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Free Online Benevloent Awakened One JC PURE INSPIRATION to Attain NIBBĀNA the Eternal Bliss and for free birds 🐦 🦢 🦅 to grow fruits 🍍 🍊 🥑 🥭 🍇 🍌 🍎 🍉 🍒 🍑 🥝 vegetables 🥦 🥕 🥗 🥬 🥔 🍆 🥜 🪴 🌱 🎃 🫑 🍅🍜 🧅 🍄 🍝 🥗 🥒 🌽 🍏 🫑 🌳 🍓 🍊 🥥 🌵 🍈 🌰 🇧🇧 🫐 🍅 🍐 🫒 Youniversity
Free Online Benevloent Awakened One JC PURE INSPIRATION to Attain NIBBĀNA the Eternal Bliss and for free birds 🐦 🦢 🦅 to grow fruits 🍍 🍊 🥑 🥭 🍇 🍌 🍎 🍉 🍒 🍑 🥝 vegetables 🥦 🥕 🥗 🥬 🥔 🍆 🥜 🪴 🌱 🎃 🫑 🍅🍜 🧅 🍄 🍝 🥗 🥒 🌽 🍏 🫑 🌳 🍓 🍊 🥥 🌵 🍈 🌰 🇧🇧 🫐 🍅 🍐 🫒 Youniversity
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Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka , Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots
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LESSON 4528 Thu 18 Aug 2022

MISSION BENEVOLENT UNIVERSE

WE WERE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES
WE ARE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES
WE CONTINUE TO BE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES

Always for
Freedom, Democracy, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

Dr Ambedkar thundered “I will make this country Prabuddha Bharat “
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder “we will make entire Universe Benevolent Awakened One Universe!
May all sentient and non sentient beings be ever happy, well and secure!
May all live long at least for 150 years with NAD pills and following Benevolent Awakened One’s teachings!
May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!!!
Vegetables Veggie GIF by Aya Murata
https://www.wikihow.com/Grow-Cucumbers-in-Pots

How to Grow Cucumbers in Pots


Download Article


Cucumbers can be tricky to grow in pots since they require a lot of
vertical space. It can be done, however, if you select a bush variety
instead of a climbing variety or you provide room for the cucumber to
spread out by adding a stake or trellis. Use well-draining, nutritional
soil and keep it moist throughout the growing season to help your potted
cucumber plant grow.

Part 1

Getting the Pot Ready


1

Choose a bush variety of cucumber for containers. In
general, bush varieties are easier to grow in pots than vine varieties,
which need a trellis to climb and spread out on. Picking a variety
suited to a container will give you a higher chance of success.[1]

  • Varieties that are well-suited for container growing include the
    Salad Bush Hybrid, Bush Champion, Spacemaster, Hybrid Bush Crop, Baby
    Bush, Bush Pickle, and Potluck.
2
Select a pot that is 10 in (25 cm) wide for your cucumbers.
Your pot should be at least this wide in diameter, as well as that
deep, too. If you want to grow more than 1 plant in a single pot, try a
container that is at least 20 inches (51 cm) in diameter and holds 5
gallons (19 L).[2]

  • When using a container outdoors, go for a larger container if you can. It will retain moisture more effectively.[3]
  • You can even use a rectangular planter box if you add a trellis for the cucumbers to grow on.



  1. 1
    Choose a bush variety of cucumber for containers. In
    general, bush varieties are easier to grow in pots than vine varieties,
    which need a trellis to climb and spread out on. Picking a variety
    suited to a container will give you a higher chance of success.[1]

    • Varieties that are well-suited for container growing include the
      Salad Bush Hybrid, Bush Champion, Spacemaster, Hybrid Bush Crop, Baby
      Bush, Bush Pickle, and Potluck.

  2. 2
    Select a pot that is 10 in (25 cm) wide for your cucumbers.
    Your pot should be at least this wide in diameter, as well as that
    deep, too. If you want to grow more than 1 plant in a single pot, try a
    container that is at least 20 inches (51 cm) in diameter and holds 5
    gallons (19 L).[2]

    • When using a container outdoors, go for a larger container if you can. It will retain moisture more effectively.[3]
    • You can even use a rectangular planter box if you add a trellis for the cucumbers to grow on.

  3. 3
    Add holes if your container doesn’t have them. While
    cucumbers love water, standing water can cause root damage. Look for a
    pot that already has drainage holes, if possible. Just flip it over to
    see if it has holes in the bottom.[4]

    • If your pot doesn’t have drainage holes, use a drill to make holes.
      Choose a masonry drill bit for soft, unfinished terra cotta or a tile
      and glass drill bit for glazed surfaces. Pick a 14 to 12 in (6.4 to 12.7 mm) bit.
    • Place painter’s tape over the bottom of the pot where you want to
      drill holes. Painter’s tape helps steady the bit. Press the bit lightly
      into the tape, and turn the drill on at a slow speed. Slowly and
      steadily apply light pressure to the taped area until the drill goes
      through the pot. Repeat for at least 1 other hole.
    • If you press too hard or try to drill too fast, you may break the pot.[5]
    4
    Clean your pot thoroughly with hot water and soap.
    Pots can contain bacteria that may cause your plant to rot. If you’ve
    used the pot for another plant, it may have hidden insect eggs that will
    hatch and attack your cucumbers.

    • Scrub it down thoroughly with a rag or dish brush and soapy
      water. Rinse it out several times to make sure you get all the soap out.
6
Fill the pot with a well-draining soil mix. If you
want to mix your own soil, try mixing 1 part sand with 1 part compost
and 1 part peat moss or coco coir. Otherwise, you can choose a pre-mixed
potting soil designed for growing vegetables.[6]

  • Pack the mix into the pot, carefully patting it in around the stake.
    Do not make it too compact, however, since your cucumber plant’s roots
    need loose soil to grow in. Leave approximately 1 inch (2.5 centimeters)
    of empty space between the surface of the soil and the rim of the pot.
  • Check the stake. Try to wiggle it around in the pot. If it still
    moves around a lot, pack more potting mix in the pot to stabilize the
    stake.
  • Find potting soil mixes and the ingredients for potting soil at your local garden store.
  • Do not use garden soil, which may be contaminated by bacteria and pests.
7
Boost nutrition by mixing a good fertilizer into the soil.
Use either a 5-10-5 fertilizer or a 14-14-14 slow release formula. Mix
it into the soil in the proportions suggested on the label directions,
as fertilizers vary widely by brand and type.[7]

  • Alternatively, use a potting soil that already has fertilizer mixed in.
  • The numbers on a bag of fertilizer indicate how much nitrogen,
    phosphorus, and potassium the fertilizer contains, respectively. Each
    element nourishes a different part of the plant.
  • A 5-10-5 fertilizer gives your cucumbers a mild dose that focuses on
    improved vegetable yield. A 14-14-14 fertilizer, on the other hand,
    keeps the health of your plant balanced, making it safer to give your
    cucumbers the slightly higher concentration.
  • Choose an organic fertilizer for an environmentally safe alternative.

Part 2

Planting Seeds and Seedlings


1
Sow your seeds once the weather warms up to 70 °F (21 °C).
Cucumbers need the soil to reach at least 70 °F (21 °C) in order to
grow. In many areas, you can start a crop in July and expect a harvest
in September. If you live in a warmer area, you may be able to start
earlier. Wait until at least 2 weeks after the last frost.[8]

  • If you’re planting inside, you can begin the seeds whenever you want.
2
Poke a 12 in (1.3 cm) hole into the center of the soil. Make the hole about equal in depth and width. You can create it by using your pinky finger or the rounded end of a pencil.[9]

  • If you have a larger planter, place the holes evenly around the
    edge of a circular planter or evenly across a rectangular planter,
    depending on the size and shape.
3
Plant 5-8 seeds in the hole about 12 in (13 mm) deep.
Plant more seeds than necessary so that you guarantee success. Planting
this many seeds may mean you need to thin once the plants come up, but
you’re more likely to end up with as many plants as you want.[10]

  • Cucumber seedlings don’t like being taken out of a container or
    handled. Choosing seedlings with organic containers, such as coco coir
    or peat, allows you to plant them in the soil, container and all,
    without handling the seedlings too much. The roots will grow through the
    organic container.
4
Cover the hole with more of your soil mix. Loosely
drop soil over the seeds. Do not squish the soil into the hole, since
doing so may damage the seeds. You can gently pat it down when you’re
done.

  • If you’re using a seedling, fill in the hole around the container, and pat it down from the top.


5
Use an old water bottle as plastic collar. If it’s
still cool outside, you can protect your plants by creating collars for
each one. Cut the tops and bottoms off of large plastic bottles. Wash
them thoroughly with hot soap and water. Place one around each sprouting
plant. Press it into the ground so it doesn’t blow away.[11]

  • These collars provide warmth and wind protection. They may also protect against some pests.
6
Water the seeds or seedlings directly after planting them.
The soil should be thoroughly and noticeably moist after you water the
seeds or seedlings. Do not supersaturate the soil, however, since
puddles of water may end up scattering the seeds.

  • Use a fine sprayer so you don’t stir up the seeds.
7
Spread peat moss or straw over the soil after watering.
Lightly apply a thin layer of peat moss or mulch over the seeds or
seedlings and soil. The mulch helps prevent the soil from drying out too
quickly so the seeds and seedlings have a chance to grow.
8
Place your pot in a bright location with at least 8 hours of sunlight.
Cucumbers thrive in warm conditions, and the extra sunlight will keep
the soil nice and warm. More than 6 hours of sunlight is even better.[12]

  • If you are growing cucumbers indoors, make sure they are in a sunny
    room where they get plenty of light. If you don’t have a sunny corner,
    you can buy a grow light instead. Place it above the plant, and keep it
    on at least 6 hours a day.
  • Placing your pot near the side of your house or by a fence can
    minimize potential wind damage. A little wind is fine, but strong wind
    can be damaging.

Part 3

Caring for Your Cucumbers


1
Thin your cucumbers out once the seedlings sprout 2 sets of true leaves.
Identify the 2 tallest seedlings from each grouping to keep. Snip the
other seedlings down to the surface of the soil. Do not yank the other
seedlings out, since doing so will disturb the soil and may cause damage
to the seedlings you’re leaving in the ground.[13]

  • Use garden shears or scissors to snip the extra seedlings off at the soil.


2
Thin to 1 plant per hole once the plants reach 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm).
Examine the plants in each group, and look for the tallest one. It
should also have the most leaves and look the healthiest. Snip the other
one down to the soil.

  • Now you should have 1 plant growing in each grouping you’ve made
    in the pot. In some cases, that may mean you have just a single plant,
    if you used a small container.
3

Water your cucumbers daily. If the surface of the
soil seems dry, it’s time for re-watering. Give mature plants enough
water so that a little extra drains out from the drainage holes at the
bottom of the pot. Never allow the soil to dry out, since dry soil will
inhibit growth and lead to a bitter crop.[14]

  • To check the soil, stick your finger in it. If it’s dry, it’s time to water.
  • Lift the pot up to see how heavy it is. The heavier the pot, the
    more saturated the soil is with water. Check the pot throughout the day
    to get a feeling for how heavy or light the pot gets when you water.
  • Adding mulch around your plant will help it retain more water.
  • If your area is especially dry or hot, you may need to water twice a day.[15]


4
Add a balanced fertilizer once a week. Drench the
soil first before adding the fertilizer. Adding the fertilizer when the
plants are dry may create problems. Use a water-soluble fertilizer, and
apply as much as the label directs you to use. Fertilizers vary widely
by brand and type, so always read the label.[16]

  • Pick a 5-10-5 or 14-14-14 fertilizer.
5

Eliminate garden pests with neem oil or other organic pesticides. Aphids, pickle worms, mites, and cucumber beetles will all target your cucumber plant. You can make your own organic pesticide with neem oil:

  • To make a spray with neem oil, mix 1 to 1.5 cups (240 to 350 mL) of
    water with a few drops of dishwashing soap and about 10-20 drops of neem
    oil.[17]
  • With pests like cucumber beetles, you can simply pick them off by
    hand using gloves covered in petroleum jelly. Drop them into a bucket of
    water with a few drops of dishwashing liquid.
  • You can also use a bug vacuum designed for the purpose of sucking insects off plants.[18]
6

Use an anti-mildew spray on fungal diseases. Mildew
and bacterial wilt are especially common. Many anti-fungal products will
rid your plants of mildew, but bacterial diseases are more difficult to
get rid of. In fact, if your plants develop bacterial wilt, which can
be carried by cucumber beetles, the plants will likely die. Fungal
infections are often characterized by a white, powdery substance on the
leaves.

  • Bacterial wilt starts with the leaves turning dull, wilting in the
    day, and recovering at night. Eventually, the leaves will turn yellow
    and die.
  • To make an anti-mildew spray, try mixing 1 tablespoon (14 grams) of
    baking soda into 1 gallon (3.8 L) of water. Add a dash of dishwashing
    liquid, and shake it up. Spray it on the plant once a week if you notice
    a white, powdery mildew on the leaves.[19]
7
Harvest your cucumbers about 55 days after planting.
Bigger cucumbers are more bitter, so harvest cucumbers when they’re
young. Snip the stem about 1/2-inch (1.27 centimeters) above the
cucumber. If the cucumber has reached the yellowing stage, it’s probably
too mature to eat.[20]

  • Most cucumbers are ready to harvest 55 to 70 days after planting.
7,117 languages are spoken today.

That number is constantly in flux, because we’re learning more about theworld’s languages every day. And beyond that, the languages themselves
are in flux.
They’re living and dynamic, spoken by communities whose lives are shaped by our rapidly changing world. This is a fragile time: Roughly 0% of languages are now endangered, often with less than 1,000 speakers remaining. Meanwhile, just 23 languages account for more than half the world’s population.according to https://gulfnews.com/…/census-more-than-19500-languages…When a just born baby is kept isolated without anyone communicating with the baby, after a few days it will speak and human natural (Prakrit) language known as Classical Magahi Magadhi/Classical Chandaso language/Magadhi Prakrit,Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),Classical Pāḷi which are the same. Buddha spoke in Magadhi. All the 7,139 languages and dialects are off shoot of Classical Magahi Magadhi. Hence all of them are Classical in nature (Prakrit) of HumanBeings, just like all other living speices have their own natural
languages for communication. 142 languages are translated by https://translate.google.com
in
01) Classical Benevolent Magahi Magadhi,
07) Classical Benevolent Cyrillic
08) Classical Benevolent Afrikaans– Klassieke welwillende Afrikaans
09) Classical Benevolent Albanian-Benevolent Klasik Shqiptar
10) Classical Benevolent Amharic-ክላሲካል ቸርቻሪ
11) Classical Benevolent Arabic- اللغة العربية الخيرية الكلاسيكية
12) Classical Benevolent Armenian-Դասական բարեգործ հայ
13) Classical Benevolent Assamese-ধ্ৰুপদী উপকাৰী অসমীয়া,,13) ধ্ৰুপদী উপকাৰী অসমীয়া-ঊষ্ণৱিক-৲ৰঊষ্ণৱিক ঊষ্ণৱ ঊন ঊষ্ণৱ ঊষ্ণৱ

14) Classical Benevolent Aymara Clásico benevolente Aymara ukax mä jach’a uñacht’äwiwa.
15) Classical Benevolent Azerbaijani- Klassik xeyirxahlı dili
16) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,16) Euskara klasikoa- Euskal klasikoa,
17) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,17) Класічная беларуска-класічная беларуская,
18) Classical Benevolent Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,18) ধ্রুপদী দানশীল বেঙ্গল- বাংলা বাংলা,

19) Classical Bhojpuri 19) शास्त्रीय भोजपुरी के बा


20) Classical Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,20) Klasični bosanski-Klasični bosanski,


21) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,21) Класическа България- Класически българск,


22) Classical Catalan-Català clàssic


23) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,


24) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,


25) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),


26) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),


27) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,


28) Classical Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,


29)Classical Czech-Klasická čeština


30) Classical Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,


31) Classical Dhivehi,31) ކްލާސިކަލް ދިވެހި


32) Classical Dogri, 32) शास्त्रीय डोगरी


33) Classical Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,


34) Classical English,Roman,


35) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,


36) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,


37) Classical Ewe,37) Klasik Ewe


38) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,

39
) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

40) Classical French- Français classique,


41) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,


42) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,


43) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,


44) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,

45) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
46) Classical Guarani,48) Guaraní clásico
47) Classical Benevolent Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
47) શાસ્ત્રીય પરોપકારી ગુજરાતી- ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
48) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,
49) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
50) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,
51) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
52) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,
53) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,
54) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
55) Classical Igbo,Klassískt Igbo,
56) Classical Ilocano,58) Klasiko nga Ilocano
57)Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,
58) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
59) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,

60) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
61) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
62) Classical Benevolent Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
62) ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಬೆನೆವೊಲೆಂಟ್ ಕನ್ನಡ- ಕನ್ನಡ,
63) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,
64) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
65) Classical Kinyarwanda
66) Classical Konkani,69) शास्त्रीय कोंकणी
67) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,
68) Classical Krio,68) Krio we dɛn kɔl Krio
69) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

70) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,

71) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
72) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,
73) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,
74) Classical Lingala,74) Lingala ya kala,
75) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,
76) Classical Luganda,76) Oluganda olw’edda
77) Classical Luganda,77) Oluganda olw’edda
78) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,
79)Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,

80)Classical Maithili,80) शास्त्रीय मैथिली
81) Classical Malagasy,класичен малгашки,
82) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,
83) Classical Benevolent Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,
83) ക്ലാസിക്കൽ ബെനിവാസന്റ് മലയാളം- ഒരു തരത്തിൽ,
84) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
85) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
86) Classical Benevolent Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,
) 86) शास्त्रीय बेनिव्हलेंट मॅरेथी- चतुरक,
87) Classical Meiteilon (Manipuri),꯹꯰) ꯀ꯭ꯂꯥꯁꯤꯀꯦꯜ ꯃꯦꯏꯇꯦꯏꯂꯣꯟ (ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯤ) ꯴.
88) Classical Mizo,88) Classical Mizo a ni
89) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,
90) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

91) Classical Benevolent Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
1)) शास्त्रीय पमानदार नेपाली कामी (फ्रामि),
92) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,
93) Classical Benevolent Odia (Oriya)
93) ଶାସ୍ତ୍ରୀୟ, ଓଡିଆ (ଓଡିଆ)
94) Classical Oromo,94) Afaan Oromoo Kilaasikaa
95) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښت
96) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی97)Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
98) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
99) Classical Benevolent Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
99) ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਨਿਦਾਨ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
100) Classical Quechua,100) Quechua clásico

102) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
103) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
104) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa
105) Classical Benevolent Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्
१०५) शास्त्रीय परोपकारी संस्कृत
106) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
107)Classical Sepedi,107) Sepedi sa Kgale
108) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,

109) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
110) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
111) Classical Benevolent Sindhi,
111) طبقاتي قاتل سنڌي،
112)Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,
113) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
114) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
115) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
116) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
117) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,1
18) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,
119) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
120) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
121) Classical Benevolent Tamil-கிளாசிக்கல் பெனவலண்ட் தமிழில் பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,

122) Classical Tatar
123) Classical Benevolent Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,123) క్లాసికల్ బెనెవోలెంట్ తెలుగు- తెలుగు,
124) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
125) Classical Tigrinya,127) ክላሲካል ትግርኛ
126) Classical Tsonga,128) Xitsonga xa xikhale
127) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
128)Classical Turkmen
129) Classical Twi,
129) Twi a wɔde di dwuma wɔ tete mmere mu

130)Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,

131) Classical Benevolent Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو

131) کلاسیکی فلاحی اردو- ک السالس یردو
132) Classical Uyghur,
133) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z,

134) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việ,

135) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,

136) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,

137) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
138) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
139) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu9



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08/16/22
LESSON 4527 Wed 17 Aug 2022 MISSION BENEVOLENT UNIVERSE WE WERE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES WE ARE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES WE CONTINUE TO BE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES Always for Freedom, Democracy, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Dr Ambedkar thundered “I will make this country Prabuddha Bharat “ All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder “we will make entire Universe Benevolent Awakened One Universe! May all sentient and non sentient beings be ever happy, well and secure! May all live long at least for 150 years with NAD pills and following Benevolent Awakened One’s teachings! May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!!! Indian Armed Forces The Gardening Dad The Garden Diet “Constantly review your own behaviour, but do not Look at the short-comings of others. Be harmonious and do not contend with others” Moon Lamp Samadhi Sutra [Samadhirajachandrapradipa Sutta])
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka , Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots
Posted by: site admin @ 8:33 am

LESSON 4527 Wed 17 Aug 2022

MISSION BENEVOLENT UNIVERSE

WE WERE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES
WE ARE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES
WE CONTINUE TO BE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES

Always for
Freedom, Democracy, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

Dr Ambedkar thundered “I will make this country Prabuddha Bharat “
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder “we will make entire Universe Benevolent Awakened One Universe!
May all sentient and non sentient beings be ever happy, well and secure!
May all live long at least for 150 years with NAD pills and following Benevolent Awakened One’s teachings!
May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!!!
Indian Armed Forces
The Gardening Dad

The Garden Diet

“Constantly review your own
behaviour, but do not

Look at the
short-comings of others. Be harmonious and do

not contend with
others” Moon Lamp Samadhi Sutra

[Samadhirajachandrapradipa Sutta])


COMPREHENSIVE PALI COURSE


LESSON 6


Declension of Feminine Gender words ending in ā


 


      Vibhatti                        Ekavacana                   Bahuvacana

1.   Paṭhamā                      ā                                  ā, āyo

2.   Dutiyā                          a                               ā, āyo


3.   Tatiyā                          āya                              ābhi, āhi

4.   Catutthī                        āya                              āna


5.   Pañcami                      āya                              ābhi, āhi


6.   Chaṭṭhi                        āya                              āna


7.   Sattamī                        āya, āya                    āsu


8.   Ālapana                       e                                  ā, āyo


 


For example: Vācā            =
Speech


Vibhatti                        Ekavacana                   Bahuvacana


1.   Paṭhamā                      Vācā                            Vācā, Vācāyo 


2.   Dutiyā                          Vācā                         Vācā, Vācāyo 


3.   Tatiyā                          Vācāya                                    Vācābhi, Vācāhi                     


4.   Catutthī                        Vācāya                        Vācāna        


5.   Pañcami                      Vācāya                                    Vācābhi, Vācāhi


6.   Chaṭṭhi                        Vācāya                                    Vācāna


7.   Sattamī                        Vācāya, Vācāna        Vācāsu


8.   Ālapana                       Vāce                            Vācā,
Vācāyo


 


Word similarly declined are:


Avijjā                     =          ignorance


Taṇhā                    =          craving


Icchā                      =          wish


Vipassanā              =          insight


Sikkhā                   =          training


Mettā                     =          universal love


Karuā                   =          compassion


Muditā                   =          alutruistic joy


Upekkha                =          equanimity


Saddhā                  =          faith, confidence


Bhāvanā                =          meditation, development


Sālā                       =          hall


Dhammasālā         =          preaching hall


Guhā                      =          cave


Nāvā                      =          boat


Pajā                       =          mankind, people


 


 


Vocabulary:


Masculine


Soka                      =
         sorrow


Parideva                =
         lamentation


Samudaya             =          origin, arising


Nirodha                  =          extinction, cessation


Anta                       =          end


Dīpa                       =          island


ātipātā             =          from killing


Micchācārā            =          from sexual misconduct


Musāvādā              =          from falsehood, lying


Meraya                  =          fermented drink


Pamādaṭṭhānā      =          from that which beclouds the


                                          Mind


Sikkhāpada         =         precept


Kuto                       =          from where, whence


Samādiyāmi          =          saṁ+ā+dā = I voluntarily undertake


 


Neuter


Viriya                     =          energy, effort


Mūla                      =          root


Domanassa            =          sadness, depression


Somanassa            =          joy


Nibbāna                 =          cessation (of suffering), Ultimate
Bliss.


Adinnādāna           =          stealing


Kāma                     =          passion, lust, sensuality


Sūrā                       =          wine, liquor


Majja                     =          intoxicating drink


Veramaī               =          abstinence or refraining


FREE ONLINE TRAINING ON BUDDHISM FOR CHILDREN -7

What do Buddhist believe?


Buddhist believe that the Buddha saw the truth about what the
world is like. They believe that nothing in the world is perfect, and that the
Buddha found the answer to why it is like this. They do not believe that the
Buddha was a god. He was a human being just like them. They believe that he was
important because he gained Awakenment, and he chose to teach other people
how to reach it too.


The Three Jewels


There are three Buddhist central beliefs. These are known as
the three jewels as they are felt to be so precious.


  1. Belief in Buddha
  2. Dhamma - The teaching of
    Buddha
  3. The Sangha - the Buddhist
    community made up of ordinary people as well as the monks and nuns. The
    purpose is to help others and by doing so to cease to become selfish and
    to move on the way towards Awakenment.

One important belief involves reincarnation: the concept that
one must go through many cycles of birth, living, and death. After many such
cycles, if a person releases their attachment to desire and the self, they can
attain Nibbana  - a state of liberation and freedom from
suffering.

At the heart of the Buddha’s teaching lie The
Four Noble Truths
and The Eightfold Path which lead
the Buddhist towards the path of Awakenment.

Lakshman
July 29, ‘09     


Lesson 5


In our everyday conversations, we frequently use the words “You” and
“I”. What do we mean by the labels “You”,  “I” ?  You may say that we
are human beings. If so, what is meant by “human being” ?


According to Buddha’s teaching, a human being is the combination of
five ever-changing aggregates: matter, sensations, perceptions, mental
formations, consciousness -  with no  external forces whatsoever. We
shall consider each of these aggregates separately. We may note here
that each one of the five aggregates is the result of a cause,
according to the doctrine of dependent origination (to be dealt with
later) in Buddhist philosophy. We may also note that mind which  plays
its role in the fourth aggregate of mental formations is according to
Buddha’s teaching one of our six senses, the other five senses being 
seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. As our sixth sense,
mind plays its role for all our thoughts and ideas.


The combination of the five aggregates is always in an ever-changing
flux, which has no self, no soul. The so-called “I” is such a
combination in a flux, so also “You”, without self, without soul.
Buddhism stands unique in the history of human thought in denying the
existence of soul, self (‘atman’). According to the teaching of the
Buddha, the idea of self is imaginary, false belief which has no
corresponding reality and it produces harmful thoughts of ‘me’ and
‘mine’, selfish desire, craving, attachment, hatred, ill-will, conceit,
pride, egoism and other defilements, impurities and problems. It is the
source of all the troubles in the world — from personal conflicts to
wars between nations. In short, to this false view can be traced all
the evils in the world.


 Lakshman

July 29, ‘09                                                                                        

P.P. Lakshman
Email: pplakshman08@gmail.com
Telephone: 917-664-6566

A Permanent Online International Seminar on Buddhism and Buddhist Heritage of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath -1

The Meaning of the Word Buddha

The term Buddha means “Awakened”. As he fully comprehended
the
Four Noble Truths and as he arose from the slumbers of ignorance he is
called a Buddha. Since he not only comprehends but also expounds the doctrine
and awakens others, He is called a Samma-Sambuddha –a Fully Awakened One.

Before
His Awaken-ness he was
a bodhisattva which means one who is
aspiring to attain Buddhahood. He was not born a Buddha, but became a Buddha by
his own efforts.  Every aspirant to Buddhahood passes through the
bodhisattva period — a period comprising many lives over a vast period of time.
During this period he undergoes intensive spiritual exercises and develops to perfection
the qualities of generosity, discipline, renunciation, wisdom, energy,
endurance, truthfulness, determination, benevolence and perfect equanimity. 
In a particular era there arises only one Fully Awakened Buddha. Just as certain
plants and trees can bear only one flower, even so one world-system can
bear only one Fully Awakened Buddha.


“Monks, there is
one person  whose birth into this world is for the welfare and
happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, for the gain and
welfare and happiness of gods and humanity. Who is this one person? It
is the Tathâgata, who is a Worthy One, a Fully Awakened One  ~
Anguttara Nikaya”


The Buddha was a unique being. Such a being arises but
rarely in this world, and is born out of compassion for the world, for the good,
benefit, and happiness of gods and men. The Buddha is called by many epithets,
among them The Great Physician, The Giver of Deathlessness, The Lord of the
Dhamma (Doctrine).   As the Buddha himself says, “He is the
Accomplished One, the Worthy One, the Fully Awakened One.”  The Buddha
had no teacher for His Awaken-ness. His knowledge of the secrets of all
existence was realized by himself through his own intuitive wisdom.


“Hard is it to be born a
man; hard is the life of mortals. Hard is it to gain the opportunity of hearing
the Sublime Truth, and hard to encounter is the arising of the Buddhas.~
Dhammapada 182″


Who is the Buddha?
One may think that the Buddha was a human. But the Buddha
denied this too. Once a Brahmin named Dona, approached the Buddha and
questioned him.


“Your Reverence will be a deity ?”
“No, indeed, brahmin, a deity am I not,” replied the Buddha.
“Then Your Reverence will be a god?”
“No indeed, brahmin, a god am I not.”
“Then Your Reverence will be a human being?”
“No indeed, brahmin, a human being am I not.”
“Who, then will Your Reverence be?”



The Buddha replied that He had destroyed Defilements which conditions rebirth as
a god or a human being and added:


“As a lotus, fair and lovely, By the water is not soiled, By the world am I not soiled; Therefore, brahmin, am I Buddha!”


The Buddha had discovered the path to liberation from the
cycles of continued rebirth in this world. Out of compassion for the world, he
shows the path and method whereby he
delivered himself from suffering and death and achieved man’s ultimate goal. It is
left for man to
follow the path.


Be islands unto
yourselves, refuges unto yourselves, seeking no external refuge; with the
Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, seeking no other refuge ~
Maha Parinibbana sutta”


These significant words uttered by the Buddha in his last
days are very striking and inspiring. They reveal how vital is self-exertion to
accomplish one’s ends, and how superficial and futile it is to seek redemption
through self-proclaimed saviours, and to crave for illusory happiness in an afterlife
through the propitiation of imaginary gods by fruitless prayers and meaningless
sacrifices.


The Buddha was a human being. As a man he was born, as a
Buddha he lived, and as a Buddha his life came to an end. Though human, he
became an extraordinary man owing to his unique characteristics. The Buddha laid
stress on this important point, and left no room for any one to fall into the
error of thinking that he was an immortal being. This is important as he sets an
example for what we too can achieve if we are to put effort in practising his
teachings.


The Buddha’s
Greatness

Born a man, living as a mortal, by his own exertion he
attained the supreme state of perfection called Buddhahood, and without keeping
his Awaken-ness to himself, he proclaimed to the world the latent
possibilities and the invincible power of the human mind. Instead of placing an
unseen Almighty God over man, and giving man a subservient position in relation
to such a conception of divine power, the Buddha demonstrated how man could attain the
highest knowledge and Supreme Awaken-ness by his own efforts. He thus raised
the worth of man. He taught that man can gain his deliverance from the ills of
life and realize the eternal bliss of Nibbana
without depending on an external
God
or mediating priests.


He taught the egocentric, power-seeking world the noble
ideal of selfless service. He protested against the evils of caste-system that
hampered the progress of mankind and advocated equal opportunities for all. He
declared that the gates of deliverance were open to all, in every condition of
life, high or low, saint or sinner, who would care to turn a new leaf and aspire
to perfection. He raised the status of down-trodden women, and not only brought
them to a realization of their importance to society but also founded the first
religious order for women. He banned the sacrifice of unfortunate animals and
brought them within his compass of loving kindness
.


“Driven by fear, men go for refuge to many places — to hills, woods,
groves, trees and shrines. Such, indeed, is no safe refuge; such is not the
refuge supreme. Not by resorting to such a refuge is one released from all
suffering. He who has gone for refuge to the Buddha, the Teaching and his Order,
penetrates with transcendental wisdom the Four Noble Truths — suffering, the
cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the Noble Eightfold Path
leading to the cessation of suffering. This,
indeed, is refuge secure. By seeking such refuge one is released from all
sorrow.
~ Dhammapada 188-192″


He did not force his followers to be slaves either to his
teachings or to himself, but through teaching the famous
Kalama Sutta, granted complete freedom of thought and admonished
his followers to accept his words only after subjecting them to a thorough
examination.

He comforted the bereaved who had lost loved ones. He
ministered to the deserted sick  with his hands. He helped the poor and
the neglected. He ennobled the lives of criminals and courtesans and accepted
them into his order of monks.  The
rich and the poor, the saint and the criminal, loved him alike. His noble
example was a source of inspiration to all. He was the most compassionate and
tolerant of teachers.



1. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta

http://www.acharia.org/sutras/DHAMMACAKKAPPAVATTANA-SUTTA_2.jpg

The Sutta


I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at
Varanasi in the Game Refuge at Isipatana. There he addressed the group
of five monks:

“There are these two extremes that are not to be indulged in by
one who has gone forth. Which two? That which is devoted to sensual
pleasure with reference to sensual objects: base, vulgar, common,
ignoble, unprofitable; and that which is devoted to self-affliction:
painful, ignoble, unprofitable. Avoiding both of these extremes, the
middle way realized by the Tathagata — producing vision, producing
knowledge — leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to
Unbinding.

“And what is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that —
producing vision, producing knowledge — leads to calm, to direct
knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding? Precisely this Noble
Eightfold Path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action,
right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.
This is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that — producing
vision, producing knowledge — leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to
self-awakening, to Unbinding.

“Now this, monks, is the noble truth of stress:1 Birth is
stressful, aging is stressful, death is stressful; sorrow, lamentation,
pain, distress, & despair are stressful; association with the
unbeloved is stressful, separation from the loved is stressful, not
getting what is wanted is stressful. In short, the five
clinging-aggregates are stressful.

“And this, monks, is the noble truth of the origination of
stress: the craving that makes for further becoming — accompanied by
passion & delight, relishing now here & now there — i.e.,
craving for sensual pleasure, craving for becoming, craving for
non-becoming.

“And this, monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of
stress: the remainderless fading & cessation, renunciation,
relinquishment, release, & letting go of that very craving.

“And this, monks, is the noble truth of the way of practice
leading to the cessation of stress: precisely this Noble Eightfold Path
— right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right
livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness%2



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Indian Armed Forces
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Edit
The
Indian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of India.
It consists of three professional uniformed services: the Indian Army,
Indian Navy, and Indian Air Force.[11] Additionally, the Indian Armed
Forces are supported by the Central Armed Police Forces,[12] Assam
Rifles, Indian Coast Guard and Special Frontier Force and various
inter-service commands and institutions such as the Strategic Forces
Command, the Andaman and Nicobar Command and the Integrated Defence
Staff. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian
Armed Forces but the executive authority and responsibility for national
security is vested in the Prime Minister of India and their chosen
Cabinet Ministers.[13][14][15][16] The Indian Armed Forces are under the
management of the Ministry of Defence of the Government of India. With
strength of over 1.4 million active personnel,[17][18] it is the world’s
second-largest military force and has the world’s largest volunteer
army.[19] It also has the third-largest defence budget in the world.[20]
The Global Firepower Index report lists it as the fourth most-powerful
military.[21]
Indian Armed Forces
Armed forces logo.png
Emblem of the Indian Armed Forces
Indian Armed Forces.svg
Flag of Indian Armed Forces
Service branches
Indian Army
Indian Navy
Indian Air Force
Headquarters
Ministry of Defence, South Block, New Delhi
Leadership
Supreme Commander
India President Droupadi Murmu
Prime Minister
India Narendra Modi
Minister of Defence
Rajnath Singh
Defence Secretary
Ajay Kumar, IAS
Chief of Defence Staff
Vacant
Personnel
Military age
18[1]
Conscription
No
Reaching military
age annually
23,116,044[2]
Active personnel
1,455,550[3] (ranked 2nd)
Reserve personnel
1,155,000[3]
(ranked 3rd)
Expenditures
Budget
₹525,166 crore (US$66 billion) (2022–23)[4]
(ranked 3rd)
Percent of GDP
2.4% (2019)[5]
Industry
Domestic suppliers
List
Munitions India Limited (MIL)
Armoured Vehicles Nigam Limited (AVANI)
Advanced Weapons and Equipment India Limited (AWE)
Troop Comforts Limited (TCL)
Yantra India Limited (YIL)
India Optel Limited (IOL)
Gliders India Limited (GIL)
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL)
Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML)
Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL)
Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDSL)
Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL)
Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL)
Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE)
Mishra Dhatu Nigam (MDN)[6]
Foreign suppliers
Russia[7]
France[7]
Israel[7]
USA[8]
Annual imports
US$42.9 billion (2000–16)[9] (Ranked 4th)
Annual exports
US$2.23 billion (2019–20)[10] (Ranked 19th)
List
Afghanistan
Maldives
Tajikistan
Nepal
Bhutan
Israel
Oman
Bangladesh
Vietnam
UAE
Iran
Thailand
Kazakhstan
Turkey
Qatar
Uzbekistan
Saudi Arabia
Malaysia
Philippines
Kyrgyzstan
Indonesia
Related articles
History
Military history of India
Presidency armies
British Indian Army
Royal Indian Navy
Royal Indian Air Force
Indian National Army
Wars involving India
Ranks
Army
Navy
Air Force
It
is important to note that the Central Armed Police Forces, which are
referred to as ‘Armed Police Forces’ are not armed forces. As such they
are headed by civilian officers from the Indian Police Service and are
under the control of the Ministry of Home Affairs, not the Ministry of
Defence.
The
Indian armed forces have been engaged in a number of major military
operations, including: the Indo-Pakistani wars of 1947, 1965 and 1971,
the Portuguese-Indian War, the Sino-Indian War, the 1967 Cho La
incident, the 1987 Sino-Indian skirmish, the Kargil War, and the Siachen
conflict among others. India honours its armed forces and military
personnel annually on Armed Forces Flag Day, 7 December. Armed with the
nuclear triad,[22] the Indian armed forces are steadily undergoing
modernisation,[23] with investments in areas such as futuristic soldier
systems and missile defence systems.[24][23]
The
Department of Defence Production of the Ministry of Defence is
responsible for the indigenous production of equipment used by the
Indian Armed Forces. It comprises the 41 Indian Ordnance Factories under
the control of the Ordnance Factories Board, and eight Defence PSUs
namely: HAL, BEL, BEML, BDL, MDL, GSL, GRSE and Midhani.[6] India
remains one of the largest importer of defence equipment with Russia,
Israel, France and the United States being the top foreign suppliers of
military equipment.[25] The Government of India has launched a Make in
India initiative to indigenise manufacturing and reduce dependence on
imports, including defence imports and procurement.[26]
History
Overview
Indian Army
Indian Navy
Indian Air Force
Indian Coast Guard
Paramilitary Forces
Central Armed Police Forces
Other forces
Special Forces
Weapons of mass destruction
Missile defence programme
Defence intelligence
Research and development
Peace keeping, anti-piracy, and exploration missions
Misconceptions in nomenclature
See also
References
Bibliography
External links
Last edited 23 days ago by Vsa111
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The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of I



May be a meme of 2 people and text that says


The Gardening Dad

“Just a Dad and His Garden”

20 EASY Vegetables to Grow in Pots for Beginners

Do you want EASY vegetables to grow in pots?

Do you want a garden, but don’t have the time, energy, or money for it?

Based on personal experience, scientific studies, and extensive research, I have created a list of 20 EASY Vegetables to Grow in Pots for Beginners.

[toc]

The goal of this article is to provide you with the EASIEST Vegetables to Grow.

Also, I am providing the
necessary instructions on how to select the correct supplies, planting,
caring, harvesting tips, and answers to frequently answered questions.



20 EASY Vegetables to Grow in Pots

Below, you will find the 20 EASIEST Vegetables to Grow in Pots.

You’ll notice squash, cucumbers, sweet corn doesn’t make the list. You can grow them in pots, but it takes too much work to be considered easy.

I also recommend purchasing your vegetable plants from Amazon.

Using seeds is too difficult and time-consuming.

1. Spinach

spinach

Spinach is a nutritious vegetable that is grown in both cold and warm
weather. It contains high amounts of vitamin B6, B9, C, and Folic
Acid.

You can plant it as early as spring and as late as early fall.

You can use it in salads, meat and fish dishes, and even eat it by itself.

  • Container Size: 5-gallon window box
  • When to Plant: Immediately after last spring frost. A second planting in Early Fall
  • How to Grow it: Plant 4-6 inches deep. Plant 6-8 inches apart.
  • Watering Needs: Water Immediately after planting and then twice a week for 15 seconds.
  • Where to place it: Partial-Sun
  • Life Cycle: Annual Plant
  • When to Harvest: Slowly pick 30 days after planting
Buy on Amazon

2. Lettuce

lettuce

Lettuce is another nutritious plant that is cold hardy and can flourish in warm weather. It is high in fiber and manganese.

You can plant it immediately after your last frost. You can also plant it throughout the summer and early fall.

Lettuce is great in salads, on sandwiches, or paired with meat and poultry.

Buy on Amazon

3. Asian Greens

asian greens

Asian
greens are one of the most nutritious foods on this list. And best of
all, they can be grown at any time of the year. Asian greens contain
vitamins A, B, C, E, and K.

As with lettuce and spinach, Asian greens are great in salad, paired with meat and poultry, and cooked on its own.

Buy on Amazon

4. Onions

onions

Onions are the perfect vegetable for fiber, folic acid, and vitamin C.

They are a great cold weather vegetable that typically can only be planted in the spring.

They can be eaten raw, have on sandwiches, or added to a stir fry.

Buy on Amazon

5. Green Onions

green onions

Green Onions are a great source of Vitamins A, C, & K. In addition, it is a good source of Folic acid and Riboflavin.

Green Onions is another cold hardy plant that can be planted immediately after the last spring frost.

This vegetable can be used in taboule, vegetable dishes, and meat and poultry dishes.

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6. Radishes

radishes

Radishes provide a great source of Vitamin C, Folate, and Potassium. It is one of the many easy vegetables to grow in pots.

Radishes are another cold hardy vegetable that can be grown in early spring and again in late summer.

This vegetable is great to pair with cheese, chicken, or in a vegetable salad.

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7. Asparagus

asparagus

Asparagus is one of my favorite perennial vegetables to grow in a
pot. It is a great source of vitamin A, C, E, and K. It also folate,
copper, and iron.

Asparagus can be planted immediately after the last spring frost.

The majority of consumers cook and eat Asparagus with butter as a side dish to their entree.

Buy on Amazon

8. Artichokes

artichokes

Artichokes are another great perennial plant that has a strong source of vitamins C, K, and Folate.

This is another vegetable you want to plant after the last spring frost and will come up every year.

Artichokes are a great vegetable that can be added warm and cold vegetable and entree dishes.

Buy on Amazon

9. Peppers

peppers

Peppers are my favorite vegetable. They are a great source of iron and vitamin C.

Peppers must be planted one month after your last spring frost. Any sign of frost or cold weather will kill your peppers.

Peppers have many uses. They are used in pasta dishes, stuffed with sausage, and added to salads.

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10. Tomatoes

tomatoes

Tomatoes were recently voted the most popular vegetable in the United
States. They are rich in vitamin C, potassium, and folate. This is
one of the surprisingly easy vegetables to grow in pots.

Tomatoes should be planted one month after the last spring frost. Any sign of cold weather or frost will kill the plant.

Tomatoes can be made into paste and sauces, added to salads, and vegetable dishes.

It should be noted that I recommend only planting cherry and grape
tomatoes in pots. Other tomatoes will take too much work and care to
make it on this list.

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11. Chard

chard

Swiss chard is one of the least known, but most beneficial
vegetables. This vegetable is rich in vitamin c, folic acid, iron, and
potassium.

Swiss Chard is a cold hardy plant that can be planted in early spring and again in the summer.

This vegetable is used in fish dishes, salads, and or even eaten raw.

Buy on Amazon

12. Kohlrabi

kohlrabi

Kohlrabi is becoming an increasingly popular vegetable in the United
States. It is a high source of Thiamin, Folate, Magnesium, and
Phosphorous.

Kohlrabi can be planted immediately after the last frost and again in early summer.

This vegetable cooks with olive oil and other herbs. It serves well as a side dish.

Buy on Amazon

13. Carrots

carrots

If you follow my instructions carrots are incredibly easy to grow. And they are a great source of vitamin A, K, and potassium.

Typically, you will plant carrots one month after the last spring frost.

Carrots are eaten raw, cooked, in soups, and in meat dishes.

Buy on Amazon

14. Broccoli

broccoli

Broccoli is another fantastic vegetable for gardeners. It is a great source of protein, thiamin, and vitamin E.

Broccoli is a cold hardy plant that can be planted immediately after the last frost.

Broccoli is best served cooked with olive oil or cheese but also can be eaten raw.

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15. Beets

beets

Beets may not be a favored plant among gardeners, but it is high in
nutrients. It is an excellent source of fiber, folate, potassium, and
vitamin C.

Beets can be planted immediately after the last spring frost and again in early summer.

Beets can be eaten raw. They can be pickled. And they can be served in many cooked vegetable dishes.

Buy on Amazon

16. Kale

kale

Kale has fastly become one of the most popular vegetables in the
world. This vegetable has fiber, protein, almost every vitamin, and
iron.

Kale is a cold hardy vegetable that is planted immediately after the last spring frost and again in early summer.

This vegetable is used in salads, smoothies, and entree dishes.

Buy on Amazon

17. Eggplant

eggplant

Eggplants are one of the most hearty vegetables on this list. They are a rich source of fiber, potassium, and vitamin C.

They should be planted at least a month after the last spring frost.

This type of vegetable is great for pasta dishes and as a side for entrees.

Buy on Amazon

18. Green Beans

green beans

While there are many beans out there, green beans are the best for
pots. Green beans are a high source of folate, fiber, and potassium.

This vegetable should be planted 1 month after the last spring frost and again in early summer.

Typically, green beans are served as a side dish to pasta and other entrees.

19. Sweet Peas

peas

How delicious are sweet peas? They are also very nutritious. These
vegetables are a high source of protein, riboflavin, and niacin.

Typically, you plant sweet peas about one month after the last frost and again in early summer.

Sweet Peas can be eaten raw right off the plant or cooked and served as a side dish to entrees.

View Price on Amazon

20. Cauliflower

cauliflower

Cauliflower is a very similar plant to broccoli in regards to how you
plant, care, and harvest it. It is an excellent source of fiber and
multiple B vitamins.

Cauliflower can be planted a little less than one month after the last spring frost.

Like Broccoli, cauliflower can be served raw or cooked with cheese or olive oil.



Bonus – EASY Herbs to Grow in Pots

vegetables 2

While this article is focused on EASY vegetables to grow in pots, there are also plenty of herbs I recommend growing in pots.

Below, is a list of 10 EASY Herbs to Grow in Pots



Bonus – EASY Fruits to Grow in Pots

fruit

In addition to vegetables and herbs, there are also incredibly EASY fruits to grow in pots.

Below, is a list of the 10 EASIEST Fruits to Grow in Pots



Frequently Asked Questions

#1. What is Needed to Grow Vegetables in Pots?

A) Purchase the Correct Pot

Not all pots are created equal. And while your plants may not care, selecting the appropriate pot will help make gardening EASY!

Below, are four types of pots that you can use.

If you are looking for the easiest pot to use then purchase plastic.

*If you plan on keeping your plant inside, I would recommend purchasing a saucer with it. This will prevent any water from getting onto your floor.

B) Size of Pot

Don’t listen to what a gardening mom says. When it comes to pots, size matters.

You should purchase a container that is 25% to 50% bigger than the
root ball of the plant. The root ball is the bottom of the plant.

If you want to make growing
vegetables easy then buy a bigger pot. Bigger containers hold more soil
which will hold more water. This means less watering for you.

Typically, you want a pot that is 12 inches wide by 12 inches deep.

The perfect size for herbs and small vegetables is 5 gallons. For
larger vegetables like tomatoes and herbs then I recommend purchasing a
10-gallon pot.

C) The Right Soil is Essential

Soil is arguably the most important supply needed for growing vegetables in pots.

If you do not have the right soil your plants may not grow, bear fruit, and can even die.

For any type of vegetable, you plant in a pot then purchase Potting Soil.

It is that Simple!

I personally use and recommend Miracle-Gro Moisture Control Potting Mix.

This is the perfect mix for beginner gardeners. It is easy to use and it helps prevent over and under-watering.

If you want an organic option then use: Fox Farm Organic Potting Soil

D) Use These 3 Tools

If you want minimal frustration with planting, caring, and harvesting your vegetables from pots then you’ll need a few tools.

You will need the following:



#2. How do you Grow Vegetables in Pots?

vegetables in pots

There are 3 Steps to EASILY Growing Vegetables in Pots

Step 1

First, you will want to determine your last spring frost date. The best way to determine this is by using the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map for your zip code.

To plant your vegetables, you will first want to take your pot and
place it in an area that either gets direct or partial sunlight. Where
you place, it depends on which vegetable you use from the above list.

You will then fill your pot with your potting soil. Fill it to about 3 inches from the top.

Step 2

Next, you will dig a hole based on your vegetable. To see how deep
and how far apart you should plant your vegetables please see the list
above.

You will then cover the base of your plant. The base of your
vegetable is where typically a few inches above its root ball. If you
have purchased a vegetable to plant from Amazon or a local garden store
the root ball will be where the plant meets the “soil mix”.

If you are interested in planting several vegetables in one pot then I recommend using my pairings below:

Step 3

Immediately after planting your vegetable you will want to add
fertilizer. Apply it per the instructions on the back of the fertilizer
package.

For a fertilizer that will work on all your vegetables then I recommend Miracle-Gro All Purpose Plant Fertilizer.

You will then water your plant for about 10-15 seconds.



#3. How do You Care for Vegetables in Pots?

caring for vegetables

1 EASY Step to Caring for Your Vegetables in Pots

If you want to care for your vegetables in the easiest way possible then there is only one thing you need to do.

Depending on the vegetable you plant you will want to water your
plant one to two times a week. Spend about 10-15 seconds watering each
vegetable plant.



#4. How do You Harvest Vegetables?

vegetables 3

1 EASY Step to Harvesting Your Vegetables

If you thought caring for your vegetables in pots was easy then you will be amazed how easy it is to harvest your vegetables.

All you need to do is pick your vegetables when it is ready.

Honestly, it is okay to pick your harvest a little early or a little
late. And if you are still unsure use my harvest time in the above
section and you cannot go wrong.

All you have to do to harvest your crop is pick your vegetable from
where it meets the branch it is growing on. If it is a leafy vegetable
just pinch and pull. If it is a vegetable like a pepper or a tomato
twist it from where the vegetable meets the branch.

Remember
to harvest early and often. This will encourage new growth. This will
also allow you to get a second planting in for certain vegetables.

When you are finished harvesting your plant you can pull it and
compost it. Please review my composting article for more information:

Winter Composting (10 PROVEN Tips)

What to Compost: 9 Best Foods to Compost (and 10 You Shouldn’t)



#5. What are the Best Uses for Vegetables?

cooking vegetables

There are many uses for vegetables. Regardless of the use,
vegetables are a great wait to add essential vitamins and nutrients to
your diet.

You can:



Conclusion

As you can tell by now, Growing Vegetables in Pots can be easy and fun!

If you want to have the greatest chance of success then you’ll want to plant one of the 20 EASY Vegetables to Grow in Pots above!

Also, there are plenty of herbs and fruits that can be easily planted in pots.

If you want to make the best use of your space don’t forget to plant
two to three kinds of vegetables, herbs, and fruits together.

Regardless of what you plant, make sure you:

If you thought this article was helpful, I highly recommend reading my favorite article:

101 Gardening Tips that ACTUALLY Work

Vegetable Gardening

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10 Best Vegetables to Grow in Kansas (2022 Guide)

10 Best Vegetables to Grow in New Hampshire (2022 Guide)


SearchRecent PostsHere is the BEST Time to Plant Arugula in Hardiness Zone 3 (2022)

Categories

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Articles
Raw Food Detox Diet: A Dietitian’s Guide
Raw Vegan Meal Plan: How to Follow a Raw Vegan Diet
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Categories
Raw Diets
Raw Vegan Meal Plan: How to Follow a Raw Vegan Diet
Post author
By Amanda A. Kostro Miller, RD, LDN
Post date
February 9, 2021
Raw vegan meal plan
While you may be familiar with vegan diets and even raw food diets, have you ever considered combining the two?
The “raw vegan diet” blends these concepts to create a plant-based, raw vegan meal plan with lots of whole foods.
Let’s
explore the basics, benefits and drawbacks of the raw vegan diet to see
if it’s appropriate for you. Then you can try out this diet, starting
with a 7-day raw vegan meal plan below.
Raw Vegan Diet Overview
As
mentioned, the raw vegan diet combines concepts of “raw food eating”
and veganism. Below is a table that shows the components of the raw
vegan meal plan.
Raw Vegan Diet Philosophy
Raw Food Diet Principles Vegan Diet Principles
Eat only raw, uncooked foods like fruits, vegetables and nuts Avoid all animal foods like meat, poultry and seafood
Emphasize
unprocessed foods like soaked grains and fresh juices Avoid all
animal-based foods like milk, butter, gelatin, honey and eggs
Eat lots of simple, whole foods Avoid foods that contain animal ingredients and/or animal-based ingredients
Avoid refined sugars, packaged snack foods and bakery items Eat only foods that come from plants, nuts and seeds
Raw
foods contain more nutrition than cooked foods (allegedly) Use
alternative dairy sources like almond milk, soy milk and vegan cheese
A
big benefit of the raw vegan diet is that it’s high in fruits,
vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds. It also emphasizes limiting
processed foods for whole, more natural foods.
Is a raw vegan diet safe?
Before
you jump straight into a raw vegan meal plan, there are important
things to consider. This diet is not suitable for everyone. Talk to your
healthcare team prior to starting.
Raw Vegan Diet Drawbacks
Raw Food Diet Issues Vegan Diet Issues
There’s
little evidence to support that raw foods have more nutrition than
properly cooked foods. 4 Can put you at risk for nutrient deficiencies
in protein, calcium, B12, iron, and vitamin D. 3
Not
cooking food to proper temperatures can put you at risk of foodborne
illness. 2 Not necessarily healthier than a diet that includes
animal-based foods.
Should
not be consumed by people with a compromised immune system. Won’t make
you lose more weight than a non-vegan diet (even vegan diets need a
calorie restriction).
Requires
strict, safe food handling like washing your hands, cleaning your
produce and avoiding cross-contamination. 1 Need lots of planning to
make it a well-rounded diet with complete nutrition.
How to Follow a Raw Vegan Diet
Let’s go over what you need and how to get started. Plus, don’t forget about our 7-day raw vegan meal plan below!
Step 1: Load Up on Vegan Foods
The
best way to do this diet is to make sure you’re well-equipped with
nutritious foods. The more variety, the more complete your nutrition
profile will be. Any good vegan diet (and especially a raw vegan meal
plan!) should be rich in:
Fresh fruits
Plain, frozen fruits
Fresh vegetables
Plain, frozen vegetables
Dried fruits and vegetables
Nuts and nut butter
Seeds
Whole grains (such as quinoa)
Legumes (such as beans)
Soy (such as edamame)
Step 2: Store Your Foods Properly
You’re supposed to eat uncooked food while on a raw vegan meal plan. But, don’t just leave stuff on your countertop.
Make
sure you store items in the fridge, freezer or at room temperature,
depending on the food. Here’s a handy fruit and vegetable storage guide!
Step 3: Wash Your Hands and Surfaces Before Prepping
Cooking
helps to kill certain bacteria, but since the goal is to consume raw
food, you’ll have to minimize contamination risk in other areas.
Wash your hands and cooking surfaces before, during and after meal prepping.
Step 4: Properly Wash and Prep Your Food
Here’s
another safeguard against foodborne illness. Many fruits and vegetables
should be properly rinsed and cleaned prior to eating.
Contaminants
from animals, soil, water — and even bacteria on someone’s hand — can
end up on your produce. That’s why it’s really important to wash your
produce before cutting and peeling. Otherwise, bacteria can enter
through a cut in the fruit or vegetable’s skin!
Some quick washing tips from the FDA: 1
Rinse produce before peeling and cutting
Only use clean, running water to rinse (no soap or soaking)
Cut away bruised areas
Use a vegetable brush for tough and firm produce like melons and apples
Dry produce with a clean towel or paper towel
Remove outer leaves of leafy vegetables like cabbage
7-Day Raw Vegan Meal Plan
Want
to try the raw vegan diet? Here’s a simple raw vegan meal plan to help
you get started. Remember: A true raw diet involves no heating or
cooking your meals, so if you want to follow a raw vegan meal plan don’t
use heat when making your meals.
Day 1
Breakfast: Chia pudding with fresh sliced peaches and raspberries. Add cinnamon, nutmeg and walnuts if desired.
Lunch:
Salad bowl with julienned carrots, cabbage and zucchini. Add edamame
and bell peppers. Drizzle with cold-pressed avocado oil and sesame
seeds.
Dinner: Raw miso soup with marinated mushrooms, dried wakame and blended cashews for creaminess.
Snack: Mixed nuts.
Day 2
Breakfast:
Cobbler with a crust made from ground almonds, coconut oil and dates
(all blended in a food processor). Add mango and garnish with mint
leaves and agave.
Lunch: Raw carrot zoodles topped with homemade peanut sauce, ginger and lime.
Dinner: Riced cauliflower sushi wrapped in raw nori.
Snack: Fresh fruit.
Day 3
Breakfast: Banana “sushi” (sliced banana) topped with nut butter, seeds and goji berries.
Lunch:
Creamy gazpacho made from soaked cashews, coconut milk and cucumbers
(all blended). Add lemon juice, garlic and other spices. Garnish with
pine nuts.
Dinner: Stuffed avocado halves with chickpeas, cucumber and soaked quinoa.
Snack: Apple with homemade nut butter.
Day 4
Breakfast: Fruit skewers with pineapple, strawberries and melon. Dip into maple syrup, honey and/or chia seed pudding.
Lunch:
Lettuce boats filled with avocado, tomatoes, alfalfa sprouts, julienned
carrots and shredded cabbage. Add a dollop of homemade lemon-tahini
dressing.
Dinner: Cauliflower rice with raw veggies and edamame. Top with lime juice and cold-pressed oil.
Snack: Banana “nice” cream (frozen banana blended with non-dairy milk).
Day 5
Breakfast: Smoothie made with banana, pineapple, non-dairy milk and ground flax seeds.
Lunch: Stuffed peppers (or mini peppers) with thick garlic, lemon and cashew schmear.
Dinner: Zoodles with avocado pesto sauce.
Snack: Homemade hummus with veggies.
Day 6
Breakfast: Raw oatmeal (soaked overnight) with homemade nut butter, apple slices and cinnamon.
Lunch:
Tomato, basil and avocado salad. Slice the tomatoes and avocados into
disk-shaped pieces. Top with basil and a drizzle of cold-pressed olive
oil.
Dinner: Raw zucchini lasagna with tomato, hummus and pesto.
Snack: Dried fruit with nuts.
Day 7
Breakfast: Peanut butter and banana smoothie with homemade nut butter, frozen banana, unsweetened cocoa powder and soy milk.
Lunch: Veggie lettuce wraps with savory dipping sauce.
Dinner:
Raw veggie pizza. Blend the crust with ground pumpkin seeds, hemp
seeds, sunflower seeds, walnuts, water and lots of seasoning. Spread on a
pesto blend and add raw veggies like tomato and soaked mushrooms.
Snack: Raw flaxseed crackers with guacamole.
This
simple raw vegan meal plan is a great start for anyone looking to try a
raw and vegan diet. If you’re interested in other raw diets, check out
our raw food detox diet guide.
Article Sources
Food and Drug Administration. 7 tips for cleaning fruits,
vegetables. FDA website. Published June 10, 2018. Accessed February 3,
2021.
By Amanda A. Kostro Miller, RD, LDN
Amanda
A. Kostro Miller is a Registered Dietitian from Chicago with experience
in nutrition counseling, weight loss and medical nutrition therapy.
Early on in her career, she worked with United States veterans, patients
with eating disorders and those with a variety of acute and chronic
diseases. She currently writes nutrition content for websites, blogs and
medical software. Amanda also creates podcasts, meal plans and weight
loss guides for a variety of audiences.
Aside from nutrition, Amanda is a military wife and technically-trained professional dancer who performs worldwide.
View Archive →
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LESSON 4526 Tue 16 Aug 2022 MISSION BENEVOLENT UNIVERSE WE WERE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES WE ARE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES WE CONTINUE TO BE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES Always for Freedom, Democracy, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Dr Ambedkar thundered “I will make this country Prabuddha Bharat “ All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder “we will make entire Universe Benevolent Awakened One Universe! May all sentient and non sentient beings be ever happy, well and secure! May all live long at least for 150 years with NAD pills and following Benevolent Awakened One’s teachings! May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!!! Raw Vegan Meal Plan: How to Follow a Raw Vegan Diet
Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka , Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots
Posted by: site admin @ 2:16 am
LESSON 4526 Tue 16 Aug 2022

MISSION BENEVOLENT UNIVERSE

WE WERE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES
WE ARE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES
WE CONTINUE TO BE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES

Always for
Freedom, Democracy, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

Dr Ambedkar thundered “I will make this country Prabuddha Bharat “
All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder “we will make entire Universe Benevolent Awakened One Universe!
May all sentient and non sentient beings be ever happy, well and secure!
May all live long at least for 150 years with NAD pills and following Benevolent Awakened One’s teachings!
May all have calm, quiet, alert, attentive and equanimity mind with a clear understanding that everything is changing!!!



Raw Vegan Meal Plan: How to Follow a Raw Vegan Diet




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https://www.daviddomoney.com › 22-best-free-vegetable-gardening-resources-tips-grow-your-own-guides
22+ best free grow your own vegetable garden resources
To
help you, I’ve pulled together the best grow your own resources online,
including a few I’ve made. These include guides, blogs, planners and
all the information you need to start, maintain and grow a vegetable
garden. Plus there are resources to help you grow fruit and herbs too.
There are 22 categories here, some of which have multiple …
https://thelivelyplant.com › complete-step-by-step-guide-to-growing-vegetables-in-pots
Complete Step-by-step Guide to 10 Vegetables You Can Grow in Pots
How
to Plant carrots in Pots. Choose the 12-15′ deep pots for carrots
growth. Choose a fertilizer with less nitrogen and more potassium and
phosphate. Dig and place seeds 1.25cm deep in the soil. Gently place the
seeds in the soil and place the pot in complete sunlight. Proper water
is necessary for proper growth.
https://books.google.com › books › about › Vegetable_Gardening_for_Beginners.html?id=mvP6DwAAQBAJ
Vegetable Gardening for Beginners: A SIMPLE, STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE TO GROW …
The
author has been gardening for over 15 years. She now advises small
farmers in the fruit and vegetable sector. Frustrated by the lack of
resources for gardening aimed at new gardeners without experience, she
decided to help all those who have never done gardening in their life,
writing this guide written in a simple way and truly suitable for
everyone.
https://www.wikihow.com › Grow-Vegetables
How to Grow Vegetables (with Pictures) - wikiHow
Apr
22, 20224. Use the spade to dig a long shallow trench for your seeds.
Follow the directions on the seed packets to determine how deep to make
this trench and how far apart your trenches should be. Garden rows
should be about 18 inches (46 cm) apart, but some vegetables may require
more space.
https://www.nestle.com › sites › default › files › asset-library › documents › nutrition_health_wellness › vegetable-gardening-booklet.pdf
PDF A Guide to Vegetable Gardens - Nestlé
guide,
we recommend using grow boxes or plant pots. You might start out with
just four lettuces in a plant pot, or some leafy tomato plants in a
large window box, but the experience is always magical and satisfying.
Every plant, every living thing, opens a door into a world of discovery
and learning. All we have to do is watch and care about …
https://www.instructables.com › Ultimate-Step-by-Step-Sprouting-Guide
Ultimate Step by Step Sprouting Guide : 6 Steps (with Pictures …
Step
1: In a glass sprouting jar or a mason jar (with cheesecloth and an
elastic on the top). Place your seeds, grains, nuts or legumes in your
jar and cover completely with water. The exact measurement of water is
not essential here as this is just for soaking purposes. Let the nuts,
seeds, grains or legumes soak for the allocated time (refer …
https://thegardendiet.com › 7-day-raw-vegan-meal-plan
7-day Raw Vegan Meal Plan From a Dietitian - The Garden Diet
Feb
9, 2021Breakfast: Raw oatmeal (soaked overnight) with homemade nut
butter, apple slices and cinnamon. Lunch: Tomato, basil and avocado
salad. Slice the tomatoes and avocados into disk-shaped pieces. Top with
basil and a drizzle of cold-pressed olive oil. Dinner: Raw zucchini
lasagna with tomato, hummus and pesto.
https://thegardeningdad.com › 20-easy-vegetables-to-grow-in-pots-for-beginners
20 EASY Vegetables to Grow in Pots for Beginners
Cauliflower
can be planted a little less than one month after the last spring
frost. Like Broccoli, cauliflower can be served raw or cooked with
cheese or olive oil. Container Size: 5-gallon window box. When to Plant:
One month after the last frost. How to Grow it: Plant 6-8 inches deep.
Plant 12 i

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Raw Vegan Meal Plan: How to Follow a Raw Vegan Diet



  • Post author

  • By Amanda A. Kostro Miller, RD, LDN


  • Post date

  • Raw vegan meal plan


    While you may be familiar with vegan diets and even raw food diets, have you ever considered combining the two?

    The “raw vegan diet” blends these concepts to create a plant-based, raw vegan meal plan with lots of whole foods. 

    Let’s explore the basics, benefits and drawbacks of the raw vegan
    diet to see if it’s appropriate for you. Then you can try out this diet,
    starting with a 7-day raw vegan meal plan below.

    Raw Vegan Diet Overview

    As mentioned, the raw vegan diet combines concepts of “raw food
    eating” and veganism. Below is a table that shows the components of the
    raw vegan meal plan.

    Raw Vegan Diet Philosophy

    Raw Food Diet Principles Vegan Diet Principles
    Eat only raw, uncooked foods like fruits, vegetables and nuts Avoid all animal foods like meat, poultry and seafood
    Emphasize unprocessed foods like soaked grains and fresh juices Avoid all animal-based foods like milk, butter, gelatin, honey and eggs
    Eat lots of simple, whole foods Avoid foods that contain animal ingredients and/or animal-based ingredients
    Avoid refined sugars, packaged snack foods and bakery items Eat only foods that come from plants, nuts and seeds
    Raw foods contain more nutrition than cooked foods (allegedly) Use alternative dairy sources like almond milk, soy milk and vegan cheese

    A big benefit of the raw vegan diet is that it’s high in fruits,
    vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds. It also emphasizes limiting
    processed foods for whole, more natural foods. 

    Is a raw vegan diet safe?

    Before you jump straight into a raw vegan meal plan, there are
    important things to consider. This diet is not suitable for everyone.
    Talk to your healthcare team prior to starting.

    Raw Vegan Diet Drawbacks

    Raw Food Diet Issues Vegan Diet Issues
    There’s little evidence to support that raw foods have more nutrition than properly cooked foods. 4 Can put you at risk for nutrient deficiencies in protein, calcium, B12, iron, and vitamin D. 3
    Not cooking food to proper temperatures can put you at risk of foodborne illness. 2 Not necessarily healthier than a diet that includes animal-based foods.
    Should not be consumed by people with a compromised immune system. Won’t make you lose more weight than a non-vegan diet (even vegan diets need a calorie restriction).
    Requires strict, safe food handling like washing your hands, cleaning your produce and avoiding cross-contamination. 1 Need lots of planning to make it a well-rounded diet with complete nutrition.

    How to Follow a Raw Vegan Diet

    Let’s go over what you need and how to get started. Plus, don’t forget about our 7-day raw vegan meal plan below!

    Step 1: Load Up on Vegan Foods

    The best way to do this diet is to make sure you’re well-equipped
    with nutritious foods. The more variety, the more complete your
    nutrition profile will be. Any good vegan diet (and especially a raw
    vegan meal plan!) should be rich in:

    • Fresh fruits
    • Plain, frozen fruits
    • Fresh vegetables
    • Plain, frozen vegetables
    • Dried fruits and vegetables
    • Nuts and nut butter
    • Seeds
    • Whole grains (such as quinoa)
    • Legumes (such as beans)
    • Soy (such as edamame)

    Step 2: Store Your Foods Properly

    You’re supposed to eat uncooked food while on a raw vegan meal plan. But, don’t just leave stuff on your countertop.

    Make sure you store items in the fridge, freezer or at room temperature, depending on the food. Here’s a handy fruit and vegetable storage guide!

    Step 3: Wash Your Hands and Surfaces Before Prepping

    Cooking helps to kill certain bacteria, but since the goal is to
    consume raw food, you’ll have to minimize contamination risk in other
    areas. 

    Wash your hands and cooking surfaces before, during and after meal prepping. 

    Step 4: Properly Wash and Prep Your Food

    Here’s another safeguard against foodborne illness. Many fruits and
    vegetables should be properly rinsed and cleaned prior to eating. 

    Contaminants from animals, soil, water — and even bacteria on
    someone’s hand — can end up on your produce. That’s why it’s really
    important to wash your produce before cutting and peeling. Otherwise,
    bacteria can enter through a cut in the fruit or vegetable’s skin!

    Some quick washing tips from the FDA: 1

    • Rinse produce before peeling and cutting
    • Only use clean, running water to rinse (no soap or soaking)
    • Cut away bruised areas
    • Use a vegetable brush for tough and firm produce like melons and apples
    • Dry produce with a clean towel or paper towel
    • Remove outer leaves of leafy vegetables like cabbage

    7-Day Raw Vegan Meal Plan

    Want to try the raw vegan diet? Here’s a simple raw vegan meal plan
    to help you get started. Remember: A true raw diet involves no heating
    or cooking your meals, so if you want to follow a raw vegan meal plan
    don’t use heat when making your meals.

    Day 1

    Breakfast: Chia pudding with fresh sliced peaches and raspberries. Add cinnamon, nutmeg and walnuts if desired. 

    Lunch: Salad bowl with julienned carrots, cabbage
    and zucchini. Add edamame and bell peppers. Drizzle with cold-pressed
    avocado oil and sesame seeds.

    Dinner: Raw miso soup with marinated mushrooms, dried wakame and blended cashews for creaminess.

    Snack: Mixed nuts.

    Day 2

    Breakfast: Cobbler with a crust made from ground
    almonds, coconut oil and dates (all blended in a food processor). Add
    mango and garnish with mint leaves and agave. 

    Lunch: Raw carrot zoodles topped with homemade peanut sauce, ginger and lime.

    Dinner: Riced cauliflower sushi wrapped in raw nori. 

    Snack: Fresh fruit.

    Day 3 

    Breakfast: Banana “sushi” (sliced banana) topped with nut butter, seeds and goji berries.

    Lunch: Creamy gazpacho made from soaked cashews,
    coconut milk and cucumbers (all blended). Add lemon juice, garlic and
    other spices. Garnish with pine nuts. 

    Dinner: Stuffed avocado halves with chickpeas, cucumber and soaked quinoa.

    Snack: Apple with homemade nut butter.

    Day 4

    Breakfast: Fruit skewers with pineapple, strawberries and melon. Dip into maple syrup, honey and/or chia seed pudding.

    Lunch: Lettuce boats filled with avocado, tomatoes,
    alfalfa sprouts, julienned carrots and shredded cabbage. Add a dollop of
    homemade lemon-tahini dressing. 

    Dinner: Cauliflower rice with raw veggies and edamame. Top with lime juice and cold-pressed oil.  

    Snack: Banana “nice” cream (frozen banana blended with non-dairy milk).

    Day 5

    Breakfast: Smoothie made with banana, pineapple, non-dairy milk and ground flax seeds. 

    Lunch: Stuffed peppers (or mini peppers) with thick garlic, lemon and cashew schmear.

    Dinner: Zoodles with avocado pesto sauce.

    Snack: Homemade hummus with veggies.

    Day 6

    Breakfast: Raw oatmeal (soaked overnight) with homemade nut butter, apple slices and cinnamon.

    Lunch: Tomato, basil and avocado salad. Slice the
    tomatoes and avocados into disk-shaped pieces. Top with basil and a
    drizzle of cold-pressed olive oil.

    Dinner: Raw zucchini lasagna with tomato, hummus and pesto.

    Snack: Dried fruit with nuts.

    Day 7

    Breakfast: Peanut butter and banana smoothie with homemade nut butter, frozen banana, unsweetened cocoa powder and soy milk.

    Lunch: Veggie lettuce wraps with savory dipping sauce.

    Dinner: Raw veggie pizza. Blend the crust with
    ground pumpkin seeds, hemp seeds, sunflower seeds, walnuts, water and
    lots of seasoning. Spread on a pesto blend and add raw veggies like
    tomato and soaked mushrooms.

    Snack: Raw flaxseed crackers with guacamole.

    This simple raw vegan meal plan is a great start for anyone looking
    to try a raw and vegan diet. If you’re interested in other raw diets,
    check out our raw food detox diet guide.

    Article Sources

    1. Food and Drug Administration. 7 tips for cleaning fruits, vegetables. FDA website. Published June 10, 2018. Accessed February 3, 2021.


    By Amanda A. Kostro Miller, RD, LDN

    Amanda A. Kostro Miller is a Registered Dietitian from Chicago with
    experience in nutrition counseling, weight loss and medical nutrition
    therapy. Early on in her career, she worked with United States
    veterans, patients with eating disorders and those with a variety of
    acute and chronic diseases. She currently writes nutrition content for
    websites, blogs and medical software. Amanda also creates podcasts, meal
    plans and weight loss guides for a variety of audiences.

    Aside from nutrition, Amanda is a military wife and technically-trained professional dancer who performs worldwide.



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    08/14/22
    LESSON 4525 Mon 15 Aug 2022 MISSION BENEVOLENT UNIVERSE WE WERE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES WE ARE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES WE CONTINUE TO BE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES Always for Freedom, Democracy, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Dr Ambedkar thundered “I will make this country Prabuddha Bharat “ All Aboriginal Awakened Societies Thunder “we will make entire Universe Benevolent Awakened One Universe!
    Filed under: General, Theravada Tipitaka , Plant raw Vegan Broccoli, peppers, cucumbers, carrots
    Posted by: site admin @ 4:23 am
    LESSON 4525 Mon 15 Aug 2022

    MISSION BENEVOLENT UNIVERSE

    WE WERE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES
    WE ARE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES
    WE CONTINUE TO BE BENEVOLENT AWAKENED ONES

    Always for
    Freedom, Democracy, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity


    Dr Ambedkar thundered “I will make this country Prabuddha Bharat “
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    Pillars of Ashoka
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    Edit
    “Ashoka Pillar” redirects here. For the pillar in Delhi also known as Ashoka pillar, see Iron pillar of Delhi.
    Not to be confused with Lion Capital of Ashoka.
    The
    pillars of Ashoka are a series of monolithic columns dispersed
    throughout the Indian subcontinent, erected or at least inscribed with
    edicts by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka during his reign from c. 268 to
    232 BCE.[2] Ashoka used the expression Dhaṃma thaṃbhā (Dharma stambha),
    i.e. “pillars of the Dharma” to describe his own pillars.[3][4] These
    pillars constitute important monuments of the architecture of India,
    most of them exhibiting the characteristic Mauryan polish. Of the
    pillars erected by Ashoka, twenty still survive including those with
    inscriptions of his edicts. Only a few with animal capitals survive of
    which seven complete specimens are known.[5] Two pillars were relocated
    by Firuz Shah Tughlaq to Delhi.[6] Several pillars were relocated later
    by Mughal Empire rulers, the animal capitals being removed.[7] Averaging
    between 12 and 15 m (40 and 50 ft) in height, and weighing up to 50
    tons each, the pillars were dragged, sometimes hundreds of miles, to
    where they were erected.[8]
    Pillars of Ashoka
    One of the Pillars of Ashoka, in Vaishali
    Material
    Polished sandstone
    Period/culture
    3rd century BCE
    Known locations of the Pillars of Ashoka[1]
    The
    pillars of Ashoka are among the earliest known stone sculptural remains
    from India. Only another pillar fragment, the Pataliputra capital, is
    possibly from a slightly earlier date. It is thought that before the 3rd
    century BCE, wood rather than stone was used as the main material for
    Indian architectural constructions, and that stone may have been adopted
    following interaction with the Persians and the Greeks.[9] A graphic
    representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka from the column there was
    adopted as the official State Emblem of India in 1950.[10]
    All
    the pillars of Ashoka were built at Buddhist monasteries, many
    important sites from the life of the Buddha and places of pilgrimage.
    Some of the columns carry inscriptions addressed to the monks and
    nuns.[11] Some were erected to commemorate visits by Ashoka. Major
    pillars are present in the Indian States of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya
    Pradesh and some parts of Haryana.
    Ashoka and Buddhism
    Edit
    Lion Capital of Ashoka from Sarnath, with Wheel of the Moral Law (reconstitution). 3rd century BCE.[12][13][14]
    Ashoka
    ascended to the throne in 269 BC inheriting the Mauryan empire founded
    by his grandfather Chandragupta Maurya. Ashoka was reputedly a tyrant at
    the outset of his reign. Eight years after his accession he campaigned
    in Kalinga where in his own words, “a hundred and fifty thousand people
    were deported, a hundred thousand were killed and as many as that
    perished…” As he explains in his edicts, after this event Ashoka
    converted to Buddhism in remorse for the loss of life. Buddhism became a
    state religion and with Ashoka’s support it spread rapidly. The
    inscriptions on the pillars set out edicts about morality based on
    Buddhist tenets.[15][16] They were added in 3rd century BCE.
    Construction
    Edit
    Possible sources of inspiration
    Sphinx of the Naxians, Delphi, c. 6th BCE.[17]
    Highly polished Achaemenid load-bearing column with lotus capital and ashvins, Persepolis, c. 5th-4th BCE.
    See also: Mauryan polish
    The
    traditional idea that all were originally quarried at Chunar, just
    south of Varanasi and taken to their sites, before or after carving,
    “can no longer be confidently asserted”,[18] and instead it seems that
    the columns were carved in two types of stone. Some were of the spotted
    red and white sandstone from the region of Mathura, the others of
    buff-colored fine grained hard sandstone usually with small black spots
    quarried in the Chunar near Varanasi. The uniformity of style in the
    pillar capitals suggests that they were all sculpted by craftsmen from
    the same region. It would therefore seem that stone was transported from
    Mathura and Chunar to the various sites where the pillars have been
    found, and there was cut and carved by craftsmen.[19]
    The
    pillars have four component parts in two pieces: the three sections of
    the capitals are made in a single piece, often of a different stone to
    that of the monolithic shaft to which they are attached by a large metal
    dowel. The shafts are always plain and smooth, circular in
    cross-section, slightly tapering upwards and always chiselled out of a
    single piece of stone. There is no distinct base at the bottom of the
    shaft. The lower parts of the capitals have the shape and appearance of a
    gently arched bell formed of lotus petals. The abaci are of two types:
    square and plain and circular and decorated and these are of different
    proportions. The crowning animals are masterpieces of Mauryan art, shown
    either seated or standing, always in the round and chiselled as a
    single piece with the abaci.[20][21] Presumably all or most of the other
    columns that now lack them once had capitals and animals. They are also
    used to commemorate the events of the Buddha’s life.
    Left
    image: Vaishali lion of Ashoka. Right image: Assyrian relief of a lion
    at Nineveh (circa 640 BCE). Many stylistic elements (design of the
    whiskers, the eyes, the fur etc…) point to similarities.[22]
    Currently
    seven animal sculptures from Ashoka pillars survive.[5][23] These form
    “the first important group of Indian stone sculpture”, though it is
    thought they derive from an existing tradition of wooden columns topped
    by animal sculptures in copper, none of which have survived. It is also
    possible that some of the stone pillars predate Ashoka’s reign.[24]
    Floral designs
    Top image: Abacus of the Allahabad pillar, with lotuses alternating with “flame palmettes” over a bead and reel pattern.
    Bottom image: A quite similar frieze from Delphi, 525 BCE
    Origin
    Edit
    Western origin
    Edit
    There
    has been much discussion of the extent of influence from Achaemenid
    Persia,[25] where the column capitals supporting the roofs at Persepolis
    have similarities, and the “rather cold, hieratic style” of the Sarnath
    Lion Capital of Ashoka especially shows “obvious Achaemenid and
    Sargonid influence”.[26] India and the Achaemenid Empire had been in
    close contact since the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley, from
    circa 500 BCE to 330 BCE.
    Hellenistic
    influence has also been suggested.[27] In particular the abaci of some
    of the pillars (especially the Rampurva bull, the Sankissa elephant and
    the Allahabad pillar capital) use bands of motifs, like the bead and
    reel pattern, the ovolo, the flame palmettes, lotuses, which likely
    originated from Greek and Near-Eastern arts.[22] Such examples can also
    be seen in the remains of the Mauryan capital city of Pataliputra.
    It
    has also been suggested that 6th century Greek columns such as the
    Sphinx of Naxos, a 12.5m Ionic column crowned by a sitted animal in the
    religious center of Delphi, may have been an inspiration for the pillars
    of Ashoka.[17] Many similar columns crowned by sphinxes were discovered
    in ancient Greece, as in Sparta, Athens or Spata, and some were used as
    funerary steles.[17] The Greek sphinx, a lion with the face of a human
    female, was considered as having ferocious strength, and was thought of
    as a guardian, often flanking the entrances to temples or royal
    tombs.[28]
    Pillar as Dhvaja, military standard
    Heliodorus pillar in Vidisha, India, 2nd Century BCE
    Shunga horseman carrying portable garuda standard, Bharhut 2nd Century BCE
    Indian origin
    Edit
    Some
    scholars such as John Irwin emphasized a reassessment from popular
    belief of Persian or Greek origin of Ashokan pillars. He makes the
    argument that Ashokan pillars represent Dhvaja or standard which Indian
    soldiers carried with them during battle and it was believed that the
    destruction of the enemy’s dhvaja brought misfortune to their opponents.
    A relief of Bharhut stupa railing portrays a queenly personage on
    horseback carrying a Garudadhvaja.[29] Heliodorus pillar has been called
    Garudadhvaja, literally Garuda-standard, the pillar dated to 2nd
    century BC is perhaps the earliest recorded stone pillar which has been
    declared a dhvaja.[30]
    Ashokan
    edicts themselves state that his words should be carved on any stone
    slab or pillars available indicating that the tradition of carving stone
    pillars was present before the period of Ashoka.
    Jhon
    Irwin also highlights the fact that carvings on pillars such as
    Allahabad pillar was done when it had already been erected indicating
    its pre Ashokan origins.[31]
    Ashoka
    called his own pillars Silā Thabhe (𑀲𑀺𑀮𑀸𑀣𑀪𑁂, Stone Stambha, i.e.
    stone pillars). Lumbini inscription, Brahmi script.
    Stylistic argument
    Edit
    Though
    influence from the west is generally accepted, especially the Persian
    columns of Achaemenid Persia, there are a number of differences between
    these and the pillars. Persian columns are built in segments whereas
    Ashokan pillars are monoliths, like some much later Roman columns. Most
    of the Persian pillars have a fluted shaft while the Mauryan pillars are
    smooth, and Persian pillars serve as supporting structures whereas
    Ashokan pillars are individual free-standing monuments. There are also
    other differences in the decoration.[32] Indian historian Upinder Singh
    comments on some of the differences and similarities, writing that “If
    the Ashokan pillars cannot in their entirety be attributed to Persian
    influence, they must have had an undocumented prehistory within the
    subcontinent, perhaps a tradition of wooden carving. But the transition
    from stone to wood was made in one magnificent leap, no doubt spurred by
    the imperial tastes and ambitions of the Maurya emperors.”[33]
    Whatever
    the cultural and artistic borrowings from the west, the pillars of
    Ashoka, together with much of Mauryan art and architectural prowesses
    such as the city of Pataliputra or the Barabar Caves, remain outstanding
    in their achievements, and often compare favourably with the rest of
    the world at that time. Commenting on Mauryan sculpture, John Marshall
    once wrote about the “extraordinary precision and accuracy which
    characterizes all Mauryan works, and which has never, we venture to say,
    been surpassed even by the finest workmanship on Athenian
    buildings”.[34][35]
    Complete list of the pillars
    Edit
    Five
    of the pillars of Ashoka, two at Rampurva, one each at Vaishali,
    Lauriya Araraj and Lauria Nandangarh possibly marked the course of the
    ancient Royal highway from Pataliputra to the Nepal. Several pillars
    were relocated by later Mughal Empire rulers, the animal capitals being
    removed.[7]
    The
    two Chinese medieval pilgrim accounts record sightings of several
    columns that have now vanished: Faxian records six and Xuanzang fifteen,
    of which only five at most can be identified with surviving
    pillars.[36] All surviving pillars, listed with any crowning animal
    sculptures and the edicts inscribed, are as follows:[20][37]
    Complete standing pillars, or pillars with Ashokan inscriptions
    Edit
    Geographical spread of known pillar capitals.
    Delhi-Topra
    pillar, in the fortress of Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi (Pillar Edicts I,
    II, III, IV, V, VI, VII; moved in 1356 CE from Topra Kalan in
    Yamunanagar district of Haryana to Delhi by Firuz Shah Tughluq.[1]
    Delhi-Meerut,
    Delhi ridge, Delhi (Pillar Edicts I, II, III, IV, V, VI; moved from
    Meerut to Delhi by Firuz Shah Tughluq in 1356.[1]
    Nigali
    Sagar (or Nigliva, Nigalihawa), near Lumbini, Nepal. Pillar missing
    capital, one Ashoka edict. Erected in the 20th regnal year of Ashoka (c.
    249 BCE).[1]
    Rupandehi,
    near Lumbini, Nepal. Also erected in the 20th regnal year of Ashoka (c.
    249 BCE), to commemorate Ashoka’s pilgrimage to Lumbini. Capital
    missing, but was apparently a horse.[1]
    Allahabad
    pillar, Uttar Pradesh (originally located at Kausambi and probable
    moved to Allahabad by Jahangir; Pillar Edicts I-VI, Queen’s Edict,
    Schism Edict).[1]
    Rampurva,
    Champaran, Bihar. Two columns: a lion with Pillar Edicts I, II, III,
    IV, V, VI; a bull without inscriptions. The abacus of the bull capital
    features honeysuckle and palmette designs derived from Greek designs.[1]
    Sanchi, near Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, four lions, Schism Edict.[1]
    Sarnath,
    near Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, four lions, Pillar Inscription, Schism
    Edict.[1] This is the famous “Lion Capital of Ashoka” used in the
    national emblem of India.
    Lauriya-Nandangarth, Champaran, Bihar, single lion, Pillar Edicts I, II, III, IV, V, VI.[1]
    Lauriya Araraj, Champaran, Bihar (Pillar Edicts I, II, III, IV, V, VI).[1]
    Vaishali, Bihar, single lion, with no inscription.[1]
    The
    Amaravati pillar fragment is rather problematic. It only consists in 6
    lines in Brahmi which are hardly decipherable. Only the word vijaya
    (victory) can be made out, arguably a word also used by Ashoka.[38]
    Sircar, who provides a detailed study, considers it as probably
    belonging to an Ashokan pillar.[39]
    Complete standing pillars, or pillars with Ashokan inscriptions
    Vaishali
    Vaishali
    Lauriya-Nandangarh
    Lauriya-Nandangarh
    Lauriya-Araraj
    Lauriya-Araraj
    Delhi-Meerut (originally from Meerut, broken in pieces during transportation).
    Delhi-Meerut (originally from Meerut, broken in pieces during transportation).
    Delhi-Topra (originally from Topra Kalan).
    Delhi-Topra (originally from Topra Kalan).
    Allahabad (originally from Kosambi)
    Allahabad (originally from Kosambi)
    Lumbini (broken in half). Capped for protection in the 20th century.
    Lumbini (broken in half). Capped for protection in the 20th century.
    Sarnath
    Sarnath
    Sanchi
    Sanchi
    Rampurva
    Rampurva
    Nigali Sagar
    Nigali Sagar
    Fragment of pillar with inscription, Amaravati.[40]
    Fragment of pillar with inscription, Amaravati.[40]
    Pillars without Ashokan inscriptions
    Edit
    There
    are also several known fragments of Ashokan pillars, without recovered
    Ashokan inscriptions, such as the Ashoka pillar in Bodh Gaya, Kausambi,
    Gotihawa, Prahladpur (now in the Government Sanskrit College,
    Varanasi[41]), Fatehabad, Bhopal, Sadagarli, Udaigiri-Vidisha,
    Kushinagar, Arrah (Masarh) Basti, Bhikana Pahari, Bulandi Bagh
    (Pataliputra), Sandalpu and a few others, as well as a broken pillar in
    Bhairon (”Lat Bhairo” in Benares)[42] which was destroyed to a stump
    during riots in 1908.[43] The Chinese monks Fa-Hsien and Hsuantsang also
    reported pillars in Kushinagar, the Jetavana monastery in Sravasti,
    Rajagriha and Mahasala, which have not been recovered to this day.[43]
    Fragments of Pillars of Ashoka, without Ashokan inscriptions
    Kausambi
    Kausambi
    Gotihawa, possible base of the Nigali Sagar pillar
    Gotihawa, possible base of the Nigali Sagar pillar
    Bodh Gaya (originally near Sujata Stupa, brought from Gaya in 1956).[44]
    Bodh Gaya (originally near Sujata Stupa, brought from Gaya in 1956).[44]
    Portion of an Ashokan pillar, found in Pataliputra.
    Portion of an Ashokan pillar, found in Pataliputra.
    Bhawanipur Rupandehi.
    Bhawanipur Rupandehi.
    The capitals (Top Piece)
    Edit
    Abacus of the Allahabad pillar of Ashoka, the only remaining portion of the capital of the Allahabad pillar.
    There
    are altogether seven remaining complete capitals, five with lions, one
    with an elephant and one with a zebu bull. One of them, the four lions
    of Sarnath, has become the State Emblem of India. The animal capitals
    are composed of a lotiform base, with an abacus decorated with floral,
    symbolic or animal designs, topped by the realistic depiction of an
    animal, thought to each represent a traditional directions in India.
    The horse motif on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka, is often described as an example of Hellenistic realism.[45]
    Various
    foreign influences have been described in the design of these
    capitals.[46] The animal on top of a lotiform capital reminds of
    Achaemenid column shapes. The abacus also often seems to display some
    influence of Greek art: in the case of the Rampurva bull or the Sankassa
    elephant, it is composed of honeysuckles alternated with stylized
    palmettes and small rosettes.[47] A similar kind of design can be seen
    in the frieze of the lost capital of the Allahabad pillar. These designs
    likely originated in Greek and Near-Eastern arts.[48] They would
    probably have come from the neighboring Seleucid Empire, and
    specifically from a Hellenistic city such as Ai-Khanoum, located at the
    doorstep of India.[24] Most of these designs and motifs can also be seen
    in the Pataliputra capital.
    The
    Diamond throne of Bodh Gaya is another example of Ashokan architecture
    circa 260 BCE, and displays a band of carvings with palmettes and geese,
    similar to those found on several of the Pillars of Ashoka.[49]
    Chronological order
    Based
    on stylistic and technical analysis, it is possible to establish a
    tentative chronological orders for the pillars. The earliest one seems
    to be the Vaishali pillar, with its stout and short column, the rigid
    lion and the undecorated square abacus. Next would follow the Sankissa
    elephant and the Rampurva bull, also not yet benefiting from Mauryan
    polish, and using a Hellenistic abacus of lotus and palmettes for
    decoration. The abacus would then adopt the Hamsa goose as an animal
    decorative symbol, in Lauria Nandangarh and the Rampurva lion. Sanchi
    and Sarnath would mark the culmination with four animals back-to-back
    instead of just one, and a new and sophisticated animal and symbolic
    abacus (the elephant, the bull, the lion, the horse alternating with the
    Dharma wheel) for the Sarnath lion.[50]
    Other
    chronological orders have also been proposed, for example based on the
    style of the Ashokan inscriptions on the pillars, since the
    stylistically most sophisticated pillars actually have the engravings of
    the Edicts of Ashoka of the worst quality (namely, very poorly engraved
    Schism Edicts on the Sanchi and Sarnath pillars, their only
    inscriptions). This approach offers an almost reverse chronological
    order to the preceding one.[51] According to Irwin, the Sankissa
    elephant and Rampurva bull pillars with their Hellenistic abacus are
    pre-Ashokan. Ashoka would then have commissioned the Sarnath pillar with
    its famous Lion Capital of Ashoka to be built under the tutelage of
    craftsmen from the former Achaemenid Empire, trained in
    Perso-Hellenistic statuary, whereas the Brahmi engraving on the very
    same pillar (and on pillars of the same period such as Sanchi and
    Kosambi-Allahabad) was made by inexperienced Indian engravers at a time
    when stone engraving was still new in India.[51] After Ashoka sent back
    the foreign artists, style degraded over a short period of time, down to
    the time when the Major Pillar Edicts were engraved at the end of
    Ashoka’s reign, which now displayed very good inscriptional
    craftsmanship but a much more solemn and less elegant style for the
    associated lion capitals, as for the Lauria Nandangarh lion and the
    Rampurva lion.[51]
    Known capitals of the pillars of Ashoka
    Ordered chronologically based on stylistic and technical analysis.[50]
    Vaishali lion
    Vaishali lion
    Sankissa elephant.
    Sankissa elephant.
    Rampurva zebu bull original (now in Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi).
    Rampurva zebu bull original (now in Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi).
    Lauria Nandangarh lion.
    Lauria Nandangarh lion.
    Rampurva lion.
    Rampurva lion.
    Four lions, once possibly crowned by a wheel, from Sanchi.
    Four lions, once possibly crowned by a wheel, from Sanchi.
    The “Lion Capital of Ashoka”, from Sarnath.
    The “Lion Capital of Ashoka”, from Sarnath.
    Of
    the Allahabad pillar, only the abacus remains, the bottom bulb and the
    crowning animal having been lost. The remains are now located in the
    Allahabad Museum.
    The elephant-crowned pillar of Ashoka at the Mahabodhi Temple, Gaya. Bharhut relief, 100 BCE.
    A few more possibly Ashokan capitals were also found without their pillars:
    Kesariya
    (capital). Only the capital was found in the Kesaria stupa. It was
    discovered by Markham Kittoe in 1862, and said to be similar to the lion
    of the Lauriya Nandangarh pillar, except for the hind legs of the lion,
    which did not protrude beyond the abacus.[1] This capital is now lost.
    Udaigiri-Vidisha
    (capital only at the Udayagiri Caves, visible here).[1] Attribution to
    Ashoka however is disputed (ranging from the 2nd century BCE Sunga
    period,[52] to the Gupta period.[53]).
    It
    is also known from various ancient sculptures (reliefs from Bharhut,
    100 BCE), and later narrative account by Chinese pilgrims (5-6th century
    CE), that there was a pillar of Ashoka at the Mahabodhi Temple founded
    by Ashoka, that it was crowned by an elephant.[54]
    The
    same Chinese pilgrims have reported that the capital of the Lumbini
    pillar was a horse (now lost), which, by their time had already fallen
    to the ground.[54]
    Inscriptions
    Edit
    Main article: Edicts of Ashoka
    Ashoka
    also called his pillars “Dhaṃma thaṃbhā” (𑀥𑀁𑀫𑀣𑀁𑀪𑀸, Dharma
    stambha), i.e. “pillars of the Dharma”. 7th Major Pillar Edict. Brahmi
    script.[3]
    The
    inscriptions on the columns include a fairly standard text. The
    inscriptions on the columns join other, more numerous, Ashokan
    inscriptions on natural rock faces to form the body of texts known as
    the Edicts of Ashoka. These inscriptions were dispersed throughout the
    areas of modern-day Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Afghanistan and Pakistan
    and represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism. The edicts
    describe in detail Ashoka’s policy of Dhamma, an earnest attempt to
    solve some of problems that a complex society faced.[55] In these
    inscriptions, Ashoka refers to himself as “Beloved servant of the Gods”
    (Devanampiyadasi). The inscriptions revolve around a few recurring
    themes: Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism, the description of his efforts
    to spread Buddhism, his moral and religious precepts, and his social and
    animal welfare program. The edicts were based on Ashoka’s ideas on
    administration and behaviour of people towards one another and religion.
    Alexander
    Cunningham, one of the first to study the inscriptions on the pillars,
    remarks that they are written in eastern, middle and western Prakrits
    which he calls “the Punjabi or north-western dialect, the Ujjeni or
    middle dialect, and the Magadhi or eastern dialect.”[56] They are
    written in the Brahmi script.
    Minor Pillar Edicts
    Edit
    Main article: Minor Pillar Edicts
    These
    contain inscriptions recording their dedication, as well as the Schism
    Edicts and the Queen’s Edict. They were inscribed around the 13th year
    of Ashoka’s reign.
    Sanchi pillar (Schism Edict)
    Sarnath pillar (Schism Edict)
    Allahabad pillar (Schism Edict, Queen Edict, and also Major Pillar Edicts)
    Lumbini
    (Rummindei), Nepal (the upper part broke off when struck by lightning;
    the original horse capital mentioned by Xuanzang is missing) was erected
    by Ashoka where Buddha was born.
    Nigali Sagar (or Nigliva), near Lumbini, Rupandehi district, Nepal (originally near the Buddha Konakarnana stupa)
    Kosambi-Allahabad Schism Edict.
    Kosambi-Allahabad Schism Edict.
    Sanchi Schism Edict.
    Sanchi Schism Edict.
    Sarnath Schism Edit.
    Sarnath Schism Edit.
    Rummindei, in Lumbini.
    Rummindei, in Lumbini.
    Nigali Sagar.
    Nigali Sagar.
    Major Pillar Edicts
    Edit
    Fragment of the 6th Major Pillar Edict, from the Delhi-Meerut Pillar of Ashoka, British Museum.[57]
    Main article: Major Pillar Edicts
    Asoka’s
    6 Major Pillar Edicts have been found at Kausambhi (Allahabad), Topra
    (now Delhi), Meerut (now Delhi), Lauriya-Araraj, Lauriya-Nandangarh,
    Rampurva (Champaran), and a 7th one on the Delhi-Topra pillar.
    These pillar edicts include:[58]
    I Asoka’s principle of protection to people
    II Defines dhamma as minimum of sins, many virtues, compassion, liberality, truthfulness and purity
    III Abolishes sins of harshness, cruelty, anger, pride etc.
    IV Deals with duties of government officials
    V
    List of animals and birds which should not be killed on some days and
    another list of animals which cannot be killed on any occasion.
    Describes release of 25 prisoners by Asoka.
    VI Works done by Asoka for Dhamma Policy. He says that all sects desire both self-control and purity of mind.
    VII Testimental edict.
    Major Pillar Edicts I, II, III (Delhi-Topra)
    Major Pillar Edicts I, II, III (Delhi-Topra)
    Major Pillar Edicts IV (Delhi-Topra)
    Major Pillar Edicts IV (Delhi-Topra)
    Major Pillar Edicts V-VII (Delhi-Topra)
    Major Pillar Edicts V-VII (Delhi-Topra)
    Major Pillar Edicts VII, second part (Delhi-Topra)
    Major Pillar Edicts VII, second part (Delhi-Topra)
    Description of the pillars
    Edit
    Front view of the single lion capital in Vaishali.
    Pillars retaining their animals
    Edit
    Main article: Lion Capital of Ashoka
    The
    most celebrated capital (the four-lion one at Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh))
    erected by Emperor Ashoka circa 250 BC. also called the “Ashoka Column” .
    Four lions are seated back to back. At present the Column remains in
    the same place whereas the Lion Capital is at the Sarnath Museum. This
    Lion Capital of Ashoka from Sarnath has been adopted as the National
    Emblem of India and the wheel “Ashoka Chakra” from its base was placed
    onto the centre of the flag of India.
    The
    lions probably originally supported a Dharma Chakra wheel with 24
    spokes, such as is preserved in the 13th century replica erected at Wat
    Umong near Chiang Mai, Thailand by Thai king Mangrai.[59]
    Depiction of the four lions capital surmounted by a Wheel of Law at Sanchi, Satavahana period, South gateway of stupa 3.
    The
    pillar at Sanchi also has a similar but damaged four-lion capital.
    There are two pillars at Rampurva, one with a bull and the other with a
    lion as crowning animals. Sankissa has only a damaged elephant capital,
    which is mainly unpolished, though the abacus is at least partly so. No
    pillar shaft has been found, and perhaps this was never erected at the
    site.[60]
    The
    Vaishali pillar has a single lion capital.[61] The location of this
    pillar is contiguous to the site where a Buddhist monastery and a sacred
    coronation tank stood. Excavations are still underway and several
    stupas suggesting a far flung campus for the monastery have been
    discovered. The lion faces north, the direction Buddha took on his last
    voyage.[62] Identification of the site for excavation in 1969 was aided
    by the fact that this pillar still jutted out of the soil. More such
    pillars exist in this greater area but they are all devoid of the
    capital.
    Pillar at Prayagraj
    Edit
    Main articles: Allahabad pillar and Allahabad Stone Pillar Inscription of Samudra Gupta
    In
    Prayagraj there is a pillar with inscriptions from Ashoka and later
    inscriptions attributed to Samudragupta and Jehangir. It is clear from
    the inscription that the pillar was first erected at Kaushambi, an
    ancient town some 30 kilometres west of Allahabad that was the capital
    of the Koshala kingdom, and moved to Allahabad, presumably under Muslim
    rule.[63]
    The
    pillar is now located inside the Allahabad Fort, also the royal palace,
    built during the 16th century by Akbar at the confluence of the Ganges
    and Yamuna rivers. As the fort is occupied by the Indian Army it is
    essentially closed to the public and special permission is required to
    see the pillar. The Ashokan inscription is in Brahmi and is dated around
    232 BC. A later inscription attributed to the second king of the Gupta
    empire, Samudragupta, is in the more refined Gupta script, a later
    version of Brahmi, and is dated to around 375 AD. This inscription lists
    the extent of the empire that Samudragupta built during his long reign.
    He had already been king for forty years at that time and would rule
    for another five. A still later inscription in Persian is from the
    Mughal emperor Jahangir. The Akbar Fort also houses the Akshay Vat, an
    Indian fig tree of great antiquity. The Ramayana refers to this tree
    under which Lord Rama is supposed to have prayed while on exile.
    Pillars at Lauriya-Areraj and Lauriya-Nandangarh
    Edit
    The
    column at Lauriya-Nandangarh, 23 km from Bettiah in West Champaran
    district, Bihar has single lion capital. The hump and the hind legs of
    the lion project beyond the abacus.[20] The pillar at Lauriya-Areraj in
    East Champaran district, Bihar is presently devoid of any capital.
    Erecting the Pillars
    Edit
    The
    Pillars of Ashoka may have been erected using the same methods that
    were used to erect the ancient obelisks. Roger Hopkins and Mark Lehrner
    conducted several obelisk erecting experiments including a successful
    attempt to erect a 25ton obelisk in 1999. This followed two experiments
    to erect smaller obelisks and two failed attempts to erect a 25-ton
    obelisk.[64][65]
    Rediscoveries
    Edit
    Rediscovery of the Ashoka pillar in Sarnath, 1905.
    A
    number of the pillars were thrown down by either natural causes or
    iconoclasts, and gradually rediscovered. One was noticed in the 16th
    century by the English traveller Thomas Coryat in the ruins of Old
    Delhi. Initially he assumed that from the way it glowed that it was made
    of brass, but on closer examination he realized it was made of highly
    polished sandstone with upright script that resembled a form of Greek.
    In the 1830s James Prinsep began to decipher them with the help of
    Captain Edward Smith and George Turnour. They determined that the script
    referred to King Piyadasi which was also the epithet of an Indian ruler
    known as Ashoka who came to the throne 218 years after Buddha’s
    enlightenment. Scholars have since found 150 of Ashoka’s inscriptions,
    carved into the face of rocks or on stone pillars marking out a domain
    that stretched across northern India and south below the central plateau
    of the Deccan. These pillars were placed in strategic sites near border
    cities and trade routes.
    The
    Sanchi pillar was found in 1851 in excavations led by Sir Alexander
    Cunningham, first head of the Archaeological Survey of India. There were
    no surviving traces above ground of the Sarnath pillar, mentioned in
    the accounts of medieval Chinese pilgrims, when the Indian Civil Service
    engineer F.O. Oertel, with no real experience in archaeology, was
    allowed to excavate there in the winter of 1904–05. He first uncovered
    the remains of a Gupta shrine west of the main stupa, overlying an
    Ashokan structure. To the west of that he found the lowest section of
    the pillar, upright but broken off near ground level. Most of the rest
    of the pillar was found in three sections nearby, and then, since the
    Sanchi capital had been excavated in 1851, the search for an equivalent
    was continued, and the Lion Capital of Ashoka, the most famous of the
    group, was found close by. It was both finer in execution and in much
    better condition than that at Sanchi. The pillar appeared to have been
    deliberately destroyed at some point. The finds were recognised as so
    important that the first onsite museum in India (and one of the few then
    in the world) was set up to house them.[66]
    Other Ashokan structures
    Edit
    The Buddha’s Diamond Throne and the Pillars of Ashoka
    Discovery of Ashoka’s Diamond throne in Bodh Gaya, near the spot of the Buddha’s illumination and the Boddhi tree.
    Side
    decorative bands of the Diamond Throne (top) and the Sanchi pillar
    capital (bottom), both featuring geese and flame palmettes.
    Front
    decorative friezes of the Diamond Throne (top) and the Sankissa pillar
    capital (bottom), both alternating flame palmettes, rosettes and
    lotuses.
    Stupas
    Legend
    has it that Ashoka built 84,000 stupas commemorating the events and
    relics of Buddha’s life. Some of these stupas contained networks of
    walls containing the hub, spokes and rim of a wheel, while others
    contained interior walls in a swastika (卐) shape. The wheel represents
    the sun, time, and Buddhist law (the wheel of law, or dharmachakra),
    while the swastika stands for the cosmic dance around a fixed center and
    guards against evil.[15][16]
    “Diamond throne” in Bodh Gaya
    Main article: Vajrasana, Bodh Gaya
    Ashoka
    also built the Diamond Throne in Bodh Gaya, at the location where the
    Buddha had reached enlightenment some 200 years earlier.[67][68] This
    purely Buddhist monument to the Buddha is a thick slab of polished grey
    sandstone with Mauryan polish[69]
    The
    sculpted decorations on the Diamond Throne clearly echoe the
    decorations found on the Pillars of Ashoka.[70] The Diamond Throne has a
    decorative band made of honeysuckles and geese, which can also be found
    on several of the Pillars of Ashoka,[49] such as the Rampurva capitals
    or the Sanchi capital.[69] The geese (hamsa) in particular are a very
    recurrent symbol on the pillars of Ashoka, and may refer to the devotees
    flocking to the faith.[68] The same throne is also illustrated in later
    reliefs from Bharhut, dated to circa 100 BCE.[71]
    Similar pillars
    See also
    Notes
    Edit
    ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Buddhist Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 2010 p.36-40
    ^
    Bisschop, Peter C.; Cecil, Elizabeth A. (May 2019). Copp, Paul;
    Wedemeyer, Christian K. (eds.). “Columns in Context: Venerable Monuments
    and Landscapes of Memory in Early India”. History of Religions.
    University of Chicago Press for the University of Chicago Divinity
    School. 58 (4): 355–403. doi:10.1086/702256. ISSN 0018-2710. JSTOR
    00182710. LCCN 64001081. OCLC 299661763.
    ^ a b Inscriptions of Asoka. New Edition by E. Hultzsch (in Sanskrit). 1925. p. 132, Edict No 7 line 23.
    ^ Skilling, Peter (1998). Mahasutras. Pali Text Society. p. 453. ISBN 9780860133209.
    ^
    a b Himanshu Prabha Ray (7 August 2014). The Return of the Buddha:
    Ancient Symbols for a New Nation. Routledge. p. 123. ISBN 9781317560067.
    ^ India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Subcontinent from c. 7000 BCE to CE 1200, Burjor Avari Routledge, 2016 p.139
    ^ a b Krishnaswamy, 697-698
    ^ “KING ASHOKA: His Edicts and His Times”. www.cs.colostate.edu. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
    ^ India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Subcontinent from c. 7000 BCE to CE 1200, Burjor Avari, Routledge, 2016 p.149
    ^ State Emblem, Know India india.gov.in
    ^ Companion, 430
    ^ “Lion Capital of Ashoka At Sarnath Archaeological Museum Near Varanasi India”. YouTube.
    ^ Agrawala, Vasudeva Sharana (1965). Studies In Indian Art. p. 67.
    ^ “Remains of the topmost wheel in the Sarnath Archaeological Museum”. 17 February 2019.
    ^ a b Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ancient India: Land Of Mystery (1994) p. 84-85,94-97
    ^ a b Oliphant, Margaret “The Atlas Of The Ancient World” 1992 p. 156-7
    ^
    a b c “It can also be suggested that Lats topped by animals figures
    also have an ancestor in the sphinx-topped pillars of Greece of the
    Middle-Archaic period (c.580-40 B.C), Delphi Museum at Delphi, Greece,
    has an elegant winged sphinx figure sitting on an Ionic capital with
    side volutes.” in Graeco-Indica, India’s cultural contexts with the
    Greek world, Ramanand Vidya Bhawan, 1991, p.5
    ^ Harle, 22
    ^ Thapar, Romila (2001). Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryan, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-564445-X, pp.267-70
    ^ a b c Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.350-3
    ^ Companion,
    ^ a b Buddhist Architecture, by Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 2010 p.44
    ^ Rebecca M. Brown, Deborah S. Hutton. A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 423–429.
    ^ a b Boardman (1998), 15
    ^ Boardman (1998), 13
    ^ Harle, 22, 24, quoted in turn
    ^ A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2003, p.87
    ^ Stewart, Desmond. Pyramids and the Sphinx. [S.l.]: Newsweek, U.S., 72. Print.
    ^
    Irwin, John (1974). “‘Aśokan’ Pillars: A Reassessment of the
    Evidence-II: Structure”. The Burlington Magazine. 116 (861): 712–727.
    ISSN 0007-6287. JSTOR 877843.
    ^ Agrawala, Vasudeva S. (1977). Gupta Art Vol.ii.
    ^
    Irwin, John (1983). “The Ancient Pillar-Cult at Prayāga (Allahabad):
    Its Pre-Aśokan Origins”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great
    Britain and Ireland. 115 (2): 253–280. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00137487.
    ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25211537.
    ^ Boardman (1998), 13-19
    ^
    Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India:
    From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 361.
    ISBN 9788131711200. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
    ^ The Early History of India by Vincent A. Smith
    ^ Annual report 1906-07 p.89
    ^ Ashoka, 2
    ^
    Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India:
    From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. p.
    358. ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9.
    ^ Buddshit Architecture, Le Huu Phuoc, Grafikol 2009, p.169
    ^ Sircar, D. C. (1979). Asokan studies. pp. 118–122.
    ^ Sircar, D. C. (1979). Asokan studies. p. 118.
    ^ Mapio
    ^ Asoka by Radhakumud Mookerji p.85
    ^ a b Buddhist Architecture, Le Huu Phuoc, Grafikol 2009, p.40
    ^
    Geary, David (2017). The Rebirth of Bodh Gaya: Buddhism and the Making
    of a World Heritage Site. University of Washington Press. p. 209 Note 1.
    ISBN 9780295742380.
    ^ A Brief History of India, Alain Daniélou, Inner Traditions / Bear & Co, 2003, p.89-91 [1]
    ^
    The pillars “owe something to the pervasive influence of Achaemenid
    architecture and sculpture, with no little Greek architectural ornament
    and sculptural style as well. Notice the florals on the bull capital
    from Rampurva, and the style of the horse of the Sarnath capital, now
    the emblem of the Republic of India.” “The Diffusion of Classical Art in
    Antiquity” by John Boardman, Princeton University Press, 1993, p.110
    ^
    Le, Huu Phuoc (29 October 2017). Buddhist Architecture. Grafikol. ISBN
    9780984404308. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via Google Books.
    ^
    Le, Huu Phuoc (29 October 2017). Buddhist Architecture. Grafikol. ISBN
    9780984404308. Retrieved 29 October 2017 – via Google Books.
    ^ a b Buddhist Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le, Grafikol, 2010 p.240
    ^ a b Le Huu Phuoc, Buddhist Architecture, p.42
    ^ a b c The True Chronology of Aśokan Pillars, John Irwin, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 44, No. 4 (1983), pp. 247-265 [2]
    ^ Story of the Delhi Iron Pillar, R. Balasubramaniam p.19
    ^ The Past Before Us, Romila Thapar p.361
    ^ a b Buddhist Architecture, Le Huu Phuoc, Grafikol 2009, pp 238-248
    ^ “The Ashokan rock edicts are a marvel of history”.
    ^
    Inscriptions of Ashoka by Alexander Cunningham, Eugen Hultzsch.
    Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. Calcutta:
    1877
    ^ “British Museum Highlights”. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
    ^ Full texts, An English rendering by Ven. S. Dhammika, 1993
    ^ “Wat Umong Chiang Mai”. Thailand’s World. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
    ^ Companion, 428-429
    ^ “Destinations :: Vaishali”.
    ^ “Destinations :: Vaishali ::Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation”. bstdc.bih.nic.in. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
    ^ Krishnaswamy, 697-700
    ^ “NOVA Online - Mysteries of the Nile - August 27, 1999: The Third Attempt”. www.pbs.org. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
    ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ramses II: Magnificence on the Nile (1993)p. 56-57
    ^ Allen, Chapter 15
    ^
    A Global History of Architecture, Francis D. K. Ching, Mark M.
    Jarzombek, Vikramaditya Prakash, John Wiley & Sons, 2017 p.570ff
    ^ a b Buddhist Architecture, Huu Phuoc Le p.240
    ^ a b Alexander Cunningham, Mahâbodhi, or the great Buddhist temple under the Bodhi tree at Buddha-Gaya p.19 Public Domain text
    ^ Allen, Charles (2012). Ashoka: The Search for India’s Lost Emperor. Little, Brown Book Group. p. 133. ISBN 9781408703885.
    ^ Mahâbodhi, Cunningham p.4ff Public Domain text
    ^ Buddhist Architecture by Huu Phuoc Le p.45
    References
    Further reading
    External links
    Last edited 27 days ago by पाटलिपुत्र
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    Ashoka pillar at Vaishali, Bihar, India.jpgPillars of Ashoka is located in Indiahttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Naxos_Sphinx_with_humans_for_size.jpg/108px-Naxos_Sphinx_with_humans_for_size.jpgVaishaliLauriya-NandangarhLauriya-ArarajDelhi-Meerut (originally from Meerut, broken in pieces during transportation).Delhi-Topra (originally from Topra Kalan).Allahabad (originally from Kosambi)Lumbini (broken in half). Capped for protection in the 20th century.SarnathSanchiRampurvaNigali SagarFragment of pillar with inscription, Amaravati.[40]KausambiGotihawa, possible base of the Nigali Sagar pillarBodh Gaya (originally near Sujata Stupa, brought from Gaya in 1956).[44]Portion of an Ashokan pillar, found in Pataliputra.Bhawanipur Rupandehi.Vaishali lionSankissa elephant.Rampurva zebu bull original (now in Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi).Lauria Nandangarh lion.Rampurva lion.Four lions, once possibly crowned by a wheel, from Sanchi.The Kosambi-Allahabad Schism Edict.Sanchi Schism Edict.Rummindei, in Lumbini.Nigali Sagar.Major Pillar Edicts I, II, III (Delhi-Topra)Major Pillar Edicts IV (Delhi-Topra)Major Pillar Edicts V-VII (Delhi-Topra)Major Pillar Edicts VII, second part (Delhi-Topra)

    Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda


    http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
    944926443
    White Home
    An 18ft Dia Mindful Meditation Lab
    668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage,
    Punya Bhumi Bengaluru
    Magadhi Karnataka

    Happy Awakened YoUniversity-wish to be your working partner



    13) Classical Benevolent Assamese-ধ্ৰুপদী উপকাৰী অসমীয়া,,13) ধ্ৰুপদী উপকাৰী অসমীয়া-ঊষ্ণৱিক-৲ৰঊষ্ণৱিক ঊষ্ণৱ ঊন ঊষ্ণৱ ঊষ্ণৱ,,

    18) Classical Benevolent Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,18) ধ্রুপদী দানশীল বেঙ্গল- বাংলা বাংলা,,


    47) Classical Benevolent Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
    47) શાસ્ત્રીય પરોપકારી ગુજરાતી- ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,,



    62) Classical Benevolent Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
    62) ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಬೆನೆವೊಲೆಂಟ್ ಕನ್ನಡ- ಕನ್ನಡ,
    83) Classical Benevolent Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,
    83) ക്ലാസിക്കൽ ബെനിവാസന്റ് മലയാളം- ഒരു തരത്തിൽ,

    86) Classical Benevolent Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,
    ) 86) शास्त्रीय बेनिव्हलेंट मॅरेथी- चतुरक,91) Classical Benevolent Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
    1)) शास्त्रीय पमानदार नेपाली कामी (फ्रामि),
    93) Classical Benevolent Odia (Oriya)
    93) ଶାସ୍ତ୍ରୀୟ, ଓଡିଆ (ଓଡିଆ),
    99) Classical Benevolent Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
    99) ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਨਿਦਾਨ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,

    105) Classical Benevolent Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्
    १०५) शास्त्रीय परोपकारी संस्कृत,

    111) Classical Benevolent Sindhi,
    111) طبقاتي قاتل سنڌي،


    121) Classical Benevolent Tamil-கிளாசிக்கல் பெனவலண்ட் தமிழில் பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
    123) Classical Benevolent Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,123) క్లాసికల్ బెనెవోలెంట్ తెలుగు- తెలుగు,

    131) Classical Benevolent Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو

    131) کلاسیکی فلاحی اردو- ک السالس یردو
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    Fraternity,Liberty and Equality – can coexist only if one follows the way of the Buddha the Benevolent Awakened One.
    Fraternity
    is the feeling of brotherhood; Liberty is freedom to manage one’s life;
    and equality is the absence of discrimination.
    In
    the backdrop of communalism, entrenched caste system and abject poverty
    all the above qualities were important for newly born Prabuddha Bharat.
    Buddha’s way of life comprises of -
    1. controlling desires - this reduces greed and consequent communal tendencies. Ex.
    2. living by a common code (dhamma) -
    3. following middle path by avoiding extremities (ie. hedonism & asceticism)
    4. rejection of caste system & varna system
    5. every person trying to move towards achievement of awakenment ie complete knowledge.
    Thus Benevolent Awakened One Buddha’s way of life leads to

    Mission Accomplished Conan Obrien GIF by Team Coco


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    Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni, or simply the
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    believed to have lived and taught mostly in eastern India sometime
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    Buddhism
    Buddhism and Democracy
    Share
    Washington, D.C., April 1993
    For
    thousands of years people have been led to believe that only an
    authoritarian organization employing rigid disciplinary methods could
    govern human society. However, because people have an innate desire for
    freedom, the forces of liberty and oppression have been in continuous
    conflict throughout history. Today, it is clear which is winning. The
    emergence of peoples’ power movements, overthrowing dictatorships of
    left and right, has shown indisputably that the human race can neither
    tolerate nor function properly under tyranny.
    Although
    none of our Buddhist societies developed anything like democracy in
    their systems of government, I personally have great admiration for
    secular democracy. When Tibet was still free, we cultivated our natural
    isolation, mistakenly thinking that we could prolong our peace and
    security that way. Consequently, we paid little attention to the changes
    taking place in the world outside. We hardly noticed when India, one of
    our closest neighbours, having peacefully won her independence, became
    the largest democracy in the world. Later, we learned the hard way that
    in the international arena, as well as at home, freedom is something to
    be shared and enjoyed in the company of others, not kept to yourself.

    Although the Tibetans outside Tibet have been reduced to the status of
    refugees, we have the freedom to exercise our rights. Our brothers and
    sisters in Tibet, despite being in their own country do not even have
    the right to life. Therefore, those of us in exile have had a
    responsibility to contemplate and plan for a future Tibet. Over the
    years, therefore, we have tried through various means to achieve a model
    of true democracy. The familiarity of all Tibetan exiles with the word
    ‘democracy’ shows this.
    I
    have long looked forward to the time when we could devise a political
    system, suited both to our traditions and to the demands of the modern
    world. A democracy that has nonviolence and peace at its roots. We have
    recently embarked on changes that will further democratize and
    strengthen our administration in exile. For many reasons, I have decided
    that I will not be the head of, or play any role in the government when
    Tibet becomes independent. The future head of the Tibetan Government
    must be someone popularly elected by the people. There are many
    advantages to such a step and it will enable us to become a true and
    complete democracy. I hope that these moves will allow the people of
    Tibet to have a clear say in determining the future of their country.
    Our
    democratization has reached out to Tibetans all over the world. I
    believe that future generations will consider these changes among the
    most important achievements of our experience in exile. Just as the
    introduction of Buddhism to Tibet cemented our nation, I am confident
    that the democratization of our society will add to the vitality of the
    Tibetan people and enable our decision-making institutions to reflect
    their heartfelt needs and aspirations.
    The
    idea that people can live together freely as individuals, equal in
    principle and therefore responsible for each other, essentially agrees
    with the Buddhist disposition. As Buddhists, we Tibetans revere human
    life as the most precious gift and regard the Buddha’s philosophy and
    teaching as a path to the highest kind of freedom. A goal to be attained
    by men and women alike.
    The
    Buddha saw that life’s very purpose is happiness. He also saw that
    while ignorance binds beings in endless frustration and suffering,
    wisdom is liberating. Modern democracy is based on the principle that
    all human beings are essentially equal, that each of us has an equal
    right to life, liberty, and happiness. Buddhism too recognises that
    human beings are entitled to dignity, that all members of the human
    family have an equal and inalienable right to liberty, not just in terms
    of political freedom, but also at the fundamental level of freedom from
    fear and want. Irrespective of whether we are rich or poor, educated or
    uneducated, belonging to one nation or another, to one religion or
    another, adhering to this ideology or that, each of us is just a human
    being like everyone else. Not only do we all desire happiness and seek
    to avoid suffering, but each of us has an equal right to pursue these
    goals.
    The
    institution the Buddha established was the Sangha or monastic
    community, which functioned on largely democratic lines. Within this
    fraternity, individuals were equal, whatever their social class or caste
    origins. The only slight difference in status depended on seniority of
    ordination. Individual freedom, exemplified by liberation or
    enlightenment, was the primary focus of the entire community and was
    achieved by cultivating the mind in meditation. Nevertheless, day to day
    relations were conducted on the basis of generosity, consideration, and
    gentleness towards others. By pursuing the homeless life, monks
    detached themselves from the concerns of property. However, they did not
    live in total isolation. Their custom of begging for alms only served
    to strengthen their awareness of their dependence on other people.
    Within the community decisions were taken by vote and differences were
    settled by consensus. Thus, the Sangha served as a model for social
    equality, sharing of resources and democratic process.
    Buddhism
    is essentially a practical doctrine. In addressing the fundamental
    problem of human suffering, it does not insist on a single solution.
    Recognising that human beings differ widely in their needs, dispositions
    and abilities, it acknowledges that the paths to peace and happiness
    are many. As a spiritual community its cohesion has sprung from a
    unifying sense of brotherhood and sisterhood. Without any apparent
    centralized authority Buddhism has endured for more than two thousand
    five hundred years. It has flourished in a diversity of forms, while
    repeatedly renewing, through study and practice, its roots in the
    teachings of the Buddha. This kind of pluralistic approach, in which
    individuals themselves are responsible, is very much in accord with a
    democratic outlook.
    We
    all desire freedom, but what distinguishes human beings is their
    intelligence. As free human beings we can use our unique intelligence to
    try to understand ourselves and our world. The Buddha made it clear
    that his followers were not to take even what he said at face value, but
    were to examine and test it as a goldsmith tests the quality of gold.
    But if we are prevented from using our discrimination and creativity, we
    lose one of the basic characteristics of a human being. Therefore, the
    political, social and cultural freedom that democracy entails is of
    immense value and importance.
    No
    system of government is perfect, but democracy is closest to our
    essential human nature. It is also the only stable foundation upon which
    a just and free global political structure can be built. So it is in
    all our interests that those of us who already enjoy democracy should
    actively support everybody’s right to do so.
    Although
    communism espoused many noble ideals, including altruism, the attempt
    by its governing elites to dictate their views proved disastrous. These
    governments went to tremendous lengths to control their societies and to
    induce their citizens to work for the common good. Rigid organisation
    may have been necessary at first to overcome previously oppressive
    regimes. Once that goal was fulfilled, however, such rigidity had very
    little to contribute to building a truly cooperative society. Communism
    failed utterly because it relied on force to promote its beliefs.
    Ultimately, human nature was unable to sustain the suffering it
    produced.
    Brute
    force, no matter how strongly applied, can never subdue the basic human
    desire for freedom. The hundreds of thousands of people who marched in
    the cities of Eastern Europe proved this. They simply expressed the
    human need for freedom and democracy. Their demands had nothing to do
    with some new ideology; they were simply expressing their heartfelt
    desire for freedom. It is not enough, as communist systems have assumed,
    merely to provide people with food, shelter and clothing. Our deeper
    nature requires that we breathe the precious air of liberty.
    The
    peaceful revolutions in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have
    taught us many great lessons. One is the value of truth. People do not
    like to be bullied, cheated or lied to by either an individual or a
    system. Such acts are contrary to the essential human spirit. Therefore,
    those who practice deception and use force may achieve considerable
    short-term success, but eventually they will be overthrown.
    Truth
    is the best guarantor and the real foundation of freedom and democracy.
    It does not matter whether you are weak or strong or whether your cause
    has many or few adherents, truth will still prevail. Recently, many
    successful freedom movements have been based on the true expression of
    people’s most basic feelings. This is a valuable reminder that truth
    itself is still seriously lacking in much of our political life.
    Especially in the conduct of international relations we pay very little
    respect to truth. Inevitably, weaker nations are manipulated and
    oppressed by stronger ones, just as the weaker sections of most
    societies suffer at the hands of the more affluent and powerful. In the
    past, the simple expression of truth has usually been dismissed as
    unrealistic, but these last few years have proved that it is an immense
    force in the human mind, and, as a result, in the shaping of history.
    As
    we approach the end of the twentieth century, we find that the world
    has grown smaller and the world’s people have become almost one
    community. We are also being drawn together by the grave problems we
    face: overpopulation, dwindling natural resources, and an environmental
    crisis that threaten the very foundation of existence on this small
    planet we share. I believe that to meet the challenge of our times,
    human beings will have to develop a greater sense of universal
    responsibility. Each of us must learn to work not just for his or her
    own self, family or nation, but for the benefit of all humankind.
    Universal responsibility is the real key to human survival. It is the
    best foundation for world peace, the equitable use of natural resources,
    and the proper care of the environment.
    This
    urgent need for cooperation can only strengthen mankind, because it
    helps us recognize that the most secure foundation for the new world
    order is not simply broader political and economic alliances, but each
    individual’s genuine practice of love and compassion. These qualities
    are the ultimate source of human happiness, and our need for them lies
    at the very core of our being. The practice of compassion is not just a
    symptom of unrealistic idealism, but the most effective way to pursue
    the best interests of others as well our own. The more we - as nations
    or as individuals - depend upon others, the more it is in our own best
    interests to ensure their well-being.
    Despite
    the rapid advances made by civilization in this century, I believe that
    the most immediate cause of our present dilemma is our undue emphasis
    solely on material development. We have become so engrossed in its
    pursuit that, without even knowing it, we have neglected to foster the
    most basic human needs of love, kindness, cooperation and caring. If we
    do not know someone or do not feel connected to a particular individual
    or group, we simply overlook their needs. And yet the development of
    human society is based entirely on people helping each other. Once we
    have lost the essential humanity that is our foundation, what is the
    point of pursuing only material improvement?
    In
    the present circumstances, no one can afford to assume that someone
    else will solve our problems. Every individual has a responsibility to
    help guide our global family in the right direction and we must each
    assume that responsibility. What we have to aim at is the common cause
    of our society. If society as a whole is well off, every individual or
    association within it will naturally gain from it. They will naturally
    be happy. However, if society as a whole collapses, then where can we
    turn to fight for and demand our rights?
    I,
    for one, truly believe that individuals can make a difference in
    society. As a Buddhist monk, I try to develop compassion myself - not
    just from a religious point of view, but from a humanitarian one as
    well. To encourage myself in this altruistic attitude, I sometimes find
    it helpful to imagine myself, a single individual, on one side and on
    the other a huge gathering of all other human beings. Then I ask myself,
    ‘Whose interests are more important?’ To me it is then quite clear
    that, however important I may feel, I am only one, while others form the
    majority.
    Buddhism and Democracy | The 14th Dalai Lama
    Buddhism and Democracy | The 14th Dalai Lama
    The Official Website of The Office of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama

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    08/12/22
    LESSON 4524 sun 14 Aug 2022 MISSION BENEVOLENT UNIVERSE Daily Wisdom DO GOOD PURIFY MIND Good Morning All the parties were, are and may not continue to be remotely controlled by foreigners from Bene Israel, Tibet, Africa, Western Europe, Western Germany, South Russia, Eastern Europe, Hungary chitpavan brahmins and gobbled the master Key by tampering the fraud EVMs.But today it is BENEVOLENT AWAKENED YOUNIVERSE with Benevolently Awakened One’s Power of Positivity song Think of the universe as a benevolent parent. A child may want a tub of ice-cream and marshmallows, but a wise parent will give it fruits and vegetables instead. That is not what the child wants, but it is what the child needs. All non-human beings live a natural life depending on natural resources. Future Benevolent Awakened One ☝️ has Free Online JC PURE INSPIRATION to Attain NIBBĀNA the Eternal Bliss and like free birds 🐦 🦢 🦅 to grow fruits 🍍 🍊 🥑 🥭 🍇 🍌 🍎 🍉 🍒 🍑 🥝 vegetables 🥦 🥕 🥗 🥬 🥔 🍆 🥜 🪴 🌱 🎃 🫑 🍅🍜 🧅 🍄 🍝 🥗 🥒 🌽 🍏 🌳 🍓 🍊 🥥 🌵 🍈 🌰 🇧🇧 🫐 🍅 🍐 🫒plants in pots and fruit bearing trees 🌳 🌲 all over the world 🗺 🌍🌎 Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org 944926443 White Home An 18ft Dia Mindful Meditation Lab 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross, HAL III Stage, Punya Bhumi Bengaluru Magadhi Karnataka Happy Awakened YoUniversity-wish to be your working partner 06) Classical Benevolent Devanagari,शास्त्रीय परोपकारी देवनागरी,06) शास्त्रीय परोपकारी देवनागरी, अस्तमक,, 13) Classical Benevolent Assamese-ধ্ৰুপদী উপকাৰী অসমীয়া,,13) ধ্ৰুপদী উপকাৰী অসমীয়া-ঊষ্ণৱিক-৲ৰঊষ্ণৱিক ঊষ্ণৱ ঊন ঊষ্ণৱ ঊষ্ণৱ,, 18) Classical Benevolent Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,18) ধ্রুপদী দানশীল বেঙ্গল- বাংলা বাংলা,, 47) Classical Benevolent Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી, 47) શાસ્ત્રીય પરોપકારી ગુજરાતી- ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,, 62) Classical Benevolent Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ, 62) ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಬೆನೆವೊಲೆಂಟ್ ಕನ್ನಡ- ಕನ್ನಡ, 83) Classical Benevolent Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം, 83) ക്ലാസിക്കൽ ബെനിവാസന്റ് മലയാളം- ഒരു തരത്തിൽ, 86) Classical Benevolent Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी, ) 86) शास्त्रीय बेनिव्हलेंट मॅरेथी- चतुरक,91) Classical Benevolent Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा), 1)) शास्त्रीय पमानदार नेपाली कामी (फ्रामि),93) Classical Benevolent Odia (Oriya) 93) ଶାସ୍ତ୍ରୀୟ, ଓଡିଆ (ଓଡିଆ), 99) Classical Benevolent Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, 99) ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਨਿਦਾਨ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, 105) Classical Benevolent Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित् १०५) शास्त्रीय परोपकारी संस्कृत, 111) Classical Benevolent Sindhi, 111) طبقاتي قاتل سنڌي، 121) Classical Benevolent Tamil-கிளாசிக்கல் பெனவலண்ட் தமிழில் பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி, 123) Classical Benevolent Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,123) క్లాసికల్ బెనెవోలెంట్ తెలుగు- తెలుగు, 131) Classical Benevolent Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو 131) کلاسیکی فلاحی اردو- ک السالس یردو
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