one of his most eminent
disciples. He was the son of the Sākyan Amitodana and brother of
Mahānāma. When members of other Sākyan families had joined the Order of
their distinguished kinsman, Mahānāma was grieved that none had gone
forth from his own. He therefore suggested to his brother that one of
them should leave household life. Anuruddha was at first reluctant to
agree, for he had been reared most delicately and luxuriously, dwelling
in a different house for each season, surrounded by dancers and mimes.
But on hearing from Mahānāma of the endless round of household cares he
agreed to go. He could not, however, get his mother’s consent until he
persuaded his cousin Bhaddiya to go with him. Together they went with
Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, Devadatta and their barber Upāli, to the Blessed
One at the Anupiya Mango Grove and were ordained. Before the rainy
season was over Anuruddha acquired the dibbacakkhu (Vin.ii.180-3;
Mtu.iii.177f), and he was later ranked foremost among those who had
obtained this attainment (A.i.23).

He then received from Sāriputta, as topic of meditation, the eight
thoughts of a great man. The list is given in A.iv.228ff. Another
conversation he had with Sāriputta before becoming an arahant is
reported in A.i.281-2. He went into the Pācīnavamsadāya in the Ceti
country to practise these. He mastered seven, but could not learn the
eighth. The Buddha, being aware of this, visited him and taught it to
him. Thereupon Anuruddha developed insight and realised arahantship in
the highest grade (A.iv. loc. cit.; AA.108-9; Thag.901).

Anuruddha appears in the Suttas as an affectionate and loyal
comrade-bhikkhu, full of affection to his kinsman, the Buddha, who
returned his love. In the assembly he stood near the Buddha (Bu.v.60).
When the Buddha, disgusted with the quarrels of the Kosambī monks, went
away to seek more congenial surroundings, it was to Pācīnavamsadāya
that he repaired, where were Anuruddha, Nandiya and Kimbila. The
Upakkilesa Sutta (M.iii.153f.), on the sweets of concord and freedom
from blemish, seems to have been preached specially to Anuruddha on that
occasion, for we are told at the end that he was pleased to have heard
it, no mention being made of the other two. And again in the Nalakapāna
Sutta (M.i.462ff.), though a large number of distinguished monks are
present, it is to Anuruddha that the Buddha directly addresses his
questions, and it is Anuruddha who answers on behalf of them all. See
also the Cūla- and the Mahā-Gosinga Suttas.

Anuruddha was present when the Buddha died at Kusinārā, and knew the
exact moment of his death; the verse he uttered on that occasion is
thoughtful and shows philosophic calm, in contrast, for example, with
that of Ananda. D.ii.156-7. On this see Oldenberg, Nachrichten der
Wissenschaften zu Goettingen, 1902, pp.168f.; and Przyluski JA.
mai-juin, 1918, pp.486ff.

Anuruddha was foremost in consoling the monks and admonishing them as to
their future course of action. It was Anuruddha again that the Mallas
of Kusinārā consulted regarding the Buddha’s last obsequies (D.ii.160f).
Later, at the First Council, he played a prominent part and was
entrusted with the custody of the Anguttara Nikāya (DA.i.15).

In one of the verses ascribed to Anuruddha in the Theragāthā (904;
ThagA.ii.72) it is said that for twenty-five years he did not sleep at
all, and that for the last thirty years of his life he slept only during
the last watch of the night. The same source (Thag.908; also S.i.200)
mentions an occasion where a goddess, Jālinī (ThagA.ii.73; this story is
given in detail in SA.i.225-6), who had been his wife in a previous
birth, seeing him grown old and grey with meditation, seeks to tempt him
with the joys of heaven, but he tells her he has no need of such
things, having attained to freedom from rebirth.

His death took place in Veluvagāma in the Vajji country, in the shade of
a bamboo thicket. Thag.919. See also Psalms of the Brethren, p.331,
n.1. I cannot trace the reference to Hatthigāma. He was one hundred and
fifteen years old at the time of his death (DA.ii.413).

In Padumuttara Buddha’s time he had been a rich householder. Hearing
one of the monks declared best among possessors of the celestial eye, he
wished for a similar honour for himself in the future. He did acts of
great merit towards that end, including the holding of a great feast of
light in front of the Buddha’s tomb. In Kassapa Buddha’s age he was
born in Benares; one day he placed bowls filled with clarified butter
all round the Buddha’s tomb and lighted them, himself walking round the
tomb all night, bearing on his head a lighted bowl.

Later he was reborn in a poor family in Benares and was named Annabhāra
(lit. “food-bearer”). One day, while working for his master, the
banker Sumana, he gave his meal to a Pacceka Buddha, Uparittha. The
banker, having heard from the deity of his parasol of Annabhāra’s pious
deed, rewarded him and set him up in trade. The king, being pleased
with him, gave him a site for a house, the ground of which, when dug,
yielded much buried treasure. On account of this great accretion of
wealth he was given the rank of Dhanasetthi (ThagA.ii.65ff.; Thag.910;

According to the Dhammapada Commentary (i.113), as a result of his gift
to the Pacceka Buddha, Anuruddha never lacked anything he desired - such
had been the wish he expressed. A charming story is related in this
connection. Once when playing at ball with his friends he was beaten
and had to pay with sweets. His mother sent him the sweets, but he lost
over and over again until no more sweets were to be had. His mother
sent word to that effect, but he did not know the meaning of the words
“there isn’t.” When his mother, to make him understand, sent him an
empty bowl, the guardian deity of the city filled it with celestial
cakes, so that he should not be disappointed. Thereafter, whenever
Anuruddha sent for cakes, his mother would send him an empty vessel,
which became filled on the way. See also DhA.iv.124ff.

The Apadāna (i.35) mentions another incident of his past. Once, in
Sumedha Buddha’s time, Anuruddha, having seen the Buddha meditating
alone at the foot of a tree, set up lights round him and kept them
burning for seven days. As a result he reigned for thirty kappas as
king of the gods, and was king of men twenty-eight times. He could see a
distance of a league both by day and night.

On various occasions Anuruddha had discussions with the Buddha, and he
was consulted by disciples, both monks and laymen, on points of doctrine
and practice. In the Anuruddha Sutta (M.iii.144f) he goes with Abhiya
Kaccāna and two others to a meal at the house of Pañcakanga, the king’s
carpenter. At the end of the meal the carpenter asks him the difference
between that deliverance of the heart (cetovimutti) that is boundless
(appamāna) and that which is vast (mahaggata). The discussion leads on
to an account of the four states of rebirth among the brilliant gods
(Ābhā), and in reply to the questions of Abhiya Kaccāna, Anuruddha
proceeds to explain their nature. At the end of the discourse we find
Anuruddha acknowledging that he himself had lived among these gods.

In the Samyutta Nikāya (S.iv.240-5) he is mentioned as questioning the
Buddha about women, how they come to be born in happy states and how in
woeful purgatory. A similar inquiry is mentioned in the Anguttara
Nikāya. Anuruddha had been visited by some Manāpakāyikā devas, who had
played and sung to him and shown their power of changing their
complexions at will. He comes to the Buddha and asks how women could be
born among these devas (A.iv.262ff).

We find him (S.v.174-6, also 299f) being asked by Samyutta and
Moggallāna about the sekha and asekha and about super-knowledge
(abhiññā). In dealing with this passage the Commentary (SA.iii.183)
states that Anuruddha used to rise early, and that after ablutions he
sat in his cell, calling up a thousand kappas of the past and the
future. With his clairvoyant eye he knew the thousand fold universe and
all its workings.

The Anuruddha Samyutta (S.v.294) gives an account of a series of
questions asked by Moggallāna on the satipatthānā, their extent, etc.
Anuruddha evidently laid great emphasis on the cultivation of the
satipatthānā, for we find mention of them occurring over and over again
in his discourses. He attributes all his powers to their development,
and admonishes his hearers to practise them. S.v.299-306. He himself
considered the dibbacakkhu as the highest attainment. Thus in the
Mahāgosinga Sutta (M.i.213) he declares it to be more worthy than
knowledge of the doctrine, meditation, forest-life, discourse on the
abhidhamma or self-mastery.

Once he lay grievously ill in the Andhavana in Sāvatthi, but the pain
made no impression on his mind, because, he says, his mind was well
grounded in the satipatthānā (S.v.302, but see DhA.iv.129, where he
suffered from wind in the stomach). Apart from his teaching of the
satipatthānā, he does not seem to have found fame as a teacher. He was
of a retiring disposition and never interfered in any of the monks’

Mention is often made of Anuruddha’s iddhi-powers. Thus, he was one of
those who went to the Brahma-world to curb the pride of the Brahma who
had thought that no ascetic could reach his world (S.i.145. The others
being Moggallāna, Mahākassapa and Mahākappina). The mother of the
Yakkha Piyankara, while wandering in search of food, heard him at night
reciting some verses from the Dhammapada and stood spellbound listening
(S.i.209; SA.i.237-8).

His iddhi, however, does not seem to have enabled him to prevent his
fellow-dweller Abhiñjika from talking too much (S.ii.203-4), nor his
other fellow-dweller Bāhiya from attempting to create dissension in the
Order (A.ii.239). Among the Vajjians he seems to have been held
particularly in esteem, together with Nandiya and Kimbila. A yakkha
named Dīgha tells the Buddha how the Vajjians are envied by the
inhabitants of the deva and brahma worlds on account of the presence of
these distinguished monks in their country (in the Cūlagosinga Sutta,


The capital of Kāsi-janapada. It was one of the four
places of pilgrimage for the Buddhists -the others being Kapilavatthu,
Buddhagayā and Kusināra- because it was at, the Migadāya in Isipatana
near Bārānasī that the Buddha preached his first sermon to the
Pañcavaggiyā (D.ii.141). This was the spot at which all Buddhas set in
motion the Wheel of the Law (Dhamma-cakka). It is the custom of Buddhas
to travel by air from the Bodhi-tree to the scene of their first
sermon, a distance of eighteen leagues (MA.i.388; Bu.A.242, etc.), but
the present Buddha did all the journey on foot in order to be able to
meet on the way the Ajīvaka Upaka.

Benares was an important centre of trade and industry. There was direct
trade between there and Sāvatthi (DhA.iii.429), the road passing
through Bhaddiya (Vin.i.189), and between there and Takkasilā
(DhA.i.123). It was the custom for enthusiastic young men of Benares to
go to the university at Takkasilā (E.g., J.ii.4; DhA.i.250), but there
seem to have been educational institutions at Benares also, some of
which were older than even those of Takkasilā (KhA.198; see also
DhA.iii.445, where Susīma, Sankha’s son, goes from Takkasilā to Benares
for purposes of study).

From Verañjā to Benares there seem to have been two routes: one rather
circuitous, passing through Soreyya, and the other direct, crossing the
Ganges at Payāgatittha. From Benares the road continued to Vesāli
(Sp.i.201). On the road from Benares to Rājagaha was Andhakavinda
(Vin.i.220). There seems to have been friendly intercourse between the
chieftains of Benares and the kings of Magadha, as shown by the fact
that Bimbisāra sent his own physician, Jīvaka, to attend to the son of
the Treasurer of Benares (Vin.i.275). The distance from Kosambī to
Benares was thirty leagues by river (MA.ii.929).

The extent of the city of Benares, including its suburbs, at the time
when it was the capital of an independent kingdom, is often stated
(E.g., J.iv.377; vi.160; MA.ii.608) to have been twelve leagues. The
names of several kings are mentioned in the Jātakas, among them being
those of Anga, Uggasena, Udaya, Kikī, Dhanañjaya, Mahāsīlava, Vissasena,
and Samyama. (The SNA. on the Khaggavisāna Sutta contains the names
of several kings of Benares who renounced the world and became Pacceka

The name which occurs most frequently, however, is that of Brahmadatta,
which seems to have been the dynastic name of the Benares kings. In the
Mahāgovinda Sutta, the foundation of Bārānasī is attributed to
Mahāgovinda, its first king being Dhatarattha, contemporary of Renu
(D.ii.235). The Ceylon Chronicles (MT. 127,129,130) mention the names
of others who reigned in Benares- e.g., Duppasaha and sixty of his
descendants; Asoka, son of Samankara, and eighty four thousand of his
descendants; also sixteen kings, ancestors of Okkāka. The city itself
had been known by different names at different periods; thus, in the
time of the Udaya Jātaka it was called Surundhana; in that of the
Sutasoma, Sudassana; in that of the Sonananda, Brahmavaddhana; in that
of the Khandahāla, Pupphavatī; in that of the Yuvañjaya, Rammanagara
(J.iv.119f); and in that of the Sankha, Molinī (J.iv.15). It was also
called Kāsinagara and Kāsipura (E.g., J.v.54; vi.165; DhA.i.87), being
the capital of Kāsi. The Bhojājāniya Jātaka (J.i.178) says that “all
the kings around coveted the kingdom of Benares.” In the Brahāchatta
Jātaka (J.iii.116), the king of Benares is mentioned as having captured
the whole of Kosala. At the time of the Buddha, however, Benares had
lost its great political importance. Kosala was already the paramount
power in India, and several successful invasions of Kāsi by the Kosalans
under their kings Vanka, Dabbasena and Kamsa, are referred to. The
final conquest would seem to be ascribed to Kamsa because the epithet
Bārānasīggha (conqueror of Benares) is an established addition to his
name (J.ii.403).

Later, when Ajātasattu succeeded in establishing his sway over Kosala,
with the help of the Licchavis, Kāsī, too, was included in his kingdom.
Even in the Buddha’s time the city of Benares was wealthy and
prosperous and was included in the list of great cities suggested by
Ananda as suitable places for the Parinibbāna of the Buddha (D.ii.146).

Mention is also made of a Bānārasīsetthi (E.g., DhA.i.412; iii. 87,
365) and a Santhāgārasālā (Mote Hall), which was then, however, no
longer being used so much for the transaction of public business as for
public discussions on religious and philosophical questions. E.g.,
J.iv.74; ascetics who came to the city found lodging for the night in
the Potters’ Hall (e.g., DhA.i.39).

Near Benares was a grove of seven sirīsaka trees where the Buddha
preached to the Nāga king Erakapatta (DhA.iii.230), and also the
Kemiyambavana where Udena met Ghotamukha (M.ii.158); on the other side
of the river was Vāsabhagāma, and beyond that another village called
Cundatthila (PvA.168).

The Buddha is several times spoken of as staying in Benares, where he
preached several sermons (E.g., A.i.110f., 279f.; iii.392ff., 399ff.;
S.i.105; v.406; Vin.i.189, 216f., 289) and converted many people
including Yasa, whose home was in Benares (Vin.i.15), and his friends
Vimala, Subāhu, Punnaji and Gavampati, all members of eminent families
(Vin.i.19). Isipatana (q.v.) became a monastic centre in the Buddha’s
time and continued so for long after. From there came twelve thousand
monks under the leadership of Dhammasena to be present at the ceremony
of the foundation of the Mahā Thūpa (Mhv.xxix.31).

In the past, Bārānasī was the birthplace of Kassapa Buddha (Bu.xxv.33).
In the time of Metteyya Buddha, Bārānasī will be known as Ketumatī at
the head of eighty four thousand towns. Sankha will be Cakkavatti
there, but he will renounce the world and will become an arahant under
Metteyya (D.iii.75f). Bārānasī evidently derives its name from the fact
that it lies between the two rivers Barnā and Asi (CAGI.499f).


The Vulture’s peak.

One of the five hills encircling Rājagaha. It was evidently a favourite
resort of those who followed the religious life. (It was so even in
times gone by, see, e.g., J.ii.55).

The Buddha seems to have been attracted by its solitude, and is
mentioned as having visited it on several occasions, sometimes even in
the dark, in drizzling rain, while Māra made unsuccessful attempts to
frighten him (S.i.109).

It was on the slopes of Gijjhakūta, where the Buddha was wandering
about, that Devadatta hurled at him a mighty stone to kill him, but only
a splinter injured his foot (Vin.ii.193, etc.).

It was there also that Jīvaka Komāra-bhacca administered a purgative to the Buddha (AA.i.216).

Several well-known suttas were preached on Gijjhakūta - e.g., the Māgha,
Dhammika and Chalabhijāti Suttas, the discourse on the seven
Aparihānīyadhammā (A.iv.21f.), the Mahāsāropama and Ātānātiya Suttas.
(See also S.ii.155, 185, 190, 241; iii.121; A.ii.73; iii.21; iv.160).

It is said (AA.i.412) that in due course a vihāra was erected on
Gijjhakūta for the Buddha and his monks; here cells were erected for the
use of monks who came from afar, but these cells were so difficult of
access that monks arriving late at Rājagaha would ask
Dabbamallaputta-Tissa to find accommodation for them in Gijjhakūta, in
order to test his capabilities (Vin.ii.76; DhA.iii.321f).

Channa fell ill there, and ultimately committed suicide. (Another monk
is mentioned as having thrown himself down from Gijjhakūta because he
was discontented with his life, Vin.iii.82. According to one account,
AA.i.146f, Vakkali, too, committed suicide by throwing himself from
Gijjhakūta; but see Vakkali).

Moggallāna and Lakkhana are reported to have stayed there, and to have
seen many inhabitants of Rājagaha reborn in Gijjhakūta as petas
(S.ii.254; Vin.iii.104; for Moggallāna see also A.iv.75).

The Mettiya-bhummajakas (Vin.iii.167) and the Chabbaggiyas (ibid., 82) were also in the habit of visiting the hill.

The Gijjhakūta was so called, either because its peak was like a
vulture’s beak, or because it was the resort of many vultures
(SNA.ii.417; AA.i.412; MA.i.291, etc).

Cunningham (CAGI.534), on the authority of both Fa Hien and Hiouen
Thsang, identifies Gijjhakūta with the modern Sailagiri, about two and a
half miles to the north-east of the old town. It is also called
Giriyek Hill. Gijjhakūta is sometimes referred to as Gijjhapabbata
(J.ii.50; iii.255, 484) and as Gijjha., 212.


The last of the twenty-five Buddhas.

No comprehensive account of Gotama Buddha is as yet possible. The
details given in this article are those generally accepted by orthodox
Theravādins and contained in their books, chiefly the Pāli Commentaries,
more especially the Nidānakathā of the Jātaka and the Buddhavamsa

Biographical details are also found in the Mahā Vagga and the Culla
Vagga of the Vinaya Pitaka, the Buddhavamsa and in various scattered
passages of the Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka. References to these are
given where considered useful. Controversy exists with regard to many
of the matters mentioned; for discussion of the varying views regarding
these, reference should be made to the works of Oldenberg, Rhys Davids
(both Professor and Mrs. Rhys Davids), Kern, E. J. Thomas and other
scholars. Further particulars of persons and places mentioned can be
obtained by reference to the articles under the respective names.

He was a Sākiyan (the Sākiyans were evidently subjects of the Kosala
king; the Buddha calls himself a Kosalan, M.ii.124), son of Suddhodana
(all Pāli Commentaries and Sanskrit works represent the Buddha as the
son of a king, descendant of a long line of famous ancestors), chief
ruler of Kapilavatthu, and of Mahā Māyā, Suddhodana’s chief consort, and
he belonged to the Gotama-gotta. Before his conception he was in the
Tusita heaven, waiting for the due time for his birth in his last
existence. Then, having made the “five investigations”
(pañcavilolcanāni) (see Buddha), he took leave of his companions and
descended to earth. (According to the Lalitavistara he appointed the
Bodhisatta Maitreya as king of Tusita in his place). Many wondrous and
marvellous events attended his conception and birth. (Given in the
Acchariyabbhutadhamma Sutta, M.iii.118f; also D.ii.12f. A more detailed
account is found in J.i.47ff; both the Lai. and the Mtu.ii.14ff differ
as to the details given here of the conception and the birth).

The conception takes place on the full-moon day of Āsālha, with the moon
in Uttarāsālha, and Maya has no relations with her husband. She has a
marvellous dream in which the Bodhisatta, as a white elephant, enters
her womb through her side. When the dream is mentioned to the brahmins,
they foretell the birth of a son who will be either a universal monarch
or a Buddha. An earthquake takes place and thirty-two signs appear,
presaging the birth of a great being. The first of these signs is a
boundless, great light, flooding every corner of the ten thousand
worlds; everyone beholds its glory, even the fires in all hells being
extinguished. Ten months after the conception, in the month of Visākha,
Māyā wishes to visit her parents in Devadaha. On the way thither from
Kapilavatthu she passes the beautiful Lumbini grove, in which she
desires to wander; she goes to a great sāla-tree and seizes a branch in
her hand; labour pains start immediately, and, when the courtiers
retire, having drawn a curtain round her, even while standing, she is
delivered of the child. It is the day of the full moon of Visākha; four
Mahābrahmas receive the babe in a golden net, and streams of water
descend from the sky to wash him. The boy stands on the earth, takes
seven steps north-wards and utters his lion-roar, “I am the chief in the
world.” On the same day seven other beings were born: the Bodhi-tree,
Rāhula’s mother (Rāhulamātā, his future wife), the four Treasure-Troves
(described at DA.i.284), his elephant, his horse Kanthaka, his
charioteer Channa, and Kāludāyī. The babe is escorted back to
Kapilavatthu on the day of his birth and his mother dies seven days

The isi Asita (or Kāladevala), meditating in the Himālaya, learns from
the Tāvatimsa gods of the birth of the Buddha, visits Suddhodana the
same day and sees the boy, whom they both worship. Asita weeps for
sorrow that he will not live to see the boy’s Buddhahood, but he
instructs his nephew Nālaka (v.l. Naradatta) to prepare himself for
that great day. On the fifth day after the birth is the ceremony of
name-giving. One hundred and eight brahmins are invited to the festival
at the palace; eight of them - Rāma, Dhaja, Lakkhana, Manti, Kondañña,
Bhoja, Suyāma and Sudatta - are interpreters of bodily marks, and all
except Kondañña prophesy two possibilities for the boy; but Kondañña,
the youngest, says, quite decisively, that he will be a Buddha. The
name given to the boy at this ceremony is not actually mentioned, but
from other passages it is inferred that it was Siddhattha (q.v.).

Among other incidents recounted of the Buddha’s boyhood is that of his
attaining the first jhāna under a jambu-tree. One day he is taken to
the state ploughing of the king where Suddhodana himself, with his
golden plough, ploughs with the farmers. The nurses, attracted by the
festivities, leave the child under a jambu-tree. They return to find
him seated, cross-legged, in a trance, the shadow of the tree remaining
still, in order to protect him. The king is informed and, for the
second time, does reverence to his son. J.i.57f; MA.i.466f; the
incident is alluded to in the Mahā Saccaka Sutta (M.i.246); the
corresponding incident recounted in Mtu. (ii.45f.) takes place in a
park, and the, details differ completely. The Lai. has two versions,
one in prose and one in verse and both resemble the Mtu.; but in these
the Buddha is represented as being much older. The Divy (391) and the
Tibetan versions (e.g., Rockhill, p.22) put the incident very much later
in the Buddha’s life. Other incidents are given in Lai. and Mtu.

The Bodhisatta is reported to have lived in the household for
twenty-nine years a life of great luxury and excessive ease, surrounded
by all imaginable comforts. He owns three palaces - Ramma, Suramma and
Subha - for the three seasons. Mention is made of his luxurious life in
A.i.145; also in M.i.504; further details are given in AA.i.378f.;
J.i.58. See also Mtu.ii.115; cf. Vin.i.15; D.ii.21.

When the Bodhisatta is sixteen years old, Suddhodana sends messengers to
the Sākyans asking that his son be allowed to seek a wife from among
their daughters; but the Sākyans are reluctant to send them, for, they
say, though the young man is hand-some, he knows no art; how, then, can
he support a wife? When this is reported to the prince, he summons an
assembly of the Sākyans and performs various feats, chief of these being
twelve feats with a bow which needs the strength of one thousand men.
(The feats with the bow are described in the Sarabhanga Jātaka, J.v.129f
). The Sākyans are so impressed that each sends him a daughter, the
total number so sent being forty thousand. The Bodhisatta appoints as
his chief wife the daughter of Suppabuddha, who, later, comes to be
called Rāhulamātā. She is known under various names: Bhaddakaccā (or
Kaccānā), Yasodharā. Bimbā, Bimbasundarī and Gopā. For a discussion
see Rāhulamātā.

According to the generally accepted account, Gotama is twenty-nine when
the incidents occur which lead to final renunciation. Following the
prophecy of the eight brahmins, his father had taken every precaution
that his son should see no sign of old age, sickness or death. But the
gods decide that the time is come for the Enlightenment, and instil into
Gotama’s heart a desire to go into the park. On the way, the gods put
before him a man showing signs of extreme age, and the Bodhisatta
returns, filled with desire for renunciation. The king, learning this,
surrounds him with even greater attractions, but on two other days
Gotama goes to the park and the gods put before him a sick man and a
corpse. (According to some accounts, e.g. that of the Dīghabhānakas,
the four omens were all seen on the same day, J.i.59)

On the full-moon day of Āsālha, the day appointed for the Great
Renunciation, Gotama sees a monk and hears from his charioteer praise of
the ascetic life. Feeling very happy, he goes to the park to enjoy
himself. Sakka sends Vissakamma himself to bathe and adorn him, and as
Gotama returns to the city in all his majesty, he receives news of the
birth of his son. Foreseeing in this news a bond, he decides to call
the babe Rāhula (q.v.). Kisā Gotamī (q.v.) sees Gotama on the way to
the palace and, filled with longing for him, sings to him a song
containing the word nibbuta. The significance of the word
(=extinguished, at peace) thrills him, and he sends to Kisā his
priceless gold necklace which she, however, accepts as a token of love.
Gotama enters the palace and sleeps. He wakes in the middle of the
night to find his female musicians sleeping in attitudes which fill him
with disgust and with loathing for the worldly life, and he decides to
leave it. (In some versions the Renunciation takes place seven days
after the birth of Rāhula, J.i.62). He orders Channa to saddle
Kanthaka, and enters his wife’s room for a last look at her and their

He leaves the city on his horse Kanthaka, with Channa clinging to its
tail. The devas muffle the sound of the horse’s hoofs and of his
neighing and open the city gates for Gotama to pass. Māra appears
before Gotama and seeks to stay him with a promise that he shall be
universal monarch within seven days. On his offer being refused, Māra
threatens to shadow him always. Outside the city, at the spot where
later was erected the Kanthakanivattana-cetiya, Gotama turns his horse
round to take a last look at Kapilavatthu. It is said that the earth
actually turned, to make it easy for him to do so. Then, accompanied by
the gods, he rides thirty leagues through three kingdoms - those of the
Sākyans, the Koliyans and the Mallas - and his horse crosses the river
Anomā in one leap. On the other side, he gives all his ornaments to
Channa, and with his sword cuts off hair and beard, throwing them up
into the air, where Sakka takes them and enshrines them in the
Cūlāmani-cetiya in Tāvatimsa. The Brahmā Ghatikāra offers Gotama the
eight requisites of a monk, which he accepts and adopts. He then sends
Channa and Kanthaka back to his father, but Kanthaka, broken-hearted,
dies on the spot and is reborn as Kanthaka-devaputta.

The account given here is taken mainly from the Nidānakathā (J.i.59ff)
and evidently embodies later tradition; cp. D.ii.21ff. From passages
found in the Pitakas (e.g., A.i.145; M.i.163, 240; M.ii.212f.) it would
appear that the events leading up to the Renunciation were not so
dramatic as given here, the process being more gradual. I do not,
however, agree with Thomas (op. cit., 58) that, according to these
accounts, the Bodhisatta left the world when “quite a boy.” I think the
word dahara is used merely to indicate “the prime of youth,” and not
necessarily “boyhood.” The description of the Renunciation in the Lal.
is very much more elaborate and adds numerous incidents, no account of
which is found in the Pāli.

From Anomā the Bodhisatta goes to the mango-grove of Anupiya, and after
spending seven days there walks to Rājagaha (a distance of thirty
leagues) in one day, and there starts his alms rounds. Bimbisāra’s men,
noticing him, report the matter to the king, who sends messengers to
enquire who this ascetic is. The men follow Gotama to the foot of the
Pandavapabbata, where he eats his meal, and they then go and report to
the king. Bimbisāra visits Gotama, and, pleased with his hearing,
offers him the sovereignty. On learning the nature of Gotama’s quest,
he wins from him a promise to visit Rājagaha first after the

This incident is also mentioned in the Pabbajjā Sutta (SN.vv.405-24),
but there it is the king who first sees Gotama. It is significant that,
when asked his identity, Gotama does not say he is a king’s son. The
Pali version of tile sutta contains nothing of Gotama’s promise to visit
Rājagaha, but the Mtu. version (ii.198-200), which places the visit
later, has two verses, one of which contains the request and the other
the acceptance; and the SNA. (ii.385f.), too, mentions the promise and
tells that Bimbisāra was informed of the prophecy concerning Gotama.
There is another version of the Mtu. (ii.117-20) which says that Gotama
went straight to Vaisāli after leaving home, joining Ālāra, and later
visited Uddaka at Rājagaha. Here no mention is made of Bimbisāra. We
are told in the Mhv. (ii.25ff) that Bimbisāra and Gotama (Siddhattha)
had been playmates, Bimbisāra being the younger by five years.
Bimbisāra’s father (Bhātī) and Suddhodana were friends.

Journeying from Rājagaha, Gotama in due course becomes a disciple of
Ālāra-Kālāma. Having learnt and practised all that Ālāra has to teach,
he finds it unsatisfying and joins Uddaka-Rāmaputta; but Uddaka’s
doctrine leaves him still unconvinced and he abandons it. He then goes
to Senānīgāma in Uruvelā and there, during six years, practises all
manner of severe austerities, such as no man had previously undertaken.
Once he falls fainting and a deva informs Suddhodana that Gotama is
dead. But Suddhodana, relying on the prophecy of Kāladevala, refuses to
believe the news. Gotama’s mother, now born as a devaputta in
Tāvatimsa, comes to him to encourage him. At Uruvelā, the Pañcavaggiya
monks are his companions, but now, having realised the folly of extreme
asceticism, he decides to abandon it, and starts again to take normal
food; thereupon the Pañcavaggiyas, disappointed, leave him and go to

Gotama’s desire for normal food is satisfied by an offering brought by
Sujātā to the Ajapāla banyan tree under which he is seated. She had
made a vow to the tree, and her wish having been granted, she takes her
slave-girl, Punnā, and goes to the tree prepared to fulfil her promise.
They take Gotama to be the Tree-god, come in person to accept her
offering of milk-rice; the offering is made in a golden bowl and he
takes it joyfully. Five dreams he had the night before convince Gotama
that he will that day become the Buddha. (The dreams are, recounted in
A.iii.240 and in Mtu.ii.136f). It is the full-moon day of Visākha; he
bathes at Suppatittha in the Nerañjarā, eats the food and launches the
bowl up stream, where it sinks to the abode of the Nāga king, Kāla

Gotama spends the rest of the day in a sāla-grove and, in the evening,
goes to the foot of the Bodhi-tree, accompanied by various divinities;
there the grass-cutter Sotthiya gives him eight handfuls of grass;
these, after investigation, Gotama spreads on the eastern side of the
tree, where it becomes a seat fourteen hands long, on which he sits
cross-legged, determined not to rise before attaining Enlightenment.

J.i.69. The Pitakas know nothing of Sujātā’s offering or of Sotthiya’s
gift. Lal. (334-7 <267-70>) mentions ten girls in all who
provide him with food during his austerities. Divy (392) mentions two,
Nandā and Nandabalā.

Māra, lord of the world of passion, is determined to prevent this
fulfilment, and attacks Gotama with all the strength at his command.
His army extends twelve leagues to the front, right, and left of him, to
the end of the Cakkavāla behind him, and nine leagues into the sky
above him. Māra himself carries numerous weapons and rides the elephant
Girimekhala, one hundred and fifty leagues in height. At the sight of
him all the divinities gathered at the Bodhi-tree to do honour to Gotama
- the great Brahmā, Sakka, the Nāga-king Mahākāla - disappear in a
flash, and Gotama is left alone with the ten pāramī, long practised by
him, as his sole protection. All Māra’s attempts to frighten him by
means of storms and terrifying apparitions fail, and, in the end, Māra
hurls at him the Cakkāvudha. It remains as a canopy poised over Gotama.
The very earth bears witness to Gotama’s fitness to be the Enlightened
One, and Girimekhala kneels before him. Māra is vanquished and flees
headlong with his vast army. The various divinities who had fled at the
approach of Māra now return to Gotama and exult in his triumph.

The whole story of the contest with Māra is, obviously, a mythological
development. It is significant that in the Majjhima passages referred
to earlier there is no mention of Māra, of a temptation, or even of a
Bodhi-tree; but see D.ii.4 and Thomas (op. cit., n.1). According to
the Kālingabodhi Jātaka, which, very probably, embodies an old
tradition, the bodhi-tree was worshipped even in the Buddha’s life-time.
The Māra legend is, however, to be found in the Canonical Padhāna
Sutta of the Sutta Nipāta. This perhaps contains the first suggestion
of the legend. For a discussion see Māra.

Gotama spends that night in deep meditation. In the first watch he
gains remembrance of his former existences; in the middle watch he
attains the divine eye (dibbacakkhu); in the last watch he revolves in
his mind the Chain of Causation (paticcasamuppāda). As he masters this,
the earth trembles and, with the dawn, comes Enlightenment. He is now
the supreme Buddha, and he breaks forth into a paean of joy (udāna).

There is great doubt as to which were these Udāna verses. The
Nidānakathā and the Commentaries generally quote two verses (153, 154)
included in the Dhammapada collection (anekajāti samsāram, etc.). The
Vinaya (i.2) quotes three different verses (as does also DhsA.17), and
says that one verse was repeated at the end of each watch, all the
watches being occupied with meditation on the paticcasamuppāda. Mtu.
(ii.286) gives a completely different Udāna, and in another place
(ii.416) mentions a different verse as the first Udāna. The Tibetan
Vinaya is, again, quite different (Rockhill, p.33). For a discussion
see Thomas, op. cit., 75ff.

For the first week the Buddha remains under the Bodhi-tree, meditating
on the Paticcasamuppāda; the second week he spends at the
Ajapālanigrodha, where the “Huhuhka” Brahmin accosts him (Mara now comes
again and asks the Buddha to die at once; D.ii.112) and where Mara’s
daughters, Tanhā, Aratī and Rāgā, appear before the Buddha and make a
last attempt to shake his resolution (J.i.78; S.i.124; Lal.490 (378));
the third week he spends under the hood of the nāga-king Mucalinda
(Vin.i.3); the fourth week is spent in meditation under the Rājāyatana
tree*; at the end of this period takes place the conversion of Tapussa
and Bhallika. They take refuge in the Buddha and the Dhamma, though the
Buddha does not give them any instruction.

*This is the Vinaya account (Vin.i.1ff); but the Jātaka (i.77ff,
extends this period to seven weeks, the additional weeks being inserted
between the first and second. The Buddha spends one week each at the
Animisa-cetiya, the Ratanacankama and the Ratanaghara, and this last is
where he thinks out the Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Doubts now assail the Buddha as to whether he shall proclaim to the
world his doctrine, so recondite, so hard to understand. The Brahma
Sahampati (according to J.i.81, with the gods of the thousand worlds,
including Sakka, Suyāma, Santusita, Sunimmita, Vasavatti, etc.) appears
before him and assures him there are many prepared to listen to him and
to profit by his teaching, and so entreats him to teach the Dhamma. The
Buddha accedes to his request and, after consideration, decides to
teach the Dhamma first to the Pañcavaggiyas at Isipatana. On the way to
Benares he meets the Ājīvaka Upaka and tells him that he (the Buddha)
is Jina. On his arrival at Isipatana the Pañcavaggiyas are, at first,
reluctant to acknowledge his claim to be the Tathāgata, but they let
themselves be won over and, on the full-moon day of Āsālha, the Buddha
preaches to them the sermon which came to be known as the
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. (Vin.i.4ff; M.i.118ff; cp. D.ii.36ff.
Regarding the claim of this sutta to be the Buddha’s first sermon, see
Thomas, op. cit., p.86; see also Pañcavaggiyā). At the end of the
sermon Kondañña becomes a sotāpanna and they all become monks.

This sermon is followed five days later by the Anattalakkhana Sutta, at
the conclusion of which all five become arahants. The following day the
Buddha meets Yasa, whom he converts. Yasa’s father, who comes seeking
him, is the first to take the threefold formula of Refuge.

Yasa becomes an arahant and is ordained. The Buddha accepts a meal at
his house, and Yasa’s mother and one of his former wives are the first
two lay-women to become the Buddha’s disciples. Then four friends of
Yasa and, afterwards, fifty more, enter the Order and become arahants.
There are now sixty arahants besides the Buddha, and they are sent in
different directions to preach the Dhamma. They return with many
candidates for admission to the Order, and the Buddha, who up till now
had ordained men with the “ehi bhikkhu” formula, now allows the monks
themselves to perform the ceremony of ordination (Vin.i.15ff; J.i.81f).

After spending the rainy season at Benares (about this time Māra twice
tries to tempt the Buddha, once after he had sent the disciples out to
preach and once after the Retreat, S.i.105, 111; Vin.i.21, 22), the
Buddha returns to Senānigāma in Uruvela, on the way converting and
ordaining the thirty Bhaddavaggiyā. At Uruvela, after a long and
protracted exercise of magical powers, consisting in all of three
thousand five hundred miracles, the Buddha wins over the three Kassapa
brothers, the Tebhātika Jatilā, with their thousand followers, and
ordains them. They become arahants after listening to the
Ādittapariyāya Sutta preached at Gayāsīsa; with these followers he
visits Rājagaha, where King Seniya Bimbisāra comes to see him at the
Latthivanuyyāna. The following day the Buddha and the monks visit the
palace, preceded by Sakka disguised as a youth and singing the praises
of the Buddha. After the meal, the king gifts Veluvana to the Buddha
and the Order. The Buddha stays for two months at Rājagaha (BuA.4), and
it is during this time that Sāriputta and Moggallāna join the Order,
through the instrumentality of Assaji (Vin.i.23ff). It was probably
during this year, at the beginning of the rainy season, that the Buddha
visited Vesāli at the request of the Licchavis, conveyed through Mahāli.
The city was suffering from pestilence and famine. The Buddha went,
preached the Ratana Sutta and dispelled all dangers (DhA.iii.436ff).

The number of converts now rapidly increases and the people of Magadha,
alarmed by the prospect of childlessness, widow-hood, etc., blame the
Buddha and his monks. The Buddha, however, refutes their charges

The account of the first twenty years of the Buddha’s ministry is
summarised from various sources, chiefly from Thomas’s admirable account
in his Life and Legend of the Buddha (pp.97ff). The necessary
references are to be found under the names mentioned.

On the full-moon day of Phagguna (February-March) the Buddha,
accompanied by twenty thousand monks, sets out for Kapilavatthu at the
express request of his father, conveyed through Kāludāyī. (This visit
is not mentioned in the Canon; but see Thag.527-36; AA.i.107, 167;
J.i.87; DhA.i.96f; ThagA.i.997ff).

By slow stages he arrives at the city, where he stays at the
Nigrodhārāma, and, in order to convince his proud kinsmen of his power,
performs the Yamakapātihārjya and then relates the Vessantara Jātaka.
The next day, receiving no invitation to a meal, the Buddha begs in the
streets of the city; this deeply grieves Suddhodana, but later, learning
that it is the custom of all Buddhas, he becomes a sotāpanna and
conducts the Buddha and his monks to meal at the palace. There all the
women of the palace, excepting only Rāhulamātā, come and do reverence to
the Buddha. Mahā Pajāpatī becomes a sotāpanna and Suddhodana a
sakadāgāmi. The Buddha visits Rāhulamātā in her own apartments and
utters her praises in the Candakinnara Jātaka. The following day the
Buddha persuades his half-brother, Nanda, to come to the monastery,
where he ordains him and, on the seventh day, he does the same with
Rāhula. This is too great a blow for Suddhodana, and at his request the
Buddha rules that no person shall be ordained without the consent of
his parents. The next day the Buddha preaches to Suddhodana, who
becomes an anāgāmī. During the Buddha’s visit to Kapilavatthu, eighty
thousand Sākyans join the Order, one from each family. With these he
returns to Rājagaha, stopping on the way at Anupiya, where Anuruddha,
Bhaddiya, Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila and Devadatta, together with their
barber, Upāli, visit him and seek ordination.

On his return to Rājagaha the Buddha resides in the Sītavana. (J.i.92,
the story is also told in the Vinaya ii.154, but no date is indicated).
There Sudatta, later known as Anāthapindika, visits him, is converted,
and invites him to Sāvatthi. The Buddha accepts the invitation and
journeys through Vesāli to Sāvatthi, there to pass the rainy season.
(Vin.ii.158; but see BuA.3, where the Buddha is mentioned as having
spent the vassa in Rājagaha). Anāthapindika gifts Jetavana, provided
with every necessity, for the residence of the Buddha and his monks.
Probably to this period belongs the conversion of Migāra, father-in-law
of Visākhā, and the construction, by Visākhā, of the Pubbārāma at
Sāvatthi. The vassa of the fourth year the Buddha spends at Veluvana,
where he converts Uggasena. (DhA.iv.59f). In the fifth year Suddhodana
dies, having realised arahant-ship, and the Buddha flies through the
air, from the Kūtāgārasālā in Vesāli where he was staying, to preach to
his father on his death-bed. According to one account it is at this
time that the quarrel breaks out between the Sākyans and the Koliyans
regarding the irrigation of the river Rohinī. (AA.i.186; SNA.i.357;
ThigA.141; details of the quarrel are given in J.v.412ff). The Buddha
persuades them to make peace, and takes up his abode in the
Nigrodhārāma. Mahā Pajāpatī Gotamī, with other Sākiyan women, visits
him there and asks that women may be allowed to join the Order. Three
times the request is made, three times refused, the Buddha then
returning to Vesāli. The women cut off their hair, don yellow robes and
follow him thither. Ananda intercedes on their behalf and their
request is granted. (Vin.ii.253ff; A.iv.274f.; for details see Mahā

In the sixth year the Buddha again performs the Yamakapātihāriya, this
time at the foot of the Gandamba tree in Sāvatthi. Prior to this, the
Buddha had forbidden any display of magic powers, but makes an exception
in his own case (DhA.iii.199f.; J.iv.265, etc.).

He spends the vassa at Mankulapabbata. After the performance of the
miracle he follows the custom of all Buddhas and ascends to Tāvatimsa in
three strides to preach the Abhidhamma to his mother who is born there
as a deva, and there he keeps the seventh vassa. The multitude,
gathered at Sāvatthi at the Yamakapātihāriya, refuse to go away until
they have seen him. For three months, therefore, Moggallāna expounds to
them the Dhamma, while Culla Anāthapindika provides them with food.
During the preaching of the Abhidhamma, Sāriputta visits the Buddha
daily and learns from him all that has been recited the previous day.
At the end of the vassa, the Buddha descends a jewelled staircase and
comes to earth at Sankassa, thirty leagues from Sāvatthi. (For details
see Devorohana). It was about this time, when the Buddha’s fame was at
its height, that the notorious Ciñcā-mānavikā was persuaded by members
of some hostile sect to bring a vile accusation against the Buddha. A
similar story, told in connection with a paribbājikā named Sundarī,
probably refers to a later date.

The eighth year the Buddha spends in the country of the Bhaggas and
there, while residing in Bhesakalāvana near Sumsumāragiri, he meets
Nakulapitā and his wife, who had been his parents in five hundred former
births (A.A.i.217).

The same is told of another old couple in Sāketa. See the Sāketa
Jātaka. The Buddha evidently stayed again at Sumsumāragiri many years
later. It was during his second visit that Bodhirājakumāra (q.v.)
invited him to a meal at his new palace in order that the Buddha might
consecrate the building by his presence.

In the ninth year the Buddha is at Kosambī. While on a visit to the
Kuru country he is offered in marriage Māgandiyā, the beautiful daughter
of the brahmin Māgandiyā. The refusal of the offer, accompanied by
insulting remarks about physical beauty, arouses the enmity of Māgandiyā
who, thenceforward, cherishes hatred against the Buddha.

SN., pp.163ff; SNA.ii.542ff; DhA.i.199ff Thomas (op. cit., 109) assigns
the Māgandiyā incident to the ninth year. I am not sure if this is
correct, for the Commentaries say the Buddha was then living at

In the tenth year there arises among the monks at Kosambī a schism which
threatens the very existence of the Order. The Buddha, failing in his
attempts to reconcile the disputants, retires in disgust to the
Pārileyyaka forest, passing on his way through Bālakalonakāragāma and
Pācīnavamsadāya. In the forest he is protected and waited upon by a
friendly elephant who has left the herd. The Buddha spends the rainy
season there and returns to Sāvatthi. By this time the Kosambī monks
have recovered their senses and ask the Buddha’s pardon. This is
granted and the dispute settled. (Vin.i.337ff; J.iii.486f; DhA.i.44ff;
but see Ud.iv.5; s.v. Pārileyyaka).

In the eleventh year the Buddha resides at the brahmin village of
Ekanālā and converts Kasi-Bhāradvāja (SN., p.12f.; S.i.172f). The
twelfth year he spends at Verañjā, keeping the vassa there at the
request of the brahmin Verañja. But Verañja forgets his obligations;
there is a famine, and five hundred horse-merchants supply the monks
with food. Moggallāna’s offer to obtain food by means of magic power is
discouraged (Vin.iii.1ff; J.iii.494f; DhA.ii.153). The thirteenth
Retreat is kept at Cālikapabbata, where Meghiya is the Buddha’s personal
attendant (A.iv.354; Ud.iv.1). The fourteenth year is spent at
Sāvatthi, and there Rāhula receives the upasampadā ordination.

In the fifteenth year the Buddha revisits Kapilavatthu, and there his
father-in-law, Suppabuddha, in a drunken fit, refuses to let the Buddha
pass through the streets. Seven days later he is swallowed up by the
earth at the foot of his palace (DhA.iii.44).

The chief event of the sixteenth year, which the Buddha spent at Ālavī,
is the conversion of the yakkha Ālavaka. In the seventeenth year the
Buddha is back at Sāvatthi, but he visits Ālavī again out of compassion
for a poor farmer who becomes a sotāpanna after hearing him preach
(DhA.iii.262ff). He spends the rainy season at Rājagaha. In the next
year he again comes to Ālavī from Jetavana for the sake of a poor
weaver’s daughter. She had heard him preach, three years earlier, on
the desirability of meditating upon death. She alone gave heed to his
admonition and, when the Buddha knows of her imminent death, he journeys
thirty leagues to preach to her and establish her in the sotāpattiphala

The Retreat of this year and also that of the nineteenth are spent at
Cālikapabbata. In the twentieth year takes place the miraculous
conversion of the robber Angulimāla. He becomes an arahant and dies
shortly after. It is in the same year that Ananda is appointed
permanent attendant on the Buddha, a position which he holds to the end
of the Buddha’s life, twenty-five years later (For details see Ananda).
The twentieth Retreat is spent at Rājagaha.

With our present knowledge it is impossible to evolve any kind of
chronology for the remaining twenty-five years of the Buddha’s life.
The Commentaries state that they were spent at Sāvatthi in the
monasteries of Jetavana and Pubbārāma. (E.g., BuA.3; SNA. p.336f, says
that when the Buddha was at Sāvatthi, he spent the day at the
Migāramātupāsāda in the Pubbārāma, and the night at Jetavana or vice

There is a more or less continuous account of the last year of the
Buddha’s life. This is contained in three suttas: the Mahā Parinibbāna,
the Mahā Sudassana and the Janavasabha. These are not separate
discourses but are intimately connected with each other. The only event
prior to the incidents recounted in these suttas, which can be fixed
with any certainty, is the death of the Buddha’s pious patron and
supporter, Bimbisāra, which took place eight years before the Buddha’s
Parinibbāna (Mhv.ii.32). It was at this time that Devadatta tried to
obtain for himself a post of supremacy in the Order, and, failing in
this effort, became the open enemy of the Buddha. Devadatta’s desire to
deprive the Buddha of the leadership of the Sangha seems to have been
conceived by him, according to the Vinaya account (Vin.ii.184), almost
immediately after he joined the Order, and the Buddha was warned of this
by the devaputta Kakudha. This account lends point to the statement
contained especially in the Northern books, that even in their lay life
Devadatta had always been Gotama’s rival.

Enlisting the support of Ajātasattu, he tried in many ways to kill the
Buddha. Royal archers were bribed to shoot the Buddha, but they were
won over by his personality and confessed their intentions. Then
Devadatta hurled a great rock down Gijjhakūta on to the Buddha as he was
walking in the shade of the hill; the hurtling rock was stopped by two
peaks, but splinters struck the Buddha’s foot and caused blood to flow;
he suffered great pain and had to be taken to the Maddakucchi garden,
where his injuries were dressed by the physician Jīvaka (S.i.27). The
monks wished to provide a guard, but the Buddha reminded them that no
man had the power to deprive a Tathāgata of his life.

Devadatta next bribed the royal elephant keepers to let loose a fierce
elephant, Nālāgiri, intoxicated with toddy, on the road along which the
Buddha would go, begging for alms. The Buddha was warned of this but
disregarded the warning, and when the elephant appeared, Ananda, against
the strict orders of the Buddha, threw himself in its path, and only by
an exercise of iddhi-power, including the folding up of the earth,
could the Buddha come ahead of him. As the elephant approached, the
Buddha addressed it, pervading it with his boundless love, until it
became quite gentle. (This incident, with great wealth of detail, is
related in several places - e.g., in J.v.333ff).

These attempts to encompass the Buddha’s death having failed, Devadatta,
with three others, decides to create a schism in the Order and asks the
Buddha that five rules should be laid down, whereby the monks would be
compelled to lead a far more austere life than hitherto. When this
request is refused, Devadatta persuades five hundred recently ordained
monks to leave Vesāli with him and take up their residence at Gayāsīsa,
where he would set up an organisation similar to that of the Buddha.
But, at the Buddha’s request, Sāriputta and Moggallāna visit the
renegade monks; Sāriputta preaches to them and they are persuaded to
return. When Devadatta discovers this, he vomits hot blood and lies ill
for nine months. When his end approaches, he wishes to see the Buddha,
but he dies on the way to Jetavana - whither he is being conveyed in a
litter - and is born in Avīci.

From Gijjhakūta, near Rājagaha, the Buddha starts on his last journey.
Just before his departure he is visited by Vassākāra, and the talk is of
the Vajjians; the Buddha preaches to Vassākāra and the monks on the
conditions that lead to prosperity. The Buddha proceeds with a large
concourse of monks to Ambalatthikā and thence to Nālandā, where
Sāriputta utters his lion-roar (sīhanāda) regarding his faith in the
Buddha. The Buddha then goes to Pātaligāma, where he talks to the
villagers on the evil consequences of immorality and the advantages of
morality. He utters a prophecy regarding the future greatness of
Pātaliputta and then, leaving by the Gotamadvāra, he crosses the river
Ganges at Gotamatittha. He proceeds to Kotigāma and thence to Ñātika,
where he gives to Ananda the formula of the Dhammādāsa, whereby the
rebirth of disciples could be ascertained. From Ñātika he goes to
Vesāli, staying in the park of the courtesan Ambapāli. The following
day he accepts a meal from Ambapāli, refusing a similar offer from the
Licchavis; Ambapāli makes a gift of her park to the Buddha and his
monks. The Buddha journeys on to Beluva, where he spends the rainy
season, his monks remaining in Vesāli. At Beluva he falls dangerously
ill but, with great determination, fights against his sickness. He
tells Ananda that his mission is finished, that when he is dead the
Order must maintain itself, taking the Dhamma alone as its refuge, and
he concludes by propounding the four subjects of mindfulness (D.ii.100).
The next day he begs in Vesāli and, with Ananda, visits the
Cāpāla-cetiya. There he gives to Ananda the opportunity of asking him
to live until the end of the kappa, but Ananda fails to take the hint.
Soon afterwards Māra visits the Buddha and obtains the assurance that
the Buddha’s nibbāna will take place in three months. There is an
earthquake, and, in answer to Ananda’s questions, the Buddha explains to
him the eight causes of earthquakes. This is followed by lists of the
eight assemblies, the eight stages of mastery and the eight stages of
release. The Buddha then repeats to Ananda his conversation with Māra,
and Ananda now makes his request to the Buddha to prolong his life, but
is told that it is now too late; several opportunities he has had, of
which he has failed to avail himself. The monks are assembled in
Vesāli, in the Service Hall, and the Buddha exhorts them to practise the
doctrines he has taught, in order that the religious life may last
long. He then announces his impending death.

According to the Commentaries (e.g., DA.ii.549), after the rainy season
spent at Beluva, the Buddha goes back to Jetavana, where he is visited
by Sāriputta, who is preparing for his own Parinibbāna at Nālakagāma.
From Jetavana the Buddha went to Rājagaha, where Mahā-Moggallāna died.
Thence he proceeded to Ukkācelā, where he spoke in praise of the two
chief disciples. From Ukkācelā he proceeded to Vesāli and thence to
Bhandagāma. Rāhula, too, predeceased the Buddha (DA.ii.549).

The next day, returning from Vesāli, he looks round at the city for the
last time and goes on to Bhandagāma; there he preaches on the four
things the comprehension of which destroys rebirth-noble conduct,
earnestness in meditation, wisdom and freedom.

He then passes through the villages of Hatthigāma, Ambagāma and
Jambugama, and stays at Bhoganagara at the Ananda-cetiya. There he
addresses the monks on the Four Great Authorities (Mahāpadesā), by
reference to which the true doctrine may be determined (Cf.
A.ii.167ff). From Bhoganagara the Buddha goes to Pāvā and stays in the
mango-grove of Cunda, the smith. Cunda serves him with a meal which
includes sūkaramaddava. (There is much dispute concerning this word.
See Thomas, op. cit., 149, n.3). The Buddha alone partakes of the
sūkaramaddava, the remains being buried. This is the Buddha’s last
meal; sharp sickness arises in him, with flow of blood and violent,
deadly pains, but the Buddha controls them and sets out for Kusinārā.
On the way he has to sit down at the foot of a tree. Ananda fetches him
water to drink from the stream Kakutthā, over which five hundred carts
had just passed; but, through the power of the Buddha, the water is
quite clear. Here the Buddha is visited by Pukkusa, the Mallan, who is
converted and presents the Buddha with a pair of gold-coloured robes.
The Buddha puts them on and Ananda notices the marvellous brightness and
clearness of the Buddha’s body. The Buddha tells him that the body of a
Buddha takes on this hue on the night before his Enlightenment and on
the night of his passing away, and that he will die that night at
Kusinārā. He goes to the Kākutthā, bathes and drinks there and rests in
a mango-grove. There he instructs Ananda that steps must be taken to
dispel any remorse that Cunda may feel regarding the meal he gave to the

From Kakutthā the Buddha crosses the Hiraññavatī to the Upavattana
sāla-grove in Kusinārā. There Ananda prepares for him a bed with the
head to the north. All the trees break forth into blossom and flowers
cover the body of the Buddha. Divine mandārava-flowers and sandalwood
powder fall from the sky, and divine music and singing sound through the
air. But the Buddha says that the greater honour to him would be to
follow his teachings.

The gods of the ten thousand world systems assemble to pay their last
homage to the Buddha, and Upavāna, who stands fanning him, is asked to
move away as he obstructs their view.

Ananda asks for instruction on several points, including how the funeral
rites should be performed; he then goes out and abandons himself to a
fit of weeping; the Buddha sends for him, consoles him and speaks his
praises. Ananda tries to persuade the Buddha not to die in a
mud-and-wattle village, such as is Kusinārā, but the Buddha tells him
how it was once the mighty Kusāvatī, capital of Mahāsudassana.

The Mallas of Kusināra are informed that the Buddha will pass away in
the third watch of the night, and they come with their families to pay
their respects. The ascetic Subhadda comes to see the Buddha and is
refused admission by Ananda, but the Buddha, overhearing, calls him in
and converts him. Several minor rules of discipline are delivered,
including the order for the excommunication of Channa. The Buddha
finally asks the assembled monks to speak out any doubts they may have.
All are silent and Ananda expresses his astonishment, but the Buddha
tells him it is natural that the monks should have no doubts. Then,
addressing the monks for the last time, he admonishes them in these
words: “Decay is inherent in all component things; work out your
salvation with diligence.” These were the Buddha’s last words. Passing
backwards and forwards through various stages of trance, he attains
Parinibbāna. There is a great earthquake and terrifying thunder, and
the Brahmā Sahampati, Sakka king of the gods, Anuruddha and Ananda utter
stanzas, each proclaiming the feeling uppermost in his mind. It is the
full-moon day of the month of Visākha and the Buddha is in his
eightieth year.

The next day Ananda informs the Mallas of Kusinārā of the Buddha’s
death, and for seven days they hold a great celebration. On the seventh
day, following Ananda’s instructions, they prepare the body for
cremation, taking it in procession by the eastern gate to the
Makutabandhana shrine, thus altering their proposed route, in order to
satisfy the wishes of the gods, as communicated to them by Anuruddha.
The whole town is covered knee-deep with mandārava-flowers, which fall
from the sky. When, however, four of the chief Mallas try to light the
pyre, their attempt is unsuccessful and they must wait until Mahā
Kassapa, coming with a company of five hundred monks, has saluted it.
The Commentaries (e.g., DA.ii.603) add that Mahā Kassapa greatly desired
that the Buddha’s feet should rest on his head when he worshipped the
pyre. The wish was granted: the feet appeared through the pyre, and
when Kassapa had worshipped them, the pyre closed together. The pyre
burns completely away, leaving no cinders nor soot. Streams of water
fall from the sky to extinguish it and the Mallas pour on it scented
water. They then place a fence of spears around it and continue their
celebrations for seven days. At the end of that period there appear
several claimants for the Buddha’s relics: Ajātasattu, the Licchavis of
Vesāli, the Sākiyans of Kapilavatthu, the Bulis of Allakappa, the
Koliyas of Rāmagāma, a brahmin of Vethadīpa and the Mallas of Pāvā. But
the Mallas of Kusinārā refusing to share the relics with the others,
there is danger of war. Then the brahmin Dona counsels concord and
divides the relics into eight equal parts for the eight claimants. Dona
takes for himself the measuring vessel and the Moriyas of Pipphalivana,
who arrive late, carry off the ashes. Thūpas were built over these
remains and feasts held in honour of the Buddha.

The concluding passage of the Mahā-Parinibbāna Sutta (D.ii.167) states
that the Buddha’s relics were eight measures, seven of which were
honoured in Jambudīpa and the remaining one in the Nāga realm in
Rāmagāma. One tooth was in heaven, one in Gandhāra, a third in Kālinga
(later taken to Ceylon), and a fourth in the Nāga world. Ajātasattu’s
share was deposited in a thūpa and forgotten. It was later discovered
by Asoka (with the help of Sakka) and distributed among his eighty-four
thousand monasteries. Asoka also recorded the finding of all the other
relics except those deposited in Rāmagāma. These were later deposited
in the Mahācetiya at Anurādhapura (Mhv.xxxi.17ff). Other relics are
also mentioned, such as the Buddha’s collar-bone, his alms bowl, etc.
(Mhv.xvii.9ff; Mhv.i.37, etc.).

It is said (E.g., DA.iii.899) that just before the Buddha’s Sāsana
disappears completely from the world, all the relics will gather
together at the Mahācetiya, and travelling from there to Nāgadīpa and
the Ratanacetiya, assemble at the Mahābodhi, together with the relics
from other parts. There they will reform the Buddha’s golden hued body,
emitting the six-coloured aura. The body will then catch fire and
completely disappear, amid the lamentations of the ten thousand

The Ceylon Chronicles (Mhv.i.12ff; Dpv.i.45ff; ii.1ff etc.) record that
the Buddha visited the Island on three separate occasions.

(The Burmese claim that the Buddha visited their land and went to
the Lohitacandana Vihāra, presented by the brothers Mahāpunna and
Cūlapunna of Vānijagāma (Ind. Antiq.xxii., and Sās.36f.).

The first was while he was dwelling at Uruvelā, awaiting the moment for
the conversion of the Tebhātika Jatilas, in the ninth month after the
Enlightenment, on the full-moon day of Phussa (Dec.-Jan.). He came to
the Mahānāga garden, and stood in the air over an assembly of yakkhas
then being held. He struck terror into their hearts and, at his
suggestion, they left Ceylon and went in a body to Giridīpa, hard by.
The Buddha gave a handful of his hair to the deva Mahāsumana of the
Sumanakūta mountain, who built a thūpa which was later enlarged into the
Mahiyangana Thūpa. The Buddha again visited Ceylon in the fifth year,
on the new-moon day of Citta (March-April), to check an imminent battle
between two Nāga chiefs in Nāgadīpa; the combatants were Mahodara and
Cūlodara, uncle and nephew, and the object of the quarrel was a gem-set
throne. The Buddha appeared before them, accompanied by the deva
Samiddhi-Sumana, carrying a Rājayatana tree from Jetavana, settled their
quarrel and received, as a gift, the throne, the cause of the trouble.
He left behind him both the throne and the Rājayatana tree for the
worship of the Nāgās and accepted an invitation from the Nāga king,
Maniakkhika of Kalyāni, to pay another visit to Ceylon. Three years
later Maniakkhika repeated the invitation and the Buddha came to Kalyāni
with five hundred monks, on the second day of Vesākha. Having preached
to the Nāgas, he went to Sumanakūta, on the summit of which mountain he
left the imprint of his foot (Legend has it that other footprints were
left by the Buddha, on the bank of the river Nammadā, on the Saccabaddha
mountain and in Yonakapura). He then stayed at Dīghavāpī and from
there visited Mahāmeghavana, where he consecrated various spots by
virtue of his presence, and proceeded to the site of the later
Silācetiya. From there he returned to Jetavana.

Very little information as to the personality of the Buddha is
available. We are told that he was golden-hued (E.g., Sp.iii.689), that
his voice had the eight qualities of the Brahmassāra (E.g., D.ii.211;
M.ii.166f. It is said that while an ordinary person spoke one word,
Ananda could speak eight; but the Buddha could speak sixteen to the
eight of Ananda, MA.i.283) - fluency, intelligibility, sweetness,
audibility, continuity, distinctness, depth and resonance - that he had a
fascinating personality - he was described by his opponents as
seductive (E.g., M.i.269, 275) - that he was handsome, perfect alike in
complexion and stature and noble of presence (E.g., M.ii.167). He had a
unique reputation as a teacher and trainer of the human heart. He was
endowed with the thirty-two marks of the Mahāpurisa. (For details of
these, see Buddha). There is a legend that Mahā Kassapa, though
slightly shorter, resembled the Buddha in appearance.

Attempts made, however, to measure the Buddha always failed; two such
attempts are generally mentioned - one by a brahmin of Rājagaha and the
other by Rāhu, chief of the Asuras (DA.i.284f). The Buddha had the
physical strength of many millions of elephants (e.g., VibhA.397), but
his strength quickly ebbed away after his last meal and he had to stop
at twenty-five places while travelling three gāvutas from Pāvā to
Kusināra (DA.ii.573).

Mention is often made of the Buddha’s love of quiet and peace, and even
the heretics respected his wishes in this matter, silencing their
discussions at his approach (E.g., D.i.178f; iii.39; even his disciples
had a similar reputation, e.g., D.iii.37). Examples are given of the
Buddha refusing to allow noisy monks to live near him. (E.g., M.i.456;
see also M.ii.122, where a monk was jogged by his neighbour because he
coughed when the Buddha was speaking). He loved solitude and often
spent long periods away from the haunts of men, allowing only one monk
to bring him his meals. E.g., S.v.12, 320; but this very love of
solitude was sometimes brought against him. By intercourse with whom
does he attain to lucidity in wisdom? they asked. His insight, they
said, was ruined by his habit of seclusion (D.iii.38).

According to one account (A.i.181), it was his practice to spend part of
the day in seclusion, but he was always ready to see anyone who
urgently desired his spiritual counsel (E.g., A.iv.438).

In the Mahā Govinda Sutta (D.ii.222f ) Sakka is represented as having
uttered “eight true praises” of the Buddha. Perhaps the most
predominant characteristics of the Buddha were his boundless love and
his eagerness to help all who sought him. His fondness for children is
seen in such stories as those of the two Sopākas, of Kumāra-Kassapa, of
Cūla Panthaka and Dabba-Mallaputta and also of the novices Pandita and
Sukha. His kindness to animals appears, for instance, in the
introductory story of the Maccha Jātaka and his interference on behalf
of Udena’s aged elephant, Bhaddavatikā (q.v.). The Buddha was extremely
devoted to his disciples and encouraged them in every way in their
difficult life. The Theragāthā and the Therīgāthā are full of stories
indicating that he watched, with great care, the spiritual growth and
development of his disciples, understood their problems and was ready
with timely interference to help them to win their aims. Such incidents
as those mentioned in the Bhaddāli Sutta (M.i.445), the introduction to
the Tittha Jātaka and the Kañcakkhandha Jātaka, seem to indicate that
he took a personal and abiding interest in all who came under him. It
was his unvarying custom to greet with a smile all those who visited
him, inquiring after their welfare and thus putting them at their ease
(Vin.i.313). When anyone sought permission to question him, he made no
conditions as to the topic of discussion. This is called
sabbaññupavārana. E.g., M.i.230. When the Buddha himself asked a
question of any of his interrogators, they could not remain silent, but
were bound to answer; a yakkha called Vajirapāni was always present to
frighten those who did not wish to do so (e.g., M.i.231).

The Buddha was not over-anxious to get converts, and when his visitors
declared themselves his followers he would urge them to take time to
consider the matter - e.g., in the case of Acela Kassapa and

When he was staying in a monastery, he paid daily visits to the sick
ward to talk to the inmates and to comfort them (See, e.g.,
Kutāgārasālā). The charming story of Pūtigata-Tissa shows that he
sometimes attended on the sick himself, thus setting an example to his
followers. In return for his devotion, his disciples adored him, but
even among those who immediately surrounded him there were a few who
refused to obey him implicitly - e.g., Lāludāyī, the companions of
Assaji and Punabbasuka, the Chabbaggiyas, the Sattarasavaggiyas and
others, not to mention Devadatta and his associates.

The Buddha seems to have shown a special regard for Sāriputta, Ananda
and Mahā Kassapa among the monks, and for Anāthapindika, Mallikā,
Visakhā, Bimbisāra and Pasenadi among the laity. He seems to have been
secretly amused by the very human qualities of Pasenadi and by his
failure to appreciate the real superiority of Mallikā, his wife.

The Buddha always declared that he was among the happy ones of this
earth, that he was far happier, for instance, than Bimbisāra (E.g.,
M.i.94), and he remained unmoved by opposition or abuse. E.g., in the
case of the organised conspiracy of Māgandiyā (DhA.iv.1f.).

The Milindapañha (p.134) mentions several illnesses of the Buddha: the
injury to his foot has already been referred to; once when the humours
of his body were disturbed Jīvaka administered a purge (Vin.i.279); on
another occasion he suffered from some stomach trouble which was cured
by hot water, or, according to some, by hot gruel (Vin.i.210f.;
Thag.185). The Dhammapada Commentary (DhA.iv.232; ThagA.i.311f)
mentions another disorder of the humours cured by hot water obtained
from the brahmin Devahita, through Upavāna. The Commentaries mention
that he suffered, in his old age, from constant backache, owing to the
severe austerities practised by him during the six years preceding his
Enlightenment, and the unsuitable meals taken during that period were
responsible for a dyspepsia which persisted throughout the rest of his
life (SA.i.200), culminating in his last serious illness of dysentery.
MA.i.465; DA.iii.974; see also D.iii.209, when he was preaching to the
Mallas of Pāvā.

The Apadāna (Ap.i.299f) contains a set of verses called
Pubbakammapiloti; these verses mention certain acts done by the Buddha
in the past, which resulted in his having to suffer in various ways in
his last birth. He was once a drunkard named Munāli and he abused the
Pacceka Buddha Surabhi. On another occasion he was a learned brahmin,
teacher of five hundred pupils. One day, seeing the Pacceka Buddha
Isigana, he spoke ill of him to his pupils, calling him “sensualist.”
The result of this act was the calumny against him by Sundarikā in this

In another life he reviled a disciple of a Buddha, named Nanda; for this
he suffered in hell for twelve thousand years and, in his last life,
was disgraced by Ciñcā. Once, greedy for wealth, he killed his
step-brothers, hurling them down a precipice; as a result, Devadatta
attempted to kill him by hurling down a rock. Once, as a boy, while
playing on the highway, he saw a Pacceka Buddha and threw a stone at
him, and as a result, was shot at by Devadatta’s hired archers. In
another life he was a mahout, and seeing a Pacceka Buddha on the road,
drove his elephant against him; hence the attack by Nālāgiri. Once, as a
king, he sentenced seventy persons to death, the reward for which he
reaped when a splinter pierced his foot. Because once, as a fisherman’s
son, he took delight in watching fish being caught, he suffered from a
grievous headache when Vidūdabha slaughtered the Sākiyans. In the time
of Phussa Buddha he asked the monks to eat barley instead of rice and,
as a result, had to eat barley for three months at Verañja. (According
to the Dhammapada Commentary , the Buddha actually had to starve one day
at Pañcasālā, because none of the inhabitants were willing to give him
alms.) Because he once killed a wrestler, he suffered from cramp in the
back. Once, when a physician, he caused discomfort to a merchant by
purging him, hence his last illness of dysentery. As Jotipāla, he spoke
disparagingly of the Enlightenment of Kassapa Buddha, and in
consequence had to spend six years following various paths before
becoming the Buddha. He was one of the most short-lived Buddhas, but
because of those six years his Sāsana will last longer (Sp.i.190f).

The Buddha was generally addressed by his own disciples as Bhagavā. He
spoke of himself as Tathāgata, while non-Buddhists referred to him as
Gotama or Mahāsamana. Other names used are Mahāmuni, Sākyamuni, Jina,
Sakka (e.g., Sn.vs.345) and Brahma (Sn.vs.91; SnA.ii.418), also Yakkha

The Anguttara Nikāya (A.i.23ff) gives a list of the Buddha’s most
eminent disciples, both among members of the Order and among the laity.
Each one in the list is mentioned as having possessed pre-eminence in
some particular respect.


An open space near Benares, the site of the famous
Migadāya or Deer Park. It was eighteen leagues from Uruvelā, and when
Gotama gave up his austere penances his friends, the Pañcavaggiya monks,
left him and went to Isipatana (J.i.68). After his Enlightenment the
Buddha, leaving Uruvela, joined them in Isipatana, and it was there that
he preached his first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, on the
full-moon day of Āsālha. Vin.i.10f.; on this occasion 80 kotis of
Brahmas and innumerable gods attained the comprehension of the Truth
(Mil.30); (130 kotis says Mil.350). The Lal. (528) gives details of
the stages of this journey. The Buddha, having no money with which to
pay the ferryman, crossed the Ganges through the air. When Bimbisāra
heard of this, he abolished the toll for ascetics.

There, also, the Buddha spent his first rainy season (BuA., p.3).

All the Buddhas preach their first sermon at the Migadāya in Isipatana;
it is one of the four avijahitatthānāni (unchanging spots), the others
being the bodhi-pallanka, the spot at the gate of Sankassa, where the
Buddha first touches the earth on his return from Tāvatimsa, and the
site of the bed in the Gandhakuti in Jetavana (BuA.247; DA.ii.424).

Isipatana is mentioned by the Buddha as one of the four places of pilgrimage which his devout followers should visit (D.ii.141).

Isipatana was so-called because sages, on their way through the air
(from the Himalayas), alight here or start from here on their aerial
flight (isayo ettha nipatanti uppatanti cāti-Isipatanam).

The Migadāya was so-called because deer were allowed to roam about there unmolested.

Pacceka Buddhas, having spent seven days in contemplation in the
Gandhamādana, bathe in the Anotatta Lake and come to the habitations of
men through the air, in search of alms. They descend to earth at
Isipatana (MA.i.387; AA.i.347 adds that sages also held the uposatha at

Sometimes the Pacceka Buddhas come to Isipatana from Nandamūlaka-pabbhāra (MA.ii.1019; PsA.437-8).

Several other incidents connected with the Buddha, besides the preaching
of the first sermon, are mentioned as having taken place in Isipatana.
Here it was that one day at dawn Yasa came to the Buddha and became an
arahant (Vin.i.15f). It was at Isipatana, too, that the rule was passed
prohibiting the use of sandals made of talipot leaves (Vin.i.189). On
another occasion when the Buddha was staying at Isipatana, having gone
there from Rājagaha, he instituted rules forbidding the use of certain
kinds of flesh, including human flesh (Vin.i.216ff.; the rule regarding
human flesh was necessary because Suppiyā made broth out of her own
flesh for a sick monk). Twice, while the Buddha was at Isipatana, Māra
visited him but had to go away discomfited (S.i.105f).

Besides the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta mentioned above, several other
suttas were preached by the Buddha while staying at Isipatana, among

- the Pañca Sutta (S.iii.66f),

- the Rathakāra or Pacetana Sutta (A.i.110f),

- the two Pāsa Suttas (S.i.105f),

- the Samaya Sutta (A.iii.320ff),

- the Katuviya Sutta (A.i.279f.),

- a discourse on the Metteyyapañha of the Parāyana (A.iii.399f), and

- the Dhammadinna Sutta (S.v.406f), preached to the distinguished layman Dhammadinna, who came to see the Buddha.

Some of the most eminent members of the Sangha seem to have resided at
Isipatana from time to time; among recorded conversations at Isipatana
are several between Sāriputta and Mahākotthita
(S.ii.112f;iii.167f;iv.162f; 384ff), and one between Mahākotthita and
Citta-Hatthisāriputta (A.iii.392f).

Mention is made, too, of a discourse in which several monks staying at
Isipatana tried to help Channa in his difficulties (S.iii.132f).

According to the Mahāvamsa, there was a large community of monks at
Isipatana in the second century B.C. For, we are told that at the
foundation ceremony of the Mahā Thūpa in Anurādhapura, twelve thousand
monks were present from Isipatana led by the Elder Dhammasena

Hiouen Thsang (Beal: Records of the Western World, ii.45ff ) found, at
Isipatana, fifteen hundred monks studying the Hīnayāna. In the
enclosure of the Sanghārāma was a vihāra about two hundred feet high,
strongly built, its roof surmounted by a golden figure of the mango. In
the centre of the vihāra was a life-size statue of the Buddha turning
the wheel of the Law. To the south-west were the remains of a stone
stupa built by Asoka. The Divy. (389-94) mentions Asoka as intimating
to Upagupta his desire to visit the places connected with the Buddha’s
activities, and to erect thupas there. Thus he visited Lumbinī,
Bodhimūla, Isipatana, Migadāya and Kusinagara; this is confirmed by
Asoka’s lithic records, e.g. Rock Edict, viii.

In front of it was a stone pillar to mark the spot where the Buddha
preached his first sermon. Near by was another stupa on the site where
the Pañcavaggiyas spent their time in meditation before the Buddha’s
arrival, and another where five hundred Pacceka Buddhas entered Nibbāna.
Close to it was another building where the future Buddha Metteyya
received assurance of his becoming a Buddha.

Hiouen Thsang quotes the Nigrodhamiga Jātaka (J.i.145ff) to account for
the origin of the Migadāya. According to him the Deer Park was the
forest gifted by the king of Benares of the Jātaka, where the deer might
wander unmolested.

According to the Udapāna Jātaka (J.ii.354ff ) there was a very ancient
well near Isipatana which, in the Buddha’s time, was used by the monks
living there.

In past ages Isipatana sometimes retained its own name, E.g., in the
time of Phussa Buddha (Bu.xix.18), Dhammadassī (BuA.182) and Kassapa
(BuA.218). Kassapa was born there (ibid., 217).

But more often Isipatana was known by different names (for these names
see under those of the different Buddhas). Thus in Vipassī’s time it
was known as Khema-uyyāna. It is the custom for all Buddhas to go
through the air to Isipatana to preach their first sermon. Gotama,
however, walked all the way, eighteen leagues, because he knew that by
so doing he would meet Upaka, the Ajivaka, to whom he could be of
service (DA.ii.471).

Isipatana is identified with the modern Saranath, six miles from
Benares. Cunningham (Arch. Reports, i. p. 107) found the Migadāya
represented by a fine wood, covering an area of about half a mile,
extending from the great tomb of Dhammek on the north to the Chaukundi
mound on the south.


A prince. Owner of Jetavana, which he sold to
Anāthapindika for eighteen crores. He then spent all that money on the
erection of a gateway at the entrance, which he decorated with much
grandeur (See Jetavana). Jeta is generally referred to as Jeta-Kumāra.
According to the northern records he was the son of Pasenadi by the
Ksatriya princess Varsikā (Rockhill: 48, n.1). He was killed by his
half-brother Vidudabha for refusing to help him in his slaughter of the
Sākyans (Ibid., 121). Several explanations (MA.i.50; UdA.56; KhpA.111,
etc.) are given of his name: he was so-called either (1) because he
conquered his enemies, or (2) because he was born at a time when the
king had overcome his enemies, or (3) because such a name was considered
auspicious for him (mangalakāmyatāya).


A park in Sāvatthi, in which was built the
Anāthapindikārāma. When the Buddha accepted Anāthapindika’s invitation
to visit Sāvatthi the latter, seeking a suitable place for the Buddha’s
residence, discovered this park belonging to Jetakumāra (MA.i.471 says
it was in the south of Sāvatthi). When he asked to be allowed to buy
it, Jeta’s reply was: “Not even if you could cover the whole place with
money.” Anāthapindika said that he would buy it at that price, and when
Jeta answered that he had had no intention of making a bargain, the
matter was taken before the Lords of Justice, who decided that if the
price mentioned were paid, Anāthapindika had the right of purchase.
Anāthapindika had gold brought down in carts and covered Jetavana with
pieces laid side by side. (This incident is illustrated in a bas-relief
at the Bharhut Tope; see Cunningham - the Stūpa of Bharhut, Pl.lvii.,
pp.84-6). The money brought in the first journey was found insufficient
to cover one small spot near the gateway. So Anāthapindika sent his
servants back for more, but Jeta, inspired by Anāthapindika’s
earnestness, asked to be allowed to give this spot. Anāthapindika
agreed and Jeta erected there a gateway, with a room over it.
Anāthapindika built in the grounds dwelling rooms, retiring rooms, store
rooms and service halls, halls with fireplaces, closets, cloisters,
halls for exercise, wells, bathrooms, ponds, open and roofed sheds, etc.

It is said (MA.i.50; UdA.56f) that Anāthapindika paid eighteen crores
for the purchase of the site, all of which Jeta spent in the
construction of the gateway gifted by him. (The gateway was evidently
an imposing structure; see J.ii.216).

Jeta gave, besides, many valuable trees for timber. Anāthapindika
himself spent fifty-four crores in connection with the purchase of the
park and the buildings erected in it.

The ceremony of dedication was one of great splendour. Not only
Anāthapindika himself, but his whole family took part: his son with five
hundred other youths, his wife with five hundred other noble women, and
his daughters Mahā Subhaddā and Cūla Subhaddā with five hundred other
maidens. Anāthapindika was attended by five hundred bankers. The
festivities in connection with the dedication lasted for nine months

Some of the chief buildings attached to the Jetavana are mentioned in
the books by special names, viz., Mahāgandhakuti, Kaverimandalamāla,
Kosambakuti and Candanamāla. SNA.ii.403. Other buildings are also
mentioned - e.g., the Ambalakotthaka-āsanasālā (J.ii.246). According to
Tibetan sources the vihāra was built according to a plan sent by the
devas of Tusita and contained sixty large halls and sixty small. The
Dulva also gives details of the decorative scheme of the vihāra
(Rockhill: op. cit.48 and n.2).

All these were built by Anāthapindika; there was another large building
erected by Pasenadi and called the Salalaghara (DA.ii.407). Over the
gateway lived a guardian deity to prevent all evildoers from entering
(SA.i.239). Just outside the monastery was a rājayatana-tree, the
residence of the god Samiddhisumana (Mhv.i.52f; MT 105; but see
DhA.i.41, where the guardian of the gateway is called Sumana).

In the grounds there seems to have been a large pond which came to be
called the Jetavanapokkharanī. (AA.i.264; here the Buddha often bathed
(J.i.329ff.). Is this the Pubbakotthaka referred to at A.iii.345? But
see S.v.220; it was near this pond that Devadatta was swallowed up in
Avīci (J.iv.158)).

The grounds themselves were thickly covered with trees, giving the
appearance of a wooded grove (arañña) (Sp.iii.532). On the outskirts of
the monastery was a mango-grove (J.iii.137). In front of the gateway
was the Bodhi-tree planted by Anāthapindika, which came later to be
called the Anandabodhi (q.v.) (J.iv.228f). Not far from the gateway was
a cave which became famous as the Kapallapūvapabbhāra on account of an
incident connected with Macchariya-Kosiya (J.i.348).

Near Jetavana was evidently a monastery of the heretics where
Ciñcāmānavikā spent her nights while hatching her conspiracy against the
Buddha. (DhA.iii.179; behind Jetavana was a spot where the Ajivakas
practised their austerities (J.i.493). Once the heretics bribed
Pasenadi to let them make a rival settlement behind Jetavana, but the
Buddha frustrated their plans (J.ii.170)).

There seems to have been a playground just outside Jetavana used by the
children of the neighbourhood, who, when thirsty, would go into Jetavana
to drink (DhA.iii.492). The high road to Sāvatthi passed by the edge
of Jetavana, and travellers would enter the park to rest and refresh
themselves (J.ii.203, 341; see also vi.70, where two roads are

According to the Divyāvadāna (Dvy.395f), the thūpas of Sāriputta and
Moggallāna were in the grounds of Jetavana and existed until the time of
Asoka. Both Fa Hien (Giles: p.33ff) and Houien Thsang (Beal.ii.7ff)
give descriptions of other incidents connected with the Buddha, which
took place in the neighbourhood of Jetavana - e.g., the murder of
Sundarikā, the calumny of Ciñcā, Devadatta’s attempt to poison the
Buddha, etc.

The space covered by the four bedposts of the Buddha’s Gandhakuti in
Jetavana is one of the four avijahitatthānāni; all Buddhas possess the
same, though the size of the actual vihāra differs in the case of the
various Buddhas. For Vipassī Buddha, the setthi Punabbasumitta built a
monastery extending for a whole league, while for Sikhī, the setthi
Sirivaddha made one covering three gavutas. The Sanghārāma built by
Sotthiya for Vessabhū was half a league in extent, while that erected by
Accuta for Kakusandha covered only one gāvuta. Konagamana’s monastery,
built by the setthi Ugga, extended for half a gāvuta, while Kassapa’s
built by Sumangala covered sixteen karīsas. Anāthapindika’s monastery
covered a space of eighteen karīsas (BuA.2, 47; J.i.94; DA.ii.424).

The Buddha spent nineteen rainy seasons in Jetavana (DhA.i.3; BuA.3;
AA.i.314). It is said that after the Migāramātupāsāda came into being,
the Buddha would dwell alternately in Jetavana and Migāramātupāsāda,
often spending the day in one and the night in the other (SNA.i.336).

According to a description given by Fa Hien (Giles, pp.31, 33), the
vihāra was originally in seven sections (storeys?) and was filled with
all kinds of offerings, embroidered banners, canopies, etc., and the
lamps burnt from dusk to dawn.

One day a rat, holding in its mouth a lamp wick, set fire to the banners
and canopies, and all the seven sections were entirely destroyed. The
vihāra was later rebuilt in two sections. There were two main
entrances, one on the east, one on the west, and Fa Hsien found thūpas
erected at all the places connected with the Buddha, each with its name

The vihāra is almost always referred to as Jetavane Anāthapindikassa
Ārāma. The Commentaries (MA.ii.50; UdA.56f, etc.) say that this was
deliberate (at the Buddha’s own suggestion pp.81-131; Beal: op. cit.,
ii.5 and Rockhill: p.49), in order that the names of both earlier and
later owners might be recorded and that people might be reminded of two
men, both very generous in the cause of the Religion, so that others
might follow their example. The vihāra is sometimes referred to as
Jetārāma (E.g., Ap.i.400).

In the district of Saheth-Mabeth, with which the region of Sāvatthi is
identified, Saheth is considered to be Jetavana (Arch. Survey of India,
1907-8, pp.81-131).


A township which formed the eastern boundary of the
Majjhimadesa. Beyond it was Mahāsālā (Vin.i.197; DA.i.173; MA.i.316,
etc.; AA.i.55, etc.; J.i.49; Mbv.12). In the Buddha’s time it was a
prosperous place where provisions could easily be obtained
(dabbasambhārasulabhā) (J.iv.310). Once when the Buddha was staying in
the Veluvana at Kajangala, the lay followers there heard a sermon from
the Buddha and went to the nun Kajangalā to have it explained in detail
(A.v.54f). On another occasion the Buddha stayed in the Mukheluvana and
was visited there by Uttara, the disciple of Pārāsariya. Their
conversation is recorded in the Indriyabhāvānā Sutta (M.iii.298ff). In
the Milindapañha (p.10), Kajangala is described as a brahmin village and
is given as the place of Nāgasena’s birth. In the Kapota Jātaka
mention is made of Kajangala, and the scholiast (J.iii.226-7) explains
that it may be the same as Benares. According to the scholiast of the
Bhisa Jātaka (J.iv.311), the tree-spirit mentioned in that story was the
chief resident monk in an old monastery in Kajangala, which monastery
he repaired with difficulty during the time of Kassapa Buddha.

Kajangala is identified with the Kie-chu-hoh-khi-lo of Hiouen Thsang,
which he describes as a district about two thousand li in circumference.
(Beal, Bud. Records, ii.193, and n.; see also Cunningham, A.G.I.723).
It may also be identical with the town Pundavardhana mentioned in the
Divyāvadāna (p.21f). The Avadānasataka (ii.41) calls it Kacangalā.


The name, probably, of a gotta or family. Mention is
made of a nigama belonging to them in Kosala, which was called
Kesaputta. The sermon preached by the Buddha on his visit to Kesaputta
is justly famous (A.i.188ff). The Kālāmas were Khattiyas (AA.i.418).
Among members of this family specially mentioned by name are
Bharandu-Kālāma, who was once a co-disciple of the Bodhisatta, and
Alāra-Kālāma, the teacher of Gotama before his Enlightenment.


A township of the Kurūs. The Buddha, during the course
of his wanderings, stayed there several times; the exact place of his
residence is, however, mentioned only once, namely the fire-hut of a
brahmin of the Bhāradvāja-gotta, where a grass mat was spread for him by
the brahmin. It was on this occasion, according to the Māgandiya Sutta
(M.i.501), that, after a long discussion, Māgandiya was converted.

Several important discourses were preached at Kammāsadamma, among them being:

the Mahānidāna Sutta (D.ii.55; S.ii.92)

the Mahāsatipatthāna Sutta (D.ii.290; M.i.55)

the Ānañjasappāya Sutta (M.ii.26)

The Samyutta Nikāya (S.ii.107f) contains a discourse on handling
experiences by way of casual relations, and the Anguttara (A.v.29f ) a
discourse on the ten noble states (ariyavāsā), both preached at

Buddhaghosa (SA.ii.89) says that the people there were full of wisdom
and their food was nutritious; it was therefore a compliment to their
intellectual calibre that the Buddha should have preached these suttas
to them.

Even in Buddhaghosa’s day the name of the township had two different
spellings, and two etymologies are suggested for the names (DA.ii.483).
The place was called Kammāsadamma because it was here that the
man-eating ogre, Kammāsapāda was tamed and civilized by the Bodhisatta.
(Kammāso ettha damito ti, Kammāsadamam-Kammāso ti Kammāsapādo porisādo

The spelling Kammāsadhamma is explained on the ground that the people of
the Kuru country had a code of honour called the Kuruvattadhamma; it
was here that Kammāsa (already referred to) was converted and made to
accept this code, hence the name of the township. (Kururatthavāsīnam
kira kuruvattadhammo, tasmim Kanamāso jāto, tasmā tam thānam “Kammāso
ettha dhamme jāto” ti Kammāsadhammam ti vuccati.)

According to the Jātakas, there are two places of the same name, called
Cūlakammāsadamma and Mahākammāsadamma respectively, to distinguish one
from the other. Mahākammāsadamma, which was evidently the original
place, was founded on the spot where the porisāda of the Mahāsutasoma
Jātaka was tamed (J.v.411), while Cūlakammāsadamma was the name given to
the place where Jayaddisa showed his prowess by his spiritual victory
over the ogre in the Jayaddisa Jātaka (J.v.35f).

In the Divyāvadāna (pp.515f), the place is called Kammāsadamya. It was
the residence of the nuns Nanduttarā and Mittākālikā (ThigA.87, 89).


A township of the Kosalans and the residence of the
Kālāmas. The Buddha once stayed there, on which occasion he preached
the Kesaputtiya Sutta.


A country inhabited by the Kosalā, to the north-west of
Magadha and next to Kāsī. It is mentioned second in the list of sixteen
Mahājanapadas (E.g., A.i.213; iv.252, etc.). In the Buddha’s time it
was a powerful kingdom ruled over by Pasenadi, who was succeeded by his
son Vidūdabha. By this time Kāsī was under the subjection of Kosala,
for we find that when Bimbisāra, king of Magadha, married Kosaladevī,
daughter of Mahākosala and sister of Pasenadi, a village in Kāsī was
given as part of the dowry (J.ii.237; iv.342f). Various Jātakas
indicate that the struggle between Kāsi and Kosala had been very
prolonged (See, e.g., J.ii.21f; iii.115f; 211f; v.316, 425).

Sometimes the Kāsi king would attack Kosala, capture the king and rule
over the country. At others the Kosala king would invade Kāsi and annex
it to his own territory. Several Kosala kings who succeeded in doing
this, are mentioned by name - e.g., Dabbasena (J.iii.13), Dīghāvu
(J.iii.211f), Vanka (J.iii.168) and Kamsa; the last being given the
special title of “Bāranāsiggāha,” (J.ii.403; v.112) probably in
recognition of the fact that he completed the conquest of Kāsi. Other
kings of Kosala who came in conflict with Benares in one way or another
are mentioned - e.g., Dīghiti (J.iii.211f; Vin.i.342f), Mallika
(J.ii.3), and Chatta (J.iii.116).

Sometimes the kings of the two countries entered into matrimonial
alliances (e.g., J.iii.407). With the capture of Kāsi the power of
Kosala increased rapidly, until a struggle between this country and
Magadha became inevitable. Bimbisāra’s marriage was probably a
political alliance, but it only served to postpone the evil day. Quite
soon after his death there were many fierce fights between Ajātasattu,
his successor, and Pasenadi, these fights bringing varying fortunes to
the combatants. Once Ajātasattu was captured alive, but Pasenadi spared
his life and gave him his daughter, Vajirā, in marriage and for a time
all went well.

Later, however, after his conquest of the Licchavis, Ajātasattu seems to
have succeeded in establishing his sway in Kosala. (See Vincent Smith,
op. cit., 32f). In the sixth century B.C. the Sākyan territory of
Kapilavatthu was subject to Kosala. The Sutta Nipāta (vs.405) speaks of
the Buddha’s birthplace as belonging to the Kosalans; see also A.i.276,
where Kapilavatthu is mentioned as being in Kosala. Elsewhere
(M.ii.124) Pasenadi is reported as saying, “Bhagavā pi Kosalako, aham pi

At the time of the Buddha Sāvatthi was the capital of Kosala. Next in
importance was Saketa, which, in ancient days, had sometimes been the
capital (J.iii.270; Mtu.i.348). There was also Ayojjhā, on the banks of
the Sarayu, which, judging from the Rāmāyana, must once have been the
chief city; but in the sixth century B.C. it was quite unimportant.

The river Sarayu divided Kosala into two parts, Uttara Kosala and Dakkhina Kosala (Law: Geog., p.6).

Other Kosala rivers mentioned in the books are the Aciravatī (D.i.235)
and the Sundarikā (S.i.167; SN. p.97; but see M.i.39, where the river
is called Bāhukā).

The Buddha spent the greater part of his time in Kosala, either in
Sāvatthi or in touring in the various parts of the country, and many of
the Vinaya rules were formulated in Kosala. (See Vinaya Index, s.v.
Kosala). It is said (SA.i.221) that alms were plentiful in Kosala,
though, evidently (J.i.329), famines, due to drought, were not unknown.
Yet, though woodland tracts were numerous (see, e.g., SA.i.225) where
monks could meditate in solitude, the number of monks actually found in
Kosala was not large (VT.i.226). Bāvarī himself was a native of Kosala
(SN.v.976), yet he preferred to have his hermitage in Dakkhināpatha.

After the Buddha’s death, his unnaloma was deposited in a thūpa in
Kosala (Bu.xxviii.9). It is said that the measures used in Kosala were
larger than those of Magadha - thus one Kosala pattha was equal to four
Magadha patthas (SNA.ii.476).

Kosala is often mentioned in combination with Kāsi in the compound
Kāsi-Kosala; Pasenadi was king of Kāsi-Kosala (e.g., A.v.59) (cf.
Ariga-Magadha). See also Pasenadi.


The capital of the Vatsas or Vamsas (J.iv.28; vi.236).
In the time of the Buddha its king was Parantapa, and after him reigned
his son Udena. (MA.ii.740f; DhA.i.164f). Kosambī was evidently a city
of great importance at the time of the Buddha for we find Ananda
mentioning it as one of the places suitable for the Buddha’s Parinibbāna
(D.ii.146,169). It was also the most important halt for traffic coming
to Kosala and Magadha from the south and the west. (See, e.g.,

The city was thirty leagues by river from Benares. (Thus we are told
that the fish which swallowed Bakkula travelled thirty leagues through
the Yamunā, from Kosambī to Benares, AA.i.170; PsA.491). The usual
route from Rājagaha to Kosambī was up the river (this was the route
taken by Ananda when he went with five hundred others to inflict the
higher punishment on Channa, Vin.ii.290), though there seems to have
been a land route passing through Anupiya and Kosambī to Rājagaha. (See
Vin.ii.184f). In the Sutta Nipāta (vv.1010-13) the whole route is
given from Mahissati to Rājagaha, passing through Kosambī, the
halting-places mentioned being Ujjeni, Gonaddha, Vedisa, Vanasavhya,
Kosambī, Sāketa, Sāvatthi, Setavyā, Kapilavatthu, Kusinārā, Pāvā,
Bhoganagara and Vesāli.

Near Kosambī, by the river, was Udena’s park, the Udakavana, where
Ananda and Pindola-Bhāradvāja preached to the women of Udena’s palace on
two different occasions (Vin.ii.290f; SNA.ii.514; J.iv.375). The
Buddha is mentioned as having once stayed in the Simsapāvana in Kosambī
(S.v.437). Mahā Kaccāna lived in a woodland near Kosambī after the
holding of the First Council (PvA.141).

Already in the Buddha’s time there were four establishments of the Order
in Kosambī - the Kukkutārāma, the Ghositārāma, the Pāvārika-ambavana
(these being given by three of the most eminent citizens of Kosambī,
named respectively, Kukkuta, Ghosita and Pāvārika), and the
Badarikārāma. The Buddha visited Kosambī on several occasions, stopping
at one or other of these residences, and several discourses delivered
during these visits are recorded in the books. (Thomas, op. cit., 115,
n.2, doubts the authenticity of the stories connected with the Buddha’s
visits to Kosambī, holding that these stories are of later invention).

The Buddha spent his ninth rainy season at Kosambī, and it was on his
way there on this occasion that he made a detour to Kammāssadamma and
was offered in marriage Māgandiyā, daughter of the brahmin Māgandiya.
The circumstances are narrated in connection with the Māgandiya Sutta.
Māgandiyā took the Buddha’s refusal as an insult to herself, and, after
her marriage to King Udena, tried in various ways to take revenge on the
Buddha, and also on Udena’s wife Sāmavatī, who had been the Buddha’s
follower. (DhA.i.199ff; iii.193ff; iv.1ff; Ud.vii.10).

A great schism once arose among the monks in Kosambī. Some monks
charged one of their colleagues with having committed an offence, but he
refused to acknowledge the charge and, being himself learned in the
Vinaya, argued his case and pleaded that the charge be dismissed. The
rules were complicated; on the one hand, the monk had broken a rule and
was treated as an offender, but on the other, he should not have been so
treated if he could not see that he had done wrong. The monk was
eventually excommunicated, and this brought about a great dissension.
When the matter was reported to the Buddha, he admonished the partisans
of both sides and urged them to give up their differences, but they paid
no heed, and even blows were exchanged. The people of Kosambī,
becoming angry at the monks’ behaviour, the quarrel grew apace. The
Buddha once more counselled concord, relating to the monks the story of
King Dīghiti of Kosala, but his efforts at reconciliation were of no
avail, one of the monks actually asking him to leave them to settle
their differences without his interference. In disgust the Buddha left
Kosambī and, journeying through Bālakalonakāragāma and the
Pācīnavamsadaya, retired alone to keep retreat in the Pārileyyaka
forest. In the meantime the monks of both parties repented, partly
owing to the pressure exerted by their lay followers in Kosambī, and,
coming to the Buddha at Sāvatthi, they asked his pardon and settled
their dispute. (Vin.i.337-57; J.iii.486ff (cp.iii.211ff); DhA.i.44ff;
SA.ii.222f; the story of the Buddha going into the forest is given in
Ud.iv.5. and in S.iii.94, but the reason given in these texts is that he
found Kosambī uncomfortable owing to the vast number of monks, lay
people and heretics. But see UdA.248f, and SA.ii.222f).

The Commentaries give two reasons for the name Kosambī. The more
favoured is (E.g., UdA.248; SNA.300; MA.i.535. Epic tradition ascribes
the foundation of Kosambī to a Cedi prince, while the origin of the
Vatsa people is traced to a king of Kāsī, see PHAI.83, 84) that the city
was so called because it was founded in or near the site of the
hermitage once occupied by the sage Kusumba (v.l. Kusumbha). Another
explanation is (e.g., MA i.539; PsA.413) that large and stately
margossa-trees (Kosammarukkhā) grew in great numbers in and around the

Bakkula was the son of a banker in Kosambī. (MA.ii.929; AA.i.170). In
the Buddha’s time there lived near the ferry at Kosambī a powerful
Nāga-king, the reincarnation of a former ship’s captain. The Nāga was
converted by Sāgata, who thereby won great fame. (AA.i.179; but see
J.i.360, where the incident is given as happening at Bhaddavatikā).
Rujā was born in a banker’s family in Kosambī (
Citta-pandita was also born there (J.iv.392). A king, by name Kosambaka
(q.v.), once ruled there.

During the time of the Vajjian heresy, when the Vajjian monks of Vesāli
wished to excommunicate Yasa Kākandakaputta, he went by air to Kosambī,
and from there sent messengers to the orthodox monks in the different
centres (Vin.ii.298; Mhv.iv.17).

It was at Kosambī that the Buddha promulgated a rule forbidding the use of intoxicants by monks (Vin.ii.307).

Kosambī is mentioned in the Samyutta Nikāya (S.iv.179; but see AA.i.170;
MA.ii.929; PsA.491, all of which indicate that the city was on the
Yamunā) as being “Gangāya nadiyā tīre.” This is either an error, or here
the name Gangā refers not to the Ganges but to the Yamunī. Kosambī is
identified with the two villages of Kosam on the Jumna, about ninety
miles west of Allahabad. (CAGI.448f; Vincent Smith places it further
south, J.R.A.S.1898, 503ff).


A country, one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas (D.ii.200;
A.i.213 etc.). Frequent references to it are found in the Pāli Canon.
It is said that Kuru was originally the name of the chieftains
(rājakumārā) of the country and that their territory was later named
after them. Buddhaghosa records a tradition (DA.ii.481f; MA.i.184 etc.)
which states that, when Mandhātā returned to Jambudīpa from his sojourn
in the four Mahādīpas and in the devalokas, there were in his retinue a
large number of the people of Uttarakuru. They settled down in
Jambudīpa, and their settlement was known as Kururattha. It had many
towns and villages.

The country seems to have had very little political influence in the
Buddha’s time, though, in the past, Pañcāla, Kuru and Kekaka were
evidently three of the most powerful kingdoms (See, e.g., J.ii.214).
According to the Jātakas (E.g., J.v.57, 484; vi.255. Also Mtu.i.34;
ii.419), the kingdom of Kuru was three hundred leagues in extent and its
capital, Indapatta, seven leagues in circumference. The ruling dynasty
at Indapatta belonged to the Yudhitthila-gotta (J.iii.400; iv.361).
Among the kings of the past, Dhanañjaya Koravya is mentioned several
times (J.ii.366; iii.400; iv.450; vi.260 etc.) and reference is also
made to a king called Koravya (J.iv.361; v.457) whose son was the
Bodhisatta Sutasoma. During the Buddha’s time, also, the chieftain of
Kuru was called Koravya, and his discussion with the Elder Ratthapāla,
who was himself the scion of a noble family of the Kurus, is recounted
in the Ratthapāla Sutta (M.ii.65ff). Perhaps at one time the Kuru
kingdom extended as far as Uttarapañcāla, for in the Somanassa Jātaka
(J.iv.444), Uttarapañcāla is mentioned as a town in the Kururattha, with
Renu as its king.

Koravya had a park called Migācīra where Ratthapāla took up his
residence when he visited his parents (MA.ii.725). The people of Kuru
had a reputation for deep wisdom and good health, and this reputation is
mentioned (MA.i.184f; AA.ii.820; they were also probably reputed to be
virtuous; see the Kurudhamma Jātaka) as the reason for the Buddha having
delivered some of his most profound discourses to the Kurus, for
example, the Mahānidāna, and the Mahāsatipatthāna Suttas. Among other
discourses delivered in the Kuru country are the Māgandiya Sutta, the
Anañjasappāya Sutta, the Sammosa Sutta and the Ariyavasā Sutta. All
these were preached at Kammāssadhamma, which is described as a nigama of
the Kurūs, where the Buddha resided from time to time. Another town of
the Kurūs, which we find mentioned, is Thullakotthika, the birthplace
of Ratthapāla, and here the Buddha stayed during a tour (M.ii.54;
ThagA.ii.30). Udena’s queen, Māgandiyā, came from Kuru (DhA.i.199), and
Aggidatta, chaplain to the Kosala king, lived on the boundary between
Kuru and Ariga and Magadha, honoured by the inhabitants of all three
kingdoms (DhA.iii.242).

The Kuru country is generally identified as the district around
Thānesar, with its capital Indapatta, near the modern Delhi (CAGI.379f).
See also Uttarakuru.


A Sākiyan rājā, son of Amitodana; he was elder brother of
Anuruddha and cousin of the Buddha. When the Sākiyan families of
Kapilavatthu sent their representatives to join the Order of their
distinguished kinsman, Mahānāma allowed Anuruddha to leave the
household, he knowing nothing of household affairs. Vin.ii.180f.;
DhA.i.133; iv.124, etc.; but according to Northern sources (Rockhill, p.
13) he was son of Dronodana; according to ThagA. (ii.123) Ananda was a
brother (or, at least, a step brother) of Mahānāma, for there Ananda’s
father is given as Amitodana. But see MA.i.289, where Mahānāma’s father
is called Sukkodana and Ananda’s Amitodana.

Mahānāma showed great generosity to the Sangha, and was proclaimed best
of those who gave choice alms to the monks (A.i.26). Once, with the
Buddha’s permission, he supplied the Order with medicaments for three
periods of four months each. The Chabbaggiyā, always intent on
mischief, tried in vain to discourage him. Vin.iv.101; AA. (i.213)
adds that this was during the period of want experienced by the Buddha
and his monks at Verañjā. At the end of the year, Mahānāma wished to
continue the supply of good food to the Buddha and his monks, but the
Buddha refused his permission.

Mahānāma was a devoted follower of the Buddha and wished to understand
the Doctrine. The books record several conversations between him and
the Buddha, and Ananda, Godha, and Lomasavangīsa (see Mahānāma Sutta and
Lomasavangisa). Once when the Buddha arrived at Kapilavatthu he asked
Mahānāma to find him lodging for the night. Mahānāma tried everywhere
without success, and finally suggested that the Buddha should spend the
night in the hermitage of Bharandu Kālāma (S.v.327f). This he did, and
was joined there the next morning by Mahānāma; as a result of the
discussion between the Buddha, Mahānāma and Bharandu, the last-named
left Kapilavatthu never to return. On another occasion, Mahānāma
visited the Buddha at Nigrodhārāma where the Buddha was convalescing
after a severe illness, and at once Mahānāma asked a question as to
whether concentration followed or preceded knowledge. Ananda, who was
present, not wishing the Buddha to be troubled, took Mahānāma aside and
explained to him the Buddha’s teachings on the subject. See Sakka Sutta

Mahānāma had a daughter Vāsābhakhattiyā, born to him by a slave-girl
named Nāgamundā, and when Pasenadi asked the Sākiyans to give him in
marriage a Sākiyan maiden they met in the Mote Hall, and, following the
advice of Mahānāma, sent Vāsabhakhattiyā to him. In order to allay any
suspicions, Mahānāma sat down to a meal with her, taking one mouthful
from the same dish; but before he could swallow it a messenger arrived,
as secretly arranged, and summoned him away. He left, asking
Vāsabhakhattiyā to continue her meal (DhA.i.345f.; J.i.133; iv. 145f).

See also the Cūla Dukkhakkhandha Sutta and Sekha Sutta, both preached to Mahānāma.

His resolve to attain to eminence as the best distributor of pleasant
food to the monks was made in the time of Padumuttara Buddha. He was
then a householder of Hamsavatī and heard the Buddha confer a similar
rank on a monk (AA.i.213).

Mahānāma is included in a list of exemplary lay devotees (A.iii.451).
The Samantapāsādikā (Sp.iv.857) adds that Mahānāma was one month older
than the Buddha and that he was a sakadāgāmī.

Mahāpajāpatī Gotami

An eminent Therī. She was born at Devadaha in the family of Suppabuddha as the younger sister of Mahāmāyā.

Ap.ii.538 says her father was Añjana Sakka and her mother Sulakkhanā.
Mhv.ii.18 says her father was Añjana and her mother Yasodharā.
Dandapāni and Suppabuddha were her brothers; cp. Dpv.xviii.7f.

At the birth of each sister, interpreters of bodily marks prophesied
that their children would be cakkavattins. King Suddhodana married both
the sisters, and when Mahāmāyā died, seven days after the birth of the
Buddha, Pajāpati looked after the Buddha and nursed him. She was the
mother of Nanda, but it is said that she gave her own son to nurses and
herself nursed the Buddha. The Buddha was at Vesāli when Suddhodana
died, and Pajāpatī decided to renounce the world, and waited for an
opportunity to ask the permission of the Buddha.

Pajāpatī was already a sotāpanna. She attained this eminence when the
Buddha first visited his father’s palace and preached the Mahādhammapāla
Jātaka (DhA.i.97).

Her opportunity came when the Buddha visited Kapilavatthu to settle the
dispute between the Sākiyans and the Koliyans as to the right to take
water from the river Rohinī. When the dispute had been settled, the
Buddha preached the Kalahavivāda Sutta, and five hundred young Sākiyan
men joined the Order. Their wives, led by Pajāpatī, went to the Buddha
and asked leave to be ordained as nuns. This leave the Buddha refused,
and he went on to Vesāli. But Pajāpatī and her companions, nothing
daunted, had barbers to cut off their hair, and donning yellow robes,
followed the Buddha to Vesāli on foot. They arrived with wounded feet
at the Buddha’s monastery and repeated their request. The Buddha again
refused, but Ananda interceded on their behalf and their request was
granted, subject to eight strict conditions.

For details see Vin.ii.253ff.; also A.iv.274ff. There was some
question, which arose later as to the procedure of Pajāpatī’s
ordination, which was not formal. When the nuns discovered this some of
them refused to hold the uposatha with her. But the Buddha declared
that he himself had ordained her and that all was in order (DhA.iv.149).
Her upasampadā consisted in acquiescing in the eight conditions laid
down for nuns (Sp.i.242).

After her ordination, Pajāpatī came to the Buddha and worshipped him.
The Buddha preached to her and gave her a subject for meditation. With
this topic she developed insight and soon after won arahantship, while
her five hundred companions attained to the same after listening to the
Nandakovāda Sutta. Later, at an assembly of monks and nuns in Jetavana,
the Buddha declared Pajāpatī chief of those who had experience
(rattaññūnam) (A.i.25). Not long after, while at Vesāli, she realized
that her life had come to an end. She was one hundred and twenty years
old; she took leave of the Buddha, performed various miracles, and then
died, her five hundred companions dying with her. It is said that the
marvels which attended her cremation rites were second only to those of
the Buddha.

It was in the time of Padumuttara Buddha that Pajāpatī made her resolve
to gain eminence. She then belonged to a clansman’s family in
Hamsavatī, and, hearing the Buddha assign the foremost place in
experience to a certain nun, wished for similar recognition herself,
doing many good deeds to that end. After many births she was born once
more at Benares, forewoman among five hundred slave girls. When the
rains drew near, five Pacceka Buddhas came from Nandamūlaka to Isipatana
seeking lodgings. Pajāpatī saw them after the Treasurer had refused
them any assistance, and, after consultation with her fellow slaves,
they persuaded their several husbands to erect five huts for the Pacceka
Buddhas during the rainy season and they provided them with all
requisites. At the end of the rains they gave three robes to each
Pacceka Buddha. After that she was born in a weaver’s village near
Benares, and again ministered, this time to five hundred Pacceka
Buddhas, sons of Padumavatī (ThigA.140ff.; AA.i.185f.; Ap.ii.529 43).

It is said that once Pajāpatī made a robe for the Buddha of wonderful
material and marvellously elaborate. But when it came to be offered to
the Buddha he refused it, and suggested it should be given to the Order
as a whole. Pajāpatī was greatly disappointed, and Ananda intervened.
But the Buddha explained that his suggestion was for the greater good of
Pajāpatī, and also as an example to those who might wish to make
similar gifts in the future. This was the occasion for the preaching of
the Dakkhināvibhanga Sutta (M.iii.253ff.; MA.ii.1001ff.; this incident
is referred to in the Milinda p.240). The Buddha had a great love for
Pajāpatī, and when she lay ill, as there were no monks to visit her and
preach to her - that being against the rule - the Buddha amended the
rule and went himself to preach to her (Vin.iv.56).

Pajāpatī’s name appears several times in the Jātakas. She was the
mother monkey in the Cūla Nandiya Jātaka (J.ii.202), Candā in the Culla
Dhammapāla (J.iii.182), and Bhikkhudāyikā (or Bhikkhudāsikā) daughter of
Kiki, king of Benares (

Mahāpajāpatī was so called because, at her birth, augerers prophesied
that she would have a large following; Gotamī was her gotta name
(MA.i.1001; cp. AA.ii.774).

There is a story related of a nurse employed by Pajāpatī and born in
Devadaha. She renounced the world with Pajāpatī, but for twenty five
years was harassed by thoughts of lust till, at last, she heard
Dhammadinnā preach. She then practiced meditation and became an arahant.


Son of Visākhā. Having heard the Dhamma during his
frequent visits to the vihāra, he entered the Order and in due time
became an Arahant. (Thag. 417-22; ThagA.i.452f).

The Samyutta Nikāya (S.iv.35f ) contains two discussions which he had
with the Buddha; the second was a teaching in brief which he learned
before going to the forest to live in solitude prior to his attainment
of arahantship.


Son of Suddhodana and Mahāpajāpatī, and therefore half
brother of the Buddha. He was only a few days younger than the Buddha,
and when the Buddha’s mother died, Pajapati gave her own child to nurses
and suckled the Buddha herself (AA.i.186).

On the third day of the Buddha’s visit to Kapilavatthu, after the
Enlightenment, the Buddha went to Nanda’s house, where festivities were
in progress in honour of Nanda’s coronation and marriage to
Janapadakalyānī Nandā. The Buddha wished Nanda good fortune and handed
him his bowl to be taken to the vihāra. Nanda, thereupon, accompanied
the Buddha out of the palace. Janapadakalyānī, seeing him go, asked him
to return quickly. Once inside the vihāra, however, the Buddha asked
Nanda to become a monk, and he, unable to refuse the request, agreed
with reluctance. But as the days passed he was tormented with thoughts
of his beloved, and became very downcast and despondent, and his health
suffered. The Buddha suggested that they should visit the Himālaya. On
the way there, he showed Nanda the charred remains of a female monkey
and asked him whether Janapadakalyānī were more beautiful than that.
The answer was in the affirmative. The Buddha then took him to
Tāvatimsa where Sakka, with his most beautiful nymphs, waited on them.
In answer to a question by the Buddha, Nanda admitted that these nymphs
were far more attractive than Janapadakalyānī, and the Buddha promised
him one as wife if he would live the monastic life. Nanda was all
eagerness and readily agreed. On their return to Jetavana the Buddha
related this story to the eighty chief disciples, and when they
questioned Nanda, he felt greatly ashamed of his lustfulness. Summoning
all his courage, he strove hard and, in no long time, attained
arahantship. He thereupon came to the Buddha and absolved him from his
promise. (Thag.157f.; J.i.91; ii.92ff.; Ud.iii.2; DhA.i.96 105;
UdA.168ff.; SNA.273f.)

When the Buddha was told of Nanda’s arahantship by a devata, he related
the Sangāmāvacara Jataka (q.v.) to show how, in the past, too, Nanda had
been quick to follow advice. He also related the story of Kappata
(q.v.) and his donkey to show that it was not the first time that Nanda
had been won to obedience by the lure of the female sex. The male
donkey in the story was Nanda and the female donkey Janapadakalyānī.

Nanda is identified with the sub king (uparājā) in the Kurudhamma Jataka (q.v.).

Later, on seeing how eminently Nanda was trained in self control, the
Buddha declared him chief among his disciples in that respect (indriyesu
guttadvārānam). Nanda had aspired to this eminence in the time of
Padumuttara Buddha. In the time of Atthadassi Buddha he was a tortoise
in the river Vinatā, and, seeing the Buddha on the bank waiting to
cross, he took him over to the other side on his back. (A.i.25;
AA.i.174f.; ThagA.i.276ff.)

He is said to have been called Nanda because his birth brought joy to
his kinsmen. The Apadāna (i.57) says he was of golden hue, as reward
for a gift of a costly robe given by him to Padumuttara. One hundred
thousand kappas ago he became king four times under the name of Cela.
Sixty thousand kappas ago he was again king in four births, under the
name of Upacela. Later, five thousand kappas ago, he was four times
cakkavatti, and his name then, too, was Cela.

Nanda was very beautiful, and was only four inches shorter than the
Buddha. He once wore a robe made according to the dimensions of the
Buddha’s robe. Discovering this, the Buddha chided him for his
presumption. (Vin.iv.173; perhaps this is another version of the story
found at S.ii.281. There, Nanda is said to have donned a robe which was
pressed on both sides, painted his face, and gone to see the Buddha,
carrying a bright bowl. The Buddha chided him, and Nanda thereupon
became a forest dweller and a rag-robe-man. Buddhaghosa (SA.ii.174)
says that Nanda dressed himself up in order to evoke some comment from
the Buddha - either approval, so that he might dress thus for the
remainder of his life, or censure, in which case he would put on rag
robes and dwell in the forest.)

The Anguttara Nikaya (A.iv.166f) contains a discourse in which the
Buddha discusses Nanda’s claim to have achieved self control in all

He is probably to be identified with Taraniya Thera of the Apadāna. (ii.428; cp. ThagA.i.277.)


A city, the capital of Magadha. There seem to have been
two distinct towns; the older one, a hill fortress, more properly called
Giribbaja, was very ancient and is said (VvA. p.82; but cp. D.ii.235,
where seven cities are attributed to his foundation) to have been laid
out by Mahāgovinda, a skilled architect. The later town, at the foot of
the hills, was evidently built by Bimbisāra.

Hiouen Thsang says (Beal, ii.145) that the old capital occupied by
Bimbisāra was called Kusāgra. It was afflicted by frequent fires, and
Bimbisāra, on the advice of his ministers, abandoned it and built the
new city on the site of the old cemetery. The building of this city was
hastened on by a threatened invasion by the king of Vesāli. The city
was called Rājagaha because Bimbisāra was the first person to occupy it.
Both Hiouen Thsang and Fa Hsien (Giles: 49) record another tradition
which ascribed the foundation of the new city to Ajātasattu.

Pargiter (Ancient Ind. Historical Tradition, p.149) suggests that the
old city was called Kusāgrapura, after Kusāgra, an early king of
Magadha. In the Rāmāyana (i. 7, 32) the city is called Vasumatī. The
Mahābhārata gives other names - Bārhadrathapura (ii.24, 44), Varāha,
Vrsabha, Rsigiri, Caityaka (see PHAI.,p.70).

It was also called Bimbisārapurī and Magadhapura (SNA.ii.584).

But both names were used indiscriminately (E.g., S.N. vs. 405), though
Giribbaja seems, as a name, to have been restricted to verse passages.
The place was called Giribbaja (mountain stronghold) because it was
surrounded by five hills - Pandava, Gijjhakūta, Vebhāra, Isigili and
Vepulla* - and Rājagaha, because it was the seat of many kings, such as
Mandhātā and Mahāgovinda (SNA.ii.413). It would appear, from the names
given of the kings, that the city was a very ancient royal capital. In
the Vidhurapandita Jātaka (, Rājagaha is called the capital of
Anga. This evidently refers to a time when Anga had subjugated Magadha.

* SNA.ii.382; it is said (M.iii.68) that these hills, with the
exception of Isigili, were once known by other names e.g., Vankaka for
Vepulla (S.ii.191). The Samyutta (i.206) mentions another peak near
Rājagaha - Indakūta. See also Kālasilā.

The Commentaries (E.g., SNA. loc. cit) explain that the city was
inhabited only in the time of Buddhas and Cakkavatti kings; at other
times it was the abode of Yakkhas who used it as a pleasure resort in
spring. The country to the north of the hills was known as Dakkhināgiri

Rājagaha was closely associated with the Buddha’s work. He visited it
soon after the Renunciation, journeying there on foot from the River
Anomā, a distance of thirty leagues (J.i.66). Bimbisāra saw him begging
in the street, and, having discovered his identity and the purpose of
his quest, obtained from him a promise of a visit to Rājagaha as soon as
his aim should be achieved (See the Pabbajjā Sutta and its Commentary).
During the first year after the Enlightenment therefore, the Buddha
went to Rājagaha from Gayā, after the conversion of the Tebhātika
Jatilas. Bimbisāra and his subjects gave the Buddha a great welcome,
and the king entertained him and a large following of monks in the
palace. It is said that on the day of the Buddha’s entry into the royal
quarters, Sakka led the procession, in the guise of a young man,
singing songs of praise of the Buddha. It was during this visit that
Bimbisāra gifted Veluvana to the Order and that the Buddha received
Sāriputta and Moggallāna as his disciples. (Details of this visit are
given in Vin.i.35ff ). Large numbers of householders joined the Order,
and people blamed the Buddha for breaking up their families. But their
censure lasted for only seven days. Among those ordained were the
Sattarasavaggiyā with Upāli at their head.

The Buddha spent his first vassa in Rājagaha and remained there during
the winter and the following summer. The people grew tired of seeing
the monks everywhere, and, on coming to know of their displeasure, the
Buddha went first to Dakkhināgiri and then to Kapilavatthu (Vin.i.77ff).

According to the Buddhavamsa Commentary (p.13), the Buddha spent also in
Rājagaha the third, fourth, seventeenth and twentieth vassa. After the
twentieth year of his teaching, he made Sāvatthi his headquarters,
though he seems frequently to have visited and stayed at Rājagaha. It
thus became the scene of several important suttas - e.g., the Atānātiya,
Udumbarika and Kassapasīhanāda, Jīvaka, Mahāsakuladāyī, and Sakkapañha.

For other incidents in the Buddha’s life connected with Rājagaha, see
Gotama. The most notable of these was the taming of Nālāgiri.

Many of the Vinaya rules were enacted at Rājagaha. Just before his
death, the Buddha paid a last visit there. At that time, Ajātasattu was
contemplating an attack on the Vajjians, and sent his minister,
Vassakāra, to the Buddha at Gijjhakūta, to find out what his chances of
success were (D.ii.72).

After the Buddha’s death, Rājagaha was chosen by the monks, with Mahā
Kassapa at their head, as the meeting place of the First Convocation.
This took place at the Sattapanniguhā, and Ajātasattu extended to the
undertaking his whole hearted patronage (Vin.ii.285; Sp.i.7f.; DA.i.8f.,
etc.). The king also erected at Rājagaha a cairn over the relics of
the Buddha, which he had obtained as his share (D.ii.166). According to
the Mahā Vamsa, (Mhv.xxxi.21; MT. 564) some time later, acting on the
suggestion of Mahā Kassapa, the king gathered at Rājagaha seven donas of
the Buddha’s relics which had been deposited in various places -
excepting those deposited at Rāmagāma - and built over them a large
thūpa. It was from there that Asoka obtained relics for his vihāras.

Rājagaha was one of the six chief cities of the Buddha’s time, and as
such, various important trade routes passed through it. The others
cities were Campā, Sāvatthi, Sāketa, Kosambī and Benares (D.ii.147).

The road from Takkasilā to Rājagaha was one hundred and ninety two
leagues long and passed through Sāvatthi, which was forty five leagues
from Rājagaha. This road passed by the gates of Jetavana (MA.ii.987;
SA.i.243). The Parāyana Vagga (SN. vss.1011-3) mentions a long and
circuitous route, taken by Bāvarī’s disciples in going from Patitthāna
to Rājagaha, passing through Māhissati, Ujjeni, Gonaddha, Vedisā.
Vanasavhaya, Kosambī, Sāketa, Sāvatthi, Setavyā, Kapilavatthu, Kusinārā,
on to Rājagaha, by way of the usual places (see below).

From Kapilavatthu to Rājagaha was sixty leagues (AA.i.115; MA.i.360).
From Rājagaha to Kusinārā was a distance of twenty five leagues
(DA.ii.609), and the Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta (D.ii.72ff ) gives a list of
the places at which the Buddha stopped during his last journey along
that road - Ambalatthikā, Nālandā, Pātaligāma (where he crossed the
Ganges), Kotigāma, Nādikā (??), Vesāli, Bhandagāma, Hatthigāma,
Ambagāma, Jambugāma, Bhoganagara, Pāvā, and the Kakuttha River, beyond
which lay the Mango grove and the Sāla grove of the Mallas.

From Rājagaha to the Ganges was a distance of five leagues, and when the
Buddha visited Vesāli at the invitation of the Licchavis, the kings on
either side of the river vied with each other to show him honour.
DhA.iii.439f.; also Mtu.i.253ff.; according to Dvy. (p.55) the Ganges
had to be crossed between Rājagaha and Sāvatthi, as well, by boat, some
of the boats belonging to the king of Magadha and others to the
Licchavis of Vesāli.

The distance between Rājagaha and Nālandā is given as one league, and the Buddha often walked between the two (DA.i.35).

The books mention various places besides Veluvana, with its
Kalandaka-nivāpa vihāra in and around Rājagaha - e.g., Sītavana,
Jīvaka’s Ambavana, Pipphaliguhā, Udumbarikārāma, Moranivāpa with its
Paribbājakārāma, Tapodārāma, Indasālaguhā in Vediyagiri, Sattapanniguhā,
Latthivana, Maddakucchi, Supatitthacetiya, Pāsānakacetiya,
Sappasondikapabbhāra and the pond Sumāgadhā.

At the time of the Buddha’s death, there were eighteen large monasteries
in Rājagaha (Sp.i.9). Close to the city flowed the rivers Tapodā and
Sappinī. In the city was a Potter’s Hall where travelers from far
distances spent the night. E.g., Pukkusāti (MA.ii.987); it had also a
Town Hall (J.iv.72). The city gates were closed every evening, and
after that it was impossible to enter the city. Vin.iv.116f.; the city
had thirty-two main gates and sixty four smaller entrances (DA.i.150;
MA.ii.795). One of the gates of Rājagaha was called Tandulapāla
(M.ii.185). Round Rājagaha was a great peta world (MA.ii.960; SA.i.31).

In the Buddha’s time there was constant fear of invasion by the
Licchavis, and Vassakāra (q.v.) is mentioned as having strengthened its
fortifications. To the north east of the city were the brahmin villages
of Ambasandā (D.ii.263) and Sālindiyā (J.iii.293); other villages are
mentioned in the neighborhood, such as Kītāgiri, Upatissagāma,
Kolitagāma, Andhakavinda, Sakkhara and Codanāvatthu (q.v.). In the
Buddha’s time, Rājagaha had a population of eighteen crores, nine in the
city and nine outside, and the sanitary conditions were not of the
best. SA.i.241; DhA.ii.43; it was because of the city’s prosperity that
the Mettiya-Bhummajakas made it their headquarters (Sp.iii.614). The
city was not free from plague (DhA.i.232).

The Treasurer of Rājagaha and Anāthapindika had married each other’s
sisters, and it was while Anāthapindika (q.v.) was on a visit to
Rājagaha that he first met the Buddha.

The people of Rājagaha, like those of most ancient cities, held regular
festivals; one of the best known of these was the Giraggasamajjā (q.v.).
Mention is also made of troupes of players visiting the city and
giving their entertainments for a week on end. (See, e.g., the story of

Soon after the death of the Buddha, Rājagaha declined both in importance
and prosperity. Sisunāga transferred the capital to Vesāli, and
Kālāsoka removed it again to Pātaliputta, which, even in the Buddha’s
time, was regarded as a place of strategically importance. When Hiouen
Thsang visited Rājagaha, he found it occupied by brahmins and in a very
dilapidated condition (Beal, op. cit., ii.167). For a long time,
however, it seems to have continued as a center of Buddhist activity,
and among those mentioned as having been present at the foundation of
the Mahā Thūpa were eighty thousand monks led by Indagutta.


Almost always spoken of as “devānam indo,” chief (or king) of the devas.

The Samyutta Nikāya (S.i.229; DhA.i.264) contains a list of his names:

he is called Maghavā, because as a human being, in a former birth,
he was a brahmin named Magha. (But see Magha; cf. Sanskrit Maghavant
as an epithet of Indra).

As such he bestowed gifts from time to time, hence his name
Purindada (Cf. Indra’s epithet Purandara, destroyer of cities)
(generous giver in former births or giver in towns).

Because he gives generously and thoroughly (sakkaccam) he is known
as Sakka. Sakra occurs many times in the Vedas as an adjective,
qualifying gods (chiefly Indra), and is explained as meaning “able,
capable.” It is, however, not found as a name in pre Buddhist times.

Because he gives away dwelling places (āvasatham) he is called Vāsava (But see Vāsava).

Because in one moment he can think of one thousand matters, he is called Sahassakkha (also Sahassanetta).

Because he married the Asura maiden Sujā, he is called Sujampati.
For the romantic story of Sakka’s marriage, see Sujā. Thus Sujā’s
father, Vepacitti, became Sakka’s father in law. Several quaint stories
are related about father and son in law. The two sometimes quarrelled
and at others lived together in peace (SA.i.265).

Because he governs the devas of Tāvatimsa he is called Devānam Indo (See Inda).

Elsewhere (E.g., D.ii.270; M.i.252) Sakka is addressed as Kosiya.

He is also spoken of as Yakkha. M.i.252; cf. S.i.206 (Sakkanāmako
Yakkho); at S.i.47 Māghadevaputta (Sakka) is called Vatrabhū, slayer of
Vrtra (SA.i.83);

Sakka is also, in the Jātakas, called Gandhabbarāja ( and Mahinda (J.v.397, 411).

Sakka rules over Tāvatimsa devaloka, the lowest heaven but one of the
lower plane. His palace is Vejayanta and his chariot bears the same
name. Though king of the Tāvatimsa devas, he is no absolute monarch.
He is imagined rather in the likeness of a chieftain of a Kosala clan.
The devas meet and deliberate in the Sudhammā sabhā and Sakka consults
with them rather than issues them commands. On such occasions, the Four
Regent Devas are present in the assembly with their followers of the
Cātummahārājika world (See, e.g., D.ii.207f., 220f). Among the
Tāvatimsa devas, Sakka is more or less primus inter pares, yet lie
surpasses his companions in ten things: length of life, beauty,
happiness, renown, power; and in the degree of his five sense
experiences: sight, hearing, smelling, taste and touch. A.iv.242; these
are also attributed to the rulers of the other deva worlds.

In the Samyutta Nikāya (S.i.228, 229, 231; cf. Mil. 90; for details of
these see Magha) the Buddha gives seven rules of conduct, which rules
Sakka carried out as a human being, thus attaining to his celestial
sovereignty. When the devas fight the Asuras they do so under the
banner and orders of Sakka. For details of Sakka’s conquest of the
Asuras see Asura. The Asuras called him Jara Sakka (J.i.202).
Pajāpati, Vamna and Isāna are also mentioned as having been associated
with him in supreme command (S.i.219).

In the Sakkapañha Sutta (q.v.), Sakka is said to have visited the Buddha
at Vediyagiri in Ambasandā and to have asked him a series of questions.
He sends Pañcasikha with his vinā to play and sing to the Buddha and
to obtain permission for him (Sakka) to visit him and question him. It
was Sakka who had given the Beluvapanduvīnā to Pañcasikha (SNA.ii.394).

The Buddha says to himself that Sakka, for a long time past, has led a
pure life, and gives him permission to question him on any subject. It
is stated in the course of the sutta (D.ii.270) that it was not the
first time that Sakka had approached the Buddha for the same purpose.
He had gone to him at the Salaghara in Sāvatthi, but found him in
meditation, with Bhuñjatī, wife of Vessavana, waiting on him. He
therefore left with a request to Bhuñjatī to greet the Buddha in his
name. He also declares (D.ii.286) that he has become a sotāpanna and
has earned for himself the right to be reborn eventually in the
Akanitthā world, whence he will pass entirely away.

The Commentary says that Sakka was constantly seeing the Buddha and was
the most zealous of the devas in the discharge of his duties to the
sāsana. DA.iii.697. In the sutta Sakka admits (D.ii.284) that he
visited other brahmins and recluses as well. They were pleased to see
him, and boasted that they had nothing to teach him; but he had to teach
them what he knew. But this visit to the Buddha at Vediyagiri had a
special object. Sakka saw sips that his life was drawing to an end and
was frightened by this knowledge. He therefore went to the Buddha to
seek his help. It adds (DA.iii.732; cp. DhA.iii.270) that, as Sakka
sat listening to the Buddha, he died in his old life and was reborn a
new and young Sakka; only Sakka himself and the Buddha was aware of what
had happened. The Commentary continues (DA.iii.740) that Sakka became
an “uddham sota,” treading the path of Anāgāmīs. As such he will live
in Avihā for one thousand kappas, in Atappa for two thousand, in
Sudassanā for four thousand, and will end in the Akanittha world, after
having enjoyed life in the Brahmaworlds for thirty one thousand kappas.

An account of another interview which Sakka had with the Buddha is given
in the Cūlatanhāsankhaya Sutta (q.v.). There the question arises
regarding the extirpation of cravings. Sakka accepts the Buddha’s
answer and leaves him. Anxious to discover whether Sakka has understood
the Buddha’s teaching, Moggallāna visits Sakka and questions him.
Sakka evades the questions and shows Moggallāna the glories of his
Vejayanta palace. Moggallāna then frightens him by a display of
iddhi-power, and Sakka repeats to him, word for word, the Buddha’s
answer. Moggallāna departs satisfied, and Sakka tells his handmaidens
that Moggallāna is a “fellow of his” in the higher life, meaning,
probably, that he himself is a sotāpanna and therefore a kinsman of the

In a passage in the Samyutta (S.i.201) Sakka is represented as
descending from heaven to make an enquiry about Nibbāna, and in another
(S.iv.269f.), as listening, in heaven, to Moggallāna’s exposition of the
simplest duties of a good layman. On another occasion, at Vessavana’s
suggestion, Sakka visited Uttara Thera on the Sankheyyaka Mountain and
listened to a sermon by him (A.iv.163f.). See also Sakka Sutta (2) and

The later books contain a good deal of additional information regarding
Sakka. His city extends for one thousand leagues, and its golden
streets are sixty leagues long; his palace Vejayanta is one thousand
leagues high; the Sudhammā hall covers five hundred leagues, his throne
of yellow marble (Pandukambalasilāsana) is sixty leagues in extent, his
white umbrella with its golden wreath is five leagues in circumference,
and he himself is accompanied by a glorious array of twenty five million
nymphs (J.v.386). Other features of his heaven are the Pāricchattaka
tree, the Nandā pokkharanī and the Cittalatāvana (DA.iii.716; See also
Tāvatimsa). His body is three gavutas in height (DhA.iii.269); his
chief conveyance is the marvellous elephant Erāvana (q.v.), but he goes
to war in the Velayanta ratha (q.v.). Reference is often made to his
throne, the Pandukambalasilāsana (q.v.), composed of yellow stone. It
grows hot when Sakka’s life draws towards its end; or his merit is
exhausted; or when some mighty being prays; or, again, through the
efficacy of virtue in recluses or brahmins or other beings, full of
potency. J.iv.8; when the Buddha, however, sat on it, he was able to
conceal it in his robe (DhA.iii.218).

Sakka’s devotion to the Buddha and his religion is proverbial. When the
Bodhisatta cut off his hair and threw it into the sky, Sakka took it
and deposited it in the Cūlāmani cetiya (J.i.65). He was present near
the Bodhi tree, blowing his Vijayuttara sankha (q.v.), when Māra arrived
to prevent the Buddha from reaching Enlightenment (J.i.72). When the
Buddha accepted Bimbisāra’s invitation to dine in his palace, Sakka, in
the guise of a young man, preceded the Buddha and his monks along the
street to the palace, singing the Buddha’s praises (Vin.i.38). When the
Buddha performed his Yamaka pātihārīya at the foot of the Gandamba, it
was Sakka who built for him a pavilion, and gave orders to the gods of
the Wind and the Sun to uproot the pavilions of the heretics and cause
them great discomfort (DhA.iii.206, 208). When the Buddha returned to
Sankassa from Tāvatimsa, whither he went after performing the Twin
Miracle, Sakka created three ladders - of gold, of silver, and of jewels
respectively - for the Buddha and his retinue (DhA.iii.225).

Sakka was present at Vesāli when the Buddha visited that city in order
to rid it of its plagues. His presence drove away the evil spirits, and
the Buddha’s task was thus made easier (DhA.iii.441). When the Buddha
and his monks wished to journey one hundred leagues, to visit Culla
Subhaddā at Uggapura, Sakka, with the aid of Vissakamma, provided them
with pavilions (kūtāgāra) in which they might travel by air
(DhA.iii.470). Once, when the ponds in Jetavana were quite dry, the
Buddha wished to bathe and Sakka immediately caused rain to fall and the
ponds were filled (J.i.330). In Sakka’s aspect as Vajirapāni (q.v.) he
protected the Buddha from the insults of those who came to question
him. See also the story of Ciñcā mānavikā, when Sakka protected the
Buddha from her charges. Sakka also regarded it as his business to
protect the Buddha’s followers, as is shown by the manner in which he
came to the rescue of the four seven year old novices - Sankicca,
Pandita, Sopāka and Revata - when they were made to go hungry by a
brahmin and his wife (DhA.iv.176f.).

During the Buddha’s last illness, Sakka ministered to him, performing
the most menial tasks, such as carrying the vessel of excrement.
DhA.iv.269f. He did the same for other holy men - e.g., Sāriputta.
Sakka also waited on the Buddha when he was in Gayāsīsa for the
conversion of the Tebhātikajatilas (Vin.i.28f.); see also the story of
Jambuka (DhA.ii.59). The Udāna (iii.7) contains a story of Sakka
assuming the guise of a poor weaver and Sujā that of his wife, in order
to give alms to Mahā Kassapa who had just risen from a trance. They
succeeded in their ruse, to the great joy of Sakka (cp. DhA.i.424f).
On other occasions - e.g., in the case of Mahāduggata Sakka helped poor
men to gain merit by providing them with the means for giving alms to
the Buddha (DhA.ii.135ff.).

He was present at the Buddha’s death, and uttered, in verse, a simple
lament, very different from the studied verses ascribed to Brahmā.
(D.ii.157; on the importance of this verse, however, see Dial.ii.176,
n.1). At the distribution, by Dona, of the Buddha’s relics, Sakka saw
Dona hide the Buddha’s right tooth in his turban. Realizing that Dona
was incapable of rendering adequate honour to the relic, Sakka took the
relic and deposited it in the Cūlāmanicetiya (DA.ii.609). And when
Ajātasattu was making arrangements to deposit his share of the relics,
Sakka gave orders to Vissakamma to set up a vālasanghātayanta for their
protection (DA.ii.613).

Sakka did all in his power to help followers of the Buddha in their
strivings for the attainment of the goal, as in the case of
Panditasāmanera, when he sent the Four Regent Gods to drive away the
birds, made the Moon deity shroud the moon, and himself stood guard at
the door of Pandita’s cell, lest he should be disturbed. (DhA.ii.143;
cf. the story of Sukha DhA.iii.96f.). Often, when a monk achieved his
ambition, Sakka was there to express his joy and do him honour. See,
e.g., the story of Mahāphussa (SNA.i.55f.).

He was ready to help, not only monks and nuns, but also eminent laymen,
such as Jotika for whom he built a palace of wondrous splendour, and
provided it with every luxury (DhA.iv. 207f). Sakka was always ready
to come to the rescue of the good when in distress - e.g., in the case
of Cakkhupāla when he became blind; Sakka led him by the hand and took
him to Sāvatthi. DhA.i.14f. Many instances are found in the Jātaka
where Sakka rescued the good in distress - e.g., Dhammaddhaja, Guttila,
Kaccāni, the Kinnarī Candā, Sambulā, Kusa, Mahājanaka’s mother,
Candakumāra’s mother, Candā, and Mahosadha.

He loved to test the goodness of men, as in the case of the leper
Suppabuddha, to see if their faith was genuine. DhA.ii.34f.; see also
the story of the courtesan in the Kurudhamma Jātaka (J.ii.380).

The Jātaka contains several stories of his helping holy men by providing
them with hermitages, etc. - e.g., Kuddāla pandita, Hatthipāla,
Ayoghara, Jotipāla (Sarabhanga), Sutasoma, Dukūlaka, Pārikā and
Vessantara. Sometimes, when he found that ascetics were not diligently
practising their duties, he would frighten them - e.g., in the Vighāsa
and Somadatta Jātakas. The Anguttara Nikāya (iii.370f ) contains a
story of Sakka punishing a deva called Supatittha, who lived in a banyan
tree, because he failed to keep the rukkhadhamma.

Sakka appears as the guardian of moral law in the world. When
wickedness is rampant among men, or kings become unrighteous, he appears
among them to frighten them so that they may do good instead evil. He
is on the side of the good against the wicked, and often helps them to
realize their goal. Instances of this are seen in the Ambacora,
Ayakūta, Udaya, Kaccāni, Kāma, Kāmanīta, Kumbha, Kelisīla, Kharaputta,
Culladhanuggaha, Dhajavihetha, Bilārikosiya, Manīcora, Mahākanha, Vaka,
Sarabhanga, Sarabhamiga and Sudhābhojana Jātakas. Sakka patronised good
men; some of the more eminent he invited to his heaven, sending his
charioteer Matali to fetch them, and he showed them all honour - e.g.,
Guttila, Mandhātā, Sādhina, and Nimi; others he rewarded suitably - see,
e.g., the Uraga Jātaka.

The lesser gods consulted Sakka in their difficulties and problems e.g.,
in the case of the deity of Anāthapindika’s fourth gateway, who
incurred the displeasure of Anāthapindika by advising him to refrain
from too much generosity towards the Buddha and his monks (J.i.229).
Sakka has also to deal with disputes arising among the devas themselves
(DA.iii.705). On several occasions Sakka helped the Bodhisatta in the
practice of his Perfections e.g., as King Sivi, Temiya, Nimi and
Vessantara, also in his birth as a hare; in this last story, the Sasa
Jātaka (q.v.), Sakka paints the picture of a hare in the moon to
commemorate the Bodhisatta’s sacrifice.

Sakka sometimes answers the prayers of good and barren women and gives
them sons - e.g., Sumedhā, Sīlavatī, Candādevī. Mention is also made of
other boons granted by Sakka to various persons. Thus in the Mahāsuka
Jātaka he visited the parrot who clung to the dead stump of a tree
through gratitude, and granted him the boon that the tree should once
more become fruitful (J.iii.493). He granted four boons to Kanha, that
he might be calm, bear no malice or hatred against his neighbour, feel
no greed for others’ glory, and no lust towards his neighbour (J.iv.10).
To Akitti he granted several boons, the last of which was that he
should have no more visits from Sakka! (J.iv.240f). When Sivi became
blind, Sakka gave him two eyes; these were not natural eyes, but the
eyes of Truth, Absolute and Perfect (saccapāramitā cakkhunī). Sakka
confesses that he has not the power of restoring sight; it was the
virtue of Sivi himself which had that power (J.iv.410f). When Sīlavatī
wished for a boon, Sakka, took her to heaven, where he kept her for
seven days; then he granted that she should have two sons, one wise and
ugly and the other a fool and handsome. He also presented her with a
piece of kusa grass, a heavenly robe, a piece of sandalwood, the flower
of the Pāricchattaka tree and a Kokanda lute. All this passed into the
possession of Kusa, and, later, Sakka gave him the Verocana jewel
(J.v.280f., 310). He gave Phusatī, mother of Vessantara, ten boons
( and to Vessantara himself he gave eight (

In the Sarabhanga Jātaka (J.v.392) mention is made of four daughters of
Sakka - Āsā, Saddhā, Hirī and Sirī. His wife, Sujā, accompanied him
everywhere on his travels (E.g., J.iii.491), even into the world of men,
because that was the boon she had asked for on her marriage to him
(DhA.i.279). Vessavana was Sakka’s special friend (MA.i.476f), and when
one Vessavana died, it was Sakka’s duty to appoint a successor
(J.i.328). Matāli (q.v.) is Sakka’s charioteer and constant companion.
Vissakamma (q.v.) is his “handy man.” Sakka has twenty five million
handmaids and five hundred dove-footed nymphs (kakutapādiniyo), famed
for their beauty. It was the sight of these which tempted the Buddha’s
step brother, Nanda, to give up thoughts of Janapadakalyānī Nandā
(J.ii.93). Sakka’s special weapon is the Vajirāvudha and his special
drum the Ālambara (q.v.).

His voice is sweet, like the tintinnabulation of golden bells (SA.i.273).

It is Sakka’s special duty to protect the religion of the Buddha in
Ceylon. As the Buddha lay dying, he enjoined on Sakka the task of
looking after Vijaya and his successors. This duty Sakka, in turn,
entrusted to the god Uppalavanna (Mhv.vii.1ff). Sakka informed Mahinda
of the right moment for his visit to Ceylon (Mhv.xiii.15). When
Devānampiyatissa wished for relics to place in the Thūpārāma Thūpa,
Sumana sāmanera visited Sakka and obtained from him the right collar
bone of the Buddha, which Sakka had placed in the Culāmani cetiya
(Mhv.xvii.9ff). Again, when Dutthagāmanī was in need of building
materials for the Mahā Thūpa, it was Sakka who supplied them
(Mhv.xxviii.6ff). On the occasion of the enshrining of the relics in
the Mahā Thūpa, Sakka gave orders to Vissakamma to decorate the whole of
Ceylon. He also provided the throne and casket of gold for the relics
brought from the Nāgā world by Sonuttara and was himself present at the
festival, blowing his conch shell. (Mhv.xxxi.34, 75, 78)

Other Cakkavālas have also their Sakka (aññehi Cakkavālehi Sakkā
āgacchanti; J.i.203.), and in one place (J.i.204) mention is made of
many thousands of Sakkas.

It is evident from the foregoing account that, as Rhys Davids suggests
(Dial.ii.297f), Sakka and Indra are independent conceptions. None of
the personal characteristics of Sakka resemble those of Indra. Some
epithets are identical but are evidently borrowed, though they are
differently explained. The conception of the popular god which appealed
to a more barbarous age and to the clans fighting their way into a new
country, seems to have been softened and refined in order to meet the
ideals of a more cultured and peaceful civilization. The old name no
longer fitted the new god, and, as time went on, Sakka came to be
regarded as an entirely separate god.


Family name of the Buddha.


The capital town of Kosala in India and one of the six
great Indian cities during the lifetime of the Buddha (D.ii.147). It
was six leagues from Sāketa (Vin.i.253; seven according to others,
DhA.i.387), forty five leagues north west of Rājagaha (SA.i.243), thirty
leagues from Sankassa (J.iv.265), one hundred and forty seven from
Takkasilā (MA.ii.987), one hundred and twenty from Suppāraka
(DhA.ii.213), and was on the banks of the Aciravatī (Vin.i.191, 293).
It was thirty leagues from Alavī (SNA.i.220), thirty from Macchīkāsanda
(DhA.ii.79), one hundred and twenty from Kukkutavatī (DhA.ii.118), and
the same distance from Uggapura (DhA.iii.469) and from Kuraraghara
(DhA.iv.106). The road from Rājagaha to Sāvatthi passed through Vesāli
(Vin.ii.159f), and the Parāyanavagga (SN.vss.1011 13) gives the resting
places between the two cities Setavyā, Kapilavatthu, Kusinārā, Pāvā and
Bhoganagara. Further on, there was a road running southwards from
Sāvatthi through Sāketa to Kosambī. One gāvuta from the city was the
Andhavana (q.v.). Between Sāketa and Sāvatthi was Toranavatthu

The city was called Sāvatthi because the sage Savattha lived there.
Another tradition says there was a caravanserai there, and people
meeting there asked each other what they had “Kim bhandam atthi?”
“Sabbam atthi” and the name of the city was based on the reply
(SNA.i.300; PSA. 367).

The Buddha passed the greater part of his monastic life in Sāvatthi.
His first visit there was at the invitation of Anāthapindika. It is
said (DhA.i.4) that he spent twenty five rainy seasons in the city
nineteen of them in Jetavana and six in the Pubbārāma. Sāvatthi also
contained the monastery of Rājakārāma (q.v.), built by Pasenadi,
opposite Jetavana. Outside the city gate of Sāvatthi was a fisherman’s
village of five hundred families (DhA.iv.40).

Savatthi is the scene of each Buddha’s Yamaka pātihāriya (DhA.iii.205;
cf. Mtu.iii.115; J.i.88); Gotama Buddha performed this miracle under
the Gandamba (q.v.).

The chief patrons of the Buddha in Sāvatthi were Anāthapindika, Visākhā,
Suppavāsā and Pasenadi (DhA.i.330). When Bandhula (q.v.) left Vesāli
he came to live in Sāvatthi.

Buddhaghosa says (Sp.iii.614) that, in the Buddha’s day, there were
fifty seven thousand families in Sāvatthi, and that it was the chief
city in the country of Kāsi Kosala, which was three hundred leagues in
extent and had eighty thousand villages. The population of Sāvatthi was
eighteen crores (SNA.i.371).

Sāvatthi is identified with Sāhet Māhet on the banks of the Rapti (Cunningham, AGI. 469).

Hiouen Thsang found the old city in ruins, but records the sites of various buildings (Beal, op. cit., ii.1 13).

Woodward states (KS.v.xviii ) that, of the four Nikāyas, 871 suttas are
said to have been preached in Sāvatthi; 844 of which are in Jetavana, 23
in the Pubbārāma, and 4 in the suburbs. These suttas are made up of 6
in the Digha, 75 in the Majjhima, 736 in the Samyutta, and 54 in the
Anguttara. Mrs. Rhys Davids conjectures (M.iv., Introd., from
this that either the Buddha “mainly resided there or else Sāvatthi was
the earliest emporium (library?) for the collection and preservation
(however this was done) of the talks.” The first alternative is the more
likely, as the Commentaries state that the Buddha spent twenty five
rainy seasons in Sāvatthi (see earlier), this leaving only twenty to be
spent elsewhere. The Buddhavamsa Commentary (BuA. p.3) gives a list of
these places showing that the second, third, fourth, seventeenth and
twentieth were spent in Rājagaha, the thirteenth, eighteenth and
nineteenth in Cāliyapabbata, and the rest in different places.


It was there that the Buddha preached the Indriyabhāvanā
Sutta (M.iii.298). The Commentary explains (MA.ii.1028) that the grove
consisted of mukhelu trees. But most editions of the Sutta locate it in
the Bamboo grove where once the upāsakas of Kajangalā, having questioned
the Kajangalā-Bhikkhunī, went to the Buddha there and asked him to
verify her answers. A.v.54f


One of the most eminent of the Buddha’s immediate
disciples. He belonged to a barber’s family in Kapilavatthu and entered
the service of the Sākiyan princes. When Anuruddha and his cousins
left the world and sought ordination from the Buddha at Anupiyā Grove,
Upāli accompanied them. They gave him all their valuable ornaments,
but, on further consideration, he refused to accept them and wished to
become a monk with them. The reason given for his refusal is that he
knew the Sākyans were hot-headed, and feared that the kinsmen of the
princes might suspect him of having murdered the young men for the sake
of their belongings.

At the request of the Sākiyan youths, the Buddha ordained Upāli before
them all, so that their pride might be humbled. (Vin.ii.182;
DhA.i.116f; see also Bu.i.61; but see BuA.44; the Tibetan sources give a
slightly different version, see Rockhill, op. cit., pp. 55-6;
according to the Mahāvastu iii.179, Upāli was the Buddha’s barber, too).

Upāli’s upajjhāya was Kappitaka (Vin.iv.308). When Upāli went to the
Buddha for an exercise for meditation, he asked that he might be allowed
to dwell in the forest. But the Buddha would not agree, for if Upāli
went into the forest he would learn only meditation, while, if he
remained amongst men, he would have knowledge both of meditation and of
the word of the Dhamma. Upāli accepted the Buddha’s advice and,
practising insight, in due course won arahantship. The Buddha himself
taught Upāli the whole of the Vinaya Pitaka (ThagA.i.360f, 370;

In the assembly of the Sangha, the Buddha declared him to be the most
proficient of those who were learned in the Vinaya (vinayadharānam)
(A.i.24; see also Vin.iv.142, where the Buddha is mentioned as speaking
Upāli’s praises). He is often spoken of as having reached the pinnacle
of the Vinaya, or as being its chief repository (Vinaye agganikkhitto),
(E.g., Dpv.iv.3, 5; v.7, 9) and three particular cases - those of Ajjuka
(Vin.iii.66f), the Bhārukacchaka monk (Vin.iii.39) and Kumāra-Kassapa
(AA.i.158; MA.i.336; J.i.148; DhA.iii.145) - are frequently mentioned in
this connection as instances where Upāli’s decisions on Vinaya rules
earned the special commendation of the Buddha. In the Rājagaha Council,
Upāli took a leading part, deciding all the questions relative to the
Vinaya, in the same way as Ananda decided questions regarding the Dhamma
(Vin.ii.286f; DA.i.11f; Mhv.iii.30).

In accordance with this tradition, ascribing to Upāli especial authority
regarding the rules of the Order, various instances are given of Upāli
questioning the Buddha about the Vinaya regulations. Thus we find him
consulting the Buddha as to the legality or otherwise of a complete
congregation performing, in the absence of an accused monk, an act at
which his presence is required (Vin.i.325f). Again, he wishes to know
if, in a matter which has caused altercations and schisms among members
of the Order, the Sangha declares re-establishment of concord without
thorough investigation, could such a declaration be lawful?
(Vin.i.358f). When a monk intends to take upon himself the conduct of
any matter that has to be decided, under what conditions should he do
so? What qualities should a monk possess in himself before he takes upon
himself to warn others? (Vin.ii.248f). In what case can there be an
interruption of the probationary period of a monk who has been placed on
probation? (Vin.ii.33f).

A whole list of questions asked by Upāli and answers given by the Buddha
on matters pertaining to the Vinaya rules is found in the chapter
called Upāli-Pañcaka in the Parivāra (Vin.v.180-206; see also the
Upālivagga of the Anguttara Nikāya v.70ff).

It is not possible to determine which of these and other questions were
actually asked by Upāli, and which were ascribed to him on account of
his traditional reputation.

It is said (E.g., Vin.iv.142; Sp.iv.876) that even in the Buddha’s
lifetime monks considered it a great privilege to learn the Vinaya under
Upāli. The monks seem to have regarded Upāli as their particular
friend, to whom they could go in their difficulties. Thus, when certain
monks had been deprived by thieves of their clothes, it is Upāli’s
protection that they seek (Vin.iii.212; see also the story of
Ramanīyavihārī, ThagA.i.116).

The canon contains but few records of any discourses connected with
Upāli, apart from his questions on the Vinaya. In the Anguttara Nikāya
(A.iv.143f) he is mentioned as asking the Buddha for a brief sermon, the
Buddha telling him that if there were anything that did not conduce to
revulsion and detachment, Upāli could be sure that such things did not
form part of the Buddha’s teaching. There is a record of another sermon
(A.v.201ff) which the Buddha is stated to have preached when Upāli
expressed the desire to retire into the solitude of the forest. The
Buddha tells him that forest-life is not for the man who has not
mastered his mind or attained to tranquillity.

For other sermons see Upāli Sutta and Ubbāhika Sutta.

Three verses are ascribed to Upāli in the Theragāthā (vv. 249-51; but
see Gotama the Man, p.215; another verse ascribed to Upāli, but so far
not traced elsewhere, is found in the Milinda p.108) where he admonishes
the brethren to seek noble friends of unfaltering character, to learn
the monks’ code of discipline and to dwell in solitude.

In the time of Padumuttara, Upāli was a very rich brahmin named Sujāta.
When the Buddha came to his father’s city in order to preach to him the
Dhamma, Sujāta saw him, and in the assembly be noticed an ascetic named
Sunanda, holding over the Buddha for seven days a canopy of flowers.
The Buddha declared that Sunanda would, in the time of Gotama Buddha,
become famous as the Elder Punna Mantānī-putta. Sujāta, too, wished to
seethe future Buddha Gotama, and having heard Padumuttara praise the
monk Pātika as chief of the Vinayadharas, he wished to hear, regarding
himself, a similar declaration from Gotama. With this end in view he
did many deeds of merit, chief of which was the erection of a monastery
named Sobhana, for the Buddha and his monks, at an expense of one
hundred thousand.

As a result he was born in heaven for thirty thousand kappas and was one
thousand times king of the devas. One thousand times, too, he was

Two kappas ago there was a Khattiya named Añjasa, and Upāli was born as
his son Sunanda. One day he went to the park riding an elephant named
Sirika, and met, on the way, the Pacceka Buddha Devala, whom he insulted
in various ways. Sunanda was, thereupon, seized with a sensation of
great heat in his body, and it was not till he went with a large
following to the Pacceka Buddha and asked his pardon that the sensation
left him. It is said that if the Buddha had not forgiven him, the whole
country would have been destroyed. This insult paid to the Pacceka
Buddha was the cause of Upāli having been born as a barber in his last
birth (Ap.i.37ff).

Buddhaghosa says (Sp.i.272, 283) that while the Buddha was yet alive
Upāli drew up certain instructions according to which future
Vinayadharas should interpret Vinaya rules, and that, in conjunction
with others, he compiled explanatory notes on matters connected with the

In direct pupillary succession to Upāli as head of the Vinayadharas was
Dāsaka, whom Upāli had first met at the Valikārāma, where Upāli was
staying (Mhv.v.10). Upāli taught him the whole of the Vinaya.

Upāli’s death was in the sixth year of Udāyibhadda’s reign. Dpv.v.7ff.


A city, capital of the Licchavis. The Buddha first
visited it in the fifth year after the Enlightenment, and spent the
vassa there (BuA., p. 3). The Commentaries give detailed descriptions
of the circumstances of this visit. KhpA.160ff.= SNA.i.278;
DhA.iii.436ff.; cp. Mtu.i.253ff

Vesāli was inhabited by seven thousand and seven rājās, each of whom had
large retinues, many palaces and pleasure parks. There came a shortage
in the food supply owing to drought, and people died in large numbers.
The smell of decaying bodies attracted evil spirits, and many
inhabitants were attacked by intestinal disease. The people complained
to the ruling prince, and he convoked a general assembly, where it was
decided, after much discussion, to invite the Buddha to their city. As
the Buddha was then at Veluvana in Rājagaha, the Licchavi Mahāli, friend
of Bimbisāra and son of the chaplain of Vesāli, was sent to Bimbisāra
with a request that he should persuade the Buddha to go to Vesāli.
Bimbisāra referred him to the Buddha himself, who, after listening to
Mahāli’s story, agreed to go. The Buddha started on the journey with
five hundred monks. Bimbisāra decorated the route from Rājagaha to the
Ganges, a distance of five leagues, and provided all comforts on the
way. He accompanied the Buddha, and the Ganges was reached in five
days. Boats, decked with great splendour, were ready for the Buddha and
his monks, and we are told that Bimbisāra followed the Buddha into the
water up to his neck. The Buddha was received on the opposite bank by
the Licchavis, with even greater honour than Bimbisāra had shown him.
As soon as the Buddha set foot in the Vajjian territory, there was a
thunderstorm and rain fell in torrents. The distance from the Ganges to
Vesāli was three leagues; as the Buddha approached Vesāli, Sakka came
to greet him, and, at the sight of the devas, all the evil spirits fled
in fear. In the evening the Buddha taught Ananda the Ratana Sutta, and
ordered that it should be recited within the three walls of the city,
the round of the city being made with the Licchavi princes. This Ananda
did during the three watches of the night, and all the pestilences of
the citizens disappeared. The Buddha himself recited the Ratana Sutta
to the assembled people, and eighty four thousand beings were converted.
After repeating this for seven consecutive days, the Buddha left
Vesāli. (According to the DhA. account the Buddha stayed only seven
days in Vesāli; KhA. says two weeks). The Licchavis accompanied him to
the Ganges with redoubled honours, and, in the river itself, Devas and
Nāgas vied with each other in paying him honour. On the farther bank,
Bimbisāra awaited his arrival and conducted him back to Rājagaha. On
his return there, the Buddha recited the Sankha Jātaka. (See 2.)

It was probably during this visit of the Buddha to Vesāli that Suddhodana died. (See ThigA., p. 141; AA.i.186).

It was during this visit of the Buddha to Kapilavatthu (tadā) that Mahā
Pajāpatī Gotamī first asked his permission to join the Order, but her
request was refused (AA.i.186).

According to one account, the Buddha went through the air to visit his
dying father and to preach to him, thereby enabling him to attain
arahantship before his death. It is not possible to know how many
visits were paid by the Buddha to Vesāli, but the books would lead us to
infer that they were several. Various Vinaya rules are mentioned as
having been laid down at Vesāli. See, e.g., Vin.i.238, 287f; ii.118,
119 27. The visit mentioned in the last context seems to have been a
long one; it was on this occasion that the Buddha ordered the monks to
turn their bowls upon the Licchavi Vaddha (q.v.). For other Vinaya
rules laid down at Vesāli, see also Vin.ii.159f.; iii. and iv. passim.

It was during a stay in Vesāli, whither he had gone from Kapilavatthu,
that Mahā Pajāpatī Gotamī followed the Buddha with five hundred other
Sākyan women, and, with the help of Ananda’s intervention, obtained
permission for women to enter the Order under certain conditions.
Vin.ii.253ff.; see Mahā Pajāpatī Gotamī.

The books describe (E.g., D.ii.95ff) at some length the Buddha’s last
visit to Vesāli on his way to Kusinārā. On the last day of this visit,
after his meal, he went with Ananda to Cāpāla cetiya for his siesta,
and, in the course of their conversation, he spoke to Ananda of the
beauties of Vesāli: of the Udena cetiya, the Gotamaka cetiya, the
Sattambaka cetiya, the Bahuputta cetiya, and the Sārandada cetiya. Cf.
Mtu.i.300, where a Kapinayha-cetiya is also mentioned. All these were
once shrines dedicated to various local deities, but after the Buddha’s
visit to Vesāli, they were converted into places of Buddhist worship.
Other monasteries are also mentioned, in or near Vesāli e.g.,
Pātikārāma, Vālikārāma.

The Buddha generally stayed at the Kūtāgārasālā (q.v.) during his visits
to Vesāli, but it appears that he sometimes lived at these different
shrines (See D.ii.118). During his last visit to the Cāpāla cetiya he
decided to die within three months, and informed Māra and, later,
Ananda, of his decision. The next day he left Vesāli for Bhandagāma,
after taking one last look at the city, “turning his whole body round,
like an elephant” (nāgāpalokitam apaloketvā) (D.ii.122). The rainy
season which preceded this, the Buddha spent at Beluvagāma, a suburb of
Vesāli, while the monks stayed in and around Vesāli. On the day before
he entered into the vassa, Ambapāli invited the Buddha and the monks to a
meal, at the conclusion of which she gave her Ambavana for the use of
the Order (D.ii.98; but see Dial.ii.102, n.1).

Vesāli was a stronghold of the Niganthas, and it is said that of the
forty two rainy seasons of the latter part of Mahāvīra’s ascetic life,
he passed twelve at Vesāli. Jacobi: Jaina Sutras (S.B.E.) Kalpa Sūtra,
sect. 122; Vesāli was also the residence of Kandaramasuka and
Pātikaputta (q.v.). Among eminent followers of the Buddha who lived in
Vesāli, special mention is made of Ugga (chief of those who gave
pleasant gifts), Pingiyāni, Kāranapāli, Sīha, Vāsettha (A.iv.258), and
the various Licchavis (see Licchavi.)

The Buddha’s presence in Vesāli was a source of discomfort to the
Niganthas, and we find mention (See, e.g., Sīha) of various devices
resorted to by them to prevent their followers from coming under the
influence of the Buddha.

At the time of the Buddha, Vesāli was a very large city, rich and
prosperous, crowded with people and with abundant food. There were
seven thousand seven hundred and seven pleasure grounds and an equal
number of lotus ponds. Its courtesan, Ambapālī, was famous for her
beauty, and helped in large measure in making the city prosperous
(Vin.i.268). The city had three walls, each one gāvuta away from the
other, and at three places in the walls were gates with watch towers.

J.i.604; cf.i.389. Perhaps these three walls separated the three
districts of Vaisālī mentioned in the Tibetan Dulva (Rockhill, p.62);
Hoernle (Uvāsagadasāo Translation ii., p.4, n.8) identifies these three
districts with the city proper, Kundapura and Vāniyagāma, respectively
mentioned in the Jaina books. Buddhaghosa says (e.g., Sp.ii.393) that
Vesāli was so called because it was extensive (visālībhūtatā Vesāli ti
uccati); cf. UdA.184 (tikkhattum visālabhūtattā); and MA.i.259.

Outside the town, leading uninterruptedly up to the Himālaya, was the
Mahāvana (DA.i.309) (q.v.), a large, natural forest. Near by were other
forests, such as Gosingalasāla. (A.v.134)

Among important suttas preached at Vesāli are the Mahāli, Mahāsīhanāda,
Cūla Saccaka, Mahā Saccaka, Tevijja, Vacchagotta, Sunakkhatta and

See also A.i.220, 276; ii.190, 200; iii.38, 49ff., 75, 142, 167, 236,
239; iv. 16, 79, 100, 179, 208, 274ff., 279ff., 308ff.; v. 86, 133,
342; S.i.29, 112, 230; ii.267, 280; iii.68, 116; iv. 109, 210ff., 380;
v. 141f, 152f, 258, 301, 320, 389, 453; D.ii.94ff.; the subjects of
these discourses are mentioned passim, in their proper places; see also
DhA.i.263; iii.267, 279, 460, 480.

The Telovāda Jātaka (No. 246) and the Sigāla Jātaka (No. 152) were
preached at Vesāli. After the Buddha’s death a portion of his relics
was enshrined in the City. (D.ii.167; Bu.xxviii.2)

One hundred years later Vesāli was again the scene of interest for
Buddhists, on account of the “Ten Points” raised by the Vajjiputtakā,
(q.v.), and the second Council held in connection with this dispute at
the Vālikārāma.

The city was also called Visālā. (E.g., AA.i.47; Cv.xcix.98). There
were Nāgas living in Vesāli; these were called Vesālā (D.ii.258).

Vesāli is identified with the present village of Basrah in the
Muzafferpur district in Tirhut. See Vincent Smith, J.R.A.S. 1907, p.
267f., and Marshall, Arch. Survey of India, 1903 4, p. 74.

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2242 Mon 29 May 2017 LESSON

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Sirima: Sirima’s Mansion

in 1) Classical English,80) Classic Sesotho,81) Classical Shona,82) Classical Sindhi- Classical سنڌي
83) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,84) Classical Slovak- Klasický slovenský,85) Classical Slovenian- Klasični slovenski,86) Classical Somali-Qadiimiga ah Soomaali,87) Classical Spanish-Clásico Español,88) Classical Sundanese- Sunda Klasik,90) Classical Swahili-Classical Kiswahili,91) Classical Swedish- Klassisk svensk,92) Classical Tajik- Tajik классикӣ,93) Classical Tamil- செம்மொழி தமிழ்,94) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు95) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,96) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,

Vv 1.16
PTS: Vv 136-148

Sirima: Sirima’s Mansion

translated from the Pali by
John D. Ireland


Your yoked and finely caparisoned horses, strong and swift, are
heading downward through the sky. And these five hundred chariots,
magically created, are following, the horses urged on by charioteers.

You stand in this excellent chariot, adorned, radiant and shining,
like a blazing star. I ask you of lovely slender form and exquisite
beauty, from which company of gods have you come to visit the Unrivalled


From those who have reached the heights of sensual pleasures, said to
be unsurpassed; the gods who delight in magical transformation and
creation. A nymph from that company able to assume any desired
appearance has come here to worship the Unrivalled One.


What good conduct did you formerly practice here? How is it that you
live in immeasurable glory and have gained such pleasures? Due to what
have you acquired the unrivalled power to travel through the sky? Why
does your beauty radiate in the ten directions?

You are surrounded and honored by the gods. From where did you
decease before you came to a heavenly bourn, goddess? Or of what
teaching were you able to follow the word of instruction? Tell me if you
were a disciple of the Awakened One.


In a fine well-built city situated between hills, an attendant of a
noble king endowed with good fortune, I was highly accomplished in
dancing and singing. As Sirima I was known in Rajagaha.

But then the Awakened One, the leader among seers, the guide, taught
me of origination, of suffering and impermanence; of the unconditioned,
of the cessation of suffering that is everlasting; and of this path, not
crooked, straight, auspicious.

When I had learnt of the undying state (nibbana), the unconditioned,
through the instruction of the Tathagata, the Unrivalled One, I was
highly and well restrained in the precepts and established in the Dhamma
taught by the most excellent of men, the Awakened One.

When I knew the undefiled place, the unconditioned, taught by the
Tathagata, the Unrivalled One, I then and there experienced the calm
concentration (of the noble path). That supreme certainty of release was

When I gained the distinctive undying, assured, eminent in
penetrative insight, not doubting, I was revered by many people and
experienced much pleasure and enjoyment.

Thus I am a goddess, knowing the undying, a disciple of the
Tathagata, the Unrivalled One; a knower of Dhamma established in the
first fruit, a stream-enterer. Henceforth there is no bad bourn for me.

I came to revere the Unrivalled One and the virtuous monks who
delight in what is skilled; to worship the auspicious assembly of
ascetics and the respectworthy Fortunate One, the Dhamma-king.

I am joyful and gladdened on seeing the sage, the Tathagata, the
outstanding trainer of men capable of being trained, who has cut off
craving, who delights in what is skilled, the guide. I worship the
supremely merciful Compassionate One.

You stand in this excellent chariot, adorned, radiant and shining,
like a blazing star. I ask you of lovely slender form and exquisite
beauty, from which company of gods have you come to visit the Unrivalled


From those who have reached the heights of sensual pleasures, said to
be unsurpassed; the gods who delight in magical transformation and
creation. A nymph from that company able to assume any desired
appearance has come here to worship the Unrivalled One.


What good conduct did you formerly practice here? How is it that you
live in immeasurable glory and have gained such pleasures? Due to what
have you acquired the unrivalled power to travel through the sky? Why
does your beauty radiate in the ten directions?

You are surrounded and honored by the gods. From where did you
decease before you came to a heavenly bourn, goddess? Or of what
teaching were you able to follow the word of instruction? Tell me if you
were a disciple of the Awakened One.


In a fine well-built city situated between hills, an attendant of a
noble king endowed with good fortune, I was highly accomplished in
dancing and singing. As Sirima I was known in Rajagaha.

But then the Awakened One, the leader among seers, the guide, taught
me of origination, of suffering and impermanence; of the unconditioned,
of the cessation of suffering that is everlasting; and of this path, not
crooked, straight, auspicious.

When I had learnt of the undying state (nibbana), the unconditioned,
through the instruction of the Tathagata, the Unrivalled One, I was
highly and well restrained in the precepts and established in the Dhamma
taught by the most excellent of men, the Awakened One.

When I knew the undefiled place, the unconditioned, taught by the
Tathagata, the Unrivalled One, I then and there experienced the calm
concentration (of the noble path). That supreme certainty of release was

When I gained the distinctive undying, assured, eminent in
penetrative insight, not doubting, I was revered by many people and
experienced much pleasure and enjoyment.

Thus I am a goddess, knowing the undying, a disciple of the
Tathagata, the Unrivalled One; a knower of Dhamma established in the
first fruit, a stream-enterer. Henceforth there is no bad bourn for me.

I came to revere the Unrivalled One and the virtuous monks who
delight in what is skilled; to worship the auspicious assembly of
ascetics and the respectworthy Fortunate One, the Dhamma-king.

I am joyful and gladdened on seeing the sage, the Tathagata, the
outstanding trainer of men capable of being trained, who has cut off
craving, who delights in what is skilled, the guide. I worship the
supremely merciful Compassionate One.

Mansion In The Sky

8. Tripitaka by Theravada Buddhism (Sutta)

Most Influential books in Indian History.
The Sutta Pitaka (”Basket of Discourse”) is the largest of the “three baskets” (Tipitaka).

From the Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka:Khuddaka Nikaya

Buddha Tripitaka: Going for refuge (Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

Buddha Tripitaka. — GOING FOR REFUGE- Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

I go for refuge to the Buddha (Teacher)
I go for refuge to the Dhamma (the Teaching)
I go for refuge to the Sangha (the Taught)

For the second time I go for refuge to the Buddha
For the second time I go for refuge to the Dhamma
For the second time I go for refuge to the Sangha

For the third time I go for refuge to the Buddha
For the third time I go for refuge to the Dhamma
For the third time I go for refuge to the Sangha

You may ask quetions about meditation in comments below.
And subscribe to my channel please to by noticed about new videos.

Buddha Tripitaka: The Ten Training Precepts (Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA )

1. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from killing.

2. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from stealing.

3. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from sexual misconduct.

4. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from lying.

5. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from liquor that causes intoxication and heedlessness.

6. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from untimely eating.

7. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from dancing, singing, music, and visiting unseemly shows.

8. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from the use of garlands, perfumes, cosmetics, and embellishments.

9. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from the use of high and luxurious beds.

10. I undertake to abide by the precept to abstain from accepting gold and silver.

80) Classic Sesotho

2238 Thu 25 May 2017 | Thuto
ho tswa

moreketoro wa

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Sirima: Sirima o Mansion

VV 1,16
PTS: VV 136-148
Sirima: Sirima o Mansion
le fetoletsoeng e le ho tswa Pali ke
John D. Ireland
© 2005


a se kopantseng le khabeloa caparisoned lipere tsa hao, le matla le ho potlakela ho, ba lebile hokae tlaase ka sepakapakeng. ‘Me bana ba likoloi tse makholo a mahlano, ka mohlolo ba bōptjoa, ba e
latelang, lipere o ile a phehella ho ke bakhanni ba likoloi.

O ema ka koloing ea ena e babatsehang, ea khabileng, tlale thabo le khanyang, joaloka naleli le bataolang. Ke kopa o ea ratehang mosesaane foromo le botle phethehileng, e leng khamphani oa melimo na u tla ho etela e ‘ngoe Unrivaled?


Ho batho ba finyeletse libaka tse phahameng tsa menyaka ea nama, o ile a re ho keng ea lekanngoa; melimo ba thabela phetoho ea boselamose le pōpo. A nymph tloha ba khampani eo khona ho nahana se bonahalang a lakatsa o tlile mona ho le rapele Ea Unrivaled.


boitšoaro life tse molemo na u ne u forme


e ntle toropo e hahiloeng hantle e lutse pakeng tsa maralla, mohlanka
oa morena le likelello filoe mahlohonolo, ke ne ke e finyelletsoe
neng-haholo ka ho tantša le ho bina.
Ka Sirima Ke ne ke tsejoa ka ho Rajagaha.

joale e ntan’o ba tsosoa ‘ngoe, e leng moeta-pele har’a seers, le
motataisi, o ile a ruta’ na tsa origination, mahlomola le impermanence;
tsa unconditioned, ba cessation ea mahlomola a ka ho sa feleng; le ba tseleng ena, eseng khopameng, ka kotloloho, auspicious.

ke ne ke ithutile la puso le sa feleng (nibbana), le unconditioned, ka
thuto ea Tathagata, ho Unrivaled ‘ngoe, ke ne ke haholo le hantle
thibile ka melao le thehoa Dhamma rutoa ke babatsehang ho fetisisa sa
batho, ho tsosoa

ke ne ke tseba sebaka sa silafalang, ea unconditioned, rutoa ke
Tathagata, ho Unrivaled le leng, ke ka nako eo ‘me ho na le nang le
phihlelo ea mahloriso khobile matšoafo (ya tsela e babatsehang).
Hore Kannete phahameng sa tokollo e ne e le ba ka.

Ha ke ile ka ba le le sa feleng ikhethang, o ile a tiisetsa, phahameng
ka temohisiso penetrative, a sa belaele, ke ne ke masantu masengeli
komemiama ke batho ba bangata ba nang le phihlelo monyaka ngata ‘me le

Ka tsela eo ke molimotsana, ka ho tseba le sa feleng, e le morutuoa oa Tathagata, ho Unrivaled ‘ngoe; e knower tsa Dhamma thehilwe litholoana pele, nōka e-enterer. Joale ho ea pele ha ho na bourn mpe bakeng sa ka.

Ke ile ka hlompha ba Unrivaled mong le baitlami ba banna ba khabane ba thabela ho se ea nang le tsebo; ho rapela le phutheho auspicious tsa ascetics le respectworthy lehlohonolo ‘ngoe, ho Dhamma-ba morena.

thabile ‘me gladdened ka bona Sage, ea Tathagata, mokoetlisi e
ikhethang ea banna ba nang le bokhoni ba ho ba koetlisitsoeng, ea khaola
takatso, ea ileng a thabela ho se ea nang le tsebo, ka tataiso.
Ke rapela ka ho fetisisa ea mohau Bontšang Kutloelo-bohloko e ‘ngoe.
Mansion In The Sky
8. Tripitaka ke Theravada Bobuddha (Sutta)

libuka ho fetisisa ba nang le tšusumetso ka ho Indian History.
The Sutta Pitaka ( “Basket ea puo”) ke kholo ka ho fetisisa ea “libaskete tse tharo” (Tipitaka).
Ho tloha Sehalalelong Buddhist Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
Buddha Tripitaka: Tl’o bakeng sa setšabelo sa (.. Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

Buddha Tripitaka. - tsamaela REFUGE- Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

Ke ea bakeng sa setšabelo sa ho Buddha (Mosuoe)
Ke ea bakeng sa setšabelo sa ho Dhamma (ea Thuto)
Ke ea bakeng sa setšabelo sa ho Chopra (ho Rutoa)

Ka lekhetlo la bobeli ke ea bakeng sa setšabelo sa ho Buddha
Ka lekhetlo la bobeli ke ea bakeng sa setšabelo sa ho Dhamma
Ka lekhetlo la bobeli ke ea bakeng sa setšabelo sa ho Chopra

Ka lekhetlo la boraro ke ea bakeng sa setšabelo sa ho Buddha
Ka lekhetlo la boraro ke ea bakeng sa setšabelo sa ho Dhamma
Ka lekhetlo la boraro ke ea bakeng sa setšabelo sa ho Chopra

O ka kopa quetions ka ho thuisa ka maikutlo mona ka tlase.
Le Subscribe to le kanaleng ka kopo ho ke hlokometse ka livideo tse ncha.

Buddha Tripitaka: The Ten Thupelo melao (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA..)

1. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila ho bolaea.

2. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila utsoa.

3. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila boitšoaro bo bobe ba ho kopanela liphate.

4. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila leshano.

5. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila joala e bakang botahoa le heedlessness.

6. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila ja tšohanyetso.

7. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila tantša, ho bina, ‘mino le ho etela e bontša unseemly.

8. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila tshebediso ya
setaele se kang moqhaka, litlolo tse nkhang hamonate, litlolo, le

9. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila tšebeliso ea libethe phahameng le majabajaba.

10. ke ikemisetsa ho ikamahanya le molao le ho ila amohela khauta le silevera.

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81) Classical Shona

2238 Thu 25 May 2017 CHIDZIDZO


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Sirima: Sirima raMwari Mansion

ndima 1.16
Pts: Ndima 136-148
Sirima: Sirima raMwari Mansion
rinoshandurwa kubva Pali kubudikidza
John D. Ireland
© 2005


pajoko uye nenguvo dzakarukwa zvakanaka caparisoned mabhiza, simba uye
achikurumidza, vari kuenda pasi kuburikidza kudenga.
Uye izvi ngoro mazana mashanu, magic kusikwa, vari kutevera, mabhiza vachikurudzirwa vengoro.

Iwe mira ngoro iyi yakanaka, vakashongedzwa inobwinya nokuvhenekera, sezvinoita unopfuta nyeredzi. Ndinokukumbira iwe pamusoro akanaka tetepa chimiro uye nemasango
runako, imwi wasvika kushanyira Unrivaled Mumwe iyo boka vanamwari?


Kubva vaya zvasvika dzakakwirira mafaro enyama, akati kuti risingaenzaniswi; vamwari vanofarira mashiripiti kushanduka uye zvisikwa. A nymph kubva kambani kukwanisa kufunga chero achida chitarisiko yasvika pano kunamata Unrivaled One.


maitiro api akanaka iwe forme


rimwe guta yakanaka kwazvo-akavaka rakamiswa pakati pezvikomo, mushandi
wamambo anokudzwa akapiwa rombo rakanaka, ndakanga zvikuru kuitwa
kutamba nokuimba.
Sezvo Sirima I aizivikanwa Rajagaha.

zvino ndakamuka One, mutungamiriri pakati kuvaoni, mutungamiriri,
vakandidzidzisa kuti origination, kutambura uye impermanence;
of unconditional, ari kumira kutambura kusingaperi; uye nzira iyi, kwete kururama, kururamiswa, auspicious.

akadzidza rusingaperi wehurumende (nibbana), kuti unconditional,
kubudikidza nokurayira Tathagata, ivo Unrivaled One, ndakanga kwazvo uye
tsime ikadziviswa mune mitemo uye hwakasimbiswa Dhamma
anodzidziswa-naka kupfuura varume kupepuka

ndaiziva kusvibiswa nzvimbo, iyo unconditional, kudzidziswa Tathagata,
ivo Unrivaled One, I ipapo vakasangana wakagadzikana wevasungwa
(yomuchinda nzira).
Kuti chokwadi mukuru kusunungurwa kwangu.

Kana ndakawana nevamwe rusingaperi, nechokwadi, inozvikudza mune
penetrative nzwisiso, usingambozenguriri, I airemekedzwa nevanhu
vakawanda uye ruzivo mufaro zvikuru uye mufaro.

Saka ndiri mwarikadzi, muchiziva rusingaperi, mudzidzi ari Tathagata, ari Unrivaled One; mumwe knower pamusoro Dhamma hwakagadzwa chibereko chokutanga, karwizi-enterer. Kubva ikozvino hapana bourn zvakaipa kwandiri.

Ndakasvika kutya Jehovha Unrivaled One uye akanaka mamongi vanofarira zvinhu unyanzvi; kunamata auspicious ungano vanozvinyima uye respectworthy Fortunate One, kuti Dhamma-mambo.

kufara uye wakafadza achiona somuzivi, ivo Tathagata, kunoshamisa
anodzidzisa varume vanokwanisa kudzidziswa, iye akagura nhomba, uyo
anofarira zvinhu unyanzvi, mutungamiriri.
I namatai zvikuru ngoni Nyoro One.
Mansion In The Sky
8. Tripitaka ne Theravada chiBhudha (Sutta)

mabhuku Most Simba iri Indian History.
The Sutta Pitaka ( “Basket yehurukuro”) ndiyo huru kupfuura “tswanda nhatu” (Tipitaka).
Kubva Holy muBhudha Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
Buddha Tripitaka: Kuenda nhare (.. Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

Buddha Tripitaka. - kuenda kwokupotera Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

Ndinoenda utiziro kuna Buddha (Mudzidzisi)
Ndinoenda utiziro kuna Dhamma (Dzidziso)
Ndinoenda utiziro kuna Sangha (the Kudzidziswa)

Kechipiri Ndinoenda utiziro kuna Buddha
Kechipiri Ndinoenda utiziro kuna Dhamma
Kechipiri Ndinoenda utiziro kuna Sangha

Kechitatu Ndinoenda utiziro kuna Buddha
Kechitatu Ndinoenda utiziro kuna Dhamma
Kechitatu Ndinoenda utiziro kuna Sangha

Unogona kubvunza quetions pamusoro nokufungisisa zviri pasi apa.
Nokunyora magwaro kuti gwara rangu ndapota kuti kubudikidza akacherechedza pamusoro mavhidhiyo itsva.

Buddha Tripitaka: The Gumi Training Precepts (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA..)

1. Ini ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega kuuraya.

2. I ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega nokuba.

3. I ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega unzenza.

4. I ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega nhema.

5. I ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega doro chinokonzera kudhaka uye heedlessness.

6. Ini ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega rwaikurumidza kuuya kudya.

7. I ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega nokutamba, kuimba, mumhanzi, uye kushanyira zvisakafanira zvinoratidzwa.

8. I ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega pakushandisa nezvishongo, zvinonhuhwira, zvizoro, uye kunatsiridzwa.

9. I ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega pakushandisa yakakwirira uye dzinoyevedza mibhedha.

10. I ita kuti kuteerera murayiro wokurega kugamuchira goridhe nesirivha.

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82) Classical Sindhi
82) Classical سنڌي

2238 خميس 25 مئي 2017 سبق


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Sirima: Sirima جي حويلي

جھيڙي 1،16
PTS: جھيڙي 136-148
Sirima: Sirima جي حويلي
پالي ٻوليء جي مان ترجمو
جان المتوفي آئرلينڊ
© 2005


توهان yoked ۽ عمدو caparisoned گھوڙا، مضبوط ۽ وٺندڙ، آسمان جي ذريعي ڊسڪائونٽ تي گامزن هوندا آهيون. ۽ اهي پنج سؤ chariots، جادوئي پيدا ڪيو، ڏنل آهن، گھوڙا charioteers جي تي زور ڏنو.

توهان هڪ ٻرندڙ تارو وانگر هن شاندار گاڏيء ۾ اٿي، سينگاريو، radiant ۽ چمڪندڙ،. آء اوھان کي پيارو slender فارم ۽ exquisite حسن جي پڇن ٿا، جي بتن جو صحبت مان توهان جي Unrivaled هڪ جو دورو ڪرڻ لاء ايندا آهن؟


جن sensual بڻيا جي ھميشه پهچي ويا کان، unsurpassed چيو وڃي ٿو ته؛ جي معبودن جن کي لطيف سائينء transformation ۽ خلق ۾ خوشي. ته ڪمپني ڪنهن به گهربل ظاهر فرض ڪرڻ جي قابل کان هڪ اپسرا هتي اچي چڪو آهي ته Unrivaled هڪ عبادت ڪرڻ.


اوھان کي ڇا نيڪ سيرت، forme


نفيس چڱي-تعمير ٽڪرن جي وچ ۾ اڏيل شهر ۾، سٺي نصيب ھوسون تنھن سڳورو
بادشاهه جي هڪ اٽينڊنٽ، مون کي انتهائي ناچ ۽ گانا ۾ انجام ڪيو ويو.
Sirima جيئن مون کي Rajagaha ۾ سڃاتو ويندو هو.

پر وري وڃين هڪ، seers مان جي اڳواڻ، سنڌ جي ھدايت، مون کي origination جي، آزار ۽ impermanence جي سيکاريو. جي unconditioned جي، سهڻ جي cessation ته ھميشگيء وارو آهي جو؛ ۽ هن واٽ جي، ھيٺاھين نه، سڌو، پاون.

مون کي undying رياست (nibbana) جو عالم هو، جو unconditioned، جي
Tathagata جي عبرت، جي Unrivaled هڪ وسيلي، مون کي انتهائي ۽ چڱي طرح جي
precepts ھونديون هو ۽ Dhamma ماڻھن جي سڀ کان وڌيڪ چڱو جي سيکاريو، جو
وڃين ۾ قائم

مون کي نه سينواريو جي جاء ڄاتي، جي unconditioned، جي Tathagata جي
سيکاريو، جو Unrivaled هڪ، مون کي وري ۽ نه (جي سڳوري واٽ جي) جي دامن کي
ڪنسنٽريشن محسوس ڪئي.
ڇڏڻ جي آهي ته سپريم يقين منهنجو هو.

جڏهن مون کي هن جي امتيازي undying، يقين ڏياريو، penetrative بصيرت ۾
نامور، آيا نه توجهه، مون کي ڪيترن ئي ماڻهن جي مڃتا ۽ گهڻو ايندو آهي ۽
فائدو محسوس ڪيو ويو.

اهڙيء طرح مون کي هڪ ديوي جي Tathagata، جي Unrivaled هڪ جي هڪ شاگرد آهيان، جو undying ڄاڻڻ،؛ Dhamma جو ڄاڻندڙ پهرين ڦر ۾ قائم هڪ وهڪرو-enterer. لڳايو ته اتي مون کي ڪو خراب bourn آهي.

مون کي Unrivaled هڪ ۽ نيڪ فقير جو جيڪي ماهر آهي ۾ خوشي revere آيو؛ سوق جي پاون اسيمبلي ۽ respectworthy خوش نصيبي هڪ، جي Dhamma-بادشاهه جي عبادت ڪرڻ.

کي بھشتي اڄ آهيان ۽ بابا، جي Tathagata، تربيت پئي جي قابل ماڻھو، جيڪو
ترس، جو جيڪي ماهر آهي ۾ اڻ، جي ھدايت پٽي ڪري ڇڏيو آهي جو شاندار کي سڌائڻ
وارا سڄو تي gladdened.
مون کي supremely مھربان مھربان هڪ عبادت ڪريو.؟v=jMufxCnpNqI&list=RDjMufxCnpNqI#t=0
حويلي آسمان ۾؟v=YpVebI8ydsk
8. Tripitaka Theravada ٻڌ مت جي (Sutta)

هندستان جي تاريخ ۾ سڀ کان بااثر ڪتابن.
هن Sutta Pitaka ( “وڪيپيڊيا جي ٽوڪري”) جي “ٽي کاريون” (Tipitaka) جو وڏي ۾ وڏو آهي.؟v=AVFx5U843A4
Sutta Pitaka:: Khuddaka Nikaya پاڪ ٻڌ Tipitaka کان؟v=TxhD-BJ5MlY
مهاتما ٻڌ Tripitaka: پناھ لاء (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. ڳول-GAMANA..)

مهاتما ٻڌ Tripitaka. - REFUGE- Sutta Pitaka لاء. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. ڳول-GAMANA

مون کي ته مهاتما ٻڌ (استاد) کي پناھ لاء وڃو
مون کي Dhamma (تدريسي) کي پناھ لاء وڃو
مون کي Sangha کي پناھ لاء وڃو (ته سيکاريائين)

ٻيو ڀيرو مون کي مهاتما ٻڌ کي پناھ لاء وڃو
ٻيو ڀيرو آء جي Dhamma کي پناھ لاء وڃو
ٻيو ڀيرو آء جي Sangha کي پناھ لاء وڃو

ٽئين وقت لاء مون کي مهاتما ٻڌ کي پناھ لاء وڃو
ٽئين وقت لاء مون کي Dhamma کي پناھ لاء وڃو
ٽئين وقت لاء مون کي Sangha کي پناھ لاء وڃو

توهان هيٺ ڏنل راين ۾ مراقبي جي باري ۾ quetions پڇا ڳاڇا ڪري سگهون ٿا.
۽ نئين وڊيوز جي باري ۾ محسوس ڪندي ڪرڻ لاء مهرباني ڪري منهنجو چينل کي رڪنيت حاصل.؟v=0wCGR3xLVGE

مهاتما ٻڌ Tripitaka: ڏهه سکيا Precepts (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA..)

1. مون کي precept جي سدائين قتل کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.

2. مون کي precept جي سدائين چوريء کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.

3. مون کي precept جي رھڻ لاء جنسي misconduct کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.

4. مون کي precept جي رھڻ لاء ڪوڙي کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.

5. مون کي precept جي رھڻ لاء عرق ته نشي ۽ بي خبريء جو ازالو کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.

6. مون کي precept جي سدائين untimely پرهيز کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.

7. مون کي precept جي رھڻ لاء ناچ، گانا، موسيقي، ۽ unseemly ڏيکاري جو دورو ڪرڻ کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.

8. مون کي precept جي سدائين garlands، عطر، سينگار، ۽ چمڪ جي استعمال کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.

9. مون کي precept جي رھڻ لاء اعلي ۽ آسائش سمھڻ جي استعمال کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.

10. مون کي precept
جي رھڻ لاء سون ۽ رپي جو قبول کان مثلا جي صلاحيت رکن ٿا.ڪيو

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They’re some of the best examples of music and animation in existence. Join as we count down our picks for the top 10 animated music videos. Sp…

Qamar Soomro |Tuhunjay Hijer firaq main | Best Sindhi song classic
Qamar Soomro |Tuhunjay Hijer firaq main | Best Sindhi song classic

83) Classical Sinhala
83) සම්භාව්ය සිංහල

2238 බ්රහස් 25 මැයි 2017 පාඩම


Insight-NET-හායි Tech ගුවන් විදුලි නිදහස් සජීවනය Clipart ඔන්ලයින් A1 (අවදි එක්) Tipiṭaka පර්යේෂණ සහ පුහුණුව විශ්ව
දෘශ්ය ආකෘතිය (FOA1TRPUVF) හි
සිරිමා: සිරිමා ගේ මන්දිරය

විවි 1.16
හැටි: විවි 136-148
සිරිමා: සිරිමා ගේ මන්දිරය
පාලි පොත් සමාගම මගින් පරිවර්තනය
ජෝන් ඩී අයර්ලන්තය
© 2005


ඔබේ බැඳීම් හා සිහින් ව caparisoned අශ්වයන්, ශක්තිමත් සහ ඉක්මන්, අහස හරහා පහලට ගමන් කර ඇත. මෙම පන්සියයක් රථ, භූගෝලීය පිහිටීම නිර්මාණය, පහත සඳහන්, අශ්වයන් අශ්ව රථ පදවන්නන් විසින් ඉල්ලා සිටියේය.

ඔබ මෙම විශිෂ්ට අශ්ව, අලංකාර විකිරණශීලතා බැබළෙන, අදමිටුන් තරු මෙන් සිටීමට. මම සුන්දර හඬිනි ආකෘතිය සහ උත්කෘෂ්ට අලංකාර ඔබ අහන්න, ඔබ අසමසම එක් සංචාරය කිරීමට පැමිණ ඇති දෙවිවරුන් වන සමාගමක්?


ලිංගික තෘප්තියේ වන ඉහළ මානයන් කරා එළඹ ඇත අයගෙන් අනභිභවනීය ලෙස ය; ඉන්ද්රජාලික පරිවර්තනය හා නිර්මාණය සතුටු වෙන දෙවිවරු. ඕනෑම අයෙකුට පෙනුම කිරීමට හැකි බව සමාගම සිට නම් දෙවඟනගේ මෙහි අසමසම එක් නමස්කාර කිරීමට පැමිණ ඇත.


ඔබ forme කළේ හොඳ දේවල් මොනවාද


කඳු අතර පිහිටි දඩ හොඳින් ඉදි නගරයේ, වාසනාව ගැනීමේ නිදහස උතුම් රජ ක සේවකයා, මා අතිශයින් නැටුම් හා ගායනය ඉටු කරන ලදී. සිරිමා ලෙස මම රජගහ ප්රසිද්ධ කරන ලදී.

නමුත් පසුව අවදි එක, seers අතර නායක මගපෙන්වීම්, උප්පු ක, දුක් වේදනා හා පේනව මට ඉගැන්වූ, මෙම unconditioned ක, සදාකාලික දුක් ඇති වූ සුභවාදී ෙකොපමණද; මෙම මාර්ගය පිළිබඳ, වංක, සෘජු, සුබ නැත.

නොමියෙන රාජ්ය (නිබ්බාන) ක දැනගත් විට, unconditioned එම Tathagata
උපදෙස්, එම අසමසම එක් හරහා, මම ඔබේ දරුදැරියන් ද දැඩි ලෙස හා හොඳින්
හික්මීමක් වූ අතර මිනිසුන් වඩාත් විශිෂ්ට විසින් උගන්වනු දහම්, එම අවදි

පිරිසිදු ස්ථානය දැන සිටියේ විට, unconditioned එම Tathagata විසින්
උගන්වනු මෙම අසමසම එකක්, මම එදා සහ එහි (උතුම් මාර්ගය පිළිබඳ) සන්සුන්
සාන්ද්රණය මුහුණ.
නිදහස් කරන බව උත්තරීතර නිශ්චිත පතල.

මම සුවිශේෂී චරිත නොමියෙන, සහතික, ආකාරසේ දැක්මක් කීර්තිමත් එන නොවේ ලබා
විට, මම බොහෝ දෙනා විසින් සම්මානිත සහ බොහෝ සතුටක් හා සැප විඳීමට ලැබිණි.

මේ අනුව මම දේවතාවිය වූ Tathagata මෙම අසමසම එක් ගෝලයෙක් මම නොමියෙන දැන,; දහම් ක නගති පළමු පළතුරු පිහිටුවා, ඇළ-enterer. මෙතැන් පටන් මා වෙනුවෙන් නරක නැහැ bourn නැත.

මම අසමසම වන් හා දක්ෂ දේ ප්රිය කරන ගුණවත් භික්ෂූන් වහන්සේලා නමස්කාර කිරීමට ය; සෘෂිවරු ඇති සුබ එකලස් හා respectworthy වාසනාවන්ත එක, දහම්-රජු නමස්කාර කිරීමට.

ප්රීති වෙමි කවියේ, එම Tathagata, දක්ෂ දේ ප්රිය කරන තණ්හාවට,, මගපෙන්වීම්
කපා ඇති පුහුණු කරනු හැකි මිනිසුන්, මෙම විශිෂ්ට පුහුණුකරු දැක සතුටු කර.
මම සුපිරි දයාන්විත ශ්රේෂ්ඨතම එක් නමස්කාර කරන්න.
අහසේ මන්දිරයක්
8. ථෙරවාද බුදු දහම විසින් ත්රිපිටකය (සූත්රය)

ඉන්දීය ඉතිහාසය තුළ වඩාත් බලගතු පොත්.
මෙම සූත්රය පිටකයේ ( “කතිකාවක් පැසිපන්දු”) මෙම “කූඩ තුනක්” (Tipitaka) විශාලතම වේ.
සූත්රය පිටකයේ: Khuddaka නිකායේ ශුද්ධ බෞද්ධ Tipitaka සිට
බුද්ධ ත්රිපිටක: සරණ යනවා (සූත්රය පිටකයේ Khuddaka නිකායේ Khuddakapatha 1. සරණ-ගමන..)

බුද්ධ ත්රිපිටක. - REFUGE- සූත්රය පිටකයේ යනවා. Khuddaka නිකායේ. Khuddakapatha. 1. සරණ-ගමන

මම බුද්ධ (ගුරු) වෙත සරණ යන්න
මම දහම් (ශික්ෂණ) වෙත සරණ යන්න
මම සංඝරත්නය සරණ යන්න (මෙම ඉගැන්නුවා)

දෙවන වරටත් මම බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ වෙත සරණ යන්න
දෙවන වරටත් මම ධර්මය සරණ යන්න
දෙවන වරටත් මම සංඝරත්නය සරණ යන්න

තෙවැනි වරට මම බුදුරජාණන් වහන්සේ වෙත සරණ යන්න
තෙවැනි වරට මම ධර්මය සරණ යන්න
තෙවැනි වරට මම සංඝරත්නය සරණ යන්න

ඔබ පහත අදහස් භාවනා ගැන quetions ඇසිය හැක.
සහ නව වීඩියෝ ගැන නොතිසි නිකුත් විසින් කරුණාකර මගේ නාලිකාවට සම්බන්ධ වන්න.

බුද්ධ ත්රිපිටක: දස පුහුණු ශික්ෂාපද (සූත්රය පිටකයේ Khuddaka නිකායේ Khuddakapatha 2. දස-SIKKHAPADA..)

1. මම ඝාතනය වැළකී සිටින මෙම ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

2. මම සොරකම් වැළකී සිටින මෙම ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

3. මම ලිංගික අපචාර වැළකී සිටින මෙම ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

4. මම බොරු වැළකී සිටින මෙම ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

5. මම විෂ වීම හා නැංවෙන්නේ හේතු මත්පැන් වැළකී සිටින මෙම ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

6. මම අකල් කන වැළකී සිටින මෙම ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

7. මම නර්තන, ගායන, සංගීත, මුරණ්ඩු සහ සංදර්ශන සංචාරය වැළකී සිටින මෙම ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

8. මම මල් වඩම්, සුවඳ විලවුන්, රූපලාවන දව, සහ embellishments භාවිතයෙන් වැළකී කිරීමට ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

9. මම ඉහල හා සුඛෝපභෝගී ඇඳන් භාවිතයෙන් වැළකී කිරීමට ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

10. මම රන් හා රිදී පිළිගැනීම වැළකී සිටින මෙම ශික්ෂා පදය විසින් වගකීමෙන් භාර ගන්නවා.

Chandre Mandale_-_-_-_Sunil Edirisinghe…
Classic Sinhala Song
Sunil Edirisinghe

Classic Sinhala Song Sunil Edirisinghe[term]=buddhism%20in%20sri%20lanka&filters[primary]=gif&filters[secondary]=images&sort=1&o=3
Inline image 1

84) Classical Slovak
84) Klasický slovenský

2238 Utorok 25. mája 2017 LEKCIA


INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Rádio Voľný animovaný klipart Online A1 (prebudený) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
Vo formáte Visual (FOA1TRPUVF)
Sirima: Sirima’s Mansion

Vv 1.16
PTS: Vv 136-148
Sirima: Sirima’s Mansion
Preložené z Pali do
John D. Ireland
© 2005


Vaši jogovaní a jemne zakorenení kone, silní a rýchli, idú smerom dole cez oblohu. Týchto päťsto vozov, ktoré boli magicky vytvorené, nasledujú, koní vyzývaní charioteermi.

Stojíte v tomto vynikajúcom vozíku, ozdobený, žiarivý a žiariaci ako hviezda žiariaca. Pýtam sa vás krásnej štíhlej podobe a nádhernej krásy, z ktorej vás prišla návšteva bezkonkurenčného človeka?


Od tých, ktorí dosiahli výšku zmyselných potešení, povedal, že je neprekonateľný; Bohov, ktorí potešili magickú transformáciu a stvorenie. Nymfa z tejto spoločnosti, ktorá dokázala predpokladať ľubovoľný vzhľad, sem prišla, aby uctievala Bezkonkurenčnú.


Aké dobré správanie ste vytvorili


peknom dobre vybudovanom meste, ktoré sa nachádza medzi kopcami,
sprievodcom ušľachtilého kráľa obdareného šťastím, bol som veľmi úspešný
v tanci a speve.
Ako Sirima som bol známy v Rajagaha.

Ale potom Prebudený, vedúci medzi videním, sprievodcom, ma naučil o vzniku, o utrpení a nestálosti; Bezpodmienečného, ​​zastavenia utrpenia, ktoré je večné; A tejto cesty, nie krivé, rovno, sľubné.

som sa dozvedel o nehybnom stave (nibbana), bezpodmienečne,
prostredníctvom pokynov Tathágáty, Bezkonkurenčného, ​​som bol veľmi
dobre zdržaný v príkazoch a založený v Dhamme, ktorú učil najlepší
ľudia, prebudený

som vedel neohrozené miesto, bezpodmienečné, ktoré učil Tathágata,
Bezkonkurenčný, som tam a tam zažil pokojnú koncentráciu (ušľachtilú
Táto najvyššia istota prepustenia bola moje.

Keď som získal charakteristické nehynúce, uistené, vynikajúce v
prieniku, bez pochybností, bol som uctievaný mnohými ľuďmi a zažil
radosť a potešenie.

Takže som bohyňa, pretože som poznala nehynúceho, žiaka Tathagata, Bezkonkurenčného; Znalec Dhammy, založený v prvom ovocí, prúdnik. Odteraz nie je pre mňa žiadna zlá bolesť.

Prišiel som k ctihodnosti Bezkonkurenčného a ctených mníchov, ktorí sa tešia na to, čo je zručné; Aby uctievali slávnostné zhromaždenie asketikov a úctyhodného Šťastného človeka, kráľa Dhamma.

radosťou a radi, keď som videl mudrca, Tathagata, vynikajúceho trénera
schopného vycvičiť, ktorý odtrhol túžbu, ktorý sa teší na to, čo je
zručný, sprievodca.
Uctievujem nadmieru milosrdnú súcitnú.
Zámok na oblohe
8. Tripitaka od Theravada budhizmu (Sutta)

Najdôležitejšie knihy v indickej histórii.
Sutta Pitaka (”košík diskurzu”) je najväčší z “troch košov” (Tipitaka).
Od svätého budhistického Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
Buddha Tripitaka: Chystáte sa za útočisko (Sutta Pitaka, Khuddaka Nikaya, Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

Budha Tripitaka. - PREČÍTAJTE SA NA PRÁVO - Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

Idem na útočisko Budhu (Učiteľovi)
Chystám sa útočiť na Dhammu (učenie)
Chystám sa útočiť na Sanghu (Učený)

Podruhé idem na útočisko Buddhu
Podruhé idem na útočisko Dhamme
Podruhé idem na útočisko do Sanghy

Po tretíkrát idem na útočisko Budhu
Po tretíkrát idem na útočisko Dhamme
Po tretíkrát idem na útočisko do Sanghy

Môžete sa opýtať na otázky týkajúce sa meditácie v nižšie uvedených komentároch.
A prihláste sa na môj kanál, aby ste si všimli nové videá.

Buddha Tripitaka: Desať tréningových pravidiel (Sutta Pitaka, Khuddaka Nikaya, Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA)

1. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať predpis, aby sa zdržal zabitia.

2. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať príkaz zdržať sa krádeže.

3. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať predpis, aby som sa zdržal sexuálneho zneužitia.

4. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať predpis, aby som sa zdržal.

5. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať predpis, aby sa zdržal alkoholu, ktorý spôsobuje intoxikáciu a heedlessness.

6. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať predpis, aby sa zdržal predčasného stravovania.

7. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať predpis, aby som sa zdržal tanca, spevu, hudby a návštevníkov, ktorí sa nezúčastnili.

8. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať príkaz zdržať sa používania girlandov, parfumov, kozmetiky a zdobenia.

9. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať predpis, aby som sa zdržal používania vysokých a luxusných postelí.

10. Zaväzujem sa dodržiavať príkaz zdržať sa akceptovania zlata a striebra.

Lord Buddha - Animation Film - The Power of Life

Lord Buddha - Animation Film - The Power of Life

Lord Buddha - The Power of Life: Buddha reveals the power of love by
reforming Angulimala, a terrible killer. The calm and compassionate face
of the Buddha is known all over the world. Buddha was a spiritual
teacher of ancient India whose great ideas on freeing mankind from
sorrow and suffering form the basis of Buddhism. Buddha was born in the
sixth century B.C into a royal family. Known
as Siddhartha, he realized that human life was short and full of
sadness. He found out a path to Enlightenment and spiritual fulfillment.
He was then known as the distances teaching people about ?the MIDDLE
PATH?, the way to end to suffering. He taught the four Noble Truths of
suffering, cause of suffering, end of suffering, and the Path to do that
Buddhism offers hope and access to spiritual understanding and
satisfaction to everybody. Throughout the world today, people still
follow the teaching of the Buddha.

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Amaradeva- Gilem obeguna moodhe…ගිලෙම් ඔබේ ගුණ මූදේ……
Uploaded on Feb 14, 2010

Maestro Amaradeva- Buddhist Song- Gilem Obe Guna moode ගිලෙම් ඔබේ ගුණ මූදේ…
Lyrics by Mr. Arisen Ahubudhu

ගිලෙම් ඔබේ ගුණ මූදේ
විඳිම් ඔබේ දම් සාදේ
වඳිම් වඳිම් ඔබ පාදේ
තිලොඅග බුදු සමිඳේ
තිලොඅග බුදු සමිඳේ

සිඳ බිඳ මොහඳුර පාප
දැල් වූ දහම් පදීප
හෙළි කළ අප හෙළ දීප
තිලොඅග බුදු සමිඳේ
තිලොඅග බුදු සමිඳේ

සිල් ගත් දිනිඳුන් සේම
සිල් තෙද ගුණ ඇති සෝම
සත හට පෑ මවු පේම
තිලොඅග බුදු සමිඳේ
තිලොඅග බුදු සමිඳේ

ගිලෙම් ඔබේ ගුණ මූදේ
විඳිම් ඔබේ දම් සාදේ
වඳිම් වඳිම් ඔබ පාදේ
තිලොඅග බුදු සමිඳේ
තිලොඅග බුදු සමිඳේ

තිලොඅග බුදු සමිඳේ ////

ගැයුම- පණ්ඩිත් අමරදේව සූරින්
ගේය පද- අරිසෙන් අහුබුදු සූරින්

Amaradeva- Buddhist Song- Gilem Obe Guna moode ගිලෙම් ඔබේ ගුණ මූදේ…
Lyrics by Mr. Arisen Ahubudhu ගිලෙම් ඔබේ ගුණ මූදේ විඳිම් ඔබේ දම් සාදේ
වඳිම් වඳි…

Zen Moon - Relaxing Meditation Music Videos

Moon - Relaxing Meditation Music
Videos Moon -
Relaxing Meditation Music VideosNavaneetham ChandrasekharanJust now
· Moon - Relaxing
Meditation Music VideosZen Moon - Relaxing Meditation Music

♫ Buddha Music for Kids: To Love Is To Care And Be Kind - Imee Ooi - Best Buddhist Song for Children
♫ Buddha Music for Kids: To Love Is To Care And Be Kind - Imee Ooi - Best Buddhist Song for Children

♫ Buddha Music for Kids: To Love Is To Care And Be Kind - Imee Ooi - Best Buddhist Song for Children…

85) Classical Slovenian
85) Klasični slovenski

2238 čet 25 maj 2017 lekcija


INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free animacije Karikatura Online A1 (Prebujeni One) Tipiṭaka Raziskave in Univerza Practice
V Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)
Sirima: Sirima dvorec

vv 1.16
PTS: Vv 136-148
Sirima: Sirima dvorec
prevedeni iz pali ga
John D. Slovenija
© 2005


Vaši vprežena in fino caparisoned konji, močne in hitre, tar navzdol po nebu. In teh pet sto voz, čudežno ustvarili, so naslednji, konji pozval jih charioteers.

Stojiš v tem odličnem vozu, okrašena, sevalno in sije, kot utrl zvezda. Prosim vas, za lepo obliko vitko in izjemne lepote, od katerih družba bogov ste prišli na obisk bogatih One?


Od tistih, ki so dosegli višine čutnih užitkov, dejal, da je neprekosljivo; bogovi, ki so navdušili v čarobnem preoblikovanja in ustvarjanja. Nimfa iz te družbe, ki lahko prevzame kakršno koli želeni videz je prišel, da bi častili tekmeca One.


Kaj dobrega ravnanja ali si FORME


lepem dobro zgrajen mesto, ki se nahaja med griči, spremljevalec
plemenitega kralja obdarjen s srečo, sem bil zelo dodelan v plesu in
Kot Sirima sem znan v Rajagaha.

Ampak potem prebudil Eden je vodilna med vidcev, vodnik, me je naučil od nastanka, trpljenja in nestalnosti; nepogojenega, prenehanja trpljenja, ki je večna; in te poti, ne postrani, naravnost, Ugoden.

sem izvedela države nesmrtna (Nibbani), nepogojenega, z navodili za
Tathagata, tekmeca One, sem močno in dobro zadrži v zapovedi in imajo
sedež v Dhamme z najbolj odlično moških učil, Prebujenega

sem vedel, neomadeževane mesto, nepogojenega, ki ga je Tathagata,
tekmeca One učil, sem takrat in tam doživeli mirno koncentracijo
(plemiške poti).
Da vrhovni gotovost za javnost je bila moja.

Ko sem dobil razlikovalni nesmrtna, zagotovljeno, ugledno v prodorni
vpogled, ni dvom, sem resnico, ki ga veliko ljudi in doživeli veliko
veselje in užitek.

Tako sem boginja, vedoč neumrljive, učenec na Tathagata, tekmeca One; poznavalec Dhamme s sedežem v prvi sadja, potok-vstopajočega. Odslej ni slaba Bourn zame.

Prišel sem, da Ceniti tekmeca One in tvornega menihi, ki navdušujejo v tisto, kar je usposobljena; častiti Ugoden montažo asketov in respectworthy srečo One, Dhamme kralja.

vesela in razveselila na videnje žajbelj je Tathagata je izjemen trener
moških, ki se lahko usposabljajo, ki je odrezan hrepenenje, ki
navdušuje v tisto, kar je usposobljena, vodnik.
I častili suvereno milostno Sočutno One.
Mansion In The Sky
8. Tripitaka z theravadskega budizma (Sutta)

Večina vplivnih knjig v indijski zgodovini.
Sutta Pitaka ( “Košarica diskurza”), je največji od “treh košare” (Tipitaka).
Iz Svetega budistični Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
Buda Tripitaka: Going za zatočišče (.. Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. Sarana-GAMANA)

Buda Tripitaka. - gre za REFUGE- Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. Sarana-GAMANA

Grem za zatočišče v Buda (Učitelj)
Grem za zatočišče v Dhammo (poučevanju)
Grem za zatočišče za Sanghe (v Učiteljica)

Že drugič sem šel za zatočišče v Bude
Že drugič sem šel za zatočišče v Dhammo
Že drugič sem šel za zatočišče za Sanghe

Že tretjič sem šel za zatočišče v Bude
Že tretjič sem šel za zatočišče v Dhammo
Že tretjič sem šel za zatočišče za Sanghe

Lahko se vprašamo quetions o meditaciji v komentarjih spodaj.
In se naročite na moj kanal, vas prosimo, da ga opazili o novih video posnetkov.

Buda Tripitaka: The Ten usposabljanje zapovedi (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA.).

1. sem se zavezujejo, da bodo spoštovale zapoved, naj se vzdržijo ubijanja.

2. zavezujem, da bom spoštoval zapoved, naj se vzdržijo krajo.

3. zavezujem, da bom spoštoval zapoved, da se vzdrži neprimernega spolnega vedenja.

4. zavezujem, da bom spoštoval zapoved, naj se vzdržijo leži.

5. zavezujem, da bom spoštoval zapoved, naj se vzdržijo alkoholnih pijač, ki povzroča zastrupitev in heedlessness.

6. zavezujem, da bom spoštoval zapoved, naj se vzdržijo nepravočasnega prehranjevanja.

7. zavezujem, da bom spoštoval zapoved, naj se vzdržijo plesom, petjem, glasbo in obisku nespodobno oddaje.

8. zavezujem, da bom spoštoval zapoved, naj se vzdržijo uporabe vence, parfume, kozmetiko in okraskov.

9. zavezujem, da bom spoštoval zapoved, naj se vzdržijo uporabe velikih in razkošnih postelj.

10. zavezujem, da bom spoštoval zapoved, naj se vzdržijo sprejemanja zlato in srebro.

Buddha Hi Buddha Hai - Sonu Nigam - YouTube
Buddha Hi Buddha Hai - Sonu Nigam - YouTube

The Album Buddha Hi Buddha Hai

86) Classical Somali
86) Qadiimiga ah Soomaali

2238 Thu 25 May 2017 CASHARKA


Aragti-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (toosay One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
in Format Visual (FOA1TRPUVF)
Sirima: Sirima ee guri nagaadi

aayadaha 1.16
Dhco: aayadaha 136-148
Sirima: Sirima ee guri nagaadi
turjumay ka Pali ah by
John D. Ireland
© 2005


Your weheliyaan iyo jar caparisoned fardo, xoog iyo dheereeya, waxaa cinwaan, midhona kor iyada oo samada. Oo kuwanuna shan boqol oo gaadhifaras, si layaab abuuray, waxaa soo socda, oo fardahana ugu baaqay on by fardooley.

Waxaad u istaagaan in gaadhigan aad u fiican, una qurxinay, iftiimeen oo dhalaalaya, sida xiddiga Saciira. Wax baan idin weyddiinayaa foomka caato ah jecel yahay, oo quruxduna
fiican, kaas oo shirkadda ilaahyada ayaa waxaad u timid inaad Mid ka mid
ah mushkilado booqo?


Laga soo bilaabo kuwa ka gaadhay meelaha farxaddaada erya, ayaa sheegay in la unsurpassed; ilaahyo, kuwaas oo in Isbadal sixir ah iyo abuurista farxaa. qandhicil A shirkadda in ay awoodaan in ay u qaadan muuqaalka kasta oo
la doonayo ayaa halkan u timid inaad Mid ka mid ah mushkilado


Maxaa dhaqanka wanaagsan sameeyey aad forme

magaalada oo ganaax ah iyo sidoo kale-dhisay sugnaa buuraha dhexdooda,
midiidinka u ah cilmiga la siiyey maal fiican oo sharaf leh boqor,
waxaan ahaa heer sare kaamil ah in cayaar iyo gabay.
Sida Sirima aan lagu yaqaanay in Rajagaha.

markaas toosay Mid ka mid ah, oo amiir dhexdooda wuxuuna awday, hagaha,
i bartay OrigiNation, dhibaato iyo impermanence;
oo ka mid ah Shuruudi, ee joojinta in dhibaatadu waa weligeed ah, iyo jidka this, ma Qallooc, si toos ah, in culays.

aan bartay ee gobolka undying (nibbana), ka Shuruudi, iyada oo edbinta
ah Tathagata, Mid ka mid ah mushkilado ah, waxaan ahaa heer sare ah oo
si fiican u joojiyey in amarradaada iyo aasaasay Dhamma wax baray by ugu
fiican ee ragga, ka toosay
Mid ka mid ah.

aan meeshii aan nijaas lahayn, Shuruudi ah, baray by Tathagata, Mid ka
mid ah mushkilado ogaa, waxaan markaas oo halkaas soo maray fiirsashada
dajiyaan (ee Jidka sharaf leh).
Taasi xaqiiq sarreeya sii daayo lahaa.

Markii aan helay undying kala ah, u xaqiijiyay, qudbad aragti wax lays
geliyey, oo aan shaki lahayn, waxaan la qadarin by dad badan oo soo
maray Raalli ahaanshaha badan iyo raaxo.

Oo sidaas daraaddeed ayaan ahay ilaahadda ah, isagoo garanaya undying ah, xer u ah Tathagata ah, oo ah Kan mushkilado; og a of Dhamma aasaasay midhaha ugu horreeya, a il-enterer. Hadda dabadeed ma jiraan wax bourn xun ii.

Waxaan u imid inaan ka cabsadaan One mushkilado ah qaysas iyo Raahibiin Ismana dhawrsoonaanta kii waxa xirfad ku farxaan; inay Ilaah caabudaan, shirkii culays of ascetics iyo Fortunate One respectworthy, ku-Dhamma boqorka.

waxaan ahay farxad iyo farxi on arkaya ee xikmadda ah, ee Tathagata,
tababaraha u fiican oo rag karti leh ee la tababaray, kaas oo ka jaray
degto, kuwaas oo ku faraxsan in waxa xirfad leh, hagaha.
Waxaan u soo tukan Mid ka mid ah maammula naxariis Raxmaan.
Guri nagaadi In Sky The
8. Tripitaka by Theravada Budhiism (Sutta)

Inta badan buugaagta saameynta ku History Indian.
Sutta Pitaka The ( “Dambiisha ee hadal”) waa ugu weyn ka mid ah “saddex dambiil” (Tipitaka).
From Buddhist Quduuska ah Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
Buddha Tripitaka: Sameynta magan (.. Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA Nikaya)

Buddha Tripitaka. - AADIDA EE REFUGE- Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

Haddaba waan tegi doonaa magangal u Buddha (Macallin) ee
Haddaba waan tegi doonaa magangal u Dhamma ah (Teaching ah)
Haddaba waan tegi doonaa magangal u Sangha ah (ku baray)

Waayo, mar labaad waan tegi magangal u Buddha ah
Waayo, mar labaad waan tegi magangal u Dhamma ah
Waayo, mar labaad waan tegi magangal u Sangha ah

Waayo, markii saddexaad oo aan tago magangal u Buddha ah
Waayo, markii saddexaad oo aan tago magangal u Dhamma ah
Waayo, markii saddexaad oo aan tago magangal u Sangha ah

Waxaad waydiisan kartaa quetions ku saabsan fikirka in comments hoos ku.
Oo subscribe to my channel fadlan by ogaaday saabsan cusub videos.

Buddha Tripitaka: Tababarka amarradaada Tobanka (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Khuddakapatha Nikaya 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA..)

1. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan dilka.

2. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan xaday.

3. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan dhaqan xumo galmo.

4. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan jiifa.

5. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan khamriga keena sarkhaan iyo Halmaansho.

6. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan wax cunaya dhicis.

7. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan cayaar, hees, music, iyo booqashada shows falayo.

8. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan
isticmaalka ubaxyo isku taxan, cadar, isku qurxiyo, iyo embellishments.

9. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan isticmaalka sariiraha sare iyo raaxo leh.

10. Waxaan qaaday inay u hogaansamaan amarka inaad ka fogaataan aqbalayaan dahab iyo lacag.

Animated Gifs, Animations : Buddhism

Buddha Lounge & Bar Music Best of Best #London Summer Edition 2016 #Set 4 #Awesome Video Edit

Chill Out & Lounge Music


    Buddha Lounge & Bar Music Best of Best #London Summer Edition 2016 #Set 4 #Awesome Video Edit
    Chill Out & Lounge Music

    87) Classical Spanish
    87) Clásico Español

    2238 Jue 25 Mayo 2017 LECCIÓN


    INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Animación Gratis Clipart en línea A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
    En formato visual (FOA1TRPUVF)

    Sirima: Mansión de Sirima

    Vv 1,16
    PTS: Vv 136-148
    Sirima: Mansión de Sirima
    Traducido del Pali por
    John D. Ireland
    © 2005


    Sus caballos yugos y finamente caparazados, fuertes y rápidos, se dirigen hacia abajo a través del cielo. Y estos quinientos carros, mágicamente creados, están siguiendo, los caballos impulsados ​​por los aurigas.

    Estás en este excelente carro, adornado, radiante y brillante, como una estrella ardiente. Te pregunto de hermosa forma esbelta y belleza exquisita, ¿de qué compañía de dioses has venido a visitar al Inigualable?


    De aquellos que han alcanzado las alturas de los placeres sensuales, se dice que son insuperables; Los dioses que se deleitan en la transformación mágica y la creación. Una ninfa de esa compañía capaz de asumir cualquier aspecto deseado ha venido aquí a adorar al Incomparable.


    ¿Qué buena conducta hiciste para mí?


    una hermosa ciudad bien construida situada entre colinas, asistente de
    un noble rey dotado de buena fortuna, yo era muy experimentado bailando y
    Como Sirima I era conocido en Rajagaha.

    Pero entonces el Despertado, el líder de los videntes, el guía, me enseñó el origen, el sufrimiento y la impermanencia; De lo incondicionado, de la cesación del sufrimiento eterno; Y de este camino, no torcido, recto, auspicioso.

    me enteré del estado inmortal (nibbana), el incondicionado, a través de
    la instrucción del Tathagata, el Inigualable, fui altamente y bien
    contenido en los preceptos y establecido en el Dhamma enseñado por el
    más excelente de los hombres, el Despertado

    conocí el lugar incontaminado, el incondicionado, enseñado por el
    Tathagata, el Inigualable, yo entonces y allí experimenté la
    concentración tranquila (del camino noble).
    Esa suprema certeza de liberación era mía.

    Cuando gané el distintivo imperecedero, seguro, eminente en
    penetración, sin dudas, fui reverenciado por muchas personas y
    experimenté mucho placer y disfrute.

    Así soy una diosa, conociendo al eterno, un discípulo del Tathagata, el Inigualable; Un conocedor del Dhamma establecido en el primer fruto, una corriente-enterer. De ahora en adelante no hay malos recuerdos para mí.

    Llegué a reverenciar al Incomparable y los virtuosos monjes que se deleitan en lo que es hábil; Para adorar la auspiciosa asamblea de ascetas y el respetable Afortunado, el Dhamma-rey.

    alegre y alegre al ver al sabio, el Tathagata, el entrenador
    excepcional de hombres capaces de ser entrenados, que ha cortado el
    anhelo, que se deleita en lo que es experto, el guía.
    Adoro al Sumamente Misericordioso Compasivo.

    Mansión en el cielo

    8. Tripitaka por el Budismo Theravada (Sutta)

    Libros más influyentes en la historia india.
    El Sutta Pitaka (”cesta del discurso”) es el más grande de los “tres cestas” (Tipitaka).

    De la sagrada budista Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya

    Buda Tripitaka: En busca de refugio (Sutta Pitaka, Khuddaka Nikaya, Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

    Buda Tripitaka. - HACIENDO REFUGIO- Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. SARANA-GAMANA

    Voy para refugio al Buda (Maestro)
    Me refugio en el Dhamma (la Enseñanza)
    Voy por refugio a la Sangha (la enseñada)

    Por segunda vez voy por refugio al Buda
    Por segunda vez me refugio en el Dhamma
    Por segunda vez voy por refugio a la Sangha

    Por tercera vez me refugio en el Buda
    Por tercera vez me refugio en el Dhamma
    Por tercera vez voy por refugio a la Sangha

    Usted puede hacer queciones acerca de la meditación en los comentarios a continuación.
    Y suscríbete a mi canal por favor a por notado sobre nuevos videos.


    Buddha Tripitaka: Los Diez Preceptos de Entrenamiento (Sutta Pitaka, Khuddaka Nikaya, Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA)

    1. Me comprometo a cumplir el precepto de abstenerse de matar.

    2. Me comprometo a cumplir el precepto de abstenerse de robar.

    3. Me comprometo a cumplir con el precepto de abstenerse de conducta sexual inapropiada.

    4. Me comprometo a acatar el precepto para abstenerse de mentir.

    5. Me comprometo a cumplir con el precepto de abstenerme del licor que causa intoxicación e inconsciencia.

    6. Me comprometo a cumplir con el precepto de abstenerse de comer fuera de plazo.

    7. Me comprometo a cumplir con el precepto de abstenerse de bailar, cantar, música, y visitar espectáculos indecorosos.

    8. Me comprometo a respetar el precepto de abstenerse del uso de guirnaldas, perfumes, cosméticos y adornos.

    9. Me comprometo a cumplir el precepto de abstenerse del uso de camas altas y lujosas.

    10. Me comprometo a cumplir el precepto de abstenerse de aceptar oro y plata.

    3 HOURS Best Relaxing Music | Spanish Classical Guitar | Background, Relax, Sleep, Study, Meditation
    3 HOURS Best Relaxing Music | Spanish Classical Guitar | Background, Relax, Sleep, Study, Meditation

    Published on Aug 8, 2015

    Enjoy 3 hours of relaxing spanish music. You can use it for relax,
    sleeping, studying, etc. Listen it to relax your mind and yourself. “One
    good thing about music, when it hits you, you feel no pain.” Keep calm
    and relax. Please like this video, share and subscribe to this channel
    for more relaxing music ;)

    Used track:
    “”Asturias” by Isaac Albéniz [studio version/old archive]” by
    FHgitarre-classicalGUITAR is licensed under a Creative Commons
    Attribution licence (reuse allowed) (Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY)).

    Used image:
    “Lyme Regis” by Lies Thru a Lens is licensed under a Creative Commons linense (Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0)). ↓ ↓ ↓

    - Check out these playlists:

    ♫ Classical Music Compilation -
    ♫ Piano Relaxing Music -
    ♫ Guitar Relaxing Music -
    ♫ Happy / Positive Relaxing Music -
    ♫ Music with Relaxing Sounds -
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    ♫ Electronic / Beats / Chillout Music -
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    ♫ 9 HOURS | Long Relaxing Music -
    ♫ Clarinet / Flute / Duduk / Saxophone -
    ♫ Violin / Cello Music -
    ♫ Healing Deep Sleep Music -… A lot of the best long relaxing background music for relax, work, study, sleep or meditation here:
    TheRelaxingWorld channel
    Google+… Check out this channel too:

    Enjoy 3 hours of relaxing spanish music. You can use…

    89) Classical Sundanese

    89) Sunda Klasik

    2238 Thu 25 Méi 2017 palajaran


    Wawasan-net-Hai Tech Radio Free animasi Clipart Online A1 (Awakened Salah) Tipiṭaka Panalungtikan & Universitas Praktek
    di Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Sirima: Sirima urang Mansion

    Vv 1,16
    PTS: Vv 136-148
    Sirima: Sirima urang Mansion
    ditarjamahkeun tina Pali ku
    John D. Irlandia
    © 2005


    Anjeun yoked na finely caparisoned kuda, kuat tur Swift, aya pos handap ngaliwatan langit. Sarta ieu lima ratus chariots, magically dijieun, aya di handap, anu kuda ngadesek on ku charioteers.

    Anjeun nangtung di chariot unggulan ieu, adorned, radian sarta bersinar, kawas béntang blazing. Kuring nanya di formulir ramping denok tur kageulisan exquisite, ti
    mana parusahaan ti dewa tos datangna nganjang ka Hiji Unrivaled?


    Ti jalma anu geus nepi ka jangkung pleasures sensual, ceuk bisa unsurpassed; dewa anu delight dina transformasi gaib tur kreasi. A nymph ti parusahaan nu bisa nganggap sagala penampilan dipikahoyong geus datangna di dieu pikeun ibadah ka hiji Unrivaled.


    Naon ngalaksanakeun alus naha anjeun forme


    kotana well-diwangun rupa situated antara bukit, hiji rencang sahiji
    raja anu mulia endowed kalawan pakaya alus, ieu mah kacida dilakonan
    dina menari jeung nyanyi.
    Salaku Sirima I ieu dipikawanoh di Rajagaha.

    mangka Awakened Hiji, pamingpin diantara seers, pituduh nu, diajar
    bahasa sunda tina origination, tina sangsara tur impermanence;
    tina unconditioned, tina gencatan patempuran tina sangsara anu geus langgeng; na tina jalur ieu, moal bengkung, lempeng, auspicious.

    kuring kungsi diajar tina kaayaan undying (nibbana), nu unconditioned,
    ngaliwatan instruksi tina Tathagata, anu Unrivaled Hiji, abdi ieu kacida
    sarta ogé kaampeuh dina prinsip sarta ngadeg di Dhamma diajarkeun ku
    paling alus teuing tina lalaki, anu Awakened

    kuring terang tempat undefiled, anu unconditioned, diajarkeun ku
    Tathagata, anu Unrivaled Hiji, abdi lajeng na aya ngalaman konsentrasi
    tenang (tina jalur mulya).
    Yén kapastian pang luhur tina release éta milik.

    Nalika kuring massana ka undying has, assured, eminent dina wawasan
    penetrative, moal doubting, abdi ieu dianggap ku loba jalma sarta
    ngalaman loba pelesir jeung enjoyment.

    Kituna Kami dewi a, nyaho undying, hiji murid ti Tathagata, anu Unrivaled Hiji; a knower of Dhamma ngadeg di buah heula, aliran-enterer. Henceforth euweuh bourn goréng pikeun kuring.

    Kuring sumping ka revere nu Unrivaled Hiji jeung Monks éléh anu delight dina naon terampil; nyembah nu assembly auspicious of ascetics jeung respectworthy untung Hiji, anu Dhamma-raja.

    galumbira na gladdened on ningali sage, nu Tathagata, anu palatih
    beredar di lalaki sanggup keur dilatih, anu geus neukteuk off craving,
    anu nikmat dina naon terampil, pituduh nu.
    Kuring nyembah ka supremely welas asih Hiji ruku ‘.
    Agam Dina The Sky
    8. Tripitaka ku Budha Theravada (Sutta)

    Paling buku boga pangaruh di India Sajarah.
    The Sutta Pitaka ( “Basket sahiji Wacana”) mangrupakeun panggedena tina “tilu baskets” (Tipitaka).
    Ti Suci Budha Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
    Buddha Tripitaka: Bade keur ngungsi (.. Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. Sarana-GAMANA)

    Buddha Tripitaka. - akang Pikeun REFUGE- Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. Sarana-GAMANA

    Kuring balik pikeun ngungsi ka Buddha (Guru)
    Kuring balik pikeun ngungsi ka Dhamma (Ngajar kana)
    Kuring balik pikeun ngungsi ka Sangha (nu Diajar)

    Pikeun kadua kalina kuring balik pikeun ngungsi ka Buddha
    Pikeun kadua kalina kuring balik pikeun ngungsi ka Dhamma
    Pikeun kadua kalina kuring balik pikeun ngungsi ka Sangha

    Pikeun katilu kalina kuring balik pikeun ngungsi ka Buddha
    Pikeun katilu kalina kuring balik pikeun ngungsi ka Dhamma
    Pikeun katilu kalina kuring balik pikeun ngungsi ka Sangha

    Anjeun bisa menta quetions ngeunaan tapa di komentar di handap.
    Sarta ngalanggan channel abdi mangga ku noticed ngeunaan video anyar.

    Buddha Tripitaka: The Ten Pelatihan prinsip (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA..)

    1. Abdi migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain ti pembunuhan.

    2. I migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain ti maok.

    3. I migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain tina kalakuan nu jahat seksual.

    4. I migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain ti bohong.

    5. I migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain ti Likur nu nyababkeun kaayaan mabok jeung heedlessness.

    6. I migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain tina dahar untimely.

    7. I migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain ti menari, nyanyi, musik, jeung ngadatangan nempokeun unseemly.

    8. Kuring migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain tina pamakéan garlands, parfum, kosmétik, jeung embellishments.

    9. I migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain tina pamakéan ranjang tinggi na mewah.

    10. I migawe kana abide ku precept ka abstain tina narima emas jeung pérak.

    Buddhist Peaceful Song…
    Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Samma Sambuddhassa

    Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Samma Sambuddhassa

    90) Classical Swahili
    90) Classical Kiswahili

    2238 Thu Mei 25, 2017 SOMO


    INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free michoro Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Utafiti na Mazoezi University
    katika Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Sirima: Sirima ya nyumba

    vv 1.16
    PTS: Vv 136-148
    Sirima: Sirima ya nyumba
    kutafsiriwa kutoka Pali na
    John D. Ireland
    © 2005


    nira na laini caparisoned farasi wako, nguvu na wepesi, ni viongozi kushuka kwa njia ya angani. Na hawa magari mia tano, magically kuundwa, wanafuata, farasi wito kwa kwa waendesha-magari.

    Kusimama katika gari hii bora, kupambwa, radiant na kung’aa, kama nyota mkali. Ninawaomba ya lovely mwembamba fomu na uzuri exquisite, ambapo kampuni ya miungu na kuja kutembelea moja Unrivaled?


    Kutoka kwa wale ambao ya urefu wa raha za nasa, alisema kuwa hauna kifani, miungu wanaofurahi katika mabadiliko ya kichawi na viumbe. nymph kutoka kampuni hiyo na uwezo wa kudhani muonekano wowote taka amekuja hapa kuabudu One Unrivaled.


    mwenendo gani nzuri gani forme


    mji vizuri kujengwa hali kati vilima, mtumishi wa mfalme mtukufu kijana
    mwenye bahati nzuri, nilikuwa shupavu sana katika kucheza na kuimba.
    Kama Sirima mimi alikuwa anajulikana katika Rajagaha.

    Lakini basi Awakened One, kiongozi kati ya waonaji, mwongozo, Alinifundisha ya origination, mateso na impermanence, ya unconditioned, bila kukoma kwa mateso yaani milele; na njia hii, si kuipotosha, moja kwa moja, auspicious.

    mimi walikuwa wamejifunza ya hali Undying (nibbana), unconditioned, kwa
    njia ya mafundisho ya Tathagata, Unrivaled moja, nilikuwa sana na pia
    kuwazuia katika maagizo na imara katika Dhamma kufundishwa na bora zaidi
    ya watu, Awakened

    mimi alijua mahali dosari unconditioned, kufundishwa na Tathagata,
    Unrivaled One, I hapo uzoefu mkusanyiko shwari (wa njia yenye heshima).
    Hiyo uhakika mkuu wa kutolewa mara yangu.

    Wakati mimi kupata Undying tofauti, uhakika, maarufu katika ufahamu
    penetrative, si mashaka, mimi alikuwa kuheshimiwa na watu wengi na
    uzoefu radhi sana na starehe.

    Hivyo mimi ni mungu, kujua Undying, mwanafunzi wa Tathagata, Unrivaled One; Mjuzi wa Dhamma imara katika matunda ya kwanza, mkondo-enterer. Tangu sasa hakuna Bourn mbaya kwa ajili yangu.

    Nimekuja stahi Unrivaled moja na watawa wema ambao kufurahia katika yaliyo wenye ujuzi; kuabudu mkutano bora ya watawa na respectworthy Bahati One, Dhamma-mfalme.

    ni furaha na gladdened juu ya kuona sage, Tathagata, mkufunzi bora wa
    watu wenye uwezo wa kuwa mafunzo, ambaye kukatwa tamaa, ambaye hufurahia
    yaliyo wenye ujuzi, mwongozo.
    Mimi ibada supremely huruma Rehema One.
    Jumba Katika Sky
    8. Sanzo na Theravada (Sutta)

    vitabu Mashuhuri Zaidi katika India Historia.
    Sutta Pltaka ( “kikapu ya Discourse”) ni kubwa zaidi ya “vikapu tatu” (Tipitaka).
    Kutoka Mtakatifu Wabuddha Tipitaka: Sutta Pltaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
    Buddha Sanzo: Kwenda kwa hifadhi (.. Sutta Pltaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. Sarana-GAMANA)

    Buddha Tripitaka. - KWENDA KWA REFUGE- Sutta Pltaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. Sarana-GAMANA

    Naenda kwa kukimbilia ya Buddha (Mwalimu)
    Naenda kwa kukimbilia ya Dhamma (Teaching)
    Naenda kwa kukimbilia ya Sangha (Kamfundisha)

    Kwa mara ya pili mimi kwenda kwa kukimbilia ya Buddha
    Kwa mara ya pili mimi kwenda kwa kukimbilia ya Dhamma
    Kwa mara ya pili mimi kwenda kwa kukimbilia ya Sangha

    Kwa mara ya tatu mimi kwenda kwa kukimbilia ya Buddha
    Kwa mara ya tatu mimi kwenda kwa kukimbilia ya Dhamma
    Kwa mara ya tatu mimi kwenda kwa kukimbilia ya Sangha

    Unaweza kuuliza quetions kuhusu kutafakari katika maoni ya chini.
    Na kujiunga na kituo changu tafadhali kwa mkono niliona kuhusu video mpya.

    Buddha Sanzo: Ten Mafunzo Amri (Sutta Pltaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. Dasa-SIKKHAPADA..)

    1. Mimi kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha mauaji.

    2. Mimi kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha kuiba.

    3. Mimi kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha makosa kadhaa ya ngono.

    4. Mimi kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha kusema uongo.

    5. Mimi kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha pombe vinavyosababisha ulevi na kutotaka.

    6. I kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha kula mapema.

    7. I kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha kucheza, kuimba, muziki, na kutembelea maonyesho adabu.

    8. Mimi kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha matumizi ya taji za maua, manukato, vipodozi, na embellishments.

    9. Mimi kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha matumizi ya vitanda juu na ya kifahari.

    10. Mimi kufanya kwa kuzingatia amri kuacha kukubali dhahabu na fedha.

    Relax - Buddhist Meditation Music - Zen Garden - Kokin Gumi ALBUM Relax - Buddhist Meditation Music - Zen Garden - Kokin Gumi - Da New AGe - Chill Out - Lounge Music http://www.yusuf-yus...

    91) Classical Swedish
    91) Klassisk svensk

    2238 Thu 25 Maj 2017 LESSON


    INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Gratis Animation ClipArt Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
    I visuellt format (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Sirima: Sirimas herrgård

    Vv 1,16
    PTS: Vv 136-148
    Sirima: Sirimas herrgård
    Översatt från Pali by
    John D. Ireland
    © 2005


    Dina yoked och fina kaparisonerade hästar, starka och snabba, går nedåt genom himlen. Och dessa fem hundra vagnar, magiskt skapade, följer, hästarna uppmanas av vagnar.

    Du står i den här utmärkta vagnen, utsmyckad, strålande och lysande, som en flammande stjärna. Jag frågar dig om en vacker, slank form och utsökt skönhet, från
    vilket gudsföretag har du kommit för att besöka den oöverträffade?


    Från dem som har nått höjderna av sensuella nöjen, sägs vara oöverträffade; Gudarna som glädjer sig i magisk omvandling och skapelse. En nymf från det företaget som kan anta något önskat utseende har kommit hit för att dyrka den oöverträffade.


    Vilket bra beteende formade du?


    en fin välbyggd stad belägen mellan kullar, en skötare av en ädla kung
    som var lyckosam, blev jag mycket framgångsrik i dans och sång.
    Som Sirima var jag känd i Rajagaha.

    Men då vaknade den, ledaren bland seare, guiden, mig om ursprunget, lidandet och impermanensen. Av det obestämda, av upphörande av lidandet som är evigt; Och av den här vägen, inte krökt, rak, lovande.

    jag hade lärt mig om det odödliga staten (nibbana), var den
    ovillkorliga, genom Tathagatas, Unrivaledes instruktion, hög och
    välhållen i förordningarna och etablerade i Dhamma som lärdes av de mest
    utmärkta männen, den uppvaknade

    jag kände till det odefinierade stället, upplevde den okonditionerade,
    undervisade av Tathagata, den Oöverträffade, jag då och där, den lugna
    koncentrationen (av den ädla vägen).
    Den största säkerheten om frigivning var min.

    När jag fick den utmärkande odöda, försäkrade, framstående i
    genomträngande insikt, tvivlar jag inte på att jag var beundrad av många
    människor och upplevt mycket nöje och njutning.

    Således är jag en gudinna som känner till den odöda, en discipel av Tathagata, den Oöverträffade En; En knarkare av Dhamma etablerad i den första frukten, en ström-enterer. Hädanefter finns det ingen dålig bourn för mig.

    Jag kom för att vörda den oöverträffade och de dygdiga munkarna som glädjer sig i det som är skickligt; Att dyrka den lovande sammansättningen av asketiker och den respektfulla Fortunate, Dhamma-kungen.

    är glad och glad att se vismannen, Tathagata, den enastående utbildaren
    av män som kan utbildas, som har avskräckt begär, som glädjer sig i vad
    som är skickligt, guiden.
    Jag dyrkar den högst barmhärtiga Medkänsla.
    Herrgård i himlen
    8. Tripitaka av Theravada Buddhism (Sutta)

    De mest inflytelserika böckerna i indisk historia.
    Sutta Pitaka (”Basket of Discourse”) är den största av de “tre korgarna” (Tipitaka).
    Från den heliga buddhistiska Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
    Buddha Tripitaka: Gå till tillflyktsort (Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

    Buddha Tripitaka. - GÅR FÖR FÖRFALLS- Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

    Jag åker till Buddha (Lärare)
    Jag går till tillflykt till Dhamma (undervisningen)
    Jag går till tillflykt till Sangha (den undervisade)

    För andra gången åker jag till tillflykt till Buddha
    För andra gången åker jag till tillflykt till Dhamma
    För andra gången åker jag till tillflykt till Sangha

    För tredje gången åker jag till tillflykt till Buddha
    För tredje gången åker jag till tillflykt till Dhamma
    För tredje gången går jag till tillflykt till Sangha

    Du kan fråga frågor om meditation i kommentarerna nedan.
    Och prenumerera på min kanal tack till att du noterade om nya videoklipp.

    Buddha Tripitaka: De tio träningsföreskrifterna (Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA)

    1. Jag åtar mig att följa uppbudet att avstå från att döda.

    2. Jag åtar sig att följa uppbudet att avstå från att stjäla.

    3. Jag åtar mig att följa uppbudet att avstå från sexuella missförhållanden.

    4. Jag förbinder mig att följa uppbudet att avstå från att ljuga.

    5. Jag åtar mig att följa förbehållet att avhålla sig från sprit som orsakar berusning och sorglöshet.

    6. Jag förbinder mig att följa förbehållet att avstå från oändlig äta.

    7. Jag förbinder mig att följa förbehållet att avstå från att dansa, sjunga, musik och besöka unseemly shows.

    8. Jag förbinder mig att följa föreskriften för att avstå från användningen av kransar, parfymer, kosmetika och utsmyckningar.

    9. Jag förbinder mig att följa föreskriften att avstå från användningen av höga och lyxiga sängar.

    10. Jag förbinder mig att följa föreskriften att avstå från att acceptera guld och silver.

    Songkrang at Buddharam Temple in Sweden 2013
    Songkrang at Buddharam Temple in Sweden 2013

    Celebrating songkrang at Buddharam Temple in Värmdö, Sweden with Miss Songkrang Anna!

    Celebrating songkrang at Buddharam Temple in Värmdö, Sweden with Miss Songkrang Anna!

    Buddisterna invigde istempel - Västerbottensnytt | SVT Play

    Buddisterna invigde istempel
    invigde buddisterna ett istempel på tempelberget i Fredrika. För första
    gången fanns också från aska från en Budda på svensk mark. Askan
    placerades på en iskopia av buddisternas huvudtempel i Thailand.

    Publicerades: 28 mar 2010
    Visit my website : เยี่ยมชมเว็บฟ้าแล่บ
    Thank you / ขอบคุณ
    fahlaeb ฟ้าแล่บ
    Buddisterna invigde istempel - Västerbottensnytt | SVT Play

    invigde istempel Idag invigde buddisterna ett istempel på tempelberget i
    Fredrika. För första gången fanns också från aska från en Budda på

    92) Classical Tajik
    92) Tajik классикӣ

    2238 Пш 25 майи соли 2017 ДАРС


    Англ-NET-Hi Tech Радиои Озод Аниматсия Clipart Online A1 (бедор Яке) буддоӣ ба Research & Донишгоҳи Таҷрибаи
    дар Visual Формат (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Ҳавлиҳои Sirima кард: Sirima

    В.В. 1.16
    PTS: В.В. 136-148
    Ҳавлиҳои Sirima кард: Sirima
    аз Pali аз тарафи тарҷума
    Юҳанно Д. Ирландия
    © 2005


    аспҳо пайвастааст ва биносту caparisoned шумо, қавӣ ва бошитоб, ҳастанд, ҷое сарозер ба воситаи осмон. Ва ин панҷсад нафар аробаҳо, magically офаридааст, пайравӣ мекунанд, аз аспҳо дар бораи аз ҷониби charioteers ташвиқ.

    Шумо дар ин аробаи аъло, зинат шудаанд, равшан ва медурахшид, мисли ситораи афрӯхта истодаанд. Ман аз ту мепурсанд шакли мавзун зебо ва зебоии осудагии, ки аз он ширкат аз худоёни шумо омада барои боздид аз яке аз беҳамто?


    Аз касоне, ки ба қуллаҳои баланд лаззати нафсонӣ расида, гуфт, ки ба беҳамтоии карда шавад; худоёнро, ки дар табдили ҷодугарӣ ва эҷоди лаззат. A nymph аз ширкат қодир ба фикр ҳама гуна намуди дилхоҳро ин ҷо омадааст ибодат яке беҳамто мебошад.


    Рафтори хуби чӣ шуморо forme


    шаҳри хуб сохта ҷарима воқеъ дар байни теппаҳо, як мулозими як подшоҳи
    бузургвор улулазм хайре, ки ман дар рақс ва суруд хеле моҳир буд.
    Тавре Sirima Ман дар Rajagaha шинохта шуд.

    Вале баъд аз бедор Яке, раҳбари байни seers, ки дастури маро аз origination таълим медод, аз уқубат ва impermanence; аз unconditioned, аз қатъ намудани ранҷу азоб аст, ки ҷовидона; Ва ин роҳи, бозмедоред нест, рост, бо сарпарастӣ.

    ки ман аз давлати инсонҳои (nibbana), ки unconditioned, тавассути
    супориши Tathagata, ки беҳамто Як, Ман хеле ва инчунин дар precepts
    осеби шуд ва дар Dhamma таълим аз ҷониби некӯ бештари мардум таъсис
    фаҳмида гирифта буд, ки бедор

    ки ман ба ҷои беайб, аз unconditioned, таълим аз ҷониби Tathagata, ки
    беҳамто яке медонист, ки ман баъд аз сар ва тамаркузи ором (дар роҳи
    некӯ) аст.
    Ин яқин олии озод минаҳо буд.

    Вақте ки ман ба инсонҳои фарќкунандаи, боварӣ, ки некӯравиштарини
    хирадманд penetrative, шубҳа нест, ба даст овард, ки ман бо бисёр одамон
    азизу шуд ва хушнудии ва ҳаловати зиёд сар.

    Ҳамин тавр ман нестам, як олиҳаи, зеро медонем, ки инсонҳои шогирди дар Tathagata, ки беҳамто Яке; як донои Dhamma дар аввал мева, як ҷӯи-enterer муқаррар карда мешавад. Минбаъд аст, bourn бад барои ман нест.

    Ман омадаам, то диниамон ба беҳамто Як обидон некӣ, ки дар он чӣ бомаҳорат аст, лаззат; ибодат калисои сарпарастӣ аз ascetics ва respectworthy хушбахт Яке, ки Dhamma-подшоҳ.

    хурсанд бошем ва gladdened оид ба дида Sage ҳастам, ки Tathagata,
    тренер барҷастаи мардони ҳалолкорро аз гирифтан таълим гирифта
    истодаанд, ки бурида, ҷӯяд, ки аз корҳое, бомаҳорат аст, хурсандӣ, ки
    роҳнамое барояш нест.
    Ман яке аз Худои раҳмон ва гоҳе меҳрубон бипарастед.
    Ҳавлиҳои дар осмон
    8. Tripitaka аз тарафи Theravada буддизм (Sutta)

    Аксари китобҳои бонуфузи дар таърихи Ҳиндустон.
    Дар Sutta Pitaka ( «сабади суханро») калонтарин аз «се сабад» (буддоӣ) мебошад.
    Аз Рӯҳулқудс буддоӣ буддоӣ: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
    Будда Tripitaka: меравад паноҳ (.. Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

    Будда Tripitaka. - рафта, барои REFUGE- Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

    Ман барои паноҳ рафта, ба Буддо (Устоди)
    Ман барои паноҳ рафта, ба Dhamma (ба таълим)
    Ман барои паноҳ рафта, ба Sangha (ба биёмухт)

    Барои бори дуюм ман барои паноҳ ба Буддо рафт
    Барои бори дуюм ман барои паноҳ ба Dhamma рафт
    Барои бори дуюм ман барои паноҳ ба Sangha рафт

    Барои бори сеюм Ман барои паноҳ ба Буддо рафт
    Барои бори сеюм Ман барои паноҳ ба Dhamma рафт
    Барои бори сеюм Ман барои паноҳ ба Sangha рафт

    Шумо метавонед дар бораи quetions мулоҳиза дар шарҳҳои дар поён мепурсанд.
    Ва ахбор Обуна ба канали маро лутфан аз тарафи бораи видео нав пай.

    Будда Tripitaka: Даҳ омӯзишӣ Precepts (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA.).

    1. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол парҳез кардан аз куштори.

    2. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол парҳез кардан аз дуздии.

    3. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол парҳез кардан аз бадахлоқии ҷинсӣ.

    4. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол парҳез аз дурӯғ мегӯянд.

    5. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол парҳез кардан аз алкогол, ки боиси мастии ва ғафлат.

    6. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол парҳез кардан аз мехӯрад бармаҳали.

    7. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол парҳез кардан аз рақс, сурудхонӣ, мусиқӣ ва боздид вомедорад ёфт.

    8. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол ба худдорӣ аз истифодаи қилода буҳур, косметика ва зинат.

    9. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол ба худдорӣ аз истифодаи кат баланд ва зебои.

    10. Ман ӯҳдадор риоя намудани моли ҳалол парҳез кардан аз қабул тилло ва нуқра.

    Inline image 3

    Tajikistan Discovers New Giant Buddha

    News Category: Sasanian Dynasty
    04 June 2001

    A 1600 year old statue of a sleeping Buddha - uncovered by
    archeologists from the former Soviet Union 35 years ago and never before
    seen by the outside world - will soon be on display in Dushanbe, the
    capital of the Central Asian Republic of Tajikistan. After Afghanistan’s
    Taliban destroyed the largest Buddhas in Central Asia, the newly
    unveiled Tajikistan Buddha, which dates back to the 5th century AD, will
    be the largest ancient Buddha statue in Central Asia.

    The 14
    meter long Tajik Buddha was first excavated by archeologists from the
    former Soviet Union in 1966, from a vast Buddhist monastery complex in
    Ajina Tepa in southern Tajikistan. Ajina Tepa was on the ancient Silk
    Route connecting both China with Europe and Central Asia with the Indian
    seaports. Instead of publicizing their enormous find, the Soviets
    excavated the Buddha only to hide it.

    Bringing the Buddha to
    light has been the lifetime task of Dr. Babamulloev Saidmurad, the newly
    appointed Director of Tajikistan’s Museum of National Antiquities which
    will officially open in August. ‘’The Soviets tried to tell the Tajiks
    that they had no history before the 1917 Russian Revolution even though
    the Tajiks are the most ancient race in Central Asia,’’ says Saidmurad.
    He says smaller Buddhist statues and murals were shipped to the
    Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg and hidden away in its vaults, but
    the Tajikistan Buddha was too big to move and was buried in the basement
    of a Dushanbe museum.

    ‘’The Soviets never allowed Tajikistan to
    show its pre-Islamic and Islamic archeological collections,‘’ says
    Frederick Roussel of Acted, a leading French non-governmental
    organization in Central Asia, which funded the restoration of the
    Bhudda. Nine months ago Acted paid for a Russian archeological expert to
    come from the Hermitage Museum to spend three months putting together
    the puzzle of the Buddha.

    ‘’The Buddha was in 100 pieces stored
    in boxes in the basement of the museum and it had to be put together
    like a huge jigsaw,’’ says Saidmurad. ‘’We worked like demons around the
    clock for six months.’’ The Buddha lies on his side, his face showing
    absolute serenity reflecting the nearness of nirvana in the last moments
    before his death. Around the base of the sleeping Bhudda and on the
    walls of the monastery were more than one thousand paintings in bright
    colors depicting the life of Buddha, many of which were sent to the

    Some 300 kilometers north of Bamiyan, Ajina Tepe was
    part of the widespread Buddhist renaissance and culture in Central Asia
    and Xinjiang under the Kushan kings. The Kushans were descended from a
    branch of the Chinese Yueh-chih tribes that first invaded Central Asia
    around 140 BC. The Kushans created their empire in the first century AD
    uniting a vast land area stretching from southern Pakistan and western
    Iran to Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Xinjiang. In the second century
    AD, the great Kushan king Kanishka, who extended the empire to India,
    was a major patron of the Mahayana school of Buddhism, the first to
    humanize the figure of Buddha. Previously Buddha had only been depicted
    by symbols such as the prayer wheel. Although the Kushans later broke up
    into smaller kingdoms, they continued their dominance of the region
    until the 6th century AD.

    In March the Taliban dynamited two
    soaring statues of Buddha cut into limestone cliffs of the Hindu Kush
    mountains in Bamiyan, in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan.
    The larger Buddha, which stood at 57 meters, was the largest standing
    Buddha in the world and was carved between 300-400 AD. The Taliban
    rejected numerous international appeals including strong protests by the
    Buddhist countries of south east Asia.

    ‘’I did not sleep the
    whole night when I heard that the Taliban had destroyed the Bamiyan
    Buddhas, but it only moved us to work harder to restore our Buddha which
    is now the largest in Central Asia,’’ says Saidmurad. ‘’The Taliban
    have destroyed not just Afghanistan’s history but also the pre-Islamic
    cultural heritage of all Central Asia, because the Bamiyan Buddhist
    civilization was the center for the spread of Bhuddism in Central Asia
    and China,’’ says Parveen Abdullova, an assistant to Saidmurad and a
    prominent Tajik restorer and artist. ‘’The Buddhist Ghandara
    civilization in Pakistan, Bamiyan in Afghanistan and Kurgan Tepe in
    Tajikistan were all interlinked,’’ she added.

    The first Tajiks
    heard of their rediscovered Buddha was in mid-March when a local
    newspaper ran a story headlined ‘’Tajikistan’s Buddha is sleeping safely
    despite Taliban actions.’’ When Tajik President Imamali Rakhmanov opens
    the new Museum in August, remarkable artifacts of Zoroastrianism and
    Hinduism will also be on display. The Kushans allowed all three
    religions to flourish side by side in their empire. A 5th century statue
    shows the Hindu god Shiva and his wife Parvetti sitting on a cow. The
    statue is the largest artifact to date showing the spread of Hinduism so
    far north into Central Asia, where it was able to co-exist with
    Zoroastrianism and Buddhism.

    The Zoroastrian finds are remarkable
    in their own right: the Museum will have the best collection of the
    3,400-year-old Zoroastrian civilization outside Iran. The Zoroastrians,
    or Parsees, who still survive in small numbers in Iran and South and
    Central Asia, developed a major center in Pendzhkent in the western
    corner of southern Tajikistan close to the border with Uzbekistan. Here,
    the ancient city of Zoras included a vast temple complex and a
    developed urban infrastructure, which the Soviets had excavated in the
    1960s, but also refused to display. A few Zorastrians still live in
    Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Bukhara in Uzbekistan. Bukhara became the
    capital of Islamic Central Asia, demonstrating the tolerance shown by
    all Muslim rulers to other faiths in Central Asia.

    A remarkable
    5th century carved wooden gate which was displayed at the entrance to a
    Zoroastrian temple near Khodjent in northern Tajikistan, excavated in
    1957, gives incredible detail of Zoroastrian history and mythology.
    According to Saidmurad, the Persian poet Firdausi used the detail on
    this gate to write his epic poem of Persian history the Shahnama. The
    panel, which is charred with fire, shows the legendary giant, Shah or
    King Zorak - a figure which abounds in ancient carvings and paintings in
    Central Asia, Iran and Afghanistan and is also the name of an abandoned
    mountain and town close to Bamiyan. The town was destroyed by the
    Mongols in 1220. There also paintings of Zohrak depicted as a
    frightening demon. Another figure shows a bird-angel with two heads.

    Greek and Roman civilization will also be represented when the Museum
    opens. Early Kushan culture was heavily influenced by the Greeks who
    invaded Central Asia under Alexander the Great in 329 BC. Central Asia
    was then ruled by the Sogdians, whom the Tajiks consider as their
    ancestors. After defeating the Sogdians, Alexander married a Sogdian
    princess Roxana from the city of Oratoba, which is close to modern day

    The discovery and restoration of Tajikistan’s giant
    Buddha gives hope to those who were distraught by the destruction of the
    Bamiyan Buddhas. ‘’This Buddha is a most remarkable discovery for the
    Buddhist world and the cultural heritage of mankind, ‘’ says Hiroshi
    Takahashi, a former Japanese and now UN diplomat in Dushanbe, who saw
    the Buddha recently. ‘’There will be many people in Japan and other
    countries who will be enormously interested in coming to see this
    Buddha,’’ he added. Beset by years of civil war, draught and economic
    misery, landlocked Tajikistan badly needs a boost to attract foreign
    investment and tourism. The opening of the new Museum in August will
    clearly put Tajikistan on the map for devotees of three major religions
    as well as lovers of ancient art and history.

    Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,…

    Nepal Country - Buddhist Monks Chanting Heart Sutra
    Nepal Country - Buddhist Monks Chanting Heart Sutra

    Nepal is an independent kingdom that lies 500 miles along the
    Himalayas. It is surrounded by Tibet and India. Nepal country is divided
    into three sections: the northern snow mountains, the middle hilly
    region, and the southern terai.

    Nepal has almost 20 million people and a variety of ethnic groups. Most
    people speak Nepali and some speak English. Indo-Aryan immigrants
    originally settled Nepal in the 7th century B.C. Many tribes succeeded
    one another, until the Malla period, when three kingdoms were created:
    Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapar. Recently a system of parliamentary
    democracy was established.

    Buddhism in Nepal dates from the birth
    of Siddharta Gautama himself. Legend has it that many bodhisattvas and
    previous Buddhas also visited the land.
    Monuments to these Buddhas
    can still be seen. Early Buddhist history is difficult to document, but
    we know that Nepal became a great meeting point for Indian and Tibetan
    Buddhist teachers. Nagarjuna, the great Madhyamika master, and many
    other great practitioners visited, lived, and taught in Nepal.

    Stone inscriptions and colophons provide clear evidence that a strong
    lineage of Mahasanghika Bhiksunis existed in the seventh century. The
    country became a repository of Buddhist Sanskrit literature and famous
    for its production of fine Buddhist art.

    Buddhist Monks Chanting Heart Sutra with Nepal country movie.
    Subscribe, thanks:
    Channel sharing videos of Buddhist Music for Meditation, Healing and Relaxing Music for Sleep, Stress Relief.

    - Buddhist Meditation Music:
    - Relaxing Music for Sleep:

    Original credit:
    + Heart Sutra by Lama Khenpo Pema Choephel Rinpoche
    - Uploaded by Buddhism UK on 5/26/2014
    + Faces of Nepal - Uploaded by Jeremy Snell on 1/15/2014
    + Nepal, Land of High Mountains and Buddhist Temples - Uploaded by Marty Mellway on 8/5/2011
    + Nepal Buddhist Monasteries - Uploaded by TingSern Wong on 1/18/2009

    is an independent kingdom that lies 500 miles along the Himalayas. It
    is surrounded by Tibet and India. Nepal country is divided into three
    sections: t…

    93) Classical Tamil
    93) செம்மொழி தமிழ்

    2238 தி 25 மே 2017 லெஸ்சன்


    இன்சைட்-நெட்-ஹை-டெக் ரேடியோ ஃப்ரீ அனிமேஷன் கிளிபர்டு ஆன்லைட் A1 (விழித்திரை ஒன்) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
    விஷுவல் ஃபார்மாட்டில் (FOA1TRPUVF)
    சிறிமா: சிறிமாவின் மேன்சன்

    Vv 1.16
    PTS: Vv 136-148
    சிறிமா: சிறிமாவின் மேன்சன்
    பலி மூலம் மொழிபெயர்க்கப்பட்டது
    ஜான் டி அயர்லாந்து
    © 2005


    உங்கள் yoked மற்றும் finely caparisoned குதிரைகள், வலுவான மற்றும் விரைவான, வானத்தில் கீழ்நோக்கி தலைமையில். இந்த ஐந்நூறு ரதங்கள் மாயமாக உருவாக்கப்பட்டவை, குதிரைகள் இரதத்தீர்க்கர்களால் வலியுறுத்தப்பட்டன.

    இந்த அற்புதமான இரதத்தில் நீ நிற்கிறாய், அலங்கரிக்கப்பட்ட, பிரகாசமான மற்றும் பிரகாசிக்கும், ஒரு ஒளிவீசும் நட்சத்திரம் போல. அழகிய மெல்லிய வடிவத்தையும் அழகிய அழகுகளையும் நான் உங்களிடம்
    கேட்கிறேன், அவற்றில் இருந்து நீங்கள் கடவுளைச் சந்திப்பதற்காக வருகிறாயா?


    சிற்றின்ப இன்பங்களின் உயரங்களை அடைந்தவர்களிடமிருந்து, மிகப்பெரியதாகக் கூறப்பட்டது; மந்திர மாற்றம் மற்றும் படைப்புகளில் மகிழ்வளிக்கும் கடவுளர்கள். அந்த நிறுவனத்திடமிருந்து பெறப்பட்ட ஒரு குங்குமப்பூவானது விரும்பத்தக்க
    தோற்றத்தை வணங்குவதற்கு இங்கு ஏதேனும் விரும்பிய தோற்றத்தை


    என்ன நல்ல நடத்தை நீங்கள் உருவாக்கியது


    இடையில் அமைந்த ஒரு நல்ல நன்கு கட்டப்பட்ட நகரத்தில், சிறந்த செல்வந்தனாக
    விளங்கிய மேன்மையான ராஜாவின் உதவியாளரான நான் நடனமாடும் பாடல்களிலும்
    மிகுந்த சாதித்தேன்.
    சிறிமா என நான் ராஜகஹாவில் அறியப்பட்டேன்.

    ஆனால் விழித்தெழுந்த ஒருவர், நண்பர்களாக இருந்தவர், வழிகாட்டி, எனக்கு துன்பம் மற்றும் அவநம்பிக்கை ஆகியவற்றைக் கற்றுத்தந்தார்; நிபந்தனையின்றி, நித்தியமான துன்பத்தை நிறுத்துவதில்; மற்றும் இந்த பாதையில், வளைந்து இல்லை, நேராக, நல்ல.

    இறக்கும் நிலையின் (நிபனா), நிபந்தனையற்ற, தத்தகதாவின் அறிவுறுத்தலின்
    பேரில்தான் நான் கற்றுக்கொண்டபோது, நான் மிகவும் உயர்ந்த மற்றும் நன்கு
    கட்டுப்படுத்தப்பட்டு கட்டளைகளில் இருந்தேன்.

    துரதிர்ஷ்டவசமாக, தத்தகதாவால் கற்பிக்கப்படாத, நிபந்தனையற்ற இடத்தைப் பற்றி நான் அறிந்தபோது, நான் அமைதியான செறிவை அனுபவித்தேன். வெளியீட்டின் மிக உயர்ந்த உறுதிப்பாடு என்னுடையது.

    நான் தனித்துவமான முடிவை அடைந்த போது, ஊடுருவி உள்ளார், ஊடுருவி
    உள்ளார், சந்தேகப்படாமல், நான் பல மக்களால் மதிக்கப்பட்டு மிகவும்
    மகிழ்ச்சியையும் மகிழ்ச்சியையும் அனுபவித்தேன்.

    எனவே, நான் ஒரு தெய்வமாக இருக்கிறேன். முதல் பழம், ஒரு ஸ்ட்ரீம்-நுழைவாயில் நிறுவப்பட்டது அறம் ஒரு knower. இனி எனக்கு துக்கம் எதுவும் இல்லை.

    திறமை வாய்ந்தவர்களிடமிருந்து மகிழ்ச்சியடைந்த துறவியர் மற்றும் புத்திசாலித் துறவிகள் ஆகியோரை நான் வணங்க வந்தேன்; நன்னெறிகளின் புனிதமான சபை மற்றும் மரியாதைக்குரிய அதிர்ஷ்டசாலி ஒருவர், தர்ம-ராஜா ஆகியவற்றை வணங்க வேண்டும்.

    முனிவனைப் பார்த்து, மகிழ்ச்சியுடன் மகிழ்ச்சியடைகிறேன், தாத்தகட்டா,
    பயிற்சியளிக்கக்கூடிய திறமை வாய்ந்த பயிற்சியளிக்கும் ஆண்கள், திறமை
    வாய்ந்தவர்கள், வழிகாட்டியாக உள்ளவர்கள்,
    இரக்கமுள்ள இரக்கமுள்ளவனை நான் வணங்குகிறேன்.
    மேன்சன் இன் தி ஸ்கை
    8. த்ரெதாடா புத்தமதம் (சுத்தா)

    இந்திய வரலாற்றில் மிகவும் செல்வாக்கு மிகுந்த புத்தகங்கள்.
    “மூன்று கூடைகளில்” (Tipitaka) மிகப்பெரியது சுட்டா பிட்டாகா (”கூடைப்பந்தாட்டம்”).
    புனித பௌத்த துப்புகோட்டிலிருந்து: சூட்டா பிடாக்கா: குடுக நிகாயா
    புத்தர் திரிபீடகா: அடைக்கலம் பெறுதல் (சுத்தா பிட்டாகா .குடுகா நிக்கா, குதகபாத்தா 1. சாரனா-கமனா)

    புத்தர் திரிப்பிக்கா. - ரிஃபியூஜ்-சுட்டா பிடாக்காவுக்கு செல். கதுகா நிகாயா. Khuddakapatha. 1. சாரனா-கமனா

    நான் புத்தர் (ஆசிரியர்)
    நான் தர்மம் (கற்பித்தல்)
    நான் சங் (அடைக்கலம்)

    இரண்டாவது முறையாக நான் புத்தருக்கு அடைக்கலம் தேடி வருகிறேன்
    இரண்டாவது முறையாக நான் தர்மத்திற்கு தஞ்சம் அடைகிறேன்
    இரண்டாவது முறையாக நான் சங்கத்திற்கு அடைக்கலம் தேடி வருகிறேன்

    மூன்றாவது முறையாக நான் புத்தருக்கு அடைக்கலம் தேடி வருகிறேன்
    மூன்றாவது முறையாக நான் தர்மத்திற்கு தஞ்சம் அடைகிறேன்
    மூன்றாவது முறையாக நான் சங்கத்திற்கு அடைக்கலம் தேடி வருகிறேன்

    கீழே உள்ள கருத்துகளில் தியானத்தைப் பற்றிய கேள்விகளை நீங்கள் கேட்கலாம்.
    புதிய சேனல்களைப் பற்றி கவனிப்பதன் மூலம் எனது சேனலுக்கு குழுசேரவும்.

    புத்தர் திரிபீடகா: பத்து பயிற்சி அறிவுறுத்தல்கள் (சூட்டா பிட்டாகா .குடுகா நிகாயா. குடகபாத்தா 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA)

    1. கொலையை விட்டு விலகிச்செல்லும் கட்டளைக்கு நான் பொறுப்பேற்கிறேன்.

    2. திருடுவதைத் தவிர்ப்பதற்கான கட்டளைக்கு நான் பொறுப்பேற்கிறேன்.

    3. பாலியல் துஷ்பிரயோகத்திலிருந்து விலகுவதற்கான கட்டளையுடன் நான் ஈடுபடுகிறேன்.

    4. பொய் சொல்லாதபடிக்கு நான் கட்டளையிட்டபடி உத்தரவு கொடுப்பேன்.

    5. மது மற்றும் விழிப்புணர்வை ஏற்படுத்தும் மதுவிலிருந்து விலகிச்செல்லும் கட்டளைக்கு நான் பொறுப்பேற்கிறேன்.

    6. அரிதாக சாப்பிடுவதைத் தவிர்ப்பதற்கான கட்டளைக்கு நான் பொறுப்பேற்கிறேன்.

    7. நடனம், பாடல், இசை, மற்றும் அநாமதேய நிகழ்ச்சிகளில் இருந்து விலகுவதற்கான கட்டளைக்கு நான் பொறுப்பேற்கிறேன்.

    8. மாலை, வாசனை திரவியங்கள், அழகுசாதனப் பொருட்கள், அழகுபடுத்துதல்
    ஆகியவற்றைப் பயன்படுத்துவதைத் தவிர்ப்பதற்கு நான் கட்டளையிட்டிருக்கிறேன்.

    9. உயர் மற்றும் ஆடம்பரமான படுக்கைகளைப் பயன்படுத்துவதைத் தவிர்ப்பதற்கு நான் கட்டளையிட்டிருக்கிறேன்.

    10. தங்கம், வெள்ளி ஆகியவற்றை ஏற்றுக்கொள்வதில் இருந்து விலகி நிற்கும் கட்டளைக்கு நான் பொறுப்பேற்கிறேன்.

    Inline image 4…/til_that_the_ancient_scripts_used…/
    TIL that the ancient scripts used in Philippines were derived from Ancient Tamil (

    “The Dravidian influence on the ancient Filipino scripts was
    obviously of Tamil origin,” wrote V. A. Makarenko, in proposing another
    view on the origin of Philippine scripts. Based primarily on the work of
    H. Otley Beyer, this theory argues that these scripts reached the
    Philippines via the last of the “six waves of
    migration that passed through the Philippine archipelago from the Asian
    continent about 200 BC,” constituting the Malayans and Dravidians,
    “primarily the Tamil from Malaya and the adjacent territories and from
    Indonesia and South India as well.”

    Amazing! Islands over 4000 kms away had a writing system influenced by the Chola Kings!
    This influence precedes the Cholas, and it is mostly because of trade
    links. South India and South-East Asia had a lot of links due to their
    geographical proximity (on the naval side), similar to Gujarat and

    This is also why Hinduism was the primary
    religion in most of South-East Asia. You even have temples in China and
    Vietnam, which seem quite far away from South India.

    You have mentions of Yavadwipa (Java) in the Mahabharata - Sugriva goes there to search for Sita.

    Old inscriptions in Java history mention the Kalingas, who you might be familiar with because of Ashoka’s wars. [source]

    In the 5th century AD, you have the Tarumanagara kingdom, which was
    an Indianised kingdom featuring a king who associated himself with
    Vishnu and Brahmin rituals and so on (they are the earliest kingdom to
    leave detailed inscriptions in Indonesia).

    The Pallavas
    preceded the Cholas in the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu and they also
    find a mention in the inscriptions of Indonesia.

    புத்தரின் பிறப்பு - Gautam Buddha stories in Tamil - The Birth of Gautam Buddha
    புத்தரின் பிறப்பு - Gautam Buddha stories in Tamil - The Birth of Gautam Buddha

    புத்தரின் பிறப்பு - Gautam Buddha stories in Tamil - The Birth of Gautam Buddha…

    ஞானம் அடைதல் - Gautam Buddha stories in Tamil - Gautam Buddha Is Enlightened
    ஞானம் அடைதல் - Gautam Buddha stories in Tamil - Gautam Buddha Is Enlightened
    Published on May 18, 2017

    Presenting the video of Jiyo Re Baahubali sung by Daler Mehndi, Sanjeev Chimmalgi & Ramya Behara.

    See more

    ஞானம் அடைதல் - Gautam Buddha stories in Tamil - Gautam Buddha Is Enlightened…

    94) Classical Telugu
    94) క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు

    2238 థు 25 మే 2017 లెసన్


    ఇన్సైట్-నెట్-హెడ్ టెక్ రేడియో ఫ్రీ యానిమేషన్ క్లాపార్ట్ ఆన్లైన్ A1
    (అవేకెన్స్డ్ వన్) టిపిఠాకా రీసర్చ్ అండ్ ప్రాక్టీస్ యూనివర్సిటీ
    విజువల్ ఫార్మాట్ (FOA1TRPUVF) లో
    Sirima: Sirima యొక్క మాన్షన్

    Vv 1.16
    PTS: Vv 136-148
    Sirima: Sirima యొక్క మాన్షన్
    పాలి నుండి అనువదించబడింది
    జాన్ D. ఐర్లాండ్
    © 2005


    మీ యోక్ చేసిన మరియు చక్కగా పట్టుకున్న గుర్రాలు, బలమైన మరియు వేగంగా, ఆకాశంలోకి క్రిందికి దిగి ఉంటాయి. ఈ ఐదు వందల రథాలు, అద్భుతంగా సృష్టించబడ్డాయి, గుర్రాలు రథాలచే కోరారు.

    మీరు ఈ అద్భుతమైన రథంలో నిలబడి, అలంకరించబడిన, ప్రకాశవంతమైన మరియు మెరుస్తూ, ఒక మండుతున్న నక్షత్రం వంటిది. నేను మనోహరమైన సన్నని రూపం మరియు సున్నితమైన సౌందర్యం గురించి
    మిమ్మల్ని అడుగుతున్నాను, దేనితో కూడిన బృందం మీరు ఊహించని ఒక సందర్శనను


    ఇంద్రియాల ఆనందాల ఎత్తుకు చేరిన వారి నుండి, చాలాగొప్పగా చెప్పబడింది; మాయా పరివర్తన మరియు సృష్టిలో ఆనందాన్నిచ్చే దేవతలు. ఆ కంపెనీ నుంచి వచ్చిన వనదేవత ఎన్నటికీ కావలసిన రూపాన్ని పొందగలదు.


    మీరు మంచి ప్రవర్తనను రూపొందించారు


    మధ్య ఉన్న చక్కటి నిర్మితమైన నగరంలో, గొప్ప ధనవంతుడికి ఉన్న గొప్ప రాజు
    యొక్క సేవకురాలు, నాట్యం మరియు పాడటంతో నేను ఎంతో ప్రాచుర్యం పొందాను.
    Sirima నేను Rajagaha లో పిలిచేవారు.

    కానీ అవే అక్కిడ్డ్, నాయకులలో నాయకుడు, మార్గదర్శి, నాకు బాధ, అపాయాన్ని గురించి నేర్పించాడు. బేషరతుగా నిరంతరమైన బాధ యొక్క విరమణ యొక్క; మరియు ఈ మార్గం, వంకర, నేరుగా, పవిత్ర కాదు.

    చనిపోయిన రాష్ట్రము (నిబ్బాన) గురించి తెలుసుకున్నాను, తటగట, అన్రిట్రడ్
    వన్ యొక్క సూచనల ద్వారా, బేషరతుగా, నేను చాలా మటుకు, సూత్రాలలో బాగా
    నిషిద్ధం మరియు ధర్మంలో ఏర్పాటు చేయబడినది.

    చనిపోయిన ప్రదేశానికి తెలియదు, తటగట, అన్త్రార్టెడ్ వన్ బోధించిన బేషరత,
    అప్పుడు నేను ప్రశాంత గాఢతను (గొప్ప మార్గం) అనుభవించింది.
    విడుదల యొక్క సుప్రీం ఖచ్చితత్వం గని.

    నేను విశేషమైన అంతులేని, హామీని, చొచ్చుకొనిపోయే అంతర్దృష్టిని
    పొందినప్పుడు, సందేహించకుండా, నేను చాలామంది ప్రజలను గౌరవించాను మరియు చాలా
    ఆనందం మరియు ఆనందం అనుభవించాను.

    అందువలన, నేను దేవతని, తతగట యొక్క శిష్యుడు, అన్రిలేటెడ్ ఒక శిష్యుడు, ధర్మ జ్ఞానవేత్త మొదటి ఫలంలో, స్ట్రీమ్-ఎంటెరర్ లో స్థాపించబడింది. ఇకమీదట నాకు ఎటువంటి దుఃఖం లేదు.

    నేను నైపుణ్యం ఉన్నవాటిలో ఆనందాన్నిచ్చే అన్వర్యల్డ్ మరియు సన్యాసులైన సన్యాసులను గౌరవిస్తాను. సన్యాసుల పవిత్ర సమావేశం మరియు గౌరవప్రదమైన అదృష్టవశాత్తూ, ధమ్మ-రాజులను పూజించేందుకు.

    సేజ్, తతగట, నైపుణ్యం, గైడ్ లో ఆనందం ఎవరు తృణధాన్యాలు కత్తిరించిన ఎవరు
    శిక్షణ పొందిన సామర్థ్యం ఉన్న పురుషుల అత్యుత్తమ శిక్షణ, చూసిన ఆనందం
    మరియు ఆనందంగా ఉన్నాను.
    నేను ఎంతో దయగల దయగల వ్యక్తిని పూజిస్తాను.
    స్కై లో మాన్షన్
    8. త్రివాది బౌద్ధమతం (సూటా)

    ఇండియన్ హిస్టరీలో అత్యంత ప్రభావశీల పుస్తకాలు.
    సుట్ట పిటాకా (”బాస్కెట్ అఫ్ డిస్కోర్స్”) అనేది “మూడు బుట్టలను” (టిపిటాకా) అతిపెద్దది.
    పవిత్ర బౌద్ధ టిపిటాకా నుండి: సుత్త పిటాకా: ఖుదాక నికాయ
    బుద్ధ త్రిపితకా: శరణు కోసం వెళుతున్నాను (సుత్త పిటాకా ఖుదాక నికాయ ఖుదాకపథా 1. సారనా-గమాన)

    బుద్ధ త్రిపితకా. - రిఫ్యుగే-సూటా పిటాకా కోసం వెళ్లండి. ఖుడకా నికాయ. Khuddakapatha. 1. సారనా-గమాన

    నేను బుద్ధుడికి శరణు కోసం వెళ్ళి (ఉపాధ్యాయుడు)
    నేను ధర్మకు శరణు కోసం వెళ్ళి (టీచింగ్)
    నేను సంఘ్ (శరణార్థ) కోసం శరణు కోసం వెళుతున్నాను

    రెండవ సారి నేను బుద్ధుడికి శరణు కోసం వెళుతున్నాను
    రెండవ సారి నేను ధర్మకు శరణు కోసం వెళుతున్నాను
    రెండవ సారి నేను సంఘానికి శరణు కోసం వెళుతున్నాను

    మూడోసారి నేను బుద్ధుడికి శరణు కోసం వెళుతున్నాను
    మూడవ సారి నేను ధర్మకు శరణు కోసం వెళుతున్నాను
    మూడవ సారి నేను సంఘ్కు శరణు కోసం వెళుతున్నాను

    మీరు ఈ క్రింది వ్యాఖ్యలలో ధ్యానం గురించి క్వటిన్స్ అడగవచ్చు.
    క్రొత్త వీడియోల గురించి గమనించి నా ఛానెల్కు చందా చేయండి.

    బుద్ధ త్రిపాదికా: ది పెన్ ట్రైనింగ్ ప్రిన్సిపల్స్ (సుత్త పిటకా .ఖుదాక నికాయ ఖుదాకపథ 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA)

    1. చంపడం నుండి దూరంగా ఉండటానికి నేను నియమాలను అనుసరిస్తాను.

    2. నేను దొంగిలించడం నుండి దూరంగా ఉండటానికి నియమాలను అనుసరిస్తాను.

    3. నేను లైంగిక దుష్ప్రవర్తన నుండి దూరంగా ఉండటానికి నియమాలను అనుసరిస్తాను.

    4. అబద్దాల నుండి దూరంగా ఉండటానికి నేను నియమాలను అనుసరిస్తాను.

    5. మత్తు నుండి మినహాయించి, మత్తు మరియు అప్రమత్తతకు కారణమయ్యే నియమావళితో నేను కట్టుబడి ఉంటాను.

    6. అసమానంగా తినకుండా నేను దూరంగా ఉండటానికి నియమాలను అనుసరిస్తాను.

    7. నృత్యం, పాడటం, సంగీతం మరియు అసహ్యమైన ప్రదర్శనల నుండి దూరంగా ఉండటానికి నేను నియమాలను అనుసరిస్తాను.

    8. దండలు, పరిమళ ద్రవ్యాలు, సౌందర్య సాధనాలు, అలంకారాలైన వాడకం నుండి దూరంగా ఉండటానికి నేను నియమాలను అనుసరిస్తాను.

    9. అధిక మరియు విలాసవంతమైన పడకలను ఉపయోగించకుండా ఉండటానికి నేను నియమాలను అనుసరిస్తాను.

    10. బంగారం, వెండిని అంగీకరించకుండా ఉండటానికి నేను నియమాలను అనుసరిస్తాను.

    Buddhas Animated Story | Telugu Stories For Children | Cartoon For Kids
    Buddhas Animated Story | Telugu Stories For Children | Cartoon For Kids
    Buddhas Animated Telugu Stories For Children. Gautama Buddha, also
    known as Siddhartha Gautama, was a sage on whose teachings Buddhism was
    founded. Watch and enjoy the interesting 3D animation of Budda,
    specially for kids.

    Buddha is known all over the world who was
    born in Nepal during 6th century B.C. Buddha was a spiritual teacher of
    ancient India whose ideas on freeing
    mankind from sorrow and suffering form the basis of Buddhism. He
    realized that human life was short and full of sadness and so found a
    path to Enlightenment and spiritual fulfillment.

    In this episode, the wise men selected the name Siddhartha, who was
    born to King Suddhodana and Mayadevi. The king asked the wise men ‘Will
    the prince become a King?’ The wise men predicted that the Prince would
    become a Buddha when he grows up. Watch the whole story..

    Knowledge & entertainment at one place make learning fun. This is
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    Bommarillu is one-stop destination for Rhymes,
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    Gautam Buddha | Buddham Sharanam Gachhami Telugu Songs Jukebox…
    Published on May 18, 2016

    Listen to Gautam Buddha Telugu devotional songs. Buddham saranam gachhami audio songs jukebox on Amulya audios and videos.

    Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhartha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha,or
    simply the Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage on whose teachings
    Buddhism was founded.He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in
    the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent sometime between the sixth
    and fourth centuries BCE.

    Jukebox List :-

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    95) Classical Thai

    95) ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก

    2238 พฤหัส 25 พฤษภาคม 2560 บทเรียน


    INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio ภาพเคลื่อนไหวฟรีภาพตัดปะออนไลน์ A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
    ในรูปแบบภาพ (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Sirima: Sirima’s Mansion

    Vv 1.16
    PTS: Vv 136-148
    Sirima: Sirima’s Mansion
    John D. Ireland
    © 2005


    ม้าที่ปกคลุมด้วยซากุระและประณีตของคุณแข็งแรงและรวดเร็วจะมุ่งหน้าลงไปสู่ท้องฟ้า รถรบห้าแสนคันเหล่านี้ถูกสร้างขึ้นอย่างน่าอัศจรรย์กำลังติดตามม้าซึ่งเรียกโดยคนขับรถรบ

    คุณยืนอยู่ในรถม้าที่ยอดเยี่ยมนี้ประดับสดใสและส่องแสงเหมือนดาวสว่าง ฉันขอให้คุณมีรูปแบบที่เพรียวสวยและความงดงามที่สวยงามซึ่งคุณเป็น บริษัท ของพระเจ้าได้มาเยี่ยมเยียน Unrivaled One หรือไม่?


    จากบรรดาผู้ที่ได้มาถึงความสูงของความสุขศีลธรรมกล่าวว่าจะไม่มีใครเทียบได้; พระเจ้าที่ชื่นชอบในการเปลี่ยนแปลงและการสร้างความมหัศจรรย์ ผีตัวเล็กจาก บริษัท ดังกล่าวที่สามารถคาดเดาลักษณะที่ต้องการได้มาที่นี่เพื่อบูชาที่ไม่มีใครเทียบได้


    คุณทำอะไรเป็นอย่างดีคุณ forme


    ในเมืองที่สร้างขึ้นอย่างดีตั้งอยู่ระหว่างเนินเขาผู้เข้ารับราชการของกษัตริย์ผู้ดีที่มีมงคลมากมายผมทำได้ดีในการเต้นรำและร้องเพลง ในฐานะ Sirima ฉันเป็นที่รู้จักใน Rajagaha

    แต่แล้ว Awakened หนึ่งผู้นำในหมู่ผู้เสด็จมาแนะนำคำสอนของฉันสอนฉันเกี่ยวกับการก่อกำเนิดความทุกข์และความไม่สม่ำเสมอ; ของไม่มีเงื่อนไข, จากการหยุดยั้งความทุกข์ทรมานที่ไม่มีวันสิ้นสุด และเส้นทางนี้ไม่คดเคี้ยวตรงมงคล





    เพราะฉะนั้นฉันเป็นเทพธิดาไม่รู้ตัวว่าเป็นสาวกของทาทากาที่ไม่มีใครเทียบได้ รู้จักธรรมที่ตั้งขึ้นในผลไม้ชนิดแรก ต่อจากนี้จะไม่มีค่าจ้างที่ไม่ดีสำหรับฉัน

    ผมมาเคารพบูชาพระผู้ทรงฤทธานุภาพและพระสงฆ์ผู้ดีที่ชื่นชอบในสิ่งที่มีฝีมือ เพื่อบูชาการสมรสอันเป็นมงคลของฤาษีและผู้ทรงเกียรติผู้ทรงฤทธิ์องค์เดียวคือพระธรรมภิบาล

    8. พระไตรปิฎกโดยพระพุทธศาสนาเถรวาท (Sutta)

    Sutta Pitaka (”Basket of Discourse”) เป็นที่ใหญ่ที่สุดใน “กระเช้าสามกระปุก” (Tipitaka)
    จากพระไตรปิฎกศักดิ์สิทธิ์: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
    Buddha Tripitaka: ไปหลบภัย (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

    พระไตรปิฎก - ไปเพื่อชดเชย - Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. ซารานา - กายานา

    ฉันไปหลบภัยกับพระพุทธเจ้า (ครู)
    ฉันไปหลบภัยกับธรรมะ (การสอน)
    ฉันไปหลบภัยกับสังฆะ (สอน)



    คุณอาจถาม quetions เกี่ยวกับการทำสมาธิในความคิดเห็นด้านล่าง
    และติดตามช่องของฉันด้วยการสังเกตเห็นเกี่ยวกับวิดีโอใหม่ ๆ

    พระพุทธตรีรัตนโกสินทร์: ฝึกอบรมสิบเรื่อง (Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA)

    1. ฉันยึดมั่นที่จะปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลเพื่อไม่ให้ฆ่า

    2. ฉันต้องปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลเพื่องดเว้นเสีย

    3. ฉันต้องปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลเพื่องดเว้นการกระทำผิดทางเพศ

    4. ฉันต้องปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลเพื่องดเว้นจากการโกหก

    5. ฉันต้องปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลธรรมในการงดเว้นจากสุราที่ทำให้เกิดอาการมึนเมาและความไม่ระมัดระวัง

    6. ฉันต้องปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลเพื่องดเว้นจากการรับประทานอาหารที่ไม่เหมาะสม

    7. ฉันต้องปฏิบัติตามหลักเกณฑ์ในการงดเว้นการเต้นรำการร้องเพลงและการแสดงที่ไม่เหมาะสม

    8. ฉันต้องปฏิบัติตามหลักเกณฑ์ในการงดเว้นจากการใช้มาลัยน้ำหอมเครื่องสำอางและเครื่องประดับ

    9. ฉันต้องปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลเพื่องดเว้นจากการใช้เตียงสูงและหรูหรา

    10. ฉันยอมรับที่จะปฏิบัติตามหลักศีลเพื่องดเว้นทองและเงิน

    Namo tassa thai chanting…
    Namo tassa thai chanting
    Published on Aug 24, 2016

    get rid of devil possessed (black magic) and demon chaser. bring good luck and good charms to listeners.

    get rid of devil possessed (black magic) and demon chaser. bring good luck and good charms to listeners.

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    comments (0)
    96) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk, 97) Classical Urdu-کلاسیکل اردو 98) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,-Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,100) Classical Welsh- Clasurol Cymru,101) Classical Xhosa- Classical isiXhosa,102) Classical Yiddish-קלאסישע ייִדיש) 103 Classical Yoruba103) Classical Yorùbá,104) Classical Zulu- Zulu Classical
    Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
    Posted by: @ 6:23 pm

    96) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,

    97) Classical Urdu-کلاسیکل اردو

    98) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,-

    Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,100) Classical Welsh- Clasurol Cymru,101) Classical Xhosa- Classical isiXhosa,102) Classical Yiddish-קלאסישע ייִדיש) 103 Classical Yoruba103) Classical Yorùbá,104) Classical Zulu- Zulu Classical

    96) Classical Turkish

    96) Klasik Türk

    2238 Salı 25 Mayıs 2017 DERS


    INSIGHT-NET-Hi-tech Radyosu Ücretsiz Canlandırma Klipart Online A1 (Uyanan Bir) Tipiṭaka Araştırma ve Uygulama Üniversitesi
    Görsel Formatda (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Sirima: Sirima’nın Konağı

    Vv 1.16
    PTS: VV 136-148
    Sirima: Sirima’nın Konağı
    Pali’den tercüme edildi.
    John D. Ireland
    © 2005


    Bağlı ve ince caparisoned atları, güçlü ve hızlı, gökyüzü aşağıya doğru ilerliyor. Ve savaş arabacılar tarafından çağrılan atlar, sihirli bir şekilde yaratılan bu beş yüz savaş arabası izliyor.

    Yanık bir yıldız gibi süslenmiş, ışıltılı ve parlayan bu mükemmel arabada duruyorsunuz. Size en güzel ince formdan ve enfes güzellikten, hangilerinin
    tanrıların hangi şirketinden Rakipsiz Bir’i ziyarete geldiğinizi


    Heyecan verici zevklere ulaşanların eşsiz olduğu söylenir; Büyülü dönüşüm ve yaratımdan hoşnut olan tanrılar. İstenilen herhangi bir görüntüyü üstlenebilen bu şirketten gelen bir sedye, burada Eşsiz Bir’e ibadet etmek için geldi.


    Ne iyi davranış attın


    arasında, iyi bir servet sahibi asil bir kralın görevlisi olan iyi inşa
    edilmiş bir şehirde dans etme ve şarkı söyleme konusunda çok başarılı
    Sirima olarak Rajagaha’da tanındım.

    Fakat izleyenler arasından lider olan Uyanık olan rehber, bana başlangıçtan, acıdan ve acımasız olmaktan ötürü öğretti; Kayıtsız şartsız, acı çekmenin sonsuza dek sürdüğü; Ve bu yolun, eğri, düz, uğurlu değil.

    devletten (nibbana) öğrendiğimde, koşulsuz olarak, Tathagata’nın, Eşsiz
    Bir’in talimatıyla, ben, kurallarda çok iyi kısıtlanmıştım ve en
    mükemmel insanlar tarafından öğretilen Tanrı’da kurulmuştum, Uyanıktım

    tarafından verilen Rakipsiz Bir’in öğrettiği kayıtsız yeri bildiğimde,
    ben o zaman ve sakin konsantrasyon (asil yolun) yaşadım.
    Serbest bırakma güvencesi benimimdi.

    Şüphe duymadan, nüfuzlu içgörüye dayanan belirsiz, teminatlı, seçkin
    kazandığımda birçok insanın saygılı davrandım ve çok fazla zevk ve zevk

    Böylece Ben, Tathagata’nın rakipsiz bir öğrencisi olan ölümsüzleri bilen bir tanrıçım; İlk meyve içerisinde kurulan Dhamma’nın bir bilgisini, bir dere girişi. Bundan sonra benim için kötü bir günah yoktur.

    Rakipsiz Bir’e ve yetenekli olanı memnun eden erdemli rahiplere karşı gelmeye başladım; Kafirlerin ve saygın Fortunate One, Dhamma-kralın kutlu birleşimini ibadet etmek için.

    bilge görmeyi sevindim, Tathagata, eğitimli insanların olağanüstü
    eğitmeni, özlemleri kesen, yetenekli olanı sevenler, rehber.
    Ben, cömert merhametli Şefkatli Kişi’ne tapıyorum.
    Gökyüzündeki Mansion
    8. Theravada Budizm (Sutta) tarafından Tripitaka

    Hint Tarihi’ndeki En Etkili kitaplar.
    Sutta Pitaka (”Sepet Söylem”), “üç sepet” in en büyüğüdür (Tipitaka).
    Kutsal Budist Tipitaka’dan: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
    Buddha Tripitaka: Sığınma evine gitmek (Sutta Pitaka, Khuddaka Nikaya, Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

    Buda Tripitaka. - MUTLAKA GİTMEK - Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

    Buda’ya sığınırım (Öğretmen)
    Dhamma’ya sığınırım (Öğretmenlik)
    Sangha’ya (Öğretilenler) sığınırım

    İkinci kez Buda’ya sığınırım
    İkinci kez sığınmak için Dhamma’ya gidiyorum
    İkinci kez Sangha’ya sığınırım

    Üçüncü kez Buddha’ya sığınırım
    Üç kez sığınmak için Dhamma’ya gidiyorum
    Üçüncü kez Sangha’ya sığınırım

    Aşağıdaki yorumlarda meditasyon hakkında soru sormak isteyebilirsiniz.
    Ve kanalımı abone edin, lütfen yeni videolar fark ederek.

    Buddha Tripitaka: On Eğitim Öğretisi (Sutta Pitaka, Khuddaka Nikaya, Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA)

    1. Öldürmeyi önleme yönergesine uymayı taahhüt ederim.

    2. Çalmayı bırakmaktan vazgeçme emrini yerine getirmeyi taahhüt ederim.

    3. Cinsel suistimalden kaçınma kuralını benimsemeyi taahhüt ederim.

    4. Yalan söylemeyi önleme yönergesine uymayı taahhüt ederim.

    5. Zehirlenme ve dikkatsizliğe neden olan likörü bırakma kuralına uymayı taahhüt ederim.

    6. Zamansız yemekten kaçınma kuralına uymayı taahhüt ederim.

    7. Dans, şarkı söyleme, müzikten kaçınma ve görmedik şovları ziyaret etme yönergesine uymayı taahhüt ederim.

    8. Çelenklerin, parfümlerin, kozmetik ürünlerin ve bezemelerin kullanılmasından kaçınma kuralına uymayı taahhüt ederim.

    9. Yüksek ve lüks yatakların kullanımından kaçınma kuralını benimsemeyi taahhüt ederim.

    10. Altın ve gümüşü kabul etmemek için verilen talimatlara uymayı taahhüt ederim.

    Traditional Turkish Music instrumental for relaxing and background
    Traditional Turkish Music instrumental for relaxing and background
    Published on Mar 9, 2017

    Traditional Turkish Music instrumental for relaxing and background
    Please subscribe, thumb up and share with friends

    Music by by Musicien.Douzi is licensed under a Creative Commons License.

    *** Follow us ***

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    96) Classical Ukrainian
    96) Класична українська

    2238 чт 25 травня 2017 УРОК


    INSIGHT-NET-Привіт Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Інтернет A1 (Пробуджена) Tipitaka досліджень і університету практика
    в візуальному форматі (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Особняк Sirima в: Sirima

    Vv 1,16
    PTS: Vv 136-148
    Особняк Sirima в: Sirima
    в перекладі з впали на
    John D. Ірландія
    © 2005


    Ваші ярмо і дрібно прикрашені коні, сильні і швидкі, йдуть вниз по небу. І ці п’яти сто колісниць, магічно створені Передплатники, коні підганяв колісниць.

    Ви стоїте в цій прекрасній колісниці, прикрашеній, сяючою і сяючим, як виблискує зірка. Я прошу вас про прекрасній формі тонкої і вишукану красу, від якої компанії богів ви прийшли відвідати Неперевершений One?


    З тих, хто досяг висот чуттєвих задоволень, кажуть, неперевершеними; боги, які захоплюють в чарівної трансформації і створення. Німфа від цієї компанії, здатної взяти на себе будь-який бажаний
    зовнішній вигляд прийшов сюди, щоб вклонитися Неперевершений One.


    Що хорошу поведінку ти формовий


    тонкому стрункому місті, розташованого між пагорбами, служитель
    благородного короля, наділеною удачею, я був дуже досвідченим в танцях і
    Як Sirima я був відомий в Раджагахе.

    Але пробуджений, лідер серед бачать, керівництво, навчив мене Творення, страждань і мінливості; безумовні, про припинення страждань, вічно; і цей шлях, а не криво, прямий, сприятливі.

    я дізнався про стан безсмертного (Ніббана), безумовному, за дорученням
    Татхагат, неперевершений One, я був високо і добре витриманий в
    заповідях і заснований в Дхарми вчила самий прекрасними чоловіків,

    я знав непоганеної місце, безумовне, навчені Татхагат, неперевершений
    One, я тоді і там відчував спокійну концентрацію (благородного шляху).
    Це вища визначеність випуску була моя.

    Коли я отримав відмінну невмирущий, запевнили, видатний в проникаючому
    прозріння, не сумніваючись, я був почитаю багатьма людьми, і випробував
    величезне задоволення і насолоду.

    Таким чином, я богиня, знаючи невмирущий, учень Татхагат, неперевершений One; знає Дхамма встановлені в першому фруктів, потік-вхідних. Відтепер немає поганого Борна для мене.

    Я прийшов, щоб вшанувати Неперевершені Один і добродійні монах, які захоплюють в тому, що фахівці; поклонятися сприятливим збори аскетів і respectworthy удачливого, Дхамма-короля.

    радісний і радували побачивши мудреця, Татхагата, видатний тренер
    чоловіків можуть бути підготовлені, хто відрізаний жадати, який захоплює
    в тому, що досвідчений, керівництво.
    Я поклоняюся надзвичайно милостивий жалісливий.
    Mansion In The Sky
    8. Трипитака від Тхеравади (Сутта)

    Більшість впливових книг в історії Індії.
    Сутта Питак ( «Кошик дискурсу») є найбільшим з «трьох кошиків» (Tipitaka).
    Зі Святого буддійського Tipitaka: Сутта-пітака: Кхуддак Никай
    Будда Трипитаку: Перехід на притулок (.. Sutta Питак Кхуддака Nikaya кхуддакапатх 1. Сарана-Гаман)

    Будда Трипитака. - ВІДВІДУЮЧИ REFUGE- Сутта-пітака. Кхуддака Nikaya. Кхуддакапатх. 1. Саран-Гаман

    Я приймаю притулок в Будді (Учитель)
    Я приймаю притулок в Дхарми (Вчення)
    Я приймаю притулок в сангхи (той, якого навчають)

    Вдруге я йду за притулком до Будди
    Вдруге я йду за притулком до Дхарми
    Вдруге я йду за притулком до сангхи

    Втретє я йду за притулком до Будди
    Втретє я йду за притулком до Дхарми
    Втретє я йду за притулком до сангхи

    Ви можете запитати quetions про медитації в коментарях нижче.
    І підписатися на мій канал, будь ласка, на яку помітив про нові відео.

    Будда Трипитаку: Десять Заповідей Training (Сутта Питак Кхуддак Nikaya кхуддакапатх 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA.).

    1. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися приписів утримуватися від вбивства.

    2. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися приписів утримуватися від злодійства.

    3. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися приписів утримуватися від неправильного сексуальної поведінки.

    4. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися приписів утримуватися від брехні.

    5. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися приписів утримуватися від спиртних напоїв, що викликає інтоксикацію і безпечність.

    6. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися приписів утримуватися від несвоєчасного прийому їжі.

    7. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися приписів утримуватися від танців, співу, музики і відвідування непорядних шоу.

    8. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися приписів утримуватися від використання гірлянд, парфумерії, косметики та прикрас.

    9. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися приписів утримуватися від використання високих і розкішних ліжок.

    10. Я зобов’язуюсь дотримуватися правила утримуватися від прийняття золота і срібла.

    Buddha Festival in Kharkov, Ukraine April 13th, 2012
    Buddha Festival in Kharkov, Ukraine April 13th, 2012

    97) کلاسیکل اردو

    2238 جمعرات 25 مئی 2017 LESSON


    INSIGHT-NET-ہیلو ٹیک ریڈیو فری انیمیشن ویڈیوکلپ آن A1 (ایک بیدار) Tipiṭaka ریسرچ اینڈ پریکٹس یونیورسٹی
    بصری شکل میں (FOA1TRPUVF)
    سے Sirima: سے Sirima کی حویلی

    VV 1.16
    PTS: VV 136-148
    سے Sirima: سے Sirima کی حویلی
    کی طرف سے پالی زبان سے ترجمہ
    جان ڈی آئر لینڈ
    © 2005


    آپ کا جوڑا اور باریک caparisoned گھوڑوں، مضبوط اور تیز رو، آسمان کے ذریعے نیچے کی طرف بڑھ رہے ہیں. اور یہ پانچ سو رتھ جادوئی پیدا، پیروی کر رہے ہیں، گھوڑے سارتی طرف پر زور دیا.

    آپ کو اس شاندار رتھ، آراستہ دیپتمان اور، چمک ایک چل چلاتی ستارہ کی طرح میں کھڑے ہیں. میں خوبصورت پتلی فارم اور شاندار خوبصورتی کی تم سے پوچھنا، دیوتاؤں کی جس کمپنی سے آپ کو بے مثال ایک کا دورہ کرنے آئے ہیں؟

    [سے Sirima:]

    جنسی لطف کی بلندیوں تک پہنچ چکے ہیں جو ان لوگوں سے، بلا سبقت جائے کہا؛ دیوتاؤں جادو تبدیلی اور تخلیق میں خوش تھے. کسی بھی مطلوبہ ظہور فرض کرنے کے قابل ہے کہ کمپنی کی جانب سے ایک اپسرا بے مثال ون کی عبادت کے لئے یہاں آیا ہے.


    [سے Sirima:]

    کے درمیان واقع ایک ہلکی بلٹ شہر میں، خوش قسمتی کے ساتھ endowed ایک عظیم
    بادشاہ کا ایک تبچر، میں رقص اور گانے میں انتہائی قابل تھا.
    سے Sirima طور پر میں Rajagaha میں جانا جاتا تھا.

    لیکن پھر سے Awakened ایک، seers کے درمیان رہنما گائیڈ، مجھے آغاز کا، مصائب اور ناپائداری کا سکھایا؛ ، unconditioned ابدی ہے کہ مصائب کے خاتمے کے؛ اور اس راستے کے، ٹیڑھی نہیں براہ راست، شبھ.

    undying ریاست (nibbana)، unconditioned، تتاگت، بے مثال ون، میں انتہائی
    اور اچھی اپدیشوں میں پابندی اور مردوں کے سب سے زیادہ شاندار کی طرف سے
    سکھایا سے Dhamma میں قائم کیا گیا تھا کی ہدایات کے ذریعے کی سیکھا تھا
    جب، بیدار

    نے بے داغ جگہ، unconditioned، تتاگت، بے مثال ایک کی طرف سے سکھایا جانتے
    تھے تو میں نے پھر وہاں پرسکون ارتکاز (نوبل راستے کے) کا تجربہ.
    رہائی کے یہی زبردست یقین میرا تھا.

    میں مخصوص undying، یقین دہانی کرائی، penetrative بصیرت، پر شک نہیں میں
    نامور حاصل کی تو میں نے بہت سے لوگوں کی طرف سے احترام اور بہت خوشی اور
    لطف اندوزی کا تجربہ کیا گیا تھا.

    اس طرح میں ایک دیوی، undying، تتاگت کے ایک شاگرد، بے مثال ایک جاننے؛ سے Dhamma کا جاننے والا پہلا پھل، ایک ندی-enterer میں قائم. آج کے بعد میرے لئے کوئی برا bourn نہیں ہے.

    میں نے بے مثال ایک اور ہنر مند کیا ہے میں خوشی جو نیک راہبوں احترام کے پاس آیا؛ سننیاسیوں اور respectworthy خوش قسمت ایک، سے Dhamma بادشاہ کے شبھ اسمبلی کی عبادت کے لئے.

    آنندپورن اور بابا کو دیکھ کر gladdened ہوں تتاگت، مردوں کے بقایا ٹرینر
    تربیت دی جا رہی ہے کے قابل ہے، جو ترس کاٹ چکا ہے، ہنر مند ہے کیا میں
    نعمتیں جو گائیڈ.
    میں نے نہایت مہربان رحم کرنے والا ایک ہی عبادت کیا کرو؟v=jMufxCnpNqI&list=RDjMufxCnpNqI#t=0
    آسمان میں مینشن؟v=YpVebI8ydsk
    8. تھرواد بدھ مت کی طرف Tripitaka (سے Sutta)

    بھارتی تاریخ میں سب سے زیادہ بااثر کتابیں.
    سے Sutta Pitaka ( “گفتگو کی ٹوکری”) “تین ٹوکری” (Tipitaka) کا سب سے بڑا ہے.؟v=AVFx5U843A4
    سے Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya مقدس بدھ مت Tipitaka سے؟v=TxhD-BJ5MlY
    بدھا Tripitaka: پناہ کے لئے جا رہا ہے (.. سے Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

    بدھا Tripitaka. - پناہ سے Sutta Pitaka کے لیے جا. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

    میں بدھ (ٹیچر) کو پناہ لئے جانے
    میں سے Dhamma (قرآن) کو پناہ لئے جانے
    میں نے سنگھا (سکھایا) کو پناہ لئے جانے

    دوسری بار میں نے بدھا کو پناہ لئے جانے
    دوسری بار کے لئے میں سے Dhamma کو پناہ لئے جانے
    دوسری بار میں نے سنگھا کو پناہ لئے جانے

    تیسری بار میں نے بدھا کو پناہ لئے جانے
    تیسری بار کے لئے میں سے Dhamma کو پناہ لئے جانے
    تیسری بار میں نے سنگھا کو پناہ لئے جانے

    آپ ذیل میں تبصرے میں مراقبہ کے بارے میں کے quetions پوچھ سکتے ہیں.
    اور نئے ویڈیوز کے بارے میں محسوس کر کرنے کے لئے براہ مہربانی میرے چینل کو سبسکرائب.؟v=0wCGR3xLVGE

    بدھا Tripitaka: دس ٹریننگ اپدیشوں (سے Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. میں Dasa-SIKKHAPADA..)

    1. میں قتل سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.

    2. میں نے چوری سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.

    3. میں جنسی دراچار سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.

    4. میں جھوٹ سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.

    5. میں شراب کے نشہ اور غفلت کا سبب بنتا ہے کہ سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.

    6. میں اسامییک کھانے سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.

    7. میں ناچنا، گانا، موسیقی، اور گندا شو کا دورہ کرنے سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.

    8. میں پھولوں کے ہار، عطورات، کاسمیٹکس، اور embellishments کے استعمال سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.

    9. میں اعلی اور آسائش بستر کے استعمال سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.

    10.میں سونے اور چاندی کو قبول کرنے سے پرہیز کرنے کا حکم پر عمل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا.کیا اچھا برتاؤ کیا آپ فرما تھا

    Buddham Saranam Gacchami Chant Full Song by Usha Mangeshkar | Buddha Mantra For Positive Energy
    Buddham Saranam Gacchami Chant Full Song by Usha Mangeshkar | Buddha Mantra For Positive Energy
    Presenting Buddham Saranam Gacchami Full Song by Usha Mangeshkar. Listen to the Popular chanting of Buddha for peace of Mind.

    Song Credits:
    Song Name: Buddham Saranam Gacchami
    Album: Buddha Mantra
    Singer: Usha Mangeshkar

    Lyrics in Hindi
    बुद्धं शरणं गच्छामि।
    धर्मं शरणं गच्छामि।
    संघं शरणं गच्छामि।

    Lyrics in English
    Buddhaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi.
    Dharmaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi.
    Saṃghaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi.

    Meaing in English
    I take refuge in the Buddha.
    I take refuge in the Dharma.
    I take refuge in the Sangha.

    Don’t forget to Subscribe to stay updated on new Marathi Plays.

    Also do comment and share the video with your loved ones.

    Presenting Buddham Saranam Gacchami Full Song by Usha Mangeshkar. Listen to the Popular chanting of…

    98) Classical Uzbek
    98) Klassik o’zbek

    2238 Pay 25 May 2017 Kurs


    Anglamoq-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animatsiya Klipart Online A1 (bir uyg’otdi) Tipiṭaka tadqiqot va amaliyot universiteti
    Visual formatida (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Sirima: Sirima ning Mansion

    VV 1,16
    PTS: VV 136-148
    Sirima: Sirima ning Mansion
    tomonidan Päli tarjima
    John D. Irlandiya
    © 2005


    kuchli va tez Sizning qo’shganini va nozik caparisoned otlar, osmonga, pastga boryapmiz. Va bu besh yuzta jang aravasi, sehrli yaratgan, otlar aravalari tomonidan chaqirdi, quyidagi etiladi.

    Siz bu ajoyib aravaga, bezatilgan yorqin va yonib turgan yulduz kabi porlab turish. Men xudolar qaysi kompaniya tomonidan siz Unrivalled biriga borib keldim, go’zal nozik shakl va ajoyib go’zallik so’raydi?


    shahvoniy aysh yuksaklikka yetdi borlardan, ustun bo’lishi kerak dedi; sehrli o’zgartirish va yaratish zavq xudolar. har qanday kerakli ko’rinishga taxmin qilish ega kompaniyaning bir parisi Unrivalled ibodat qilish uchun shu yerni keldi.


    Nima yaxshi Boshlovchi siz shakl qildim



    orasida joy nozik, baquvvat shahrida, yaxshi boylik ato ezgu shoh bir
    xizmatkor, men raqs va ashula juda mahoratli edi.
    Sirima sifatida men Rajagaha ma’lum qilindi.

    Ammo keyin uyg’ondi biri, ko’rganlar orasida yetakchi, hidoyat, azob-uqubat va impermanence bo’yicha, vujudga meni o’rgatdi; abadiy azob-uqubatlar tugatilgan, cheksiz qilish; va bu yo’l, xayrli, to’g'ri, egri emas.

    boqiy davlat (nibbana), Tathagata, Unrivalled Zotga, men juda yaxshi va
    o’gitlarni og’ir va erkaklarning eng yaxshi ta’lim Dhamma yilda tashkil
    etilgan topshirig’iga orqali cheksiz o’rgandim bo’lgach, uyg’otdi

    Tathagata, Unrivalled Zot tomonidan o’rgatilgan nuqsonsiz bo’lib,
    cheksiz, bilgan, men keyin va (ezgu yo’lning) tinch konsentratsiyasini
    bor tajribali.
    ozod Bu oliy ishonch Meniki edi.

    Men shubha yo’q penetratif farosati, ichida mashhur ishonch maxsus
    boqiy, qozongan bo’lsa, men juda ko’p odamlar tomonidan hurmat va ko’p
    zavq va huzur-halovat tajribali edi.

    Shunday qilib, men bir sevimli, o’lmas, Tathagata bir shogird Unrivalled One bilish; Dhamma bir biluvchi birinchi meva, bir oqim-enterer yilda tashkil etilgan. Endi men uchun hech qanday yomon soy bor.

    Men Unrivalled Yolg’iz va malakali nima lazzatlanadigan saxovatli rohiblarini sharaflar keldilar; zohiddirlar va respectworthy Fortunate Zotga, Dhamma-shohi muborak yig’ish ibodat qilish.

    adaçayı ko’rib quvnoq va taassurot emasman, malakali nima xursand
    muxtoj kesib berdi Tathagata, ta’lim oluvchilar qodir insonlar mashhur
    murabbiy, hidoyat.
    Men favqulodda rahmli Rohman ibodat.
    Sky In Mansion
    Theravada buddizm tomonidan 8. Tripitaka (Sutta)

    Hindiston tarixi eng nufuzli kitoblar.
    Sutta Pitaka ( “Söyleminin savat”), “uch savat» (Tipitaka) eng yirik hisoblanadi.
    Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya Muqaddas budda Tipitaka boshlab
    Budda Tripitaka: panoh ketadi (.. Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. Sarana-GAMANA)

    Budda Tripitaka. - REFUGE- Sutta Pitaka borar uchun. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. Sarana-GAMANA

    Men Budda (o’qituvchi) uchun panoh uchun borish
    Men Dhamma (Teaching) uchun panoh uchun borish
    Men Sangha (o’rgatdi) uchun panoh uchun borish

    ikkinchi marta, men Budda uchun panoh uchun borish
    ikkinchi marta, men Dhamma uchun panoh uchun borish
    ikkinchi marta, men Sangha uchun panoh uchun borish

    uchinchi marta men Budda uchun panoh uchun borish
    uchinchi marta men Dhamma uchun panoh uchun borish
    uchinchi marta men Sangha uchun panoh uchun borish

    Siz quyidagi izohlarda fikr yuritish haqida quetions so’rashi mumkin.
    Va iltimos, yangi videolar haqida sezdim bilan mening kanalimga obuna.

    Budda Tripitaka: O’n Training nizomlari (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. Dasa-SIKKHAPADA..)

    1. Men o’ldirish saqlanishdir amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    2. Men o’g'irlik saqlanishdir amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    3. Men jinsiy axloqsizlik saqlanishdir amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    4. Men yolg’on saqlanishdir amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    5. Men intoksikatsiyasi va g’aflatda sabab ichimliklardan saqlanish amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    6. Men bevaqt eb saqlanishdir amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    7. Men raqs, qo’shiqchilik, musiqa, va noma’qul namoyishlari tashrif saqlanishdir amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    8. Men bo’yniga, parfyum, kosmetika, va bezak foydalanish saqlanish uchun amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    9. Men yuqori va hashamatli ko’rpa foydalanish saqlanish uchun amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    10. Men oltin va kumush qabul saqlanish uchun amriga rioya qilish majburiyatini oladilar.

    Uzbek literature

    Uzbek literature
    Written By:
    Khairoulla H. Ismatoullaev
    See Article History
    Related Topics

    African literature
    French literature
    German literature
    Arabic literature
    Uzbek language
    English literature
    Central Asian literatures
    Italian literature
    American literature

    Uzbek literature, the body of written works produced by the Uzbek
    people of Central Asia, most of whom live in Uzbekistan, with smaller
    populations in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan.

    its roots stretch as far back as the 9th century, modern Uzbek
    literature traces its origins in large part to Chagatai literature, a
    body of works written in the Turkic literary language of Chagatai. The
    earliest works of Chagatai literature date from the 14th century but
    remain easily accessible to readers of the modern Uzbek language. Modern
    Uzbek has today assumed the role once held by Chagatai, which all but
    vanished by the early 20th century, of being the reference language for
    Turkic historical and literary works in Central Asia.
    The classical period

    Uzbek literature’s classical period lasted from the 9th to the second
    half of the 19th century. During that period numerous literary works
    were produced, often under the patronage of Turkic emperors, kings,
    sultans, and emirs. The best-known patrons of the Turkic literature of
    the historical region known as Turkistan—which includes what is today
    Uzbekistan as well as a number of surrounding countries—include the
    Qarakhanids (10th–13th centuries); such Timurids (14th–16th centuries)
    as Timur (Tamerlane), Shahrukh, Ulūgh Beg, Ḥusayn Bayqarah, and Bābur,
    the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India; and ʿUmar Khan, a
    19th-century ruler of the khanate of Kokand.
    Read More on This Topic
    Uzbekistan: Cultural life

    From the 10th to the 12th century, Uzbek written literature migrated
    from a Turkic script to an Arabic one. This transition opened Uzbek
    writers to the influence of Arabic literature; the result was that Uzbek
    literature underwent extensive changes as it adopted many of the forms
    and some of the language of Arabic poetry and prose. Works from this
    period include Yusuf Khass Hajib’s Kutudgu bilig (“Knowledge Which Leads
    to Happiness”; Eng. trans. The Wisdom of Royal Glory), written in
    1069–70; Mahmud Kashgari’s Diwan lughat al-Turk (Compendium of the
    Turkic Dialects), compiled in 1072–74; and Ahmad Yugnaki’s 12th-century
    Hibat al-haqaʾiq (“Gift to Truths”), a didactic poem.
    Similar Topics

    Chagatai literature
    Persian literature
    Spanish literature
    Thai literature

    Among the other Central Asian poets who had a lasting influence on
    Uzbek literature is Ahmed Yesevi, a 12th-century religious poet who was a
    follower of the great Sufi leader Yūsuf Hamadhānī. Ahmed Yesevi’s
    poems—collected as Divan-i hikmet (“Book of Wisdom”)—constituted a new
    genre of Central Asian Turkic literature: a religious folk poetry. He
    used a popular vernacular that borrowed little Arabic and Persian and
    that featured a Turkic syllabic metre.

    The 13th and 14th
    centuries saw the emergence of works written in Chagatai, a tradition
    that had a strong influence on the literature later classified as Uzbek.
    Among the poets of this period, those whose works have been preserved
    to modern times and remain popular today are Khwārizmī, best known for
    his Muhabbatnamah (“Love Letters”); Quṭb Khorazmī, who in 1340
    translated Neẓāmī’s romantic epic Khosrow o-Shīrīn (“Khosrow and
    Shīrīn”); and Durbek, best known for his Yusuf o-Zulaykha (“Yusuf and
    Zulaykha”). In the second half of the 14th century and in the first half
    of the 15th, the regions of Transoxania and Khorāsān—especially the
    cities Samarkand and Herāt—became centres of a cultural renaissance in
    Central Asia. Under the Timurids, literature, written in Chagatai,
    underwent intensive development. Many poetic genres flourished,
    including the lyric, the elegy, and the romantic destān (an oral epic
    poem). Many works in prose, especially historical works, were also
    produced. Of the many outstanding poets of this period, Luṭfī was the
    great master of the ghazal (lyric love poem) and tuyugh (a Turkic
    quatrain, similar to the robāʾī), and he exerted a wide influence on
    poets of his time. In his sole narrative poem, Gul wa Nawruz (written in
    1411; “Gul and Nawruz”), he extolled ideal love. Sakkākī, also among
    the period’s prominent poets, is best known for his divan (collection of
    poems), which contains munajaat (hymns), ghazals, and qasidas (odes)
    devoted to Ulūgh Beg. But it was Gadāʾī who was the most remarkable
    Uzbek poet of the 14th and 15th centuries. Although his divan has been
    preserved, very little of his life is known. Even the poet’s original
    name is unknown; Gadāʾī is derived from his use of Gadā (“Beggar”) as a
    tahallus (pen name) in his ghazals. His divan consists of 229 ghazals, 5
    tuyughs, 2 qasidas, and 1 mustazād (a poem in which every second
    hemistich, or half-line, is followed by a short metrical line that has
    some bearing on the sense of the first hemistich without altering its
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    Chagatai—which would eventually evolve into modern Uzbek—assumed its
    classical shape in the works of ʿAlī Shīr Navāʾī, an outstanding thinker
    and great poet as well as a famous literary patron of his time. He was
    also a statesman and a prominent member of the court of the sultan
    Ḥusayn Bayqarah. Navāʾī’s influence on the Turkic writers of Central
    Asia—and especially on Uzbek writers—cannot be overestimated. Among his
    four divans, which contain tens of thousands of lines of lyrical verse
    written in Chagatai, are examples of almost every literary genre
    practiced during the 14th and 15th centuries. He also wrote ghazals in
    Persian under the name Fāni. Navāʾī’s important works include Lisān
    ul-tayr (“The Language of the Birds”), a mystical masnawi (poem in
    couplets) completed in 1498; Majālis-i nefaʾīs (1491; “The Exquisite
    Assemblies”), a prose work in which Navāʾī gave brief descriptions of
    the major poets of the 14th and 15th centuries; and Mizan al-awzan
    (1498; “The Balance of Metres”), a treatise on the Turkic prosodic
    system. He was also the author of a number of historical and scientific
    treatises, the most important of which is Muhakamat al-lughatayn (1499;
    “Judgment on Two Languages”), which compares the relative merits of the
    Persian and Chagatai languages.
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    Bābur, a prince of the Timurid dynasty who was crowned as king of the
    principality of Fergana (now in Uzbekistan) at age 12 and was the
    founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, was also an outstanding Chagatai
    poet and writer. One of the most attractive works not only in Chagatai
    literature but in Central Asian literature and historiography as a whole
    is his memoir, the Bābur-nāmeh, written during the 16th century in
    clear and refined Chagatai prose.

    Bābur inspecting a garden, portrait miniature from the Bābur-nāmeh, 16th century; in the British Library.
    Bābur inspecting a garden, portrait miniature from the …
    By permission of the British Library

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    From the 17th through the 19th century Uzbek literature developed
    separately in the three independent Uzbek khanates, two of which had
    been founded in the 15th century (Bukhara and Khiva [Khwārezm]) and the
    third in the mid-18th century (Kokand). In Bukhara the most famous poets
    were Mujrim Obid, one of the best lyric poets of the late 18th and
    early 19th century; Turdī, a follower of Navāʾī who wrote Sufi poems,
    although the character and motif of his poems later changed when he
    began writing poems that were socially engaged; and Sayido Nasafi. Abū
    al-Ghāzī Bahādur, a 17th-century khan of Khiva, wrote on the history of
    the Uzbeks, Turkmen, Kazakhs, and Karakalpaks. He played an important
    role in preserving many of these peoples’ folk legends, tales, proverbs,
    and sayings. His most notable works are Shajare-i Tarākime (1659;
    “Genealogical Tree of the Turkmen”) and Shajare-i Turk (completed
    posthumously by his son in 1665; “Genealogical Tree of the Turks”).
    Nishātī, an important poet of the 18th century, composed the last major
    masnawi in Chagatai. Prominent 19th-century Khivan writers include
    Shermuhammad Munis and Muhammad Āgahī, both poets as well as historians.
    Munis began writing a history of Khiva, Firdaus-ul iqbāl (“The Paradise
    of Felicity”), but he could finish only the introduction and first
    chapters; it was eventually completed by Āgahī, his nephew. The Kokand
    khanate produced such outstanding poets as Mashrab during the 17th
    century, Mahmur during the 18th century, and Muhammad Sharaf Gulkhānī,
    Uwaysī, and Nodira during the 19th century.
    The tsarist colonial period

    The tsarist colonial period in the Uzbek khanates marked a dark, tragic
    era for indigenous literature. From the beginning of the military
    invasion and occupation of these khanates—Bukhara was invaded in 1868
    and Khiva in 1873, with Kokand annexed in 1876; all three became part of
    the Russian province of Turkistan—the Russians tried to make use of
    literature to further their interests. Uzbek writers such as Muqīmī,
    Furqat, Zavqi, Dilshad, Anbar Atin, and Nazimakhanum were forced to
    praise Russian culture and society in their works. Furqat, who was from
    Kokand, was typical of these writers: in his poems, he praised tsarist
    Russia, and for each such poem he was—as archival research later
    revealed—rewarded by the governor-general of Turkistan. When Furqat
    began to write poems criticizing the oppressive nature of Russian rule
    in the Fergana Valley, however, he was sent into exile in Chinese
    Connect with Britannica

    In the first decades of
    the 20th century the Jadid reform movement, consisting of followers of
    the Turkish journalist Ismail Gasprinski, gained influence in Uzbekistan
    and throughout Central Asia. The Jadids’ primary concern was a new
    approach to education through so-called New Method (usul-i jadid)
    schools. (See Sidebar: Activities of the Jadid Reformers.) Among Uzbeks a
    new generation of Turkic-speaking writers—the Ziyolilar
    (“Enlighteners”), who counted themselves as Jadid reformers—made major
    contributions to modern Uzbek literature. These writers include Mahmud
    Khoja Behbudi, Abdalrauf Fitrat, Abdullah Qadiri, Cholpán (Abdulhamid
    Sulayman Yunús), Munawwar Qari, and Mannan Ramiz. They were among those
    writers who at the turn of the 20th century helped to introduce plays,
    novels, and short stories to the Uzbek people. The arrival of these
    Western genres also marked the highest stage of the development of
    classical poetry in Chagatai, which thereafter declined rapidly.
    The Soviet period

    When Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate as a result of the Russian
    Revolution of 1917, there were hopes among the intellectuals of
    Turkistan for greater freedoms. In October 1917 an independent
    government called the Kokand Autonomy was declared, although it was
    quashed by Russian authorities the following year. During the first
    years of the Soviet regime, however, the Enlighteners found it easy to
    spread a transnational Turkic culture and literature. Concerned with
    other problems, the Soviets initially did little to hinder the
    activities of Uzbek intellectuals in Turkistan, but they later used
    their control over the press to create obstacles. After the Soviets
    crushed the revolts of the Uzbek people and took full control of
    Turkistan, they increasingly suppressed native literature, culture, and
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    In spite of these difficulties, Uzbek literature was able to maintain
    its spirit. Fitrat, Cholpán, Qadiri, Elbek (Mashriq Yunus Oghli), and
    many other poets and writers published their best works during the 1920s
    and early 1930s, risking their lives to express the voice of the Uzbek
    nation as they turned their attention to critiquing the ideas and social
    practices of the Soviet regime.

    Fitrat was an outstanding
    scholar of the Jadid era, a theorist and an inspirer of the Jadid
    movement, a literary historian, and one of the early Uzbek dramatists.
    He came into contact with the reformist ideas of the Young Turks during
    his time at Istanbul University (1909–13), and, upon his return to
    Bukhara, he became active in the Young Bukharans, a group that likewise
    advocated political reform. Many of Fitrat’s plays—for example, Abu
    Muslim (1918), Ulūgh Beg (1919), Temurning saghanasi (1919; “Timur’s
    Mausoleum”), Oguz Khan (1919), Chinggis Khan (1920), and ʿAbul Fayz Khan
    (1924)—took the form of historical dramas that depicted actual figures
    from Central Asia’s early and medieval Islamic periods. Fitrat’s plays
    helped to raise national consciousness and feelings of patriotism among
    the Uzbek people. Fitrat, like many Central Asian writers of this
    period, also tried to unify the various Turkic languages of Central Asia
    in a literary language for all Central Asian peoples. He considered the
    broader historical region known as Turkistan to be a single,
    indivisible state with a common historical and cultural identity, and he
    opposed the imposition of the proletarian revolution exported from

    Cholpán was Central Asia’s most popular poet during the
    first half of the 20th century. He was also a dramatist and novelist and
    was the first to translate William Shakespeare’s plays into Uzbek.
    Three collections of his poems were published during his lifetime:
    Uyghonish (1922; “Awakening”), Buloqlar (1924; “Springs”), and Tong
    sirlari (1926; “Secrets of Dawn”). In addition, a number of Cholpán’s
    poems appeared in the collection Özbek yosh shoirlari (1922; “Young
    Uzbek Poets”). Cholpán also published a novel, Kecha wa kunduz (1935;
    “Night and Day”), as well as a number of plays and many short stories.

    Cholpán’s poetry became a source of lasting inspiration for later Uzbek
    writers, not least because of his innovative use of new forms of
    expression. He broke from the past by rejecting the mysticism that
    dominates Uzbek poems of the classical period, and his poems exhibit a
    simplified, straightforward language that is free of foreign borrowings.
    Cholpán also appealed strongly to Uzbek national identity. The poem
    “”Bas endi!”” (“That’s Enough!”) in Uyghonish, for instance, expresses
    the first awakenings of revolt against the Russian occupation:

    That’s enough! There’s finally a limit
    To all these insults, this humiliation!
    The edge that’s arrived at bit by bit
    Is only self-doubt and deprivation!

    This last stone I hold in my hand
    I long to fling at my nemesis.
    This last tear that my eye contains,
    I long to shed for my lifelong aims.

    Qadiri was responsible for introducing realism to Central Asia. He did
    so through his historical novels, in which he adopted a style and method
    that, in echoing Sir Walter Scott’s, distinguished his work from that
    of Jurjī Zaydān, a Beirut-born novelist writing in Arabic who was then
    greatly in vogue. The central importance of Qadiri’s historical novels
    Otgän kunlär (1922; “Days Gone By”) and Mehrobdan chayon (1929;
    “Scorpion from the Altar”) lies in their sympathetic rendering of the
    lives and times of the Uzbek people prior to Russian annexation. Many
    other Central Asian novelists—including Mukhtar Auez-ulï (Auezov),
    perhaps the most prominent figure in 20th-century Kazakh
    literature—followed Qadiri’s example.

    Soviet rulers feared
    Fitrat, Cholpán, and Qadiri because of the appeal their views enjoyed
    among the Turkic-speaking population of the Soviet Union. The Soviet
    regime attempted to exploit their popularity by encouraging them to
    write in support of the Soviet system, but these efforts failed, and,
    during the purge trials (Great Purge) directed by Joseph Stalin during
    the late 1930s, many prominent Uzbek writers—including Fitrat, Cholpán,
    and Qadiri—were executed. Thousands of other writers, teachers, and
    scholars were also imprisoned, many of them associated with the Jadid
    movement, which the Soviets regarded as a dangerous expression of

    The execution of many Uzbek writers had a chilling
    effect on literary circles. The decades after World War II saw the rise
    of authors who were dutiful but unimaginative servants of the Soviet
    regime, among them Kamil Yashin, Sharaf R. Rashidov, Nazir Safarov,
    Jumaniyaz Sharipov, Hamid Gulyam, Mirmuhsin, Ramz Babajan, Said Ahmad,
    Aybek, and Ibrahim Rahim. Making use of the techniques of Socialist
    Realism, Uzbek prose writers primarily produced novels about
    contemporary rural life. Many authors who wrote about rural life often
    falsified the reality of suffering experienced by farmers; otherwise
    their poems, short stories, plays, and novels would have never been
    Independence and beyond

    The Soviet Union’s
    collapse in 1991 and Uzbekistan’s subsequent independence transformed
    the Uzbek literary landscape. The literature written but banned by the
    Soviets (e.g., Fitrat’s plays, Cholpán’s novels) became widely
    available, but the independent press that had existed for a short time
    in the late 1980s vanished: newspapers were banned and their
    editors-in-chief put into prison or exiled. Soviet-style censorship
    became widely applied, and a number of prominent writers were arrested
    and tortured (e.g., Mamadali Mahmudov, Emin Usmon, Yusuf Jumaev,
    Muhammad Salih, and Safar Bekjon). Some, such as Usmon, died in prison.

    Uzbek authors and critics were forced to engage in a serious debate as
    to what Uzbek literature should be. Demoralized by the repressive
    measures being used in independent Uzbekistan, they argued about
    possible ways out of the post-Soviet chaos. Links to past literary
    styles and themes remained very strong throughout the 1990s, and the
    habits of Socialist Realism proved hard to shake, especially in the
    novel. One group of writers (Abdulla Aripov, Erkin Vahidov, Adil
    Yakubov, Said Ahmad, and Utkir Hashimov) in order to survive began to
    praise the country’s president, Islam Karimov, in their poems and
    articles, and very soon three of these writers (Aripov, Vahidov, and
    Ahmad) were named Heroes of Uzbekistan, the country’s highest award.

    Most of the best work published in the postindependence period was in
    prose. Toghay Murad’s lyrical novel Otamdam qolgan dalalar (1994;
    “Fields Which Remained from My Father”) describes the 19th-century
    Russian invasion of Central Asia. Tohir Malik’s novel Shaytanat
    (1992–96; “Devilry”) was read by Uzbeks with great interest, because
    many saw their local political leaders (so-called “new Uzbeks”), whom
    they thought to be behaving like criminals, as the “heroes” of this
    Khairoulla H. Ismatoullaev

    body of written works produced by the Uzbek people of Central Asia,
    most of whom live in Uzbekistan, with smaller populations in
    Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. Although…

    99) Classical Vietnamese

    99) Tiếng Việt cổ điển

    2238 Thứ năm, 25 tháng 5 năm 2017 Bài học

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    INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Miễn phí Hoạt hình Clipart trực tuyến A1 (Awakened One) Đại học Nghiên cứu và Thực hành Tipiṭaka
    Trong Định dạng Hình ảnh (FOA1TRPUVF)

    Sirima: biệt thự của Sirima

    Vv 1.16
    PTS: Vv 136-148
    Sirima: biệt thự của Sirima
    Dịch từ tiếng Pali sang
    John D. Ireland
    © 2005


    Những con ngựa đẻ của bạn, mạnh mẽ và nhanh nhẹn, đang hướng xuống dưới bầu trời. Và những chiếc xe ngựa năm trăm này, được tạo ra một cách huyền diệu,
    đang theo sau, những con ngựa bị những người cai ngựa kêu lên.

    Bạn đứng trong chiếc xe tuyệt vời này, trang trí, rạng rỡ và sáng, giống như một ngôi sao rực rỡ. Tôi hỏi bạn về hình dạng thanh mảnh và vẻ đẹp tinh tế, từ đó công ty của các vị thần đã đến thăm những người không có đối thủ?


    Từ những người đã đạt đến đỉnh cao của niềm vui cảm giác, được cho là vượt trội; Các vị thần thích thú trong việc biến đổi và sáng tạo huyền diệu. Một con ếch từ công ty đó có thể giả định bất kỳ sự xuất hiện mong muốn đã đến đây để thờ phượng Vô cùng.


    Bạn đã làm tốt công việc gì


    một thành phố được xây dựng tốt nằm giữa những ngọn đồi, một người hầu
    của một vị vua cao quý có tài sản tốt, tôi đã đạt được rất nhiều trong
    khiêu vũ và hát.
    Khi Sirima tôi được biết đến ở Rajagaha.

    rồi Đấng Giác ngộ, người lãnh đạo trong số những người nhìn thấy, hướng
    dẫn, đã dạy tôi về nguồn gốc, của khổ đau và vô thường;
    Của vô điều kiện, của sự chấm dứt của đau khổ đó là vĩnh cửu; Và của con đường này, không phải là quanh co, thẳng, tốt lành.

    tôi đã biết được trạng thái bất diệt (nibbana), những người vô điều
    kiện, thông qua sự hướng dẫn của Như Lai, Đấng vô địch, tôi đã bị trừng
    phạt rất cao trong giới luật và được thành lập trong Pháp được dạy bởi
    những người xuất sắc nhất,

    tôi biết nơi chốn không được che chở, những người không điều kiện, được
    giảng dạy bởi Như Lai, Đấng Vô địch, tôi đã trải nghiệm tập trung bình
    tĩnh (của con đường cao quý).
    Sự chắc chắn tối cao đó là của tôi.

    Khi tôi đạt được sự bất tử đặc biệt, được đảm bảo, nổi bật trong sự
    hiểu biết thâm nhập, không nghi ngờ, tôi đã được nhiều người tôn kính và
    có nhiều trải nghiệm thú vị và thú vị.

    Vì vậy tôi là một nữ thần, biết được bất tận, một đệ tử của Như Lai, Đấng vô địch; Một người biết về Pháp được thành lập trong hoa quả đầu tiên, một người nhập dòng. Kể từ đó tôi không có ác cảm với tôi.

    Tôi đến để tôn kính Đấng vô địch và những nhà sư đạo đức thích thú những gì có tay nghề; Thờ cúng những nhà tu hành hạnh phúc và Đấng Phước Bành đáng kính, vua Pháp.

    hân hoan vui mừng nhìn thấy người hiền triết, Như Lai, huấn luyện xuất
    sắc của những người đàn ông có khả năng được huấn luyện, người đã cắt
    đứt sự ham muốn, người thích thú về những gì có tay nghề, hướng dẫn.
    Tôi thờ phượng một Đấng Thương Xót thương xót vô cùng.

    Biệt thự trên trời

    8. Tam tạng của Phật giáo Nguyên thủy (Sutta)

    Hầu hết sách có ảnh hưởng trong Lịch sử Ấn Độ.
    Sutta Pitaka (”Basket of Discourse”) là lớn nhất trong “ba giỏ” (Tipitaka).

    Từ kinh điển Phật giáo Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya

    Buddha Tripitaka: Đến nơi trú ẩn (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

    Phật Tam tạng. - CHĂM SÓC - Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

    Tôi đi nương tựa vào Phật (Sư phụ)
    Tôi đi nương tựa vào Pháp (Giảng Dạy)
    Tôi đi đến nơi ẩn náu với Tăng thân (giáo huấn)

    Lần thứ hai tôi đến trú ẩn Phật
    Lần thứ hai tôi đi nương tựa vào Pháp
    Lần thứ hai tôi đến nơi ẩn náu với Tăng thân

    Lần thứ ba tôi đến trú ẩn Phật
    Lần thứ ba tôi đi nương tựa vào Pháp
    Lần thứ ba tôi đến nơi ẩn náu với Tăng già

    Bạn có thể hỏi quetions về thiền trong ý kiến ​​dưới đây.
    Và đăng ký kênh của tôi bằng cách nhận thấy về các video mới.


    Buddha Tripitaka: Mười Giới Huấn Luyện (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA)

    1. Tôi cam kết tuân thủ giới cấm tránh giết người.

    2. Tôi cam kết giữ giới không trộm cắp.

    3. Tôi cam kết tuân theo giới luật ngăn chận hành vi sai trái tình dục.

    4. Tôi cam kết tuân theo giới cấm kiêng.

    5. Tôi cam kết tuân theo giới luật ngăn chặn rượu gây ra chứng ngộ độc và bệnh hoạn.

    6. Tôi cam kết tuân theo giới cấm kiêng ăn.

    7. Tôi cam kết tuân theo giới cấm kiễu múa, ca hát, âm nhạc và tham quan các chương trình không phù hợp.

    8. Tôi cam kết tuân theo giới cấm tránh sử dụng hoa cẩm chướng, nước hoa, mỹ phẩm và trang trí.

    9. Tôi cam kết tuân theo giới cấm tránh sử dụng giường cao và sang trọng.

    10. Tôi cam kết tuân theo giới cấm tránh chấp nhận vàng và bạc.

    Buddha’s birthday-Vietnamese Song
    Buddha’s birthday-Vietnamese Song

    Navaneetham Chandrasekharan


    100) Classical Welsh
    100) Clasurol Cymru

    2238 Iau 25 Mai, 2017 GWERS


    INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animeiddio Clipart lein A1 (deffro Un) Tipiṭaka Ymchwil a Phrifysgol Ymarfer
    mewn Fformat Gweledol (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Mansion Sirima yn: Sirima

    adnodau 1.16
    PTS: VV 136-148
    Mansion Sirima yn: Sirima
    cyfieithu o’r Pali gan
    John D. Ireland
    © 2005


    Mae eich ceffylau Yoked ac caparisoned fân, yn gryf ac yn gyflym, yn mynd ar i lawr drwy’r awyr. Ac y pum cant o gerbydau, a grëwyd hudol, yn dilyn, y ceffylau hannog gan charioteers.

    Rydych yn sefyll mewn cerbyd rhagorol hwn, haddurno, radiant ac yn disgleirio, fel seren boeth. Yr wyf yn gofyn i chi am ffurflen main hyfryd a harddwch gogoneddus, o
    ba gwmni o dduwiau ydych chi wedi dod i ymweld â’r Un heb ei ail?


    O’r rhai sydd wedi cyrraedd yr uchelfannau o bleserau synhwyrus, dywedir ei fod yn heb ei ail; y duwiau sy’n ymhyfrydu yn trawsnewid hudol a chreu. Mae nymff gan y cwmni hwnnw yn gallu cymryd yn ganiataol unrhyw ymddangosiad a ddymunir wedi dod yma i addoli y One heb ei ail.


    Pa ymddygiad da wnaethoch chi forme


    dinas hardd a adeiladwyd yn dda-leoli rhwng bryniau, cynorthwyydd
    brenin bonheddig cynysgaeddir â lwc dda, roeddwn yn hynod fedrus mewn
    dawnsio a chanu.
    Fel Sirima oeddwn yn hysbys yn Rajagaha.

    Ond yna dysgu’r deffro Un, mae’r arweinydd ymhlith gweledyddion, y canllaw, i mi o tarddiad, dioddefaint a impermanence; o anghyflyredig, o roi’r gorau i dioddefaint sy’n tragwyddol; ac o’r llwybr hwn, nid yn gam, yn syth, addawol.

    oeddwn wedi ei ddysgu o gyflwr undying (nibbana), y anghyflyredig, trwy
    gyfarwyddyd y Tathagata, mae’r heb ei ail Un, roeddwn yn gynnil iawn ac
    yn dda yn y praeseptau a sefydlwyd yn y dhamma dysgu gan y mwyaf
    ardderchog o ddynion, y awakened

    roeddwn yn gwybod y lle dihalog, yr anghyflyredig, dysgu gan y
    Tathagata, mae’r heb ei ail Un, rwy’n fan a’r lle gwelwyd y crynodiad
    dawel (y llwybr bonheddig).
    Bod sicrwydd goruchaf rhyddhau oedd pwll.

    Pan fyddaf yn ennill y undying unigryw, yn sicr, amlwg yn mewnwelediad
    treiddiol, nid amau, oeddwn yn barchedig gan lawer o bobl a phrofiadol
    llawer o bleser a mwynhad.

    Felly yr wyf yn dduwies, gan wybod y undying, yn ddisgybl y Tathagata, mae’r heb ei ail Un; yn knower o dhamma a sefydlwyd yn y ffrwythau cyntaf, nant-enterer. O hyn allan nid oes Bourn ddrwg i mi.

    Fe ddes i ofni y heb eu hail Un a’r mynachod rhinweddol sy’n ymhyfrydu yn yr hyn sy’n fedrus; i addoli y cynulliad addawol o ascetics a’r respectworthy Ffodus Un, mae’r dhamma-brenin.

    yn llawen ac yn gladdened ar weld y saets, mae’r Tathagata, yr
    hyfforddwr rhagorol o ddynion sy’n gallu cael eu hyfforddi, sydd wedi
    torri i ffwrdd chwant, sy’n ymfalchïo yn yr hyn sy’n fedrus, mae’r
    Rwy’n addoli’r Un Tosturiol hynod drugarog.
    Plasty Yn Y Sky
    8. Tripitaka gan Theravada Bwdhaeth (Sutta)

    Mae’r rhan fwyaf o lyfrau dylanwadol mewn Hanes India.
    Mae’r Sutta Pitaka ( “Basged o Discourse”) yw’r mwyaf o’r “tri basgedi” (Tipitaka).
    O’r Bwdhaidd Sanctaidd Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
    Buddha Tripitaka: Mynd am noddfa (.. Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. SARANA-GAMANA)

    Buddha Tripitaka. - ANELU AM noddfa Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. SARANA-GAMANA

    Rwy’n mynd am noddfa at y Bwdha (Athrawon)
    Rwy’n mynd am noddfa i’r dhamma (Addysgu)
    Rwy’n mynd am noddfa at y Sangha (y Addysgir)

    Am yr ail dro i mi yn mynd am noddfa at y Bwdha
    Am yr ail dro i mi fynd am noddfa i’r dhamma
    Am yr ail dro i mi yn mynd am noddfa at y Sangha

    Am y trydydd tro i mi fynd am noddfa i’r Bwdha
    Am y trydydd tro i mi fynd am noddfa i’r dhamma
    Am y trydydd tro i mi fynd am noddfa i’r Sangha

    Efallai y byddwch yn gofyn am quetions myfyrdod mewn sylwadau isod.
    Ac yn tanysgrifio i fy sianel os gwelwch yn dda i gan sylwi am fideos newydd.

    Bwdha Tripitaka: Y Hyfforddiant Praeseptau Deg (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. DASA-SIKKHAPADA..)

    1. Rwy’n ymgymryd i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag lladd.

    2. Rwy’n ymgymryd i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag dwyn.

    3. Yr wyf yn addo i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag camymddwyn rhywiol.

    4. Rwy’n ymgymryd i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag dweud celwydd.

    5. Rwyf yn ymgymryd i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag wirodydd sy’n achosi meddwdod a heedlessness.

    6. Rwy’n ymgymryd i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag bwyta annhymig.

    7. Rwy’n ymgymryd i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag dawnsio, canu, cerddoriaeth, ac yn ymweld â sioeau unseemly.

    8. Rwy’n ymgymryd i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag y defnydd o garlantau, persawr, colur, ac addurniadau.

    9. Rwy’n ymgymryd i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag defnyddio gwelyau uchel a moethus.

    10. Rwyf yn ymgymryd i gadw at y praesept i ymatal rhag derbyn aur ac arian.

    Albert Einstein on Buddhism

    One of the greatest minds on earth accepted that only Buddhism has charasteristics of a cosmic religion.
    Albert Einstein on Buddhism
    One of the greatest minds on earth accepted that only Buddhism has charasteristics of a cosmic religion.

    One of the greatest minds on earth accepted that only Buddhism has charasteristics of a cosmic religion.

    101) Classical Xhosa
    101) Classical isiXhosa

    2238 Thu 25 Meyi 2017 ISIFUNDO


    UKUQONDA-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Ama Clipart Online A1 (ayivukanga One) Tipiṭaka Uphando & University Practice
    e Format Visual (FOA1TRPUVF)
    Sirima: Sirima kaThixo zemizi

    vse 1.16
    Amanqaku: Vv 136-148
    Sirima: Sirima kaThixo zemizi
    liguqulelwe evela Pali ngu
    John D. Ireland
    © 2005


    edyokhweni kunye olungiswe caparisoned amahashe akho, Yomelela okhawulezayo, sisingise wehlela esibhakabhakeni. Kwaye ezi iinqwelo zokulwa ezingamakhulu amahlanu, wadala ngomlingo, balandela, amahashe ekhuthazwa beenqwelo.

    Wena ume kule nqwelo kakhulu, ehonjiswe, yinzwana likhanya, ngathi yinkwenkwezi elidangazela umlilo. Ndicela ukuba lefom ngomzimba elithandekayo nobuhle obumangalisayo, ukuba uze kutyelela Lowo nanto apho inkampani oothixo?


    Ukusuka abo baye bafikelela kweziganga beziyolo inkanuko, wathi ukwedlula zonke; oothixo ezithanda inguqu lwemilingo kunye nendalo. A Uphunguphungu evela kuloo nkampani ukuze aqale nayiphi na imbonakalo endiyilangazelelayo, eze apha kunqula Lowo nanto.


    Ntoni ukuziphatha kakuhle wena forme


    eyakhiwe kakuhle ocoliweyo, emi phakathi kweenduli, umlindi ukumkani
    entle eyaziyo, lithamsanqa, mna kufezwe kakhulu esina, becula.
    Njengoko Sirima I owayesaziwa Rajagaha.

    Kodwa ke ayivukanga One, inkokeli phakathi kwiimboni, esi sikhokelo, wafundisa kwam origination, wokubandezeleka impermanence; le unconditioned, zokuyeka ukubandezeleka leyo ngonaphakade; yaye le ndlela, hayi goso, ngqo, kangaka.

    ndaza ndafunda le nabanga karhulumente (nibbana), i unconditioned,
    ngokusebenzisa umyalelo we-Tathagata, i nanto One, mna kakhulu kwaye
    kakuhle ukuzidambisa kwi ngokwemithetho esekwe kwi Dhamma anokufundiswa
    wamhle babantu, ukuba iye yavusa

    wayeyazi loo ndawo masingadyojwa, i unconditioned, ngabafundi
    Tathagata, i nanto One, mna ke apho wazibonela xi ezolileyo (emkhondweni
    Loo ngokuqiniseka ephakeme sokukhululwa ngabam.

    Xa kwabangela nabanga ezikhethekileyo, qiniseka, abemi kulo ingqiqo
    ukulalwa, ungathandabuzi, mna wayesoyikwa ngabantu abaninzi bebulawa
    waza wanyamezela ukuzonwabisa kunye nolonwabo enkulu.

    Ngaloo ndlela ke mna isithixokazi, ukwazi nabanga, umfundi i Tathagata, i amakhulu One; a Mazi Dhamma esekwe isiqhamo yokuqala, umlambo-enterer. Ndiphetha ngelithi akukho bourn okubi kum.

    Ndafika asimoyikanga i nanto One kunye iimonki onesidima ngubani ndiziyolisa izinto onobuchule; ukunqula kwindibano kangaka abantu abaphila kunye respectworthy Fortunate Enye, i Dhamma-ukumkani.

    uvuyo kwaye ndibavuyise, akubona esi silumko, i Tathagata, umqeqeshi
    ebalaseleyo yamadoda ekwaziyo kokuba baqeqeshwe, ngubani ubanqamle
    ukuqaleka, Oyinoneleleyo yintoni onobuchule, esi sikhokelo.
    Ndiya kuqubuda Lowo Nemfesane sinenceba.
    Zemizi In The Sky
    8. Tripitaka ngu Theravada Buddhism (Sutta)

    Uninzi iincwadi Izazi e-Indian History.
    I-Sutta Pitaka ( “Basket of Intetho”) yeyona inkulu “iingobozi ezintathu” (Tipitaka).
    KwiNgcwele dha Tipitaka: Sutta Pitaka: Khuddaka Nikaya
    Buddha Tripitaka: Ukuya ngenxa yokusabela (.. Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 1. Sarana-GAMANA)

    Buddha Tripitaka. - UKUHAMBA FOR REFUGE- Sutta Pitaka. Khuddaka Nikaya. Khuddakapatha. 1. Sarana-GAMANA

    Ndiya kuba elilikhaya kum Buddha (Mfundisi)
    Ndiye yeyokusabela kwi Dhamma (Teaching)
    Ndiye yeyokusabela kwi Sangha (lwabafundi)

    Kuba ixesha lesibini ukuya yeyokusabela kwi Buddha
    Kuba ixesha lesibini ukuya yeyokusabela kwi Dhamma
    Kuba ixesha lesibini ukuya yeyokusabela kwi Sangha

    Kuba kokwesithathu ndiye yeyokusabela kwi Buddha
    Kuba kokwesithathu ndiye yeyokusabela kwi Dhamma
    Kuba kokwesithathu ndiye yeyokusabela kwi Sangha

    Ungabuza quetions malunga ukucamngca abekiwe ngezantsi.
    Ngokubhalisa isiteshi sami nceda ku yi alibona iividiyo ezintsha.

    Buddha Tripitaka: I Ten Training imimiselo (Sutta Pitaka Khuddaka Nikaya Khuddakapatha 2. kwinethiwekhi-SIKKHAPADA..)

    1. Ndiyathembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho, ukuba nikhumke kulo lokubulala.

    2. Ndithembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho, ukuba nikhumke kulo ubusela.

    3. Ndiyathembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho, ukuba nikhumke kulo kakubi ngokwesini.

    4. Ndiyathembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho, ukuba nikhumke kulo elele.

    5. Ndithembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho, ukuba nikhumke kulo utywala ebangela ukunxila kunye heedlessness.

    6. Ndiyathembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho, ukuba nikhumke kulo ukudla ngaphambi.

    7. Ndithembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho, ukuba nikhumke ukudanisa, ukucula, umculo, kunye nokuhambela kubonisa engafanelekanga.

    8. Ndiyathembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho ukuba bazikhwebule ukusetyenziswa nezidanga, amakha, zokuthambisa, kunye zikukunongwa.

    9. Ndithembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho ukuba bazikhwebule ukusetyenziswa leebhedi eziphakamileyo ntofontofo.

    10. Ndithembisa ukuba bathobele umthetho, ukuba nikhumke ukwamkela igolide nesilivere.

    102) Classical Yiddish
    102) קלאסישע ייִדיש

    2238 Thu 25 מייַ 2017 לעקציע


    ינסייט-נעץ-הי טעק ראַדיאָ Free אַנימאַטיאָן קליפּאַרט אָנליין אַ 1
    (אַוואַקענעד איין) טיפּיṭאַקאַ פֿאָרש & פּראַקטיס אוניווערסיטעט
    אין וויסואַל פֿאָרמאַטירונג (פאָאַ1טרפּוווף)
    סירימאַ: סירימאַ ס מאַנסיאָן

    vv 1.16
    PTS: VV 136-148
    סירימאַ: סירימאַ ס מאַנסיאָן
    איבערגעזעצט פֿון די פּאַלי דורך
    יוחנן ד אירלאנד
    © 2005


    דיין יאָקעד און פינעלי קאַפּאַריסאָנעד פֿערד, שטאַרק און ביסטרע, זענען כעדינג דאַונווערד דורך דעם הימל. און די פֿינף הונדערט טשעריאַץ, מאַדזשיקאַלי געשאַפֿן געוואָרן, זענען ווייַטערדיק, די פֿערד ערדזשד אויף דורך טשאַריאָטעערס.

    איר שטיין אין דעם ויסגעצייכנט רייַטוואָגן, באדעקט, שטראַלנדיק און שיינינג, ווי אַ בלייזינג שטערן. איך פרעגן איר פון שיינע שלאַנק פאָרעם און מעהודערדיק שיינקייט, פון
    וואָס פירמע פון ​​געטער האָבן איר קומען צו באַזוכן די ונריוואַלעד


    פון יענע וואס האָבן ריטשט די כייץ פון כושיק פּלעזשערז, האט געזאגט צו זייַן אַנסערפּאַסט; די געטער וואס דערפרייען אין מאַדזשיקאַל טראַנספאָרמאַציע און שאַפונג. א נימפע פון ​​אַז פירמע קענען צו יבערנעמען קיין געוואלט אויסזען האט קומען דאָ צו דינען דעם ונריוואַלעד איין.



    אַ פייַן געזונט-געבויט שטאָט סיטשוייטיד צווישן היללס, אַ באַגלייטער פון
    אַ איידעלע מלך ענדאַוד מיט גוט מאַזל, איך איז געווען העכסט ממלא אין
    דאַנסינג און געזאַנג.
    ווי סירימאַ איך איז געווען באקאנט אין ראַדזשאַגאַהאַ.

    דעמאָלט די אַוואַקענעד איינער, דער פירער צווישן סירז, די פירן, געלערנט
    מיר פון ערידזשאַניישאַן, פון צאָרעס און ימפּערמאַנענסע;
    פון די ונקאָנדיטיאָנעד, פון די ופהער פון צאָרעס אַז איז ייביק; און פון דעם דרך, נישט קרום, גלייַך, גינסטיק.

    איך האט געלערנט פון די ונדיינג שטאַט (ניבבאַנאַ), די ונקאָנדיטיאָנעד,
    דורך די לימעד פון די טאַטהאַגאַטאַ, די ונריוואַלעד איינער, איך איז
    געווען העכסט און געזונט ריסטריינד אין די געזעצן און געגרינדעט אין די
    דהאַממאַ געלערנט דורך די מערסט ויסגעצייכנט פון מענטשן, די אַוואַקענעד

    איך געוואוסט די ונדעפילעד אָרט, די ונקאָנדיטיאָנעד, געלערנט דורך די
    טאַטהאַגאַטאַ, די ונריוואַלעד איינער, איך דעמאָלט און דאָרט איבערגעלעבט
    די רויק קאַנסאַנטריישאַן (פון די איידעלע דרך).
    אַז העכסט זיכערקייט פון מעלדונג איז געווען מייַן.

    ווען איך גאַינעד די אָפּשיידנדיק ונדיינג, אַשורד, באַוווסט אין
    פּענעטראַטיווע ינסייט, ניט דאַוטינג, איך איז געווען ריווירד דורך פילע
    מענטשן און יקספּיריאַנסט פיל פאַרגעניגן און ענדזשוימענט.

    אזוי איך בין אַ געטין, ווייסט די ונדיינג, אַ תלמיד פון די טאַטהאַגאַטאַ, די ונריוואַלעד איינער; אַ קנאָווער פון דהאַממאַ געגרינדעט אין דער ערשטער פרוכט, אַ טייַך-ענטערער. פונ יצט אָן עס איז קיין שלעכט באָורן פֿאַר מיר.

    איך געקומען צו רעווערע די ונריוואַלעד איין און די ערלעך מאָנקס וואס דערפרייען אין וואָס איז באָקע; צו דינען דעם גינסטיק פֿאַרזאַמלונג פון אַססעטיקס און די רעספּעקטוואָרטהי מאַזלדיק איינער, דער דהאַממאַ-מלך.

    בין פריידיק און גלאַדדענעד אויף געזען די סאַגע, די טאַטהאַגאַטאַ, די
    בוילעט טריינער פון מענטשן טויגעוודיק פון ווייל טריינד, וואס האט שנייַדן
    אַוועק קרייווינג, וואס דילייץ אין וואָס איז באָקע, די פירן.
    איך דינען דעם סופּרעמעלי ראַכמאָנעסדיק קאָמפּאַססיאָנאַטע איין.
    מאַנסיאָן אין דעם הימל
    8. טריפּיטאַקאַ דורך טהעראַוואַדאַ בודדהיסם (סוטטאַ)

    רובֿ ינפלוענטיאַל ביכער אין ינדיאַן געשיכטע.
    די סוטטאַ פּיטאַקאַ ( “קאָרב פון דיסקאָורסע”) איז דער גרעסטער פון די “דרייַ קערב” (טיפּיטאַקאַ).
    פון דער רוס בודדהיסט טיפּיטאַקאַ: סוטטאַ פּיטאַקאַ: כודדאַקאַ ניקייַאַ