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04/24/17
2208 Tue 25 Apr 2017 LESSON-Tipitaka
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 8:20 am
2208 Tue 25 Apr 2017 LESSON

https://dhammawiki.com/index.php?title=Tipitaka

Tipitaka

From Dhamma Wiki

Tipitaka is the name given to the Buddhist
sacred scriptures and is made up of two words; ti meaning ‘three’ and
pitaka meaning ‘basket.’ The word basket was given to these writings
because they were orally transmitted for some centuries (from about 483
BCE), the way a basket of earth at a construction site might be relayed
from the head of one worker to another. It was written on palm leaves in
the Pali language around 100 BCE. The three parts of the Tipitaka are
the Sutta Pitaka, the Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Tipitaka was composed in the Pali
language and takes up more than forty volumes in an English
translation, roughly about 20,000 pages. It is the largest sacred book
of any of the great world religions.

It is also known as the Pali Canon since the language is in Pali and to better differentiate it from the Mahayana Tripitaka (only one letter difference).

Tipitaka1.jpg

The complete Tipitaka is 40 volumes long

Contents

Sutta Pitaka

Khuddakapatha
Dhammapada
Udana
Itivuttaka
Sutta Nipata
Vimanavatthu
Petavatthu
Theragatha
Therigatha
Jataka
Niddesa
Patisambhidamagga
Apadana
Buddhavamsa
Cariyapitaka
Nettippakarana (Burmese edition)
Petakopadesa (Burmese edition)
Milindapanha (Burmese edition)

Vinaya Pitaka

A. Mahavagga
in addition to rules of conduct and etiquette for the Sangha, this
section contains several important sutta-like texts, including an
account of the period immediately following the Buddha’s Awakening, his
first sermons to the group of five monks, and stories of how some of his
great disciples joined the Sangha and themselves attained Awakening.
B. Cullavagga
an elaboration of the bhikkhus’ etiquette and duties, as well as the
rules and procedures for addressing offences that may be committed
within the Sangha.

  • III. Parivara
    A recapitulation of the previous sections, with summaries of the rules
    classified and re-classified in various ways for instructional
    purposes.

Abhidhamma Pitaka

  • Dhammasangani (”Enumeration of Phenomena”). This book enumerates all the paramattha dhamma (ultimate realities) to be found in the world.
  • Vibhanga (”The Book of Treatises”). This book continues the analysis of the Dhammasangani, here in the form of a catechism.
  • Dhatukatha (”Discussion with Reference to the Elements”). A reiteration of the foregoing, in the form of questions and answers.
  • Puggalapannatti
    (”Description of Individuals”). Somewhat out of place in the Abhidhamma
    Pitaka, this book contains descriptions of a number of
    personality-types.
  • Kathavatthu
    (”Points of Controversy”). Another odd inclusion in the Abhidhamma,
    this book contains questions and answers that were compiled by
    Moggaliputta Tissa in the 3rd century BCE, in order to help clarify
    points of controversy that existed between the various early schools of
    Buddhism at the time.
  • Yamaka
    (”The Book of Pairs”). This book is a logical analysis of many concepts
    presented in the earlier books. In the words of Mrs. Rhys Davids, an
    eminent 20th century Pali scholar, the ten chapters of the Yamaka amount
    to little more than “ten valleys of dry bones.”
  • Patthana
    (”The Book of Relations”). This book, by far the longest single volume
    in the Tipitaka (over 6,000 pages long in the Siamese edition),
    describes the 24 paccayas, or laws of conditionality, through which the
    dhammas interact. These laws, when applied in every possible permutation
    with the dhammas described in the Dhammasangani, give rise to all
    knowable experience.

The Tipitaka on Dhamma Wiki

  • See the Pali Canon category link on the Main Page for large parts of the Tipitaka in English translation and also in the original Pali.

External links

comments (0)
04/23/17
2207 Monn 24 Apr 2017 LESSONS Milinda Panha
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 8:53 am
2207 Monn 24 Apr 2017 LESSONS


Milinda Panha

The
RSSised Google has totally disabled My gmail account: It appears they
are totally opposed to Buddhism and the Techno-Politico-Social
Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement. The Google supported
the fraud EVMs which selected the RSS/BJP in 2014 and te trend
continues. When E-filing to the Supreme Court is submitted on the
subject Google must also be included for punishment for their bias. Now I
am unable to create a new account:

Yahoomail and Outlook messages are more relied.

Please visit:
http://player.mashpedia.com/player.php?q=mz0LQHb9KWo
for


http://player.mashpedia.com/player.php?q=V-mi9mbI-Fc
for


http://player.mashpedia.com/player.php?q=GQBWdV1sfxA
for

http://player.mashpedia.com/player.php?ref=mashpedia&q=nxc-YZUp_lA
for



http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/miln/miln.intro.kell.html



Milindapañha: The Questions of King Milinda


(excerpts)


translated from the Pali by
John Kelly



Alternate translations: Horner | Olendzki


The Milindapañha, the eighteenth book of the Khuddaka Nikaya
(according to the Burmese version of the Pali canon), consists of 7
parts as shown below. The conclusion to the Milindapañha states that it
contains 262 questions, though in the editions available today only 236
can be found. Although not included as a canonical text in the
traditions of all the Theravadin countries, this work is much revered
throughout and is one of the most popular and authoritative works of
Pali Buddhism.

Composed around the beginning of the Common Era, and of unknown
authorship, the Milindapañha is set up as a compilation of questions
posed by King Milinda to a revered senior monk named Nagasena. This
Milinda has been identified with considerable confidence by scholars as
the Greek king Menander of Bactria, in the dominion founded by Alexander
the Great, which corresponds with much of present day Afghanistan.
Menander’s realm thus would have included Gandhara, where Buddhism was
flourishing at that time.

What is most interesting about the Milindapañha is that it is the
product of the encounter of two great civilizations — Hellenistic Greece
and Buddhist India — and is thus of continuing relevance as the wisdom
of the East meets the modern Western world. King Milinda poses questions
about dilemmas raised by Buddhist philosophy that we might ask today.
And Nagasena’s responses are full of wisdom, wit, and helpful analogies.

Contents of the Milindapañha:  

  • I. Background History
  • II. Questions on Distinguishing Characteristics (excerpts)

    Miln II.1.8: Characteristics of Attention and Wisdom {Miln 32-33}  

    The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing
    characteristic of attention, and what is the distinguishing
    characteristic of wisdom?”

    “Examination is the distinguishing characteristic of attention, and severing is the distinguishing characteristic of wisdom.”

    “How is examination the distinguishing characteristic of attention;
    and how is severing the distinguishing characteristic of wisdom? Give me
    an analogy.”

    “Do you know barley-reapers, your majesty?”

    “Yes, venerable sir, I know them.”

    “How, your majesty, do barley-reapers reap barley?”

    “Venerable sir, they take a sheaf of barley in the left hand, and
    take a sickle in the right hand, and they cut with the sickle.”

    Just as, your majesty, a
    barley-reaper takes a sheaf of barley in the left hand, takes a sickle
    in the right hand, and cuts the barley, even so, your majesty, does the
    spiritual aspirant take hold of the mind with attention, and cut off the
    defilements with wisdom. Indeed thus, your majesty, examination is the
    distinguishing characteristic of attention, and severing is the
    distinguishing characteristic of wisdom.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.1.14: Characteristic of Wisdom {Miln 39}  

    The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of wisdom?”

    “Previously, your majesty, I said ’severing is the distinguishing
    characteristic of wisdom,’ and now furthermore illuminating is the
    distinguishing characteristic of wisdom.”

    “How, venerable sir, is illuminating the distinguishing characteristic of wisdom?”

    “Wisdom arising, your majesty, dispels the darkness of ignorance,
    produces the illumination of insight, brings forth the light of
    knowledge, and makes manifest the noble truths; and further, the
    spiritual practitioner sees with complete understanding impermanence,
    unsatisfactoriness, and corelessness.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, a person might
    bring a lamp into a dark house, and with the lamp lit dispel the
    darkness, produce illumination, show the light, and make manifest forms,
    so too, your majesty, wisdom arising dispels the darkness of ignorance,
    produces the illumination of insight, brings forth the light of
    knowledge, and makes manifest the noble truths; and further, the
    spiritual practitioner sees with complete understanding impermanence,
    unsatisfactoriness, and corelessness.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.8: Characteristic of Contact {Miln 60}  

    The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, when mind consciousness arises, do contact and feeling also arise?”

    “Yes, your majesty, when mind consciousness arises, contact arises,
    feeling arises, perception arises, volition arises, applied thought
    arises, and sustained thought arises. And all these mental states arise
    with contact in the lead.”

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of contact?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of contact, your majesty, is touching.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as if, your majesty, two rams are
    butting each other, one of these rams is to be understood as the eye,
    and the other as a visual object, and the coming together of the two of
    them is contact.”

    “Give me another analogy.”

    Just as if, your majesty, two hands
    are clapping together, one of these hands is to be understood as the
    eye, and the other as a visual object, and the coming together of the
    two of them is contact.”

    “Give me another analogy.”

    Just as if, your majesty, two
    cymbals are striking together, one of these cymbals is to be understood
    as the eye, and the other as a visual object, and the coming together of
    the two of them is contact.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.9: Characteristic of Feeling {Miln 60}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of feeling?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of feeling, your majesty, is sensing; experiencing is also a distinguishing characteristic.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, some man might
    render the king a service, and the king, being well pleased, might repay
    the service, such that the man on account of this service is provided
    and endowed with the five cords of sensual pleasure. Then the man might
    think to himself: ‘In the past I rendered a service to the king, and now
    he has repaid me, on account of which I am experiencing feelings of one
    kind and another.’

    “Or just as, your majesty, some man having performed good actions, on
    the dissolution of the body, after death, would reappear in a happy
    destination, in the heavenly world, and there he would be provided and
    endowed with the five cords of sensual pleasure. Then the man might
    think to himself: ‘In the past I performed good actions, and now on
    account of this I am experiencing feelings of one kind and another.’ So
    too, your majesty, the distinguishing characteristics of feeling are
    sensing and experiencing.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.10: Characteristic of Perception {Miln 61}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of perception?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of perception, your majesty, is
    perceiving. What does one perceive? One perceives blue, yellow, red,
    white, and crimson. Thus, your majesty, the distinguishing
    characteristic of perception is perceiving.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, the king’s
    store-keeper, having entered the storehouse, might see the goods
    belonging to the king and would perceive blue, yellow, red, white and
    crimson. So too, your majesty, the distinguishing characteristic of
    perception is perceiving.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.11: Characteristic of Volition {Miln 61}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of volition?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of volition, your majesty, is
    intending; preparation is also a distinguishing characteristic.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, some man or
    other might prepare a poison and drink it himself, and make others drink
    it, then he and the others would become ill. Even so, your majesty, if
    some man here through volition intended some unwholesome deed, then on
    the dissolution of the body, after death, he would reappear in a state
    of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, in hell. And
    those who follow his example would also on the dissolution of the body,
    after death, reappear in a state of deprivation, in an unhappy
    destination, in perdition, in hell.

    “Also just as, your majesty, some man or other might mix together
    ghee, fresh butter, oil, honey and sugar and drink it himself, and make
    others drink it, then he and the others would be happy. Even so, your
    majesty, if some man here through volition intended some wholesome deed,
    then on the dissolution of the body, after death, he would reappear in a
    happy destination, in the heavenly world. And those who followed his
    example would also on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear
    in a happy destination, in the heavenly world. So too, your majesty,
    the distinguishing characteristics of volition are intending and
    preparation.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.12: Characteristic of Consciousness {Miln 62}  

    The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of consciousness?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of consciousness, your majesty, is cognizing.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, a
    city-superintendent sitting at the crossroads in the middle of the city
    could see a person coming from the eastern direction, could see a person
    coming from the southern direction, could see a person coming from the
    western direction, and could see a person coming from the northern
    direction, then indeed, your majesty, does a person cognize with
    consciousness a form he sees with the eye, cognize with consciousness a
    sound he hears with the ear, cognize with consciousness a scent he
    smells with the nose, cognize with consciousness a taste he savors with
    the tongue, cognize with consciousness a touch he feels with the body,
    and cognize with consciousness a mental state he cognizes with the mind.
    Indeed thus, your majesty, the distinguishing characteristic of
    consciousness is cognizing.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.13: Characteristic of Applied Thought {Miln 62}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of applied thought?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of applied thought, your majesty, is fixing one’s mind on an object.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, a carpenter
    might fix a well-prepared piece of wood into a joint, so too, your
    majesty, the distinguishing characteristic of applied thought is fixing
    one’s mind on an object.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

    Miln II.3.14: Characteristic of Sustained Thought {Miln 62}  

    “Venerable Nagasena, what is the distinguishing characteristic of sustained thought?”

    “The distinguishing characteristic of sustained thought, your majesty, is continual examination.”

    “Give me an analogy.”

    Just as, your majesty, when a gong is
    struck and continues resounding afterwards, indeed so the striking is to
    be understood as applied thought, and the continuance of the resounding
    as sustained thought.”

    “You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

  • III. Questions for the Cutting Off of Perplexity (excerpts)

  • IV. Questions on Dilemmas
  • V. A Question Solved By Inference
  • VI. The Special Qualities of Asceticism
  • VII. Questions on Talk of Similes

Miln 3

Questions on Distinguishing Characteristics
(excerpt)
translated from the Pali by
John Kelly

Miln III.5.5: Transmigration and Rebirth   {Miln 71}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, is it so that one does not transmigrate[1] and one is reborn?”[2]

“Yes, your majesty, one does not transmigrate and one is reborn.”

“How, venerable Nagasena, is it that one does not transmigrate and one is reborn? Give me an analogy.”

Just as, your majesty, if someone
kindled one lamp from another, is it indeed so, your majesty, that the
lamp would transmigrate from the other lamp?”

“Certainly not, venerable sir.”

“Indeed just so, your majesty, one does not transmigrate and one is reborn.”

“Give me another analogy.”

“Do you remember, your majesty, when you were a boy learning some verse from a teacher?”

“Yes, venerable sir.”

“Your majesty, did this verse transmigrate from the teacher?”

“Certainly not, venerable sir.”

“Indeed just so, your majesty, one does not transmigrate and one is reborn.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

Notes

1.
Sa”nkamati: to transmigrate, pass over.
2.
Pa.tisandahati: to be reborn, reincarnate, undergo reunion.

Miln III.5.6: Soul   [1] {Miln 71}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, is a soul to be found?”

The elder replied: “According to ultimate reality, your majesty, a soul is not to be found.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

Note

1.
Vedaguu: a “knower,” permanent subject of experience, soul. Vedaguu
is an interesting word, originally a brahmanical term related to
mastery of the Vedas. The Buddha appropriated it to mean “one who has
attained highest knowledge,” i.e., synonymous with “arahant.” However,
as the PED notes: “A peculiar meaning of vedaguu is that of ’soul’ (lit. attainer of wisdom) at Miln 54 & 71.”

Miln III.5.7: Non-Release From Evil Deeds  {Miln 72}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, is there any being which transmigrates from one body to another?”

“Certainly not, your majesty.”

“If, venerable Nagasena, there is no-one who transmigrates from one
body to another, then would not one be released from evil deeds?”

“Yes, your majesty. If one is not reborn, then one would be released
from evil deeds. But indeed because one is reborn, your majesty, then
one is not fully released from evil deeds.”

“Give me an analogy.”

“Just as, your majesty, if some man were to steal the mangos of another, would this be an offense worthy of punishment?”

“Yes, venerable sir, it would be an offense worthy of punishment.”

“But, your majesty, since these mangos that he stole were not the
same mangos that the other had planted, why would it be punishable?”

“Venerable sir, they came into existence by means of those mangos that were planted, therefore it would be punishable.”

“Indeed just so, your majesty, it is by the deeds that one does in
this mind-and-body, lovely or unlovely, that one is reborn in another
mind-and-body, therefore one would not be fully released from evil deeds
.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

Miln III.7.5: Simultaneous Arising in Different Places  {Miln 82-83}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, if someone passes away and is
reborn in the Brahma world, and if another passes away and is reborn in
Kashmir, which one takes the longer time, and which the shorter?”

“They are the same, your majesty.”

“Give me an analogy.”

“Your majesty, where is your town of birth?”

“There is a place called Kalasigama, there I was born.”

“How far away, your majesty, is Kalasigama from here?”

“About 200 yojana,[1] venerable sir.”

“How far away, your majesty, is Kashmir from here?”

“About 12 yojana, venerable sir.”

“Go on then, your majesty, think about Kalasigama.”

“I have thought about it, venerable sir.”

“Go on then, your majesty, think about Kashmir.”

“I have thought about it, venerable sir.”

“Which thinking took a long time, your majesty, and which a short time?”

“They were the same, venerable sir.”

“Just so, your majesty, if someone passes away and is reborn in the
Brahma world, and if another passes away and is reborn in Kashmir, they
happen in the same time.”

“Give me another analogy.”

“What do you think, your majesty, if two birds fly in the sky and one
sits in a high tree, and the other in a low tree; if these happen at
the same time, the shadow of which one would settle on the ground first,
and which one later?”

“They are the same, venerable sir.”

“Just so, your majesty, if someone passes away and is reborn in the
Brahma world, and if another passes away and is reborn in Kashmir, they
happen in the same time.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

Note

1.
One yojana is approximately 12 kilometers (7 miles).

Miln III.7.8: Doing Evil Knowingly and Unknowingly  {Miln 84}

The king asked: “Venerable Nagasena, for whom is the greater demerit,
one who knowingly does evil, or one who does evil unknowingly?”

The elder replied: “Indeed, your majesty, for him who does evil not knowing is the greater demerit.”

“In that case, venerable Nagasena, would we doubly punish one who is
our prince or king’s chief minister who not knowing does evil?”

“What do you think, your majesty, who would get burned more, one who
knowing picks up a hot iron ball, ablaze and glowing, or one who not
knowing picks it up?”

“Indeed, venerable sir, he who not knowing picks it up would get burned more.”

“Indeed, your majesty, in the same way the greater demerit is for him who does evil not knowing.”

“You are clever, venerable Nagasena.”

comments (0)
04/22/17
2206 Sun 23 Apr 2017 LESSONS Dasa-Raja-Dhamma: The ‘Ten Royal Virtues’
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 8:41 am
2206 Sun 23 Apr 2017 LESSONS

Dasa-Raja-Dhamma: The ‘Ten Royal Virtues’


http://www.lankalibrary.com/Bud/dasa-raja-dhamma.htm


WWW Virtual Library - Sri Lanka



 



Dasa-Raja-Dhamma: The ‘Ten Royal Virtues’


by Danister I. Fernando
Buddhism is a way
of life. What is mainly essential, according to the noble philosophy of
Sakya Muni the Buddha is to follow the Eightfold Path leading to
complete emancipation- Nibbana. But it is wrong to conclude that
Buddhism is interested only in such lofty ideals and high philosophical
thought ignoring the social, economic and political welfare of the
people. Buddha was a marvellous repository of loving kindness (metta)
and compassion (karuna) towards all beings and was greatly interested in
the happiness of not only the mankind but of all other beings as well.
To him happiness was not possible without leading a pure life based on
moral and spiritual principles. He firmly believed that such a life was
possible only under favourable material, social and political
conditions. He considers such conditions as a means to a higher and
nobler end.

In Kutadanda Sutta (Digha Nikaya)
Buddha explains that in order to eradicate crime, the economic condition
of the people should be improved. The relationship between the employer
and the employee should be made cordial mainly by the payment of
adequate wages, gifts and incentives. The kings (governments) should
take this fact into serious consideration and keep the people happy and
contented, so that consequently the country would be peaceful and crime
free.


Not only did the Buddha teach
non-violence and peace; he also personally intervened in quelling
disputes in the field of battle through His sublime Dhamma. For
instance, He intervened in the case of a friction between the Sakyas and
the Koliyas and prevented a deadly war. Again, King Ajatasattu who was
about to wage war against the Vajjis was prevented from doing so,
entirely on the valuable advice of the Buddha. Further, our chronicles
(Mahavamsa and Dipavamsa) say that the Buddha visited Sri Lanka on three
occasions, and having suppressed certain disputes through the Dhamma,
established peace in the country, thereby.


Therefore, we see that while the Buddha
put across His philosophy successfully, he also advocated the
maintenance of peace and cordiality throughout, which was absolutely
essential for spiritual development. He had shown how a country could
become corrupt and unhappy when the heads of its government become
corrupt and unjust. For a country to be happy, it must have a good and
just government. How this form of just government is evolved is detailed
in his recommendations entitled “Ten Royal Virtues”. (”Dasa-Raja
Dhamma” - Jataka Text).


The ‘Ten Royal Virtues’ are as follows:


1. Dana: liberality, generosity or
charity. The giving away of alms to the needy. It is the duty of the
king (government) to look after the welfare of his needy subjects. The
ideal ruler should give away wealth and property wisely without giving
in-to craving and attachment. In other words he should not try to be
rich making use of his position.


2. Sila: morality - a high moral
character. He must observe at least the Five Precepts, and conduct
himself both in private and in public life as to be a shining example to
his subjects. This virtue is very important, because, if the ruler
adheres to it, strictly, then bribery and corruption, violence and
indiscipline would be automatically wiped out in the country.


3. Comfort Pariccaga: Making sacrifices
if they are for the good of the people - personal name and fame; even
the life if need be. By the grant of gifts etc. the ruler spurs the
subjects on to more efficient and more loyal service.


4. Ajjava: Honesty and integrity. He
must be absolutely straightforward and must never take recourse to any
crooked or doubtful means to achieve his ends. He must be free from fear
or favour in the discharge of his duties. At this point, a stanza from
‘Sigalovada Sutta. (Digha-Nikaya), a relevant declaration by the Buddha
comes to my mind:


“Canda, dose, bhaya, moha - Yo dhammam nativattati. Apurati tassa yaso - Sukkha pakkheva candima”)


Meaning: If a person maintains justice
without being subjected to favoritism, hatred, fear or ignorance, his
popularity grows like the waxing moon.


5. Maddava: Kindness or gentleness. A
ruler’s uprightness may sometimes require firmness. But this should be
tempered with kindness and gentleness. In other words a ruler should not
be over - harsh or cruel.


6. Tapa: Restraint of senses and
austerity in habits. Shunning indulgence in sensual pleasures, an ideal
monarch keeps his five senses under control. Some rulers may, using
their position, flout moral conduct - this is not becoming of a good
monarch.


7. Akkodha: Non-hatred. The ruler
should bear no grudge against anybody. Without harbouring grievances he
must act with forbearance and love. At this instance, I am reminded of
how a certain royal pupil, an heir to the throne, who had been punished
by the teacher for an offence, took revenge by punishing the teacher
after he become King! (Jataka Text). Political victimization is also not
conducive to proper administration.


8. Avihimsa: non-violence. Not only
should he refrain from harming anybody but he should also try to promote
peace and prevent war, when necessary. He must practice non-violence to
the highest possible extent so long as it does not interfere with the
firmness expected of an ideal ruler.


9. Khanti: Patience and tolerance.
Without losing his temper, the ruler should be able to bear up hardships
and insults. In any occasion he should be able to conduct himself
without giving in-to emotions. He should be able to receive both
bouquets and brickbats in the same spirit and with equanimity.


10. Avirodha: Non - opposition and
non-enmity. The ruler should not oppose the will of the people. He must
cultivate the spirit of amity among his subjects. In other words he
should rule in harmony with his people.


The Buddha in his dispensations has
emphasised the fact that the nature of the subjects depends largely on
the behaviour of their rulers. Therefore, for the good of the people at
large He set out these Ten Royal Virtues - ‘Dasa-Raja-Dhamma’ to be
practiced by the rulers of men.


After the advent of Buddha Sasana to
Sri Lanka, in the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa, in the 3rd century
B.C, the long line of Buddhist Kings would have kept to ‘Dasa-Raja —
Dhamma’ in fostering good governance.


It is also interesting to note that in
India’s foreign policy the ‘Five Principles’ or ‘Pancasila’ (which is
itself a Buddhist term) are in accordance with Buddhist principles
Dharmasoka, the great Buddhist Emperor of India, who was contemporary
and a good friend of King Devanampiya Tissa of Lanka had applied to his
administration Buddhist principles the authenticity of which is proved
by his Rock Edicts available in India and seen even today.


In this regard, I wish to make
mention of a very great Buddhist Country - Thailand - where the
Theravada concept of Buddhism is in practice and where His Majesty the
King is loved by all and held in very high esteem with deep respect. His
Majesty, seated on the “Bhadrabith Throne” beneath the “Nine-Tiered
White Umbrella of States” in the “Baisal Daksin Hall” of the Grand
Palace, had pronounced the ancient oath of accession to the Throne,
which says, “I will reign with righteousness, for the benefits and
happiness of the people”. The word “righteousness” is the key, as it
leads back in time through over two - thousand five hundred years of
history to the Buddhist concept of Kingship. The ideal monarch is
expected to abide by the “Tenfold Moral Principles” of the Sovereign,
“Tossapit Rajatham” in Thai, * which in our Jataka Text” are called
“Dasa- Raja — Dhamma”.
(From a paper published in connection with the birth anniversary of His Majesty, King of Thailand.)

WWW Virtual Library - Sri Lanka





comments (0)
04/21/17
2205 Sat 22 Apr 2017 LESSONS Kutadanta Sutta
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 4:24 pm
2205 Sat 22 Apr 2017 LESSONS

Kutadanta Sutta

http://tipitaka.wikia.com/wiki/Kutadanta_Sutta


Thus have I heard:

The Blessed One once, when going on a tour through Magadha, with a
great multitude of the brethren, with about five hundred brethren, came
to a Brahman village in Magadha called Khanumata. And there at
Khanumata he lodged in the Ambalatthika pleasaunce.

Now at that time The Brahman K¬tadanta was dwelling at Kanumata, a
place teeming with life, with much grassland and woodland and water and
corn, on a royal domain presented him by Seniya Bimbisara the king of
Magadha, as a royal gift, with power over it as if he were the king.

And just then a great sacrifice was being got ready on behalf of
Kutadanta The Brahman. And a hundred bulls, and a hundred steers, and a
hundred heifers, and a hundred goats, and a hundred rams had been
brought to the post for the sacrifice.

Now The Brahmans and householders of Khanumata heard the news of
the arrival of the Samana Gotama. And they began to leave Khanumata in
companies and in bands to go to the Ambalatthika pleasaunce.

And just then Kutadanta The Brahman had gone apart to the upper
terrace of his house for his siesta; and seeing the people thus go by,
he asked his doorkeeper the reason. And the doorkeeper told him.

Then Kutadanta thought: ‘I have heard that the Samana Gotama
understands about the successful performance of a sacrifice with its
threefold method and its sixteen accessory instruments. Now I don’t know
all this, and yet I want to carry out a sacrifice. It would be well for
me to go to the Samana Gotama, and ask him about it.’

So he sent his doorkeeper to The Brahmans and householders of
Khanumata, to ask them to wait till he could go with them to call upon
The Blessed One.

But there were at that time a number of Brahmans staying at
Khanumata to take part in the great sacrifice. And when they heard this
they went to Kutadanta, and persuaded him, on the same grounds as The
Brahmans had laid before Sonadanda, not to go. But he answered them in
the same terms as Sonadanda had used to those Brahmans. Then they were
satisfied, and went with him to call upon The Blessed One.

And when he was seated there Kutadanta The Brahman told The
Blessed One what he had heard, and requested him to tell him about
success in performing a sacrifice in its three modes and with its
accessory articles of furniture of sixteen kinds.

‘Well then, O Brahman, give ear and listen attentively and I will speak.’

‘Very well, Sir,’ said Kutadanta in reply; and The Blessed One-spake as follows :–

‘Long ago, O Brahman, there was a king by name Wide-realm (Maha
Vijita), mighty, with great wealth and large property; with stores of
silver and gold, of aids to enjoyment, of goods and corn; with his
treasure-houses and his garners full. Now when King Wide-realm was once
sitting alone in meditation he became anxious at the thought: ” I have
in abundance all the good things a mortal can enjoy. the whole wide
circle of the earth is mine by conquest to possess. “twere well if I
were to offer a great sacrifice that should ensure me weal and welfare
for many days.”

‘And he had The Brahman, his chaplain, called; and telling him
all that he had thought, he said: “So I would fain, O Brahman, offer a
great sacrifice-let the venerable one instruct me how — for my weal and
my welfare for many days.”

‘Thereupon The Brahman who was chaplain said to the king: “the
king’s country, Sire, is harassed and harried. there are dacoits abroad
who pillage the villages and townships, and who make the roads unsafe.
Were the king, so long as that is so, to levy a fresh tax, verily his
majesty would be acting wrongly. But perchance his majesty might think:
‘I’ll soon put a stop to these scoundrels’ game by degradation and
banishment, and fines and bonds and death!’ But their license cannot be
satisfactorily put a stop to so. the remnant left unpunished would still
go on harassing the realm. Now there is one method to adopt to put a
thorough end to this disorder. Whosoever there be in the king’s realm
who devote themselves to keeping cattle and the farm, to them let his
majesty the king give food and seed-corn. Whosoever there be in the
king’s realm who devote themselves to trade, to them let his majesty the
king give capital. Whosoever there be in the king’s realm who devote
themselves to government service, to them let his majesty the king give
wages and food. then those men, following each his own business, will no
longer harass the realm, the king’s revenue will go up; the country
will be quiet and at peace; and the populace, pleased one with another
and happy, dancing their children in their arms, will dwell with open
doors.”

‘Then King Wide-realm, O Brahman, accepted the word of his
chaplain, and did as he had said. And those men, following each his
business, harassed the realm no more. And the king’s revenue went up.
And the country became quiet and at peace. And the populace, pleased one
with another and happy, dancing their children in their arms, dwelt
with open doors.

‘So King Wide-realm had his chaplain called, and said: “the
disorder is at an end. the country is at peace. I want to offer that
great sacrifice — let the venerable one instruct me how — for my weal
and my welfare for many days.”

Then let his majesty the king send invitations to whomsoever
there may be in his realm who are Kshatriyas, vassals of his, either in
the country or the towns ; or who are ministers and officials of his,
either in the country or the towns; or who are Brahmans of position,
either in the country or the towns; or who are householders of
substance, either in the country or the towns, saying: “I intend to
offer a great sacrifice. Let the venerable ones give their sanction to
what will be to me for weal and welfare for many days.”

‘Then King Wide-realm, O Brahman, accepted the word of his
chaplain, and did as he had said. And they each — Kshatriyas and
Ministers and Brahmans and householders — made alike reply: “Let his
majesty the king celebrate the sacrifice. the time is suitable, O king! ”

‘ Thus did these four, as colleagues by consent, become wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice.

‘King Wide-realm was gifted in the following eight ways: –

‘He was well born on both sides, on the mother’s side and on the
father’s, of pure descent back through seven generations, and no slur
was cast upon him, and no reproach, in respect of birth –

‘He was handsome, pleasant in appearance, inspiring trust, gifted
with great beauty of complexion, fair in color, fine in presence,
stately to behold –

‘He was mighty, with great wealth, and large property, with
stores of silver and gold, of aids to enjoyment, of goods and corn, with
his treasure-houses and his garners full –

‘He was powerful, in command of an army, loyal and disciplined,
in four divisions (of elephants, cavalry, chariots, and bowmen), burning
up, methinks, his enemies by his very glory –

‘He was a believer, and generous, a noble giver, keeping open
house, a welling spring whence Samanas and Brahmans, the poor and the
wayfarers, beggars, and petitioners might draw, a doer of good deeds –

He was learned in all kinds of knowledge –

He knew the meaning of what had been said, and could explain:
“this saying has such and such a meaning, and that such and such” –

‘He was intelligent, expert and wise, and able to think out things present or past or future –

‘And these eight gifts of his, too, became wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice.

‘The Brahman his chaplain was gifted in the following four ways: –

‘He was well born on both sides, on the mother’s and on the
father’s, of pure descent back through seven generations, with no slur
cast upon him, and no reproach in respect of birth –

He was a student repeater who knew the mystic verses by heart,
master of the three Vedas, with the indices, the ritual, the phonology,
and the exegesis (as a fourth), and the legends as a fifth, learned in
the idioms and the grammar, versed in Lokayata (Nature-lore) and in the
thirty marks on the body of a great man –

‘He was virtuous, established in virtue, gifted with virtue that had grown great –

‘He was intelligent, expert, and wise; foremost, or at most the second, among those who hold out the ladle.’

‘Thus these four gifts of his, too, became wherewithal to furnish forth that sacrifice.

‘And further, O Brahman, the chaplain, before the sacrifice had begun, explained to King Wide-realm the three modes:

‘Should his majesty the king, before starting on the great
sacrifice, feel any such regret as: “Great, alas, will be the portion of
my wealth used up herein,” let not the king harbor such regret. Should
his majesty the king, whilst he is offering the great sacrifice, feel
any such regret as: “Great, alas, will be the portion of my wealth used
up herein,” let not the king harbor such regret. Should his majesty the
king, when the great sacrifice has been offered, feel any such regret
as : “Great, alas, has been the portion of my wealth used up herein,”
let not the king harbor such regret.’

‘Thus did the chaplain, O Brahman, before the sacrifice had begun, explain to King Wide-realm the three modes.

‘And further, O Brahman, the chaplain, before the sacrifice
had-begun, in order to prevent any compunction that might afterwards, in
ten ways, arise as regards those who had taken part therein, said: “Now
there will come to your sacrifice, Sire, men who destroy the life of
living things, and men who refrain there from — men who take what has
not been given, and men who refrain there from — men who act evilly in
respect of lusts, and men who refrain there from — men who speak lies,
and men who do not — men who slander, and men who do not — men who
speak rudely, and men who do not — men who chatter vain things, and men
who refrain there from — men who covet, and men who covet not — men
who harbor ill will, and men who harbor it not — men whose views are
wrong, and men whose views are right. Of each of these let them, who do
evil, alone with their evil. For them who do well let your majesty
offer, for them, Sire, arrange the rites, them let the king gratify, in
them shall your heart within find peace.”

‘And further, O Brahman, the chaplain, whilst the king was
carrying out the sacrifice, instructed and aroused and incited and
gladdened his heart in sixteen ways: “Should there be people who should
say of the king, as he is offering the sacrifice: ‘King Wide-realm is
celebrating sacrifice without having invited the four classes of his
subjects, without himself having the eight personal gifts, without the
assistance of a Brahman who has the four personal gifts;’ then would
they speak not according to the fact. For the consent of the four
classes has been obtained, the king has the eight, and his Brahman has
the four, personal gifts. With regard to each and every one of these
sixteen conditions the king may rest assured that it has been fulfilled.
He can sacrifice, and be glad, and possess his heart in peace.”

‘And further, O Brahman, at that sacrifice neither were any oxen
slain, neither goats, nor fowls, nor fatted pigs, nor were any kinds of
living creatures put to death. No trees were cut down to be used as
posts, no Dabbha grasses mown to strew around the sacrificial spot. And
the staves and messengers and workmen there employed were driven neither
by rods nor fear, nor carried on their work weeping with tears upon
their faces. Whoso chose to help, he worked; whoso chose not to help,
worked not. What each chose to do, he did, what they chose not to do,
that was left undone. With ghee, and oil, and butter, and milk, and
honey, and sugar only was that sacrifice accomplished.

‘And further, O Brahman, the Kshatriya vassals, and the ministers
and officials, and The Brahmans of position, and the householders of
substance, whether of the country or of the towns, went to King
Wide-realm, taking with them much wealth, and said: “this abundant
wealth, Sire, have we brought hither for the king’s use. Let his majesty
accept it at our hands!”

‘ “Sufficient wealth have I, my friends, laid up, the produce of
taxation that is just. Do you keep yours, and take away more with you!”

‘When they had thus been refused by the king, they went aside,
and considered thus one with the other: “It would not beseem us now,
were we to take this wealth away again to our own homes. King Wide-realm
is offering, a great sacrifice. Let us too make an after-sacrifice!”

‘ So the Kshatriyas established a continual largesse to the east
of the king’s sacrificial pit, and the officials to the south thereof,
and The Brahmans to the west thereof, and the householders to the north
thereof. And the things given, and the manner of their gift, was in all
respects like unto the great sacrifice of King Wide-realm himself.

‘Thus, O Brahman, there was a fourfold co-operation, and King
Wide-realm was gifted with eight personal gifts, and his officiating
Brahman with four. And there were three modes of the giving of that
sacrifice. this, O Brahman, is what is called the due celebration of a
sacrifice in its threefold mode and with its furniture of sixteen
kinds!’

And when he had thus spoken, those Brahmans lifted up their
voices in tumult, and said: ‘How glorious the sacrifice, how pure its
accomplishment!’ But Kutadanta The Brahman sat there in silence.

then those Brahmans said to Kutadanta: ‘Why do you not approve the good words of the Samana Gotama as well-said?’

‘I do not fail to approve: for he who approves not as well-said
that which has been well spoken by the Samana Gotama, verily his head
would split in twain. But I was considering that the Samana Gotama does
not say: “Thus have I heard,” nor “Thus behooves it to be,” but says
only “Thus it was then,” or “It was like that then.” So I thought: “For a
certainty the Samana Gotama himself must at that time have been King
Wide-realm, or The Brahman who officiated for him at that sacrifice.
Does the venerable Gotama admit that he who celebrates such a sacrifice,
or causes it to be celebrated, is reborn at the dissolution of the
body, after death, into some state of happiness in heaven?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, that I admit. And at that time I was The Brahman who, as chaplain, had that sacrifice performed.’

‘Is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult and less
troublesome, with more fruit and more advantage still than this?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, there is.’

‘And what, O Gotama, may that be?’

‘The perpetual gifts kept up in a family where they are given specifically to virtuous recluses.

‘But what is the reason, O Gotama, and what the cause, why such
perpetual givings specifically to virtuous recluses, and kept up in a
family, are less difficult and troublesome, of greater fruit and greater
advantage than that other sacrifice with its three modes and its
accessories of sixteen kinds

‘To the latter sort of sacrifice, O Brahman, neither will the
Arahats go, nor such as have entered on the Arahat way. And why not?
Because at it beating with sticks takes place, and seizing by the throat
[42]. But they will go to the former, where such things are not. And
therefore are such perpetual gifts above the other sort of sacrifice.’

24. ‘And is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult
and less troublesome, of greater fruit and of greater advantage than
either of these?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, there is.’

‘And what, O Gotama, may that be? “the putting up of a dwelling
place (Vihara) on behalf of the Order in all the four directions.’

‘And is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult and
less troublesome, of greater fruit and of greater advantage than each
and all of these three?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, there is.’

‘And what, O Gotama, may that be?’

He who with trusting heart takes a Buddha as his guide, and the
truth, and the Order — that is a sacrifice better than open largesse,
better than perpetual alms, better than the gift to a dwelling place.’

‘And is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult and
less troublesome, of greater fruit and of greater advantage than all
these four?’

‘When a man with trusting heart takes upon himself the precepts
– abstinence from destroying life; abstinence from taking what has not
been given abstinence from evil; conduct in respect of lusts; abstinence
from lying words; abstinence from strong, intoxicating, maddening
drinks, the root of carelessness — that is a sacrifice better than open
largesse, better than perpetual alms, better than the gift of dwelling
places, better than accepting guidance.’

‘And is there, O Gotama, any other sacrifice less difficult and
less troublesome, of greater fruit and of greater advantage than all
these five?’

‘Yes, O Brahman, there is.’

‘And what, O Gotama, may that be?’

‘this, O Brahman, is a sacrifice less difficult and less
troublesome, of greater fruit and greater advantage than the previous
sacrifices.’

** Several paragraphs are missing here about the Fruits of the
Life of a Recluse (See DN2), Going Forth, living easily contented and
virtuous, attaining the absorptions, mystic powers, insight knowledge,
and Arahantship, without which the next paragraph makes no sense.
(edited by Bhikkhu Pesala)

‘And there is no sacrifice man can celebrate, O Brahman, higher and sweeter than this.’

And when he had thus spoken, Kutadanta The Brahman said to The Blessed One .

‘Most excellent, O Gotama, are the words of thy mouth, most
excellent! just as if a man were to set up what has been thrown down, or
were to reveal that which has been hidden away, or were to point out
the right road to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a light into
the darkness so that those who had eyes could see external forms —
just even so has the truth been made known to me in many a figure by the
venerable Gotama. I, even I, betake myself to the venerable Gotama as
my guide, to the Doctrine and the Order. May the venerable One accept me
as a disciple, as one who, from this day forth, as long as life
endures, has taken him as his guide. And I myself, O Gotama, will have
the seven hundred bulls, and the seven hundred steers, and the seven
hundred heifers, and the seven hundred goats, and the seven hundred rams
set free. to them I grant their life. Let them eat green grass and
drink fresh water, and may cool breezes waft around them.’

Then The Blessed One discoursed to Kutadanta The Brahman in due
order; that is to say, he spake to him of generosity, of right conduct,
of heaven, of the danger, the vanity, and the defilement of lusts, of
the advantages of renunciation. And when The Blessed One became aware
that Kutadanta The Brahman had become prepared, softened, unprejudiced,
upraised, and believing in heart, then did he proclaim the doctrine The
Buddhas alone have won; that is to say, the doctrine of sorrow, of its
origin, of its cessation, and of the Path. And just as a clean cloth,
with all stains in it washed away, will readily take the dye, just even
so did Kutadanta The Brahman, even while seated there, obtain the pure
and spotless Eye for the truth, and he knew: ‘Whatsoever has a
beginning, in that is inherent also the necessity of dissolution.’

And then The Brahman Kutadanta, as one who had seen the truth,
had mastered it, understood it, dived deep down into it, who had passed
beyond doubt, and put away perplexity and gained full confidence, who
had become dependent on no other for his knowledge of the teaching of
the Master, addressed The Blessed One and said:

May the venerable Gotama grant me the favor of taking his to-morrow’s meal with me, and also the members of the Order with him.’

And The Blessed One signified, by silence, his consent. then The
Brahman Kutadanta, seeing that The Blessed One had accepted, rose from
his scat, and keeping his right towards him as he passed, he departed
thence. And at daybreak he had sweet food, both hard and soft, made
ready at the pit prepared for his sacrifice, and had the time announced
to The Blessed One: ‘It is time, O Gotama; and the meal is ready.’ And
The Blessed One, who had dressed early in the. morning, put on his outer
robe, and taking his bowl with him, went with the brethren to
Kutadanta’s sacrificial pit, and sat down there on the seat prepared for
him. And Kutadanta The Brahman satisfied the brethren with The Buddha
at their head, with his own hand, with sweet food, both hard and soft,
till they refused any more. And when The Blessed One had finished his
meal, and cleansed the bowl and his hands, Kutadanta The Brahman took a
low seat and seated himself beside him. And when he was thus seated The
Blessed One instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened Kutadanta
The Brahman with religious discourse; and then arose from his seat and
departed thence.

comments (0)
04/20/17
2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:57 pm



2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS


Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.26.0.than.html


DN 26

PTS: D iii 58
Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor
translated from the Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu


Translator’s Introduction

The body of this sutta consists of a narrative illustrating the power of skillful action.

In the past, unskillful behavior was unknown among the human race. As
a result, people lived for an immensely long time — 80,000 years —
endowed with great beauty, wealth, pleasure, and strength. Over the
course of time, though, they began behaving in various unskillful ways.
This caused the human life span gradually to shorten, to the point where
it now stands at 100 years, with human beauty, wealth, pleasure, and
strength decreasing proportionately. In the future, as morality
continues to degenerate, human life will continue to shorten to the
point were the normal life span is 10 years, with people reaching sexual
maturity at five. “Among those human beings, the ten courses of action
(see AN 10.176)
will have entirely disappeared… The word ’skillful’ will not exist,
so from where will there be anyone who does what is skillful? Those who
lack the honorable qualities of motherhood, fatherhood,
contemplative-hood, & brahman-hood will be the ones who receive
homage… Fierce hatred will arise, fierce malevolence, fierce rage,
& murderous thoughts: mother for child, child for mother, father for
child, child for father, brother for sister, sister for brother.”
Ultimately, conditions will deteriorate to the point of a
“sword-interval,” in which swords appear in the hands of all human
beings, and they hunt one another like game. A few people, however, will
take shelter in the wilderness to escape the carnage, and when the
slaughter is over, they will come out of hiding and resolve to take up a
life of skillful and virtuous action again. With the recovery of
virtue, the human life span will gradually increase again until it
reaches 80,000 years, with people attaining sexual maturity at 500. Only
three diseases will be known at that time: desire, lack of food, and
old age. Another Buddha — Metteyya (Maitreya) — will gain Awakening, his
monastic Sangha numbering in the thousands. The greatest king of the
time, Sankha, will go forth into homelessness and attain arahantship
under Metteyya’s guidance.

The story, after chronicling the ups and downs of human wealth, life
span, etc., concludes with the following lesson on kamma and skillful
action.

…”Monks, live with yourself as your island,
yourself as your refuge, with nothing else as your refuge. Live with the
Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, with nothing else as
your refuge. [1]
And how does a monk live with himself as his island, himself as his
refuge, with nothing else as his refuge; with the Dhamma as his island,
the Dhamma as his refuge, with nothing else as his refuge? There is the
case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself —
ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with
reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of
themselves… mind in & of itself… mental qualities in & of
themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed &
distress with reference to the world. This is how a monk lives with
himself as his island, himself as his refuge, with nothing else as his
refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, with
nothing else as his refuge.

“Wander, monks, in your proper range, your own ancestral territory.
When you wander in your proper range, your own ancestral territory, you
will grow in long life, beauty, pleasure, wealth, & strength.

“And what constitutes a monk’s long life? [2]
There is the case where a monk develops the base of power endowed with
concentration founded on desire & the fabrications of exertion. He
develops the base of power endowed with concentration founded on
persistence… founded on intent… He develops the base of power
endowed with concentration founded on discrimination & the
fabrications of exertion. From the development & pursuit of these
four bases of power, he can stay (alive) for an aeon, if he wants, or
for the remainder of an aeon. This constitutes a monk’s long life.

“And what constitutes a monk’s beauty? There is the case where a monk
is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha,
consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself,
having undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest
faults. This constitutes a monk’s beauty.

“And what constitutes a monk’s pleasure? There is the case where a
monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful mental
qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture &
pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought &
evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he
enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born
of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought &
evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains
equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He
enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones
declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ With the
abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance
of elation & distress — he enters & remains in the fourth jhana:
purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This
constitutes a monk’s pleasure.

“And what constitutes a monk’s wealth? There is the case where a monk
keeps pervading the first direction [the east] — as well as the second
direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with
good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around,
everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an
awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free
from hostility, free from ill will.

“He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second
direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with
compassion… imbued with appreciation…

“He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second
direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with
equanimity. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around,
everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing world with an
awareness imbued with equanimity: abundant, expansive, immeasurable,
free from hostility, free from ill will.

“This constitutes a monk’s wealth.

“And what constitutes a monk’s strength? There is the case where a
monk, through the ending of the mental fermentations, enters &
remains in the fermentation-free awareness-release &
discernment-release, having directly known & realized them for
himself right in the here & now. This constitutes a monk’s strength.

“Monks, I don’t envision any other single strength so hard to overcome as this: the strength of Mara. [3] And the adopting of skillful qualities is what causes this merit to increase.” [4]

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Notes

1.
This can also be translated as: “Live with mental qualities
(dhammas) as your island, mental qualities as your refuge, with nothing
else as your refuge.”
2.
Literally, “what is in a monk’s long life?” This appears to be an
idiomatic usage of the locative case. The commentary interprets this
idiom as meaning, what causes a monk’s long life, beauty, etc.
From this reading, it explains, for example, that a monk attracts wealth
if he develops the four sublime attitudes. While this is true, it seems
to cheapen the message of this passage.
3.
This last passage is related to the opening passage of the sutta,
in which the Buddha says, “Wander, monks, in your proper range, your own
ancestral territory. When one wanders in his proper range, his own
ancestral territory, Mara gains no opening, Mara gains no foothold. And
it is because of adopting skillful qualities that this merit increases.”
See also SN 47.6-7.
4.
This is the refrain repeated with each stage in the account of how
human life will improve in the aftermath of the sword-interval. Here,
“merit” seems to have the meaning it has in Iti 22:
“Don’t be afraid of acts of merit.” This is another way of saying what
is blissful, desirable, pleasing, endearing, charming — i.e., acts of
merit.

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2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta- Buddhism and politics
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2204 Fri 21 Apr 2017 LESSONS


Cakkavatti Sihanada Sutta-
Buddhism and politics

Please watch:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQYjy2jfSfk


Published on Oct 27, 2014

Sariputta Sihanada Sutta - Dhamma Talk at Los Angeles Buddhist Vihara, Pasadena, California

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWjDqd8ueSc



Chakravarthi SinhaNada Sutta චක්‍රවර්ති සිංහනාද සූත්‍රය +122 Ven Nauyane Ariyadhamma Thero

Published on Jun 6, 2015

Chakravarthi
SinhaNada Sutta චක්‍රවර්ති සිංහනාද සූත්‍රය +122 Most Venerable
Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero - අතීපුජනීය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම ස්වාමීන්
වහන්සේ

පටිසෝතගාමී පටිපදා | Patisothagami Patipada
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nauyane ariyadhamma mahathera nauyane ariyadhamma thero bana nauyane ariyadhamma himi bana na uyane ariyadhamma thero
ven
na uyane ariyadhamma thero ven na uyane ariyadhamma maha thero nauyane
ariyadhamma thero dharma deshana nauyane ariyadhamma swaminwahanse
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අරියධම්ම හිමි,Ven Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero, අතීපුජනීය නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම ස්වාමීන් වහන්සේගේ, ධර්ම දේශනා,නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම නාහිමි අති
පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම නාහිමි,නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නා හිමි,නා උයනේ
අරියධම් නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නා හිමි nauyane ariyadhamma maha thero
2015 nauyane ariyadhamma thero books පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම හිමි ( Ven
Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero අති පූජනීය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහිමිපානන්
අතීපුජනීය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම ස්වාමීන් වහන්සේගේ ධර්ම දේශනා . නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම නාහිමි අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම නාහිමි නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා
නා හිමි නා උයනේ අරියධම්
Nauyane Ariyadhamma,Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha
Thero 2015,ven nauyane ariyadhamma thero,most ven nauyane ariyadhamma
theronauyane ariyadhamma himi,na uyane ariyadhamma maha thero,nauyane
ariyadhamma thero pirith,අති,පූජ්‍ය,නා උයනේ,අරියධම්ම,නාහිමි,නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero 2015 Niwanata Maga නිවනට මඟ -
අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම නාහිමි
ven nauyane ariyadhamma thero most
ven nauyane ariyadhamma thero nauyane ariyadhamma himi na uyane
ariyadhamma maha thero nauyane ariyadhamma thero pirith Niwanata Maga -
නිවනට මඟ - Most Ven Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero - අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම මහා හිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ මහා කම්මට්ඨානාචාර්ය, ත්‍රිපිඨකාචාර්ය අති
පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නහිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ විසින් මෙහෙයවන ලද ධර්ම
දේශනා Maha Kammattanacharya,Tripitakacharya Most Venerable Nauyane
Ariyadhamma Maha Thero
nauyane ariyadhamma thero dharma deshana Ven
Nauyane ariyadhamma thero,nauyane ariyadhamma mahathera,nauyane
ariyadhamma thero bana,nauyane ariyadhamma himi | Niwan Magata - නිවනට
මඟට - Most Ven Nauyane Ariyadhamma Maha Thero - අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ
අරියධම්ම මහා හිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ
nauyane ariyadhamma thero dharma deshana

මහා කම්මට්ඨානාචාර්ය, ත්‍රිපිඨකාචාර්ය අති පූජ්‍ය නා උයනේ අරියධම්ම මහා නහිමිපාණන් වහන්සේ විසින් මෙහෙයවන ලද ධර්ම දේශනා
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https://samaggi-phala.or.id/tipitaka/cakkavatti-sihanada-sutta/





CAKKAVATTI SIHANADA SUTTA



Sumber : Sutta Pitaka Digha Nikaya V
Oleh : Lembaga Penterjemah Kitab Suci Agama Buddha
Penerbit : CV. Danau Batur – Jakarta, 1992


Demikian yang telah kami dengar:


  1. Pada suatu ketika Sang Bhagava berdiam di Matula dalam kerajaan
    Magadha. Ketika itu Sang Bhagava berkata kepada para
    bhikkhu: “Para bhikkhu.” Para bhikkhu menjawab: “Ya,
    bhante.” Kemudian Sang Bhagava berkata:”Para bhikkhu,
    jadikanlah dirimu sebagai pelita, berlindunglah pada
    dirimu sendiri dan jangan berlindung pada yang lain; hiduplah
    dalam dhamma sebagai pelitamu, dhamma sebagai pelindungmu dan
    jangan berlindung pada yang lain.

    Para bhikkhu, tetapi bagaimanakah seorang bhikkhu menjadi pelita
    bagi dirinya sendiri, sebagai pelindung bagi dirinya
    sendiri dan tidak berlindung pada yang lain?
    Bagaimana ia hidup dalam dhamma yang sebagai pelita
    bagi dirinya dan tidak berlindung pada yang lain?

    Para bhikkhu, dalam hal ini seorang bhikkhu mengamati tubuh
    (kaya) sebagai tubuh dengan rajin, penuh pengertian dan
    perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia. Seorang bhikkhu
    mengamati perasaan (vedana)… mengamati kesadaran (citta)…
    dan mengamati ide-ide (dhamma) sebagai dhamma dengan rajin,
    penuh pengertian dan perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia.

    Para bhikkhu, beginilah seorang bhikkhu menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada hal yang lain. Ia menjadikan dhamma sebagai
    pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, ia menjadikan dhamma
    sebagai pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak
    berlindung pada yang lain.

    Para bhikkhu, jalanlah di lingkunganmu (gocara) sendiri, yang
    pernah dijalani oleh para pendahulumu. Jikalau kamu sekalian
    berjalan di tempat itu maka Mara tidak akan mendapat
    tempat untuk ditempati dan tidak ada tempat untuk
    dihancurkan. Sesungguhnya dengan mengembangkan
    kebaikan maka jasa-jasa bertambah-tambah.

  2. Para bhikkhu, pada zaman dahulu ada
    seorang maharaja dunia (cakkavatti) yang bernama
    Dalhanemi yang jujur, memerintah berdasarkan
    kebenaran, raja dari empat penjuru dunia, penakluk, pelindung
    rakyatnya, pemilik tujuh macam permata. Ketujuh macam permata
    itu adalah cakka (cakra), gajah, kuda, permata,
    wanita, kepala rumah tangga dan penasehat. Ia
    memiliki keturunan lebih dari seribu orang yang
    merupakan ksatriya-ksatriya perkasa penakluk musuh.
    Ia menguasai seluruh dunia sampai ke batas lautan, yang
    ditaklukkannya bukan dengan kekerasan atau dengan pedang tetapi
    dengan kebenaran (dhamma).
  3. Para bhikkhu, setelah banyak tahun, ratusan tahun dan ribuan
    tahun, Raja Dalhanemi memerintah seseorang dengan berkata:
    ‘Bilamana kau melihat Cakka permata surgawi (dibba
    cakka ratana) telah terbenam sedikit dan telah
    bergeser dari tempatnya, maka beritahukan hal itu
    kepadaku.”Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang itu.

    Setelah banyak tahun, ratusan tahun dan ribuan tahun, orang
    itu melihat bahwa Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam sedikit
    dan telah bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya. Setelah ia
    melihat kejadian ini, ia pergi menghadap Raja
    Dalhanemi dan melapor: ‘Maharaja, ketahuilah bahwa
    Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam sedikit dan telah
    bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya.’

    Para bhikkhu, Raja Dalhanemi memanggil putra yang tertua dan berkata:
    ‘Anakku, dengarkanlah, Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam sedikit
    dan telah bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya. Juga telah
    diberitahukan kepadaku: ‘Bilamana Cakka ratana
    surgawi dari maharaja dunia (cakkavatti) terbenam dan
    bergeser dari tempatnya, maka raja itu tidak akan
    hidup lama lagi’. Saya telah menikmati kenikmatan
    duniawi. Anakku, pimpinlah dunia ini sampai di batas lautan.
    Karena saya akan mencukur rambut serta janggutku, mengenakan
    jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan duniawi untuk
    menjadi pertapa.’

    Para bhikkhu, demikianlah setelah Raja Dalhanemi menyerahkan
    tahta kerajaan kepada putranya, ia mencukur rambut serta
    janggutnya, mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan
    kehidupan duniawi dan menjadi pertapa. Para hari
    ketujuh Cakka ratana surgawi lenyap.

  4. Kemudian seseorang menghadap raja dan melapor kepada beliau dengan berkata:
    ‘Raja, demi kebenaran, ketahuilah bahwa Cakka ratana surgawi telah lenyap!’

    Para bhikkhu, ketika raja mendengar kabar itu, ia menjadi sedih
    dan berduka cita. Lalu ia pergi menemui pertapa raja dan
    berkata: ‘Tuanku, demi kebenaran, ketahuilah bahwa
    Cakka ratana surgawi telah lenyap.’

    Setelah raja berkata demikian, pertapa raja menjawab: ‘Anakku,
    janganlah bersedih dan berduka cita karena tidak ada
    hubungan keluarga antara kau dan Cakka ratana
    surgawi. Tetapi anakku, putarlah roda kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci. Karena bila kau memutarkan roda
    kewajiban maharaja yang suci dan pada hari uposatha
    di bulan purnama kau membasuh kepalamu serta melaksanakan uposatha
    di teras utama pada tingkat atas istana, maka Cakka ratana
    surgawi akan muncul lengkap dengan seribu ruji, roda
    dan as serta bagian-bagian lain.’

  5. ‘Tetapi, Tuanku, apakah yang dimaksud dengan roda kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci itu?”Anakku, hiduplah dalam kebenaran;
    berbakti, hormati dan bersujudlah pada kebenaran,
    pujalah kebenaran, sucikanlah dirimu dengan
    kebenaran, jadikanlah dirimu panji kebenaran dan tanda kebenaran,
    jadikanlah kebenaran sebagai tuanmu. Perhatikan, jaga dan
    lindungilah dengan baik keluargamu, tentara, para
    bangsawan, para menteri, para rohaniawan, perumah
    tangga, para penduduk kota dan desa, para samana dan
    pertapa, serta binatang-binatang. Jangan biarkan
    kejahatan terjadi dalam kerajaanmu. Bila dalam kerajaanmu ada
    orang yang miskin, berilah dia dana. Anakku apabila para samana
    dan pertapa dalam kerajaanmu meninggalkan minuman
    keras yang menyebabkan kekurangwaspadaan dan mereka
    sabar serta lemah lembut, menguasai diri, menenangkan
    diri serta menyempurnakan diri mereka masing-masing,
    lalu selalu datang menemuimu untuk menanyakan
    kepadamu apa yang baik dan apa yang buruk, perbuatan baik dan
    perbuatan buruk, perbuatan yang pantas dilakukan dan yang tak
    pantas dilakukan, perbuatan yang bermanfaat dan yang
    tidak bermanfaat di masa yang akan datang; kau harus
    mendengar apa yang akan mereka katakan dan kau harus
    menghalangi mereka berbuat jahat serta anjurkanlah
    mereka untuk berbuat baik. Anakku inilah roda
    kewajiban maha raja yang suci.’

    ‘Baiklah, tuanku,’ jawab raja. Ia patuh melaksanakan roda kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci. Pada hari uposatha raja membasuh
    kepalanya dan melaksanakan uposatha di teras utama
    pada tingkat atas istana. Kemudian Cakka ratana
    surgawi muncul lengkap dengan seribu ruji, roda, as
    serta bagian-bagian yang lain. Ketika raja melihat
    kejadian ini ia berpikir: ‘Telah diberitahukan kepadaku bahwa
    raja yang melihat Cakka ratana surgawi yang muncul, maka ia
    menjadi Cakkavatti (maharaja dunia). Semoga saya menjadi
    penguasa dunia!’

  6. Para bhikkhu, kemudian raja bangkit dari tempat duduknya,
    membuka jubah dari bagian salah satu bahunya, dengan tangan
    kiri ia mengambil sebuah kendi dan dengan tangan
    kanannya ia memercikkan air pada Cakka ratana surgawi
    dengan berkata: ‘Berputarlah Cakka ratana. Maju dan
    taklukkanlah, Cakka ratana.’Para bhikkhu, kemudian Cakka ratana berputar
    maju ke arah daerah bagian Timur dan raja cakkavatti
    mengikuti Cakka ratana itu. Raja pergi bersama
    tentaranya, kuda-kuda, kereta-kereta, gajah-gajah dan
    pasukan. Di tempat mana pun Cakka ratana itu berhenti, di
    tempat itu pula raja penakluk bersama empat kelompok pasukannya
    tinggal. Kemudian semua raja yang merupakan musuh di
    daerah bagian Timur datang menemui cakkavatti dengan
    berkata: ‘Datanglah, Maharaja! Selamat datang,
    Maharaja! Semua ini milikmu, Maharaja! Pimpinlah
    kami, Maharaja!’ Raja Cakkavatti menjawab: ‘Kamu sekalian
    janganlah membunuh mahluk, jangan mengambil barang yang tidak
    diberikan, jangan berzinah, jangan berdusta dan jangan
    minum-minuman keras. Nikmatilah apa yang menjadi hak
    kamu sekalian.’ Semua raja-raja yang merupakan musuh
    di daerah bagian Timur menjadi taklukkan Cakkavatti.
  7. Para bhikkhu, kemudian Cakka ratana terjun ke dalam lautan
    timur dan muncul kembali setelah berputar maju ke arah daerah
    bagian selatan… (di sana terjadi seperti yang terjadi
    di daerah bagian timur. Demikian pula Cakka ratana
    terjun ke dalam lautan selatan dan muncul kembali
    serta berputar maju ke arah daerah bagian barat… ke
    arah daerah bagian utara… semua terjadi seperti yang
    terjadi di daerah bagian timur).Setelah Cakkaratana menaklukkan seluruh
    dunia hingga ke batas lautan, Cakka ratana kembali ke
    kota kerajaan dan diam, sehingga orang-orang
    berpikir bahwa Cakka ratana telah tetap tidak akan
    bergerak di depan gedung pengadilan di gerbang istana raja Cakkavatti.
    Cakka ratana menambah keagungan istana dengan berada
    di depan gerbang istana raja Cakkavatti.
  8. Para bhikkhu, demikian pula raja Cakkavatti kedua… raja
    Cakkavatti ketiga … raja Cakkavatti keempat … raja Cakkavati
    kelima … raja Cakkavatti keenam… dan raja Cakkavatti
    ketujuh setelah banyak tahun, setelah ratusan tahun
    dan setelah ribuan tahun, beliau memerintah seseorang
    dengan berkata: ‘Bilamana kau melihat Cakka ratana
    surgawi telah terbenam sedikit dan telah bergeser
    sedikit dari tempatnya, maka beritahukan hal itu
    kepadaku.”Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang itu.

    Setelah banyak tahun, setelah ratusan tahun, dan setelah ribuan
    tahun, orang itu melihat bahwa Cakka ratana telah terbenam
    sedikit dan telah bergeser sedikit dari tempatnya.
    Ketika melihat kejadian ini, ia pergi menghadap raja
    Cakkavatti dan melaporkan apa yang telah dilihatnya.

    Para bhikkhu, raja cakkavatti memanggil putranya yang tertua
    dan berkata: ‘Anakku, dengarkanlah, Cakka ratana surgawi
    telah terbenam sedikit dan telah bergeser sedikit
    dari tempatnya. Juga telah diberitahukan kepadaku:
    ‘Bilamana Cakka ratana surgawi telah terbenam dan
    bergeser dari tempatnya maka raja Cakkavatti tidak
    akan hidup lama lagi’. Saya telah menikmati kenikmatan
    duniawi, tibalah saatnya bagiku untuk mencari kebahagiaan surgawi.
    Anakku, pimpinlah dunia ini yang sampai di batas lautan.
    Karena saya akan mencukur rambut serta janggutku,
    mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan
    duniawi untuk menjadi pertapa.’

    Demikianlah setelah raja Cakkavatti menyerahkan tahta kerajaan
    kepada putranya, ia mencukur rambut dan janggutnya,
    mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan
    duniawi dan menjadi pertapa. Pada hari ketujuh
    setelah raja menjadi pertapa, Cakka ratana surgawi
    lenyap.

  9. Kemudian seseorang menghadap raja dan melapor kepada beliau
    dengan berkata: ‘Raja, demi kebenaran, ketahuilah bahwa Cakka
    ratana surgawi telah lenyap!’ Ketika raja mendengar
    berita ini ia menjadi sedih dan berduka cita, tetapi
    ia tidak pergi menemui pertapa raja untuk menanyakan
    roda kewajiban maharaja yang suci. Dengan idenya dan
    caranya sendiri ia memerintah rakyatnya dan rakyat
    yang diperintah seperti itu, yaitu cara yang berbeda
    dengan apa yang mereka ikuti dahulu, menjadi tidak sukses seperti
    apa yang mereka biasa capai di masa raja-raja terdahulu
    yang melaksanakan kewajiban maharaja yang suci dari
    seorang raja Cakkavatti.Para bhikkhu, kemudian para
    menteri, para pegawai istana, para pejabat keuangan,
    para pengawal dan penjaga serta orang-orang yang
    hidup dengan melaksanakan pembacaan mantra pergi menemui
    raja dan berkata: ‘Wahai raja, rakyatmu yang raja perintah
    berdasarkan idemu dan caramu sendiri, yang berbeda
    dengan cara-cara yang mereka ikuti dahulu tidak
    sukses seperti apa yang mereka biasa capai di masa
    raja-raja terdahulu yang melaksanakan kewajiban
    maharaja yang suci. Dalam kerajaan ini ada para menteri, para
    pegawai istana, para pejabat keuangan, para pengawal dan
    penjaga serta orang-orang yang hidup dengan
    melaksanakan pembacaan mantra — semua kami ini dan
    yang lain-lain — memiliki pengetahuan tentang
    kewajiban maharaja yang suci dari raja Cakkavatti. Apabila
    raja menanyakan hal itu kepada kami, maka kami akan
    menerangkannya.’
  10. Para bhikkhu, kemudian raja mempersilahkan para menteri dan
    orang-orang lainnya duduk, setelah itu raja bertanya kepada
    mereka tentang kewajiban maharaja yang suci dari raja
    cakkavatti. Mereka menerangkan hal itu kepada beliau.
    Ketika raja telah mendengar hal itu, beliau
    memperhatikan, menjaga dan melindungi rakyatnya
    dengan baik, tetapi ia tidak memberikan dana kepada
    orang-orang miskin. Karena ia tidak berdana kepada orang-orang
    miskin maka kemelaratan bertambah.Ketika kemiskinan telah
    meluas, seorang tertentu mengambil barang yang tidak
    diberikan kepadanya, perbuatan ini disebut mencuri.
    Ia ditangkap orang-orang dan ia dihadapkan kepada raja dan mereka
    berkata: ‘Raja, orang ini telah mengambil barang yang tidak
    diberikan kepadanya, perbuatan itu adalah mencuri.’

    Lalu raja bertanya sebagai berikut kepada orang itu: ‘Apakah
    benar bahwa kau telah mengambil barang yang tak diberikan
    kepadamu, dan dengan demikian kamu telah melakukan
    perbuatan yang disebut mencuri?’

    ‘Benar, raja.’

    ‘Mengapa kau melakukannya?’

    ‘Raja, saya tak memiliki sesuatu untuk mempertahankan hidupku.’

    Kemudian raja memberikan dana kepada orang itu dengan berkata:
    ‘Dengan dana ini kau dapat menyambung hidupmu,
    peliharalah orang tuamu, anak-anakmu dan istrimu.
    Kerjakanlah pekerjaanmu dan berdanalah selalu kepada para
    samana dan pertapa, karena perbuatan ini berpahala untuk
    terlahir kembali di alam surga.’

    ‘Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang itu.

  11. Para bhikkhu, kemudian ada orang lain mencuri. Ia ditangkap
    orang-orang dan mereka membawanya menghadap kepada raja,
    mereka berkata: ‘Raja, orang ini telah mencuri.’ Raja
    bertanya kepada orang itu dan beliau melakukan
    perbuatan yang sama seperti yang beliau lakukan
    kepada pencuri yang lalu, dengan memberikan dana
    kepada orang itu.
  12. Para bhikkhu, orang-orang mendengar bahwa bagi mereka yang
    mencuri mendapat dana dari raja. Karena mendengar hal ini
    mereka berpikir: ‘Marilah kita mencuri.’ Di antara
    mereka itu ada orang tertentu yang melakukannya.
    Orang ini ditangkap dan dibawa kehadapan raja. Raja
    bertanya kepada orang tersebut:
    ‘Apa sebab kau mencuri?’

    ‘Saya mencuri sebab tak dapat mempertahankan hidupku.’

    Namun raja berpikir: ‘Jika saya memberikan dana kepada siapa
    setiap orang yang mencuri maka pencuri akan bertambah banyak.
    Saya harus menghentikan perbuatan ini, ia harus
    diganjar dengan hukuman berat, yaitu kepalanya
    dipancung.’ Selanjutnya raja memerintah bawahannya
    dengan berkata:
    ‘Perhatikanlah, ikatlah tangan orang ini ke belakang tubuhnya
    dan ikatlah dengan kencang. Gunduli kepalanya dan bawalah dia
    berkeliling disertai genderang yang nyaring ke
    jalan-jalan, ke persimpangan-persimpangan jalan.
    Bawalah dia keluar melalui gerbang selatan dan
    berhentilah di selatan kota. Ganjarlah dia dengan
    hukuman terberat berat, yaitu kepalanya dipancung.’

    ‘Baiklah, raja,’ jawab orang-orang itu dan mereka melaksanakan perintah itu.

  13. Para bhikkhu, pada waktu itu telah banyak orang yang mendengar
    bahwa orang yang mencuri dihukum mati. Karena telah
    mendengar hal ini maka beberapa orang tertentu
    berpikir: ‘Sekarang kitapun harus menyediakan pedang
    tajam dan orang-orang yang barangnya kita ambil
    dengan tanpa mereka berikan — perbuatan yang disebut
    mencuri — kita hentikan mereka dengan kepala mereka kita
    pancung.’Selanjutnya, mereka mempersenjatai diri mereka dengan
    pedang-pedang tajam, lalu mereka, pergi merampok di
    desa-desa, di kampung-kampung dan di kota-kota serta
    di jalan-jalan. Orang-orang yang mereka rampoki
    mereka bunuh dengan kepala dipancung.
  14. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah karena dana-dana tidak diberikan
    kepada orang yang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas. Karena
    kemelaratan bertambah maka pencuri bertambah. Karena
    pencuri bertambah maka kekerasan berkembang dengan
    cepat. Disebabkan adanya kekerasan yang meluas maka
    pembunuhan menjadi biasa. Karena pembunuhan terjadi
    maka batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang,
    sehingga batas usia kehidupan pada masa itu adalah 80.000 tahun,
    akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka
    hanya 40.000 tahun.Selanjutnya, di antara orang-orang
    yang batas usia kehidupan 40.000 tahun ada yang mencuri.
    Pencuri ditangkap oleh orang-orang dan dia dihadapkan
    kepada raja. Orang-orang itu memberitahukan kepada raja
    dengan berkata: ‘Raja, orang telah mencuri.’

    Raja bertanya kepada orang itu: ‘Apakah benar bahwa kau telah mencuri?’

    ‘Tidak, raja,’ jawabnya. Dengan jawaban ini orang itu telah berdusta dengan sengaja.

  15. Demikianlah, karena dana-dana tidak diberikan kepada orang-orang
    yang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri … kekerasan
    … pembunuhan… hingga berdusta menjadi biasa. Karena
    berdusta telah menjadi biasa maka batas usia
    kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga
    batas usia kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah
    40.000 tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan
    anak-anak mereka hanya 20.000 tahun.Di antara orang-orang yang batas
    usia kehidupan 20.000 tahun ada orang yang mencuri.
    Ada orang tertentu yang melaporkan hal ini kepada
    raja: ‘Raja, ada orang yang mencuri’, demikianlah ia
    mengatakan kata-kata jahat tentang orang itu.
  16. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah karena dana-dana tidak diberikan kepada
    orang-orang miskin, maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri…
    kekerasan… pembunuhan… berdusta… memfitnah berkembang.
    Karena memfitnah berkembang maka batas usia kehidupan dan
    kecantikan manusia berkurang. Sehingga batas usia
    kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 20.000 tahun, akan
    tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka hanya 10.000
    tahun.Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan 10.000 tahun ada
    yang cantik dan ada yang buruk, sehingga mereka yang
    berparas buruk merasa iri terhadap yang berparas cantik.
    Akibatnya orang-orang yang berparas buruk ini berzinah
    dengan istri-istri tetangga mereka.
  17. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah karena dana-dana tidak diberikan
    kepada orang-orang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri…
    kekerasan… pembunuhan… berdusta… memfitnah… berzinah
    berkembang. Karena perzinahan berkembang maka batas
    usia kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang,
    sehingga batas usia kehidupan manusia pada masa itu
    adalah 10.000 tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan
    anak-anak mereka hanya 5.000 tahun.Pada masa kehidupan dari orang-orang
    yang batas usia kehidupan mereka hanya 5.000 tahun
    berkembang dua hal yaitu kata-kata kasar dan membual.
    Karena ke dua hal ini berkembang maka batas usia
    kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 5.000 tahun, akan
    tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka ada yang hanya
    2.500 tahun ada yang hanya 2.000 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 2.500
    tahun, iri hati dan dendam berkembang. Karena ke dua hal ini
    berkembang maka batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan
    manusia berkurang, sehingga batas usia kehidupan
    manusia pada masa itu adalah 2.500 tahun 2.000 tahun,
    akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka
    hanya 1.000 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 1.000 tahun,
    pandangan sesat (miccha ditthi) muncul dan berkembang.
    Karena pandangan sesat ini berkembang maka batas usia
    kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga
    batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan pada masa itu adalah
    1.000 tahun, akan tetapi anak-anak mereka hanya 500 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 500 tahun,
    ada tiga hal yang berkembang, yaitu: berzinah dengan
    saudara sendiri, keserakahan dan pemuasan nafsu.
    Karena tiga hal ini berkembang maka batas usia
    kehidupan dan kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga
    batas usia kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 500
    tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak
    mereka ada yang 250 tahun dan ada yang hanya 200 tahun.

    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 250 tahun,
    hal sebagai berikut ini berkembang — kurang berbakti
    kepada orang tua, kurang hormat kepada para samana
    dan pertapa dan kurang patuh kepada pemimpin
    masyarakat.

  18. Para bhikkhu, demikianlah, karena dana-dana tidak diberikan
    kepada orang-orang miskin maka kemelaratan meluas… mencuri…
    kekerasan… pembunuhan… berdusta… memfitnah…
    perzinahan… kata-kata kasar dan membual… iri hati dan
    dendam … pandangan sesat… berzinah dengan saudara
    sendiri, keserakahan dan pemuasan nafsu… hingga
    kurang berbakti kepada orang tua, kurang hormat
    kepada para samana dan pertapa dan kurang patuh kepada pemimpin
    masyarakat berkembang dan meluas. Karena hal-hal ini
    berkembang dan meluas maka batas usia kehidupan dan
    kecantikan manusia berkurang, sehingga batas usia
    kehidupan manusia pada masa itu adalah 250 tahun,
    akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka
    hanya 100 tahun.
  19. Para bhikkhu, akan tiba suatu masa ketika keturunan dari manusia
    itu akan mempunyai batas usia kehidupan hanya 10 tahun.
    Di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan
    mereka 10 tahun, umur lima tahun bagi wanita
    merupakan usia perkawinan. Pada masa kehidupan
    orang-orang ini, makanan seperti dadi susu (ghee),
    mentega, minyak tila, gula dan garam akan lenyap. Bagi mereka
    ini, biji-bijian kudrusa akan merupakan makanan yang terbaik.
    Seperti pada masa sekarang, nasi dan kari merupakan
    makanan yang terbaik, begitu pula biji-bijian kudrusa
    bagi mereka. Pada masa orang-orang itu, sepuluh
    macam cara melakukan perbuatan baik akan hilang,
    sedangkan sepuluh macam cara melakukan perbuatan
    jahat akan berkembang dengan cepat, di antara mereka tidak ada
    lagi kata-kata yang menyebut tentang perbuatan baik — Siapa
    yang akan melakukan perbuatan baik? Di antara mereka
    tidak ada lagi rasa berbakti kepada orang tua, tidak
    ada lagi rasa menghormat kepada para samana dan
    pertapa serta tidak ada lagi kepatuhan kepada para
    pemimpin masyarakat. Kalau seperti sekarang orang-orang
    masih berbakti kepada orang tua, menghormat kepada para samana
    dan pertapa serta patuh kepada para pemimpin, namun pada
    masa orang-orang… yang batas usia kehidupan mereka
    hanya 10 tahun, rasa berbakti, hormat dan patuh tidak
    ada lagi.
  20. Para bhikku, di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan
    mereka 10 tahun tidak akan ada lagi (pikiran yang membatasi
    untuk kawin dengan) ibu, bibi dari pihak ibu, bibi
    dari pihak ayah, bibi dari pihak ayah yang merupakan
    istri dari kakak ayah atau istri guru. Dunia akan
    diisi oleh cara bersetubuh dengan siapa saja,
    bagaikan kambing, domba, burung, babi, anjing dan
    srigala.Di antara orang-orang ini saling bermusuhan yang kuat akan
    menjadi hukum, perasaaan yang benci yang hebat,
    dendam yang kuat serta keinginan membunuh dari ibu
    terhadap anaknya, anak terhadap ibunya, ayah terhadap
    anaknya, anak terhadap ayahnya, kakak terhadap
    adiknya, adik terhadap kakaknya dan seterusnya… Hal
    ini terjadi bagaikan pikiran dari para olahragawan yang menghadiri
    pertandingan, begitulah pikiran mereka.
  21. Para bhikku, bagi orang-orang yang batas kehidupan mereka
    10 tahun itu akan muncul suatu masa, yaitu munculnya pedang
    selama seminggu. Selama masa ini mereka akan melihat
    individu lain sebagai binatang liar: pedang tajam
    akan nampak selalu tersedia di tangan mereka dan
    mereka berpikir: ‘Individu ini adalah binatang liar.’
    Dengan pedang mereka saling membunuh.Sementara itu ada orang-orang
    tertentu yang berpikir: ‘Sebaiknya kita jangan
    membunuh atau kita tidak membiarkan orang lain membunuh
    kita. Marilah kita menyembunyikan diri ke dalam belukar, ke
    dalam hutan, ke cekungan di tepi sungai, ke dalam gua gunung
    dan kita hidup dengan akar-akaran atau buah-buahan di
    hutan.’ Mereka akan melaksanakan hal ini selama
    seminggu. Pada hari ke tujuh mereka keluar dari
    belukar, hutan, cekungan dan gua, mereka akan saling
    berangkulan dan akan saling membantu, dengan berkata:
    ‘O, kami masih hidup! Senang sekali melihat anda masih
    hidup!’

    Para bhikkhu, pada orang-orang itu akan muncul keinginan-keinginan
    sebagai berikut : ‘Karena kita melakukan cara-cara yang
    jahat, maka kita kehilangan banyak sanak saudara.
    Marilah kita berbuat kebajikan-kebajikan. Sekarang,
    kebajikan apakah yang dapat kita lakukan? Marilah
    kita berusaha untuk tidak melakukan pembunuhan. Itu
    merupakan perbuatan baik yang dapat kita lakukan.’ Mereka
    akan berusaha untuk tidak membunuh, hal yang baik ini mereka
    laksanakan terus. Karena melaksanakan kebajikan ini maka
    akibatnya batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan mereka
    bertambah. Bagi mereka yang batas usia hanya 10
    tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak
    mereka mencapai 20 tahun.

  22. Para bhikkhu, hal-hal seperti ini akan terjadi pada orang-orang
    yang batas usia kehidupan mereka 20 tahun: ‘Sekarang,
    karena kita mengikuti dan melaksanakan kebajikan maka
    batas usia kehidupan dan kecantikan kita bertambah.
    Marilah kita meningkatkan kebajikan kita. Marilah
    kita berusaha untuk tidak mengambil apa yang tidak
    diberikan, kita berusaha untuk tidak berzinah, kita berusaha
    untuk tidak berdusta, kita berusaha untuk tidak memfitnah, kita
    berusaha untuk tidak mengucapkan kata-kata kasar,
    kita berusaha untuk tidak membual, kita berusaha
    untuk tidak serakah, kita berusaha untuk tidak
    membenci, kita berusaha untuk tidak berpandangan
    sesat, kita berusaha untuk tidak melakukan tiga hal berikut,
    yaitu: tidak bersetubuh dengan keluarga sendiri, tidak tamak
    dan tidak memuaskan nafsu. Marilah kita berbakti kepada
    orang tua kita, kita menghormati para samana dan
    pertapa serta kita patuh kepada pemimpin masyarakat.
    Marilah kita selalu melaksanakan kebajikan-kebajikan
    ini.’Demikianlah mereka akan selalu melaksanakan kebajikan: tidak
    mengambil apa yang tidak diberikan… berbakti kepada ke
    dua orang tua, menghormat para samana dan pertapa serta
    patuh kepada pemimpin masyarakat. Karena mereka
    melaksanakan kebajikan-kebajikan itu, maka batas usia
    kehidupan anak-anak dan kecantikan manusia bertambah, sehingga mereka
    yang batas usia kehidupan hanya 20 tahun, akan tetapi batas
    usia kehidupan anak-anak mereka mencapai 40 tahun.
    Selanjutnya, bagi mereka yang batas usia kehidupan hanya
    40 tahun, akan tetapi batas usia kehidupan anak-anak
    mereka mencapai 80 tahun; …. anak-anak mereka mencapai
    160 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai 320 tahun;…
    anak-anak mereka mencapai 640 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai
    2.000 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai 4.000 tahun;… anak-anak
    mereka mencapai 8.000 tahun;… anak-anak mereka mencapai
    20.000 tahun; anak-anak mereka mencapai 40.000 tahun; dan
    mereka yang pada masa itu hanya berbatas usia kehidupan
    40.000 tahun, akan tetapi anak-anak mereka akan mencapai
    batas usia kehidupan 80.000 tahun.
  23. Para bhikkhu, di antara orang-orang yang batas usia kehidupan
    mereka 80.000, maka usia perkawinan bagi wanita adalah
    pada usia 500 tahun. Pada masa orang-orang ini hanya
    akan ada tiga macam penyakit — keinginan, lupa makan
    dan ketuaan. Pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini
    Jambudipa akan makmur dan jaya, desa-desa,
    kampung-kampung, kota-kota dan kota-kota kerajaan akan berdekatan
    satu dengan yang lain sehingga ayam jantan dapat terbang
    dari satu kota ke kota yang lain. Pada masa kehidupan
    orang-orang ini, Jambudipa — bagaikan avici — akan
    penuh dengan penduduk bagaikan hutan yang dipenuhi
    semak belukar. Pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini,
    kota Baranasi yang kita kenal sekarang akan bernama
    Ketumati yang merupakan kota kerajaan yang besar dan
    makmur, berpenduduk banyak dan padat serta berpangan cukup.
    Pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini, di Jambudipa akan terdapat
    84.000 kota dengan Ketumati sebagai ibu kota.
  24. Para bhikkhu, pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini di Ketumati,
    ibu kota kerajaan, akan muncul seorang raja Cakkavatti
    bernama Sankha, yang jujur, memerintah berdasarkan
    kebenaran, penguasa empat penjuru dunia, penakluk,
    pelindung rakyatnya dan pemilik tujuh macam permata,
    yaitu: cakka, gajah, kuda, permata, wanita (istri),
    kepala rumah tangga dan panglima perang. Ia akan memiliki
    keturunan lebih dari 1000 orang yang merupakan ksatriya-ksatriya
    digjaya, penakluk musuh-musuh. Ia akan menguasai dunia
    sampai ke batas lautan, tetapi ia menguasai dunia ini
    bukan dengan kekerasan atau dengan pedang melainkan
    dengan kebenaran.
  25. Para bhikkhu, pada masa kehidupan orang-orang ini, di dalam
    dunia akan muncul seorang Bhagava Arahat Sammasambuddha
    bernama Metteyya, yang sempurna dalam pengetahuan dan
    pelaksanaannya, sempurna menempuh jalan, pengenal
    segenap alam, pembimbing manusia yang tiada taranya,
    yang sadar serta yang patut dimuliakan, yang sama
    seperti saya sekarang. Ia, dengan dirinya sendiri
    akan mengetahui dengan sempurna dan melihat dengan jelas alam
    semesta bersama alam-alam kehidupan para dewa, brahma, mara,
    serta para samana, para pertapa, para pangeran dan
    orang-orang lainnya, seperti apa yang saya tahu
    dengan sempurna dan lihat dengan jelas sekarang.
    Dhamma kebenaran yang indah pada permulaan, indah
    pada pertengahan dan indah pada akhir akan dibabarkan
    dalam kata-kata dan semangat, kehidupan suci akan dibina dan
    dipaparkan dengan sempurna dengan penuh kesucian, seperti yang
    saya lakukan sekarang. Ia akan diikuti oleh beberapa
    ribu bhikkhu sangha, seperti saya sekarang ini yang
    diikuti oleh beberapa ratus bhikkhu sangha.
  26. Para bhikkhu, Raja Sankha akan membangun kembali tempat suci
    yang pernah dibangun oleh Raja Maha Panada. Raja Sankha
    akan tinggal di tempat suci itu, tetapi tempat itu
    akan diberikannya sebagai dana kepada para samana,
    para pertapa, para pengembara, para pengemis dan
    mereka yang membutuhkan. Ia sendiri akan mencukur
    rambut dan janggut, mengenakan jubah kuning, meninggalkan kehidupan
    berumah tangga dan menjadi siswa dari Bhagava Arahat
    Sammasambuddha Metteyya. Setelah Raja Sankha
    meninggalkan kehidupan duniawi, ia akan hidup
    menyendiri dan dengan usaha sungguh-sungguh, tekad,
    penuh kewaspadaan berusaha mengusahai dirinya. Tidak lama kemudian
    ia akan mencapai tujuan yang merupakan cita-cita dari
    mereka yang meninggalkan kehidupan duniawi dan hidup
    sebagai pertapa. Masih dalam kehidupan dalam dunia
    ini, ia akan mencapai, mengetahui dan merealisasi
    tujuan akhir dari penghidupan suci.
  27. Para bhikkhu, jadikanlah dirimu sebagai pelita; berlindunglah
    pada dirimu sendiri dan jangan berlindung pada orang lain.
    Hiduplah dalam dhamma kebenaran yang sebagai
    pelitamu, dengan dhamma sebagai pelindungmu dan
    jangan berlindung pada yang lain.Para bhikkhu, tetapi bagaimana seorang
    bhikkhu menjadi pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada yang lain?

    Para bhikkhu, dalam hal ini, seorang bhikkhu mengamati tubuh
    (kaya) sebagai tubuh dengan rajin, penuh pengertian dan
    perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia. Seorang bhikkhu
    mengamati perasaan (vedana)… mengamati kesadaran (citta)…
    dan mengamati ide-ide (dhamma) sebagai dhamma dengan rajin penuh
    pengertian dan perhatian, melenyapkan keserakahan dan
    ketidaksenangan dalam dunia.

    Para bhikkhu, beginilah seorang bhikkhu menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelita bagi dirinya sendiri, menjadikan dirinya sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada yang lain. Ia menjadikan dhamma sebagai pelita
    bagi dirinya sendiri, ia menjadikan dhamma sebagai
    pelindung bagi dirinya sendiri dan tidak berlindung
    pada hal yang lain.

  28. Para bhikkhu, jalanlah di lingkunganmu sendiri, di mana para
    pendahulumu berjalan. Jikalau kamu sekalian berjalan di
    tempat itu maka usia akan bertambah, kecantikan akan
    bertambah, kebahagiaan akan bertambah, kekayaan akan
    bertambah dan kekuatan akan bertambah.Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud
    dengan usia? Dalam hal ini seorang bhikkhu
    mengembangkan Empat dasar kemampuan batin (iddhipada)
    dengan membangkitkan (chanda), semangat (viriya), kesadaran
    (citta), dan penyelidikan (vimamsa) tentang pelaksanaan, usaha
    dan meditasi. Dengan dikembangkannya Empat Iddhipada
    ini, maka bila ia menginginkan, ia dapat hidup selama
    satu kalpa (kappa) atau selama masa kappa di mana ia
    hidup. Inilah yang dimaksud dengan usia.

    Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud dengan kecantikan? Dalam
    hal ini, seorang bhikkhu melaksanakan peraturan-peraturan
    moral (sila), mengendalikan dirinya sesuai dengan
    Patimokkha, sempurna dalam sikap dan tingkah laku; ia
    melihat bahaya sekalipun itu hanya merupakan
    kesalahan kecil dan ia menghindarkan diri dari
    kesalahan itu. Ia melatih diri dengan melaksanakan sila. Inilah
    yang dimaksudkan dengan kecantikan.

    Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud dengan kebahagiaan? Dalam
    hal ini, seorang bhikkhu menjauhkan diri dari pemuasan nafsu,
    bebas dari pikiran-pikiran jahat, mencapai dan tetap
    berada dalam Jhana I dengan memiliki usaha untuk
    menangkap obyek (vitakka), obyek dikuasai (vicara),
    kegiuran (piti), kebahagiaan (sukha) dan ketenangan
    (viveka) batin. Dengan melenyapkan vitakka dan vicara
    ia mencapai dan tetap berada dalam Jhana II dengan diliputi
    kegiuran (piti), kebahagiaan (sukha) dan ketenangan (viveka)
    batin. Dengan melenyapkan piti ia mencapai dan tetap
    berada dalam Jhana III dengan diliputi kebahagiaan
    (sukha) dan ketenangan (viveka) batin. Dengan
    melenyapkan sukha ia mencapai dan tetap berada dalam
    Jhana IV dengan pikiran terpusat dan penuh ketenangan
    batin.

    Para bhikkhu, apakah yang dimaksud dengan kekayaan? Dalam hal
    ini, seorang bhikkhu membiarkan batinnya diliputi oleh cinta
    kasih (metta) yang dipancarkannya ke satu arah, ke
    dua arah, ke tiga arah dan ke empat arah dari dunia.
    Jadi dengan demikian seluruh dunia, dari atas, bawah,
    sekeliling dan di seluruh penjuru dunia dipancarkan
    cinta kasihnya yang tanpa batas, yang mulia, tak
    terukur, yang bebas dari kebencian dan iri hati. Ia pun
    membiarkan dirinya diliputi dengan kasih sayang atau welas asih
    (karuna) … simpati (mudita) … dan keseimbangan batin
    (upekkha) yang dipancarkannya ke satu arah, ke dua
    arah, ke tiga arah dan ke empat arah dari dunia. Jadi
    dengan demikian seluruh dunia dipancarkan
    keseimbangan batinnya yang tanpa batas, yang mulia,
    tak terukur, yang bebas dari kebencian dan iri hati. Inilah
    yang dimaksud dengan kekayaan.

    Para bhikkhu apakah yang dimaksud dengan kekuatan? Dalam hal
    ini, seorang bhikkhu melenyapkan kekotoran batin (asava)
    sehingga pada kehidupan sekarang ini ia sendiri
    mencapai dan tetap berada dalam keadaan batin yang
    suci dan kebijaksanaan yang suci. Inilah yang
    dimaksud dengan kekuatan.

    Para bhikkhu, tidak ada kekuatan lain yang sulit sekali ditaklukkan
    selain kekuatan mara. Tetapi perbuatan baik (kusala)
    yang dikembangkan sendiri (hingga mencapai
    kearahatan) akan merupakan cara yang paling baik
    untuk menaklukkannya.”


Demikianlah yang diucapkan oleh Sang Buddha. Para bhikkhu menjadi
gembira setelah mendengar uraian Sang Bhagava.


http://www.thesangaiexpress.com/buddhism-and-politics-2/


Buddhism and politics

Thangjam Sanjoo Singh
(Contd from previous issue)
In
the Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta, the Buddha said that immorality and
crime, such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred, cruelty, could arise
from poverty. Kings and governments may try to suppress crime through
punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes through force.
In
the Kutadanta Sutta, the Buddha suggested economic development instead
of force to reduce crime. The government should use the country’s
resources to improve the economic conditions of the country. It could
embark on agricultural and rural development, provide financial support
to entrepreneurs and business, and provide adequate wages for workers to
maintain a decent life with human dignity.
In the Jataka, the Buddha
had given to rules for Good Government, known as ‘Dasa Raja Dharma’.
These ten rules can be applied even today by any government which wishes
to rule the country peacefully. The rules are as follows:
a.    be liberal and avoid selfishness, maintain a high moral character,
b.    be prepared to sacrifice one’s own pleasure for the well-being of the subjects,
c.    be honest and maintain absolute integrity,
d.    be kind and gentle,
e.    lead a simple life for the subjects to emulate,
f.    be free from hatred of any kind, exercise non-violence, practise patience,
g.    and respect public opinion to promote peace and harmony.
Regarding the behaviour of rulers, He further advised:

A good ruler should act impartially and should not be biased and
discriminate between one particular groups of subjects against another.
– A good ruler should not harbour any form of hatred against any of his subjects.
– A good ruler should show no fear whatsoever in the enforcement of the law, if it is justifiable.

A good ruler must possess a clear understanding of the law to be
enforced. It should not be enforced just because the ruler has the
authority to enforce the law. It must be done in a reasonable manner and
with common sense. — (Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta)
In the Milinda
Panha, it is stated: ‘If a man, who is unfit, incompetent, immoral,
improper, unable and unworthy of kingship, has enthroned himself a king
or a ruler with great authority, he is subject to be tortured‚ to be
subject to a variety of punishment by the people, because, being unfit
and unworthy, he has placed himself unrighteously in the seat of
sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate and transgress moral
codes and basic rules of all social laws of mankind, is equally subject
to punishment; and moreover, to be censured is the ruler who conducts
himself as a robber of the public.’ In a Jataka story, it is mentioned
that a ruler who punishes innocent people and does not punish the
culprit is not suitable to rule a country.
The king always improves
himself and carefully examines his own conduct in deeds, words and
thoughts, trying to discover and listen to public opinion as to whether
or not he had been guilty of any faults and mistakes in ruling the
kingdom. If it is found that he rules unrighteously, the public will
complain that they are ruined by the wicked ruler with unjust treatment,
punishment, taxation, or other oppressions including corruption of any
kind, and they will react against him in one way or another. On the
contrary, if he rules righteously they will bless him: ‘Long live His
Majesty.’ (Majjhima Nikaya)
The Buddha’s emphasis on the moral duty of a ruler to use public power
to improve the welfare of the people had inspired Emperor Asoka in the
Third Century BC to do likewise. Emperor Asoka, a sparkling example of
this principle, resolved to live according to and preach the Dhamma and
to serve his subjects and all humanity. He declared his non-aggressive
intentions to his neighbours, assuring them of his goodwill and sending
envoys to distant kings bearing his message of peace and non-aggression.
He
promoted the energetic practice of the socio-moral virtues of honesty,
truthfulness, compassion, benevolence, non-violence, considerate
behaviour towards all, non-extravagance, non-acquisitiveness, and
non-injury to animals. He encouraged religious freedom and mutual
respect for each other’s creed. He went on periodic tours preaching the
Dhamma to the rural people. He undertook works of public utility, such
as founding of hospitals for men and animals, supplying of medicine,
planting of roadside trees and groves, digging of wells, and
construction of watering sheds and rest houses. He expressly forbade
cruelty to animals.
Sometimes the Buddha is said to be a social
reformer. Among other things, He condemned the caste system, recognized
the equality of people, spoke on the need to improve socio-economic
conditions, recognized the importance of a more equitable distribution
of wealth among the rich and the poor, raised the status of women,
recommended the incorporation of humanism in government and
administration, and taught that a society should not be run by greed but
with consideration and compassion for the people. Despite all these,
His contribution to mankind is much greater because He took off at a
point which no other social reformer before or ever since had done, that
is, by going to the deepest roots of human ill which are found in the
human mind. It is only in the human mind that true reform can be
effected. Reforms imposed by force upon the external world have a very
short life because they have no roots. But those reforms which spring as
a result of the transformation of man’s inner consciousness remain
rooted. While their branches spread outwards, they draw their
nourishment from an unfailing source — the subconscious imperatives of
the life-stream itself. So reforms come about when men’s minds have
prepared the way for them, and they live as long as men revitalize them
out of their own love of truth, justice and their fellow men.
The
doctrine preached by the Buddha is not one based on ‘Political
Philosophy’. Nor is it a doctrine that encourages men to worldly
pleasures. It sets out a way to attain Nirvana. In other words, its
ultimate aim is to put an end to craving (Tanha) that keeps them in
bondage to this world. A stanza from the Dhammapada best summarizes this
statement: ‘The path that leads to worldly gain is one, and the path
that leads to Nibbana (by leading a religious life) is another.’
However,
this does not mean that Buddhists cannot or should not get involved in
the political process, which is a social reality. The lives of the
members of a society are shaped by laws and regulations, economic
arrangements allowed within a country, institutional arrangements, which
are influenced by the political arrangements of that society.
Nevertheless, if a Buddhist wishes to be involved in politics, he should
not misuse religion to gain political powers, nor is it advisable for
those who have renounced the worldly life to lead a pure, religious life
to be actively involved in politics.
(The writer is President of an NGO called Population Health Institute (PHI). He can be reached at thangjamsanjoo42@gmail.com)

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Dissolving Cataracts with Eye Drops Instead of Surgery?
Filed under: Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 10:36 am

https://www.aao.org/eye-health/news/dissolving-cataracts-with-eye-drops-instead-of-sur



Dissolving Cataracts with Eye Drops Instead of Surgery?



Written by: Dayle Kern

Aug. 06, 2015

The news has been buzzing with reports of a new eye drop that may one day allow for cataracts
to be treated without surgery. But don’t cancel that cataract surgery
consultation just yet. While this research may show initial promise, it
has yet to be tested in humans or approved for patient use.


Chinese and American scientists and ophthalmologists have found that a
natural chemical may stop the development of cataracts, the leading
cause of blindness worldwide. Named lanosterol, the chemical was found
to be missing in children who had developed a rare form of childhood
cataracts. In contrast, the chemical was found in their parents who did
not have the condition. The researchers developed an eye drop solution
made of lanosterol and tested the solution on dogs, rabbits and
synthetic cataracts developed in labs using cells from human lenses.
They found that the drops shrank cataracts significantly in all three
groups.


“If this treatment is successfully tested in humans and approved for
patient use, it could be a promising alternative for people living in
low-resource areas, where it is difficult to access cataract surgery,”
said Ravi D. Goel, M.D., a clinical spokesperson for the American
Academy of Ophthalmology and cataract surgeon at Wills Eye Hospital.
“However, it’s still too early to tell if these eye drops are a viable
treatment.”


The researchers are not yet sure of the exact mechanism by which
lanosterol causes the cataracts to shrink, nor do they know whether or
not there are any risks in using lanosterol clinically in human eyes.
It’s likely that this research will continue to evolve, so stay tuned!

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/297240.php

MNT home

Cataracts may be treatable with eye drops instead of surgery


Published:



Cataracts, a leading cause of blindness in humans, may one day be treatable with eye drops

instead of surgery.

senior eye]
Surgery to treat cataracts is not available to everyone. Treatment with eye drops could be a game changer.

In the journal Nature, a study led by the University of
California-San Diego (UCSD) shows how a solution containing a natural
steroid that can be given via eye drops decreased

cataracts in dogs.

The lenses in our eyes are made mostly of crystallin proteins that have two jobs to do - they

allow us to change focus and they keep the lens clear. Nobody knows exactly how they do this.

Cataracts is a condition that develops when the delicate structure of the crystallin proteins is

disrupted and they start to form clumps and make the lens cloudy.

The lens is also rich in a molecule called lanosterol that is an essential building block of many

important steroids in the body. Lanosterol is synthesized by an enzyme called lanosterol

synthase.

The researchers began to look into lanosterol because they found children with an

inherited form of cataracts had the same gene mutation that blocked lanosterol

synthase.

They had a hunch that perhaps in normal eyes, where lenses are enriched with lanosterol, it stops

the cataract-forming proteins from clumping.

Lanosterol decreased clumping in cataract-forming proteins

The researchers ran three sets of experiments, starting with lab cells and progressing to animals.

First, in human lens cells, the team found

lanosterol decreased clumping in cataract-forming proteins. They then
showed treatment with lanosterol reduced cataracts and increased lens
transparency in

rabbits.

Fast facts about cataracts

  • Cataracts account for 51% of world blindness
  • Most cataracts develop later in life
  • Risk factors include too much sun, diabetes, tobacco and alcohol.

Learn more about cataracts

And, finally, when they tested the lanosterol solution - both in injected and eye drop form - in

live dogs with cataracts, it had the same effect in reducing protein clumping as in the human lens

cells and the rabbits’ lenses: the cataracts reduced and lens transparency improved.

The researchers conclude:

“Our study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens protein

aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract prevention and treatment.”

Should lanosterol in the form of eye drops prove to be an effective treatment for cataracts in

humans, it could be a game changer.

Currently, the only way to treat cataracts is with surgery. But this is not an option that is

available to everyone. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in many countries there are

barriers that prevent patients accessing surgery, and so cataract remains the leading cause of

blindness.

The new study follows another recent success story reported by Medical News Today

where, after receiving an implanted bionic eye, an 80-year-old

man with age-related macular degeneration regained some visual function.



http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-07-23/cataracts-treated-with-eye-drops-in-future/6641418

ABC News

Cataracts could be treated with eye drops instead of surgery in future, study says



Posted




An eye drop tested on dogs suggests that cataracts,
the most common cause of blindness in humans, could one day be cured
without surgery, a study has said.

A naturally-occurring molecule
called lanosterol, administered with an eye dropper, shrank canine
cataracts, a team of scientists reported in Nature.

Currently the
only treatment available for the debilitating growths, which affect tens
of millions of people worldwide, is going under the knife.

While
surgery is generally simple and safe, the number of people who need it
is set to double in the next 20 years as populations age. And for many,
it remains prohibitively costly.

The chain of research leading to
the potential cure began with two children — patients of lead researcher
Kang Zhang of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China — from
families beset with a congenital, or inherited, form of the condition.

Dr
Zhang and colleagues discovered that his patients shared a mutation in a
gene critical for producing lanosterol, which the researchers suspected
might impede cataract-forming proteins from clumping in normal eyes.

In a first set of lab experiments on cells, they confirmed their hunch that lanosterol helped ward off the proteins.

In subsequent tests, dogs with naturally-occurring cataracts received eye drops containing the molecule.

After six weeks of treatment, the size and characteristic cloudiness of the cataracts had decreased, the researchers reported.

“Our
study identifies lanosterol as a key molecule in the prevention of lens
protein aggregation and points to a novel strategy for cataract
prevention and treatment,” the authors concluded.

Cataracts account for half of blindness cases worldwide.

“These
are very preliminary findings,” said J Fielding Hejtmancik, a scientist
at the US National Eye Institute, who wrote a commentary also published
in Nature.

“Before there are any human trials, the scientists
will probably test other molecules to see if they might work even
better,” he said.

AFP

http://www.webmd.com/eye-health/cataracts/news/20150722/success-in-dogs-points-to-first-nonsurgical-cataract-treatment#1

Drops Show Promise as Nonsurgical Cataract Treatment



Eye drops may offer new approach for research, expert says

By Dennis Thompson


HealthDay Reporter




WEDNESDAY, July 22, 2015 (HealthDay News) — Eyes clouded by cataracts may one day be treated with drops rather than surgery, a new animal study suggests.


Today, surgery is the only means of treating cataracts, the leading cause of blindness in the world. Doctors extract cloudy lenses and replace them with artificial lenses.


But researchers have discovered that an organic compound called lanosterol can improve vision by dissolving the clumped proteins that form cataracts,
said study lead author Dr. Kang Zhang, chief of ophthalmic genetics
with the Shiley Eye Institute at the University of California, San
Diego.


Eye drops containing lanosterol completely cleared the vision
of three dogs with naturally occurring cataracts after six weeks of
treatment. The drops improved vision for four other cataract-afflicted
dogs, according to findings published July 22 in the journal Nature.


“The results we have point to a new nonsurgical treatment of
cataracts that can be used for people who might have moderate cataracts
or do not have access to surgery,” Zhang said.


These findings “point to a new direction in cataract research,”
at a time when there’s huge pressure to come up with a better way of
treating cataracts, said Dr. J. Fielding Hejtmancik, a senior
investigator at the U.S. National Eye Institute (NEI).


The aging of the baby boom population is expected to fuel a
huge increase in cataracts, since most occur as part of the aging
process, Hejtmancik said.


It’s already occurring. Between 2000 and 2010, cases of
cataracts in the United States rose 20 percent, from 20.5 million to
24.4 million, according to the NEI. By 2050, that number is expected to
double to an estimated 50 million.


Cataract surgery is a safe and routine procedure, but demand
will rise dramatically. “You’re going to probably double your surgical
requirements within the next 10 years,” Hejtmancik said.


Lanosterol eye drops could provide a cheaper and easier
alternative for cataract treatment in many people, and perhaps prevent
cataracts in someone at risk for developing them, Zhang and Hejtmancik
said.

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/eye-drops-hold-promise-for-reversing-cataracts/



Eye drops hold promise for reversing cataracts



Last Updated Jul 28, 2015 6:47 PM EDT

More than 20 million Americans have cataracts, a leading cause of vision loss and blindness, and right now surgery is the only available option to correct the problem. But new research raises the hope that someday, cataracts could be cured with simple eye drops.

Cataracts
occur when the normally transparent lens of the eye gradually clouds
over due to an accumulation of proteins that malform and clump together.
The condition often develops as people get older; the National Eye Institute estimates that by the age of 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had surgery to remove one.

Now
researchers from the University of California, San Diego have
discovered a promising alternative to surgery: an eye drop that
effectively reversed cataracts in animal testing. Their findings are
published in the journal Nature.

Their work began with the cases of three children who had a
severe cataract condition that ran in their family. The scientists
sequenced the children’s genomes and identified a genetic mutation that
interfered with the production of lanosterol, a naturally occurring
steroid in the body. From that clue, they decided to test whether
lanosterol might have the ability to prevent or even eliminate
cataracts.

They tested it first in lab cultures, then in the
cataract lenses of rabbits, and finally on 7 dogs from 3 species (black
Labrador, Queensland Heeler and Miniature Pinscher ) who were suffering
from adult-onset cataracts, which can happen in canines as well as
humans.

For the dogs’ treatment, they sedated the animals and
injected lanosterol (100 mg)-loaded nanoparticles into the vitreous
cavity of the eye, the area behind the lens which is filled with a
gel-like substance called the vitreous humor. The treatment eyes then
received lanosterol in topical eye drops, one drop three times a day for
6 weeks.

“Treatment by lanosterol,” the researchers write,
“significantly decreased preformed protein aggregates both in vitro and
in cell-transfection experiments.”

dogs-cataract-study-310.jpg

Before and after photos showing dogs’ cataracts diminished after lanosterol treatment.

LING ZHAO ET. AL./NATURE

The
dogs who received the treatment showed notable improvement in their
cataracts, graded on a scale from zero (no cataract) to 3 (extensive
opacity of the entire lens).

“I was pleasantly surprised, even in
principle, this treatment should work,” one of the authors of the study,
Dr. Kang Zhang, professor of ophthalmology and chief of ophthalmic
genetics at UC San Diego, told CBS News.

Other scientists in the field were impressed by the results.

In
a commentary published in Nature to accompany the study, J. Fielding
Hejtmancik, of the Ophthalmic Genetics and Visual Function Branch of the
National Eye Institute, suggested the research could lead to
non-surgical prevention and treatment of cataracts.

“The potential
for this finding to be translated into the first practical
pharmacological prevention, or even treatment, of human cataracts could
not come at a more opportune time,” he writes.

“This is a really
comprehensive and compelling paper - the strongest I’ve seen of its kind
in a decade,” Jonathan King, a molecular biologist at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology who researches cataract proteins, told Science
magazine. “They discovered the phenomena and then followed with all of
the experiments that you should do - that’s as biologically relevant as
you can get.”

Before testing can begin in humans, Zhang said the
team will need to check the toxicity of lanosterol, even though it is “a
product of our own body. Then we will need to formulate the drug as
the most efficient eye drop for a human trial.”

In a Nature podcast, Zhang said he and his colleagues hope to begin human trials within a year.


http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/these-eye-drops-shrunk-cataracts-dogs/

New Eye Drops Can Dissolve Cataracts With No Need For Surgery

A cataract is the clouding of the eye’s lens and accounts
for over half of all cases of blindness worldwide. Though cataracts can
be effectively treated with surgery, it’s costly and requires trained
surgeons. This is a problem for developing countries with poor health
systems. Drug treatments have the potential to be a game changer in
providing cheap and accessible treatment, but there are many hurdles. A
new study that used eye drops to shrink cataracts in dogs may have made
an important step in overcoming them.  



The vast majority of cataracts are age related,
but some can develop the condition as a result of an injury or a
genetic defect. Researchers became more interested in researching how
this defect led to cataracts. Professor Kang Zhang, from the University of California San Diego, and his research team studied two families who had children born with cataracts, known as congenital cataracts.



They found that those with congenital cataracts had
a mutation in the gene that produces a small molecule known as
lanosterol. The healthy version of this molecule usually prevents
cataract-causing proteins from clumping together. In the abnormal
version of this molecule, however, cataract-causing proteins caused
cloudiness in the eye’s lens.



Zhang and his research team went on to develop eye drops
that contained lanosterol as a drug treatment for cataracts. To test
whether the eye drops could reduce cataracts, researchers isolated
lenses from rabbits that had cataracts and placed them in a lanosterol
solution for six days. They found that this reduced cataract severity
and increased lens clarity.



“We went on to test the effect of the eye drops in dogs with
cataracts. We gave them eye drops twice a day for six weeks and found
it had reduced the effect of cataract severity,” Zhang explains to
IFLScience.





Eye drops dissolved cataracts in dogs. Image credit: Kang Zhang



The study, published in Nature, only
lasted for a few months, so the cataracts are likely to have reoccurred
after the drops stopped, Zhang says. He does, however, believe that the
eye drops could play an important role in the prevention of cataracts
in those showing early signs. The ultimate “goal” is to develop a cheap,
effective drug that can be widely used in low-resource settings.



Dr Manuel Datiles, a senior investigator and attending ophthalmologist at the National Eye Institute in the National Institutes of Health,
tells IFLScience that though eye drops have the potential to overcome a
number of limitations of surgery, they won’t be able to replace it yet.



“You cannot compare the improvements shown in this study
with surgery. With cataract surgery, you become 20 years old again; with
this one the lens is cleared up, but your vision can still be murky,”
he explains.



The study is quite important, Datiles says, as researchers
have discovered that a gene in a certain clinical pathway related to
cholesterol production caused cataracts. This is, however, only one of
the many pathways that can be used to alleviate cataracts.



“There are other drops that do the same thing but use
different pathways. This is why we need multifunctional anti-cataract
agents that work together across multiple pathways to clear the lens,”
Datiles says.



“There’s now scope to investigate how we can combine this drug with other ones to better improve treatment,” he adds.



According to Datiles, eye drops will become key in treating
cataracts, as surgery will not be able to cope with the growing needs of
the world’s aging population. There’s already a backlog in many
developing countries as clinics cannot cope with the demand for
surgeries and, as a result, many become blind, Datiles says.

http://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-have-developed-an-eye-drop-that-can-dissolve-cataracts-from-eyes


Scientists Have Developed an Eye Drop That Can Dissolve Cataracts



A whole lot better than surgery. 



BEC CREW

23 JUL 2015







Researchers in the US have developed a new drug that can be delivered
directly into the eye via an eye dropper to shrink down and dissolve
cataracts - the leading cause of blindness in humans. 


While the effects have yet to be tested on humans, the team from the
University of California, San Diego hopes to replicate the findings in
clinical trials and offer an alternative to the only treatment that’s
currently available to cataract patients - painful and often
prohibitively expensive surgery.

Affecting tens of millions of people worldwide, cataracts cause the
lens of the eye to become progressively cloudy, and when left untreated,
can lead to total blindness. This occurs when the structure of the
crystallin proteins that make up the lens in our eyes deteriorates,
causing the damaged or disorganised proteins to clump and form a milky
blue or brown layer. While cataracts cannot spread from one eye to the
other, they can occur independently in both eyes. 


Scientists aren’t entirely sure what causes cataracts, but most cases are related to age, with the US National Eye Institute reporting that
by the age of 80, more than half of all Americans either have a
cataract, or have had cataract surgery. While unpleasant, the surgical
procedure to remove a cataract is very simple and safe, but many
communities in developing countries and regional areas do not have
access to the money or facilities to perform it, which means blindness
is inevitable for the vast majority of patients.


According to the Fred Hollows Foundation,
an estimated 32.4 million people around the world today are blind, and
90 percent of them live in developing countries. More than half of these
cases were caused by cataracts, which means having an eye drop as an
alternative to surgery would make an incredible difference. 


The new drug is based on a naturally-occurring steroid called
lanosterol. The idea to test the effectiveness of lanosterol on
cataracts came to the researchers when they became aware of two children
in China who had inherited a congenital form of cataract, which had
never affected their parents. The researchers discovered that these
siblings shared a mutation that stopped the production of lanosterol,
which their parents lacked. 


So if the parents were producing lanosterol and didn’t get cataracts, but their children weren’t producing lanosterol and did
get cataracts, the researchers proposed that the steroid might halt the
defective crystallin proteins from clumping together and forming
cataracts in the non-congenital form of the disease.


They tested their lanosterol-based eye drops in three types of
experiments. They worked with human lens in the lab and saw a decrease
in cataract size. They then tested the effects on rabbits, and according to Hanae Armitage at Science Mag,
after six days, all but two of their 13 patients had gone from having
severe cataracts to mild cataracts or no cataracts at all. Finally, they
tested the eye drops on dogs with naturally occurring cataracts. Just
like the human lens in the lab and the rabbits, the dogs responded
positively to the drug, with severe cataracts shrinking away to nothing,
or almost nothing.


The results have been published in Nature.


“This is a really comprehensive and compelling paper - the strongest
I’ve seen of its kind in a decade,” molecular biologist Jonathan King
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) told Armitage.
While not affiliated with this study, King has been involved in
cataract research for the past 15 years. “They discovered the phenomena
and then followed with all of the experiments that you should do -
that’s as biologically relevant as you can get.”


The next step is for the researchers to figure out exactly how the
lanosterol-based eye drops are eliciting this response from the cataract
proteins, and to progress their research to human trials.

http://www.aoa.org/news/clinical-eye-care/could-eye-drops-be-an-alternative-treatment-to-cataract-surgery?sso=y

American

Could eye drops be an alternative treatment to cataract surgery?

Researchers have discovered a compound that reverses cataracts and is soluble enough to be used as eye drops, Science reports.



The research could be a stepping stone for research of future treatments.

If left untreated, cataracts can lead to blindness. The only
treatment is surgery to remove the lens, which is commonplace in the
United States but not available in many developing countries.

“Cataracts
in humans have been around as long as humans have been around, and this
is the first time in history that they’re using a nonsurgical approach
for their removal,” says Andrew Morgenstern, O.D., chair of AOA’s New
Technology Committee and a consultant with Booz Allen Hamilton whose
current assignment is with the Vision Center of Excellence at Walter
Reed National Military Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.

Crystallins
in our eyes work as chaperones to help prevent the clumping of
proteins, or aggregation of insoluble amyloids, that cause cataracts,
but crystallins can become overwhelmed as we age. Previous research had
shown that lanosterol, which belongs to a group of chemical compounds
called sterols, reversed cataracts. However, lanosterol was not
water-soluble enough to be included in an eye drop solution and had to
be injected into the eye.

In this new study, researchers tested 32 additional sterols,
focusing on Compound 29, which not only dissolved the amyloids in a lab
dish but also prevented the formation of new protein clumps.
Researchers then confirmed that Compound 29 reversed hereditary- and
age-related cataracts in mice and in human lens tissue removed during
cataract surgery.

Not an immediate option

One limitation of the study is that it was a mouse study, says Sue Lowe,
O.D., chair of the AOA Health Promotions Committee who practices in
Laramie, Wyoming. You can’t ask mice about their visual acuity.

“Every individual still interprets what they see differently,” she says.

Dr.
Lowe explains that a cataract might appear cloudy to the optometrist,
yet the patient says he or she can see well. On the other hand, another
patient may have a clearer-looking cataract, yet complain about poor
eyesight.

An animal model also means the research isn’t “going
anywhere fast,” Dr. Morgenstern says. But it could be a stepping stone
for research of future treatments.

The concept of eye drops as
cataract treatment isn’t new, Dr. Lowe says. A product was developed in
Russia using a compound called N-acetylcarnosine in eye drops to treat
cataracts. It’s available in the United States as a dietary supplement
but is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. It was
patented by the research team in Russia, where most of the studies have
been conducted.

Drs. Morgenstern and Lowe agree that cataract
surgery will likely remain the primary treatment in the United States,
but an eye drop that improves cataracts could be a boon to the
developing world, even if it doesn’t eliminate the cataract altogether.

“Sometimes
the best treatment you can get for a patient is an improvement and not
necessarily a complete cure,” Dr. Morgenstern says. “If you can take an
individual with a 20/200 cataract and you can get them to 20/40
best-corrected vision with a simple eye drop, that’s pretty amazing
stuff.”

The AOA follows all research and new technology closely,
including potential new cataract treatment. Although these eye drops are
an interesting development, more research is needed regarding their
influence on visual health. For more information or help for better
vision, please visit the AOA website.

http://www.livescience.com/51634-eyedrops-could-treat-cataracts.html

New Eyedrops Could Shrink Cataracts Without Surgery



comments (0)
2203 Fri 20 Apr 2017 LESSONS dukkha (unsatisfactoriness), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (egolessness). nowhere in Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of Brahama. Anguttara Nikaya Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta Kutadanta Sutta Dasa Raja Dharma Milinda Panha Aṅguttara Nikāya — The discourses of one additional factor — Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid demolition case,” the IE editorial, at sl. no. II below, rightly points out. But, after a huge delay. BSP to fight Uttar Pradesh urban body polls on party symbol after 22 years
Filed under: General, Sutta Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: @ 2:35 am

2203 Fri 20 Apr 2017 LESSONS


dukkha (unsatisfactoriness), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (egolessness).


nowhere in Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of Brahama.


Anguttara Nikaya


Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta


Kutadanta Sutta


Dasa Raja Dharma

Milinda Panha


Aṅguttara Nikāya
— The discourses of one additional factor —

Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid
demolition case,” the IE editorial, at sl. no. II below, rightly
points out. But, after a huge delay.

BSP to fight Uttar Pradesh urban body polls on party symbol after 22 years

Correct translation of the word Dukkha, is ‘A wheel that turns and doesn’t sit on its hinge correctly’. Or a ’squeaky wheel’.

To think of the word ’suffering’ and how its used in our vernacular,
it conjures up images of hospital beds, extreme pain, wailing and
gnashing of teeth. Anyone who has had a little joy in life knows that
this is indeed not the case.

“Life is conditioned by” or “Life is permeated by” Dukkha. Namely, that
nothing is ultimately lasting or satisfactory - even if for a little
while it may be joyful, pleasant or joyless and unpleasant.

By practicing the eightfold path, and performing/cultivating skilful
acts will more often than not lead to a condition of ‘Sukkha’, or
relative joy and calm.


Meditating on this for a while, it’s rung truer. Life is
conditioned by things being a pain.


In knowing this underlying condition, that ultimately all things must
pass, and ultimately, nothing cognised through the six sense bases - or
the five aggregates of clinging - is truly lasting or satisfying, one
is able to be unhinged from the clinging (thirst, or Tanha) that causes
Dukkha.


https://archive.org/download/AnguttaraNikaya


Index of /35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/

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https://ia600206.us.archive.org/35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/Anguttara%20Nikaya.gif


https://ia600206.us.archive.org/35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/Anguttara%20Nikaya.gif

https://ia600206.us.archive.org/35/items/AnguttaraNikaya/Anguttara%20Nikaya.pdf

http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/bsp-to-fight-uttar-pradesh-urban-body-polls-on-party-symbol-after-22-years/articleshow/58262526.cms


https://de.pinterest.com/pin/549579960760335401/

“It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.”   ~ The Buddha [Cetana Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya]  ॐ lis:
Bellos colores:
:


Aṅguttara Nikāya
— The discourses of one additional factor —
[ aṅg: factor | uttara: additional ]

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/anguttara.html


Aṅguttara Nikāya

— The discourses of one additional factor —
[ aṅg: factor | uttara: additional ]

The Aṅguttara Nikāya contains thousands
of short discourses, which have the particularity to be structured as
enumerations. It is divided into eleven sections, the first dealing with
enumerations of one item, the second with those of two items etc. The
Buddha, having never made use of writing, asked his listeners to be
attentive and to memorize his instructions. In order to make his words
as clear as possible and to facilitate this memorization, he often
presented his teaching in the form of enumerations.


Nipātas


1. Ekaka Nipāta        7. Sattaka Nipāta
2. Duka Nipāta        8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta
3. Tika Nipāta        9. Navaka Nipāta
4. Catuka Nipāta        10. Dasaka Nipāta
5. Pañcaka Nipāta        11. Ekādasaka Nipāta
6. Chakka Nipāta


——————oooOooo——————



1. Ekaka Nipāta

Rūpādi Vagga (AN 1.1-10) - word by word
There are five types of sense objects that overpower the mind of (most) human beings more than any others.
Nīvaraṇappahāna Vagga (AN 1.11-20) - word by word
The five dhammas that nourish most efficiently the five hindrances, and the five most effective ways to dispell them.
Akammaniya Vagga (AN 1.21-30) - word by word
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Adanta Vagga (AN 1.31-40) - enhanced translation
The mind can be our worst enemy or our best friend.
Udakarahaka Suttas (AN 1.45 & 46) - enhanced translation
The difference between a clear mind and a muddy one.
Mudu Sutta (AN 1.47) - enhanced translation
A simile for a mind that’s pliant.
Lahuparivatta Sutta (AN 1.48) - enhanced translation
The Buddha, normally so adept at finding similes, is here at a loss.
Accharāsaṅghāta Peyyāla (AN 1.53-55) - word by word
Practicing goodwill makes one worthy of gifts.
Kusala Suttas (AN 1.56-73) - word by word
What produces and what eliminates wholesome and unwholesome mental states.
Pamāda Suttas (AN 1.58-59) - enhanced translation
Nothing is so disadvantageous as this.
Pamādādi Vagga (AN 1.81-97) - word by word
The Buddha repetedly warns us against heedlessness.
Kāyagatāsati Vagga (AN 1.563-574) {excerpts} - enhanced translation
The Buddha speaks in high praise of the mindfulness directed to the body.
——————oooOooo——————


2. Duka Nipāta

Appaṭivāna Sutta (AN 2.5) - enhanced translation
How we ought to train ourselves if we wish to reach awakening.
Cariya Sutta (AN 2.9) - enhanced translation
What is it, after all, that guarantees harmony, politeness,
honesty, brotherhood in a word peace within a given society? The Buddha
explains here which are the two guardians of the world.
Ekaṃsena Sutta (AN 2.18) - enhanced translation
Here is one thing that the Buddha declares categorically.
Vijjābhāgiya Sutta (AN 2.32) - word by word
Here the Buddha relates Samatha with rāga and cetovimutti, and Vipassanā with avijjā and paññāvimutti.
——————oooOooo——————



3. Tika Nipāta

Kesamutti [aka Kālāmā] Sutta (AN 3.66) - word by word
In
this famous sutta, the Buddha reminds us to ultimately trust only our
own direct experience of the reality, not what is declared by others,
even if they happen to be our ‘revered teacher’.
Sāḷha Sutta (AN 3.67) - enhanced translation
The advice given here is very similar to that given to the Kalamas.
Aññatitthiya Sutta (AN 3.69) - enhanced translation
The
three roots of the unwholesome are explained with their respectve
characteristic, the cause of their arising, and the way to bring about
their cessation.
Uposatha Sutta (AN 3.71) - enhanced translation
In this sutta, the Buddha defines how lay people should practice Uposatha and describes the different types of devas.
Sīlabbata Sutta (AN 3.79) - enhanced translation
Ānanda explains by which very simple creteria rites and rituals can be judged as beneficial or not.
Samaṇa Sutta (AN 3.82) - enhanced translation
Here are the three ascetics tasks of an ascetic.
Vajjiputta Sutta (AN 3.85) - enhanced translation
A
certain monk cannot train with so many rules. The Buddha explains him
how he can do without them, and it works out rather well.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.90) - word by word
The Buddha defines the three trainings, i.e. adhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā and adhipaññāsikkhā.
Accāyika Sutta (AN 3.93) - enhanced translation
Three urgent tasks of an ascetic which are like three urgent tasks of a farmer.
Sikkhattaya Sutta (AN 3.91) - word by word
Here the Buddha gives an alternate definition of adhipaññāsikkhā.
Paṃsudhovaka Sutta (AN 3.102) - few info·bubbles
In
this sutta, the Buddha compares the removal of mental impurities
through the practice to the work of a goldsmith. It is particularly
interesting, because it provides a gradual exposition of the impurities
one has to deal with during the practice, which gives an useful
reference.
Nimitta Sutta (AN 3.103) - few info·bubbles
Do
you find yourself nodding off or becoming overly agitated during your
meditation practice? This is a very useful discourse for the meditators
who wish to balance the two corresponding spiritual faculties of effort
and concentration, together with equanimity. Many of us would benefit
substantially from applying properly these instructions.
Ruṇṇa Sutta (AN 3.108) - word by word
Here
the Buddha explains what is singing and dancing in the discipline of
the noble ones, and then gives his instrunction regarding laughing and
smiling.
Atitti Sutta (AN 3.109) - enhanced translation
Three wrong things, of which many are unfortunately fond, that can never bring about satiety.
Nidāna Sutta (AN 3.112) - enhanced translation
Six causes, three wholesome and three unwholesome, to the arising of kamma.
Kammapatha Sutta (AN 3.164) - word by word
It is demonstrated here that the view according to which there is nothing wrong in being non-vegetarian is erroneous.
——————oooOooo——————



4. Catukka Nipāta

Yoga Sutta (AN 4.10) - enhanced translation
What the Buddha means when he talks about yoga and yogakkhema (rest from the yoke).
Padhāna Sutta (AN 4.13) - word by word
In this sutta, the Buddha gives a definition of the sammappadhānas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 4.37) - enhanced translation
Four simple practices that make one incapable of falling away, right in the presence of Nibbāna.
Samādhibhāvanā Sutta (AN 4.41) - word by word
The
four types of concentration that the Buddha commends. It is quite
obvious here that no clear distinction is made between samādhi and
paññā.
Vipallāsa Sutta (AN 4.49) - word by word
In this sutta, the Buddha describes the fourfold distortion of saññā, citta and diṭṭhi.
Appamāda Sutta (AN 4.116) - simple translation
Four instances in which one should practice with assiduity.
Ārakkha Sutta (AN 4.117) - simple translation
Four things to be undertaken with assiduity, mindfulness while protecting the mind.
Mettā Sutta (AN 4.125) - enhanced translation
Here
the Buddha explains what kind of rebirth one who thoroughly practices
the four Brahmavihāras can expect, and the great advantage of being his
disciple.
Asubha Sutta (AN 4.163) - enhanced translation
The
four ways of practicing, according to the type of practice chosen and
the intensity or weakness of strengths and spiritual factulties.
Abhiññā Sutta (AN 4.254) - without translation
How the Noble Path works with the abhiññā pertaining to various dhammas as a guest-house welcoming various kinds of visitors.
Arañña Sutta (AN 4.262) - enhanced translation
What sort of person is fit to live in the wilderness?
——————oooOooo——————



5. Pañcaka Nipāta

Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.2) - without translation
Here the Buddha defines in detail what he calls the five
Sekha-balas (strenghs of one in training). This sutta is easily
understandable without requiring a parallel translation, if you refer to
the Satta saddhammā Formulae as will be suggested in the text. The Pali-English Dictionary is also available, just in case.
Vitthata Sutta (AN 5.14) - word by word
Here are defined the five balas.
Samādhi Sutta (AN 5.27) - enhanced translation
Five uplifting knowledges that occur to one who practices the boundless concentration.
Akusalarāsi Sutta (AN 5.52) - enhanced translation
Speaking rightly, what should be called ‘accumulation of demerit’?
Abhiṇhapaccavekkhitabbaṭhāna Sutta (AN 5.57) {excerpt} - word by word
How to consider one’s own kamma.
Anāgatabhaya Sutta (AN 5.80) - enhanced translation
The
Buddha reminds the monks that the practice of Dhamma should not be put
off for a later date, for there are no guarantees that the future will
provide any opportunities for practice.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.89) - without translation
The
Buddha reminds us of five things that deteriorate the practice, which
for anyone wishing to progress in the training are nearly as important
to know about, remember and integrate into our lifestyles as the
knowledge of the five standard nīvaraṇas.
Sekha Sutta (AN 5.90) - enhanced translation
Five attitudes that lead to the deterioration of the practice.
Sutadhara Sutta (AN 5.96) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Kathā Sutta (AN 5.97) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Āraññaka Sutta (AN 5.98) - enhanced translation
Five qualities the lead one practicing mindfulness of breathing to liberation in no long time.
Andhakavinda Sutta (AN 5.114) - enhanced translation
Five things that the Buddha exhorted his newly ordained monks to do.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.149) - without translation
Five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Samayavimutta Sutta (AN 5.150) - without translation
Another set of five conditions under which one who has gained ‘occasional liberation’ will backslide.
Vaṇijjā Sutta (AN 5.177) - enhanced translation
The Buddha specifies here five trades which should not be carried on by his lay followers, among which the business of meat.
Gihī Sutta (AN 5.179) - enhanced translation
In
this sutta, the Buddha gives greater precision about the way in which
the four usual sotāpattiyaṅgas have to be internalized in order to
constitute the proper conditions for sotāpatti.
Nissāraṇīya Sutta (AN 5.200) - enhanced translation
This sutta declines five types of nissāraṇas.
Yāgu Sutta (AN 5.207) - enhanced translation
The Buddha gives five advantages of eating rice-gruel.
Dantakaṭṭha Sutta (AN 5.208) - enhanced translation
The Buddha gives five reasons to use a tooth-cleaner.
Gītassara Sutta (AN 5.209) - word by word
This
sutta has been largely overlooked by the various buddhist traditions:
the Buddha explains why he does not allow the bhikkhus to perform any
melodic chanting.
Muṭṭhassati Sutta (AN 5.210) - enhanced translation
The disadvantages of falling asleep without proper sati and sampajañña, and the respective advantages of doing so with them.
Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.241) - enhanced translation
Five dangers of duccarita (bad conduct) and five advantages of sucarita (good conduct).
Duccarita Sutta (AN 5.245) - enhanced translation
Another sutta about the five dangers of duccarita and five advantages of sucarita.
Sivathika Sutta (AN 5.249) - enhanced translation
Five ways in which an ill-conducted person can be similar to a charnel ground where people throw dead bodies.
Puggalappasāda Sutta (AN 5.250) - enhanced translation
Here is a rare warning given by the Buddha about the dangers of placing confidence in anyone.
Rāgassa abhiññāya Sutta (AN 5.303) - enhanced translation
Five things to be practiced for the direct knowledge of rāga.
——————oooOooo——————



6. Chakka Nipāta

Bhaddaka Sutta (AN 6.14) - few info·bubbles
Sāriputta
explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose death will
be unauspicious and one whose death will be auspicious.
Anutappiya Sutta (AN 6.15) - few info·bubbles
Sāriputta
explains what makes the difference between a bhikkhu whose death will
be remorseful and one whose death will be remorseless.
Maraṇassati Sutta (AN 6.20) - enhanced translation
This sutta explains in detail how to practice the mindfulness of death.
Sāmaka Sutta (AN 6.21) - few info·bubbles
Prompted
by the intervention of a deva, the Buddha reveals the six ageless ways
by which bhikkhus deteriorate in kusala dhammas.
Aparihāniya Sutta (AN 6.22) - few info·bubbles
Six dhammas connected to non-deterioration. Another set of very useful dhammas for keen practitioners.
Himavanta Sutta (AN 6.24) - enhanced translation
Six qualities undowed with which a meditator would reportedly break into pieces the Himalayas.
Anussatiṭṭhāna Sutta (AN 6.25) - enhanced translation
This sutta defines what are the six subjects of recollection.
Sekha Sutta (AN 6.31) - without translation
The Buddha explains which are the six dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.
Nāgita Sutta (AN 6.42) - enhanced translation
While
dwelling in a forest grove, the Buddha speaks in praise of modesty,
contentment, unentanglement, and seclusion in the wilderness.
Dhammika Sutta (AN 6.54) - plain texts
In
this sutta, the word tathāgata is not used to designate the Buddha but
in the common sense, which allows us a better grasp of its meaning.
Nibbedhika Sutta (AN 6.63) - plain texts
This
sutta provides an interesting systematic analysis of Kāma, Vedanā,
Saññā, Āsavā, Kamma and Dukkha. Each of these terms is defined and then
described witht the pattern of the four ariya-saccas.
Anavatthitā Sutta (AN 6.102) - enhanced translation
Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anicca.
Atammaya Sutta (AN 6.104) - enhanced translation
Six rewards that should act as a motivation for establishing the perception of anatta.
Assāda Sutta (AN 6.112) - enhanced translation
How to eradicate the view of enjoyment, the view of self, and wrong view in general.
Dhammānupassī Sutta (AN 6.118) - word by word
It
is worth having repeated the message given in this sutta: six habits
without abandoning which it is not possible to practice the
satipaṭṭhānas properly. Quite some cleaning may be advisable here.
——————oooOooo——————



7. Sattaka Nipāta

Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.11) - plain texts
Here are listed the seven anusayas.
Anusaya Sutta (AN 7.12) - enhanced translation
On abandoning the seven anusaya (obsessions or latent tendencies).
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.27) - enhanced translation
Seven perceptions that lead to the long-term welfare of the bhikkhus and prevent their decline.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.28) - enhanced translation
Seven points on which a bhikkhu in training may decline or not.
Parihāni Sutta (AN 7.29) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may decline or not.
Vipatti Sutta (AN 7.30) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her failure or success.
Parābhava Sutta (AN 7.31) - enhanced translation
Seven points of behavior on which a lay follower may meet his/her ruin or prosperity.
Saññā Sutta (AN 7.49) - enhanced translation
Seven inner reflections that are well worth pursuing.
Nagaropama Sutta (AN 7.67) - plain texts with Pali Formulae
Here the Buddha uses an enlightening simile to explain how seven
good qualities that should be mastered by the trainee in order to be
successful work together to prevent the troops of Māra (ie. akusala
dhammas) from entering the fortress of the mind.
Satthusāsana Sutta (AN 7.83) - word by word
Here is a very concise sevenfold instruction to discriminate what is the Teaching of the Buddha from what is not.
——————oooOooo——————



8. Aṭṭhaka Nipāta

Nanda Sutta (AN 8.9) {excerpt} - word by word
The Buddha describes how Nanda, though being prey to fierce
sense desire, practices throroughly in accordance to his instructions.
This sutta contains a definition of satisampajañña.
Mahānāma Sutta (AN 8.25) {excerpt} - word by word
Mahānāma asks the Buddha to define what is a lay follower and in what respect a lay follower is expected to be virtuous.
Anuruddhamahāvitakka Sutta (AN 8.30) - few info·bubbles
Seven
wise thoughts which are truly worth understanding and remembering occur
to ven. Anuruddha. The Buddha comes to him to teach him the eighth,
endowed with which he will attain arahantship. The Buddha then explains
in detail the meaning of those thoughts.
Abhisanda Sutta (AN 8.39) - enhanced translation
Here are eight ways in which all serious disciples of the Buddha create much merit for themselves.
Duccaritavipāka Sutta (AN 8.40) - few info·bubbles
This sutta describes the kind of suffering which one undergoes owing to the non observance of the main precepts.
Saṅkhitta Sutta (AN 8.53) - word by word
The Buddha gives here to his former nurse eight criteria to
discriminate whether a given statement belongs to his teaching or not,
which may happen to be handy nowadays.
Dīghajāṇu Sutta (AN 8.54) {excerpt} - plain texts
Among other things, the Buddha defines in this sutta what he means by generosity.
Vimokkha Sutta (AN 8.66) - enhanced translation
An explanation of the eight vimokkhas (liberations).
Parihāna Sutta (AN 8.79) - without translation
The Buddha explains which are the eight dhammas leading to the deterioration of a bhikkhu under training.
——————oooOooo——————



9. Navaka Nipāta

Nāga Sutta (AN 9.40) - plain texts
This sutta, colored with subtle humor, explains how a bhikkhu of
heightened mind is comparable to a solitary elephant, both of whom are
usually called Nāga.
Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41) {excerpt} - plain texts
Here saññā·vedayita·nirodha, the cessation of saññā and vedanā is presented as a ninth jhāna.
Sikkhādubbalya Sutta (AN 9.63) - word by word
What to do if one is not yet perfect in the five precepts.
Nīvaraṇa Sutta (AN 9.64) - word by word
How to remove the five hindrances.
——————oooOooo——————



10. Dasaka Nipāta

Saṃyojana Sutta (AN 10.13) - plain texts
This very short sutta lists the ten saṃyojanas.
Kasiṇa Sutta (AN 10.25) - word by word
This is the standard description of the practice on the ten kasiṇas.
Girimānanda Sutta (AN 10.60) - enhanced translation
In
order to help Girimānanda recovering from a grave illness, the Buddha
gives a great teaching reviewing ten types of very useful perceptions
that can be developped.
Kathāvatthu Sutta (AN 10.69) {excerpt} - plain texts
The Buddha reminds the bhikkhus what they should not talk about and what they should talk about.
Cunda Sutta (AN 10.176) - some info·bubbles
The buddha explains a deeper meaning of purity, in kāya, vācā and mana, not in rites or rituals and demonstrates that the former underlies the latter, whose inefficiency is made obvious.
——————oooOooo——————



11. Ekādasaka Nipāta

30/03/2555
Mettā Sutta (AN 11.15) - few info·bubbles
Eleven good results that come out of the practice of mettā.
——————oooOooo——————

Bodhi leaf

BSP to fight Uttar Pradesh urban body polls on party symbol after 22 years

By PTI | Updated: Apr 19, 2017, 06.00 PM IST
“There
is a need to work with renewed vigour and missionary zeal through a new
strategy to deal with new challenges before the BSP movement,”
Mayawati said.
LUCKNOW: The BSP today decided to contest the upcoming urban body elections on the party symbol after a gap of more than two decades and stressed on dealing with fresh challenges through a new strategy.

At a meeting of party leaders of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand convened by party supremo Mayawati,
detailed discussions were held on the issue of upcoming urban body
elections in the state, and it was decided that they will be contested
on the party symbol, said a statement issued here.

The
decision has been taken in view of the growth in people’s support in
urban areas as well, the release said.

“The party will try to give good results with the help of sarv samaj (entire society),” it said quoting the party chief.

The BSP has not fought the urban body polls
on party ticket after 1995 but today’s decision was taken following a
demand to this effect from its leaders who felt it was time to make the
party’s presence felt in the state.

Reviewing the
present political situation, Mayawati directed the leaders to increase
the BSP’s support base among the sarv samaj while facing new challenges,
the release said.

“There is a need to work with renewed
vigour and missionary zeal through a new strategy to deal with new
challenges before the BSP movement,” she said.

“Although
the BSP movement is on a solid footing in the state but ever since the
Assembly poll results which have not been in keeping with our hopes and
preparations, casteist and communal forces are upbeat and are spreading
rumours to demoralise our party workers,” the BSP chief said.


“To divert attention from EVM tampering, they are trying to mislead
the people through false propaganda,” she said, adding the manner in
which the BJP is working with the support of the RSS poses a risk to
democracy.

“If the Constitution and democracy are not kept
alive in true spirit, the doors to power will be closed for SC/STs and
backwards, and they will remain deprived forever,” she said.


http://indianexpress.com/…/babri-demolition-case-25-yrs-la…/

Sukla Sen sukla.sen@gmail.com [indiathinkersnet]
To foil-l
BCC indiathinkersnet@yahoogroups.com
Today at 14:53


[”Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid
demolition case,” the IE editorial, at sl. no. II below, rightly
points out. But, after a huge delay.

What, however, of significance here is the observation made by the
Supreme Court in the instant case: “In the present case, crimes which
shake the secular fabric of the Constitution of India have allegedly
been committed almost 25 years ago. The accused persons have not been
brought to book largely because of the conduct of the CBI in not
pursuing the prosecution of the aforesaid alleged offenders in a joint
trial, and because of technical defects which were easily curable, but
which were not cured by the state government”.
That’s perhaps the only silver lining of the dark clouds gathering
over the nation.]

I/II.
http://indianexpress.com/…/babri-demolition-case-25-yrs-la…/

Babri demolition case: 25 yrs later, LK Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi,
Uma Bharti face trial
Criminal conspiracy charges restored, trial moved from Rae Bareli to Lucknow

Written by Utkarsh Anand | New Delhi | Published:April 20, 2017 5:12 am

Uma Bharti on Wednesday (Source: Express Photo by Prem Nath Pandey)

Describing the demolition of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya as “crimes which
shake the secular fabric of the Constitution of India”, the Supreme
Court Wednesday put senior BJP leaders L K Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi
and Union Minister Uma Bharti on a joint trial with ‘kar sevaks’ in
the 1992 case under various charges, including criminal conspiracy to
pull down the disputed structure.

The bench of Justices P C Ghose and Rohinton F Nariman said the
Supreme Court was convinced it must use its power under Article 142 to
do complete justice in the matter and club the trial of Advani and
others with scores of kar sevaks, who are being tried at a special
court in Lucknow, so that a judgment is delivered within two years.

“In the present case, crimes which shake the secular fabric of the
Constitution of India have allegedly been committed almost 25 years
ago. The accused persons have not been brought to book largely because
of the conduct of the CBI in not pursuing the prosecution of the
aforesaid alleged offenders in a joint trial, and because of technical
defects which were easily curable, but which were not cured by the
state government,” the bench said.
While reviving the criminal conspiracy charges against the senior
leaders of the BJP and shifting their trial from Rae Bareli, the court
also ordered restoration of charges against Rajasthan Governor Kalyan
Singh and eight others in connection with the case but exempted Kalyan
Singh from prosecution on account of the constitutional immunity he
enjoys as Governor.

[Video: Ready To Face Any Punishment On Babri Masjid Says Uma Bharti]

“Kalyan Singh, being the Governor of Rajasthan, is entitled to
immunity under Article 361 of the Constitution as long as he remains
Governor of Rajasthan. The Court of Sessions will frame charges and
move against him as soon as he ceases to be Governor,” the bench said
as it allowed a CBI appeal against the dropping of conspiracy charges
against the veteran BJP leaders.

Additional Sessions Judge (Ayodhya Matters) has been directed to frame
additional charges of criminal conspiracy against Advani, Joshi,
Bharti, Vinay Katiyar, Sadhvi Rithambara and Vishnu Hari Dalmia within
four weeks. Accepting submissions by senior lawyer Kapil Sibal and
advocate M R Shamshad, who represented Haji Mehboob, one of the
original petitioners in the Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri title suit case, the
court also directed the sessions judge to conduct their trial on a
day-to-day basis from the current stage and finish it in two years
while allowing accused to recall crucial witnesses wherever required.
“There shall be no de novo (fresh) trial. There shall be no transfer
of the judge conducting the trial until the entire trial concludes.
The case shall not be adjourned on any ground except when the Sessions
Court finds it impossible to carry on the trial for that particular
date. In such an event, on grant of adjournment to the next day or a
closely proximate date, reasons for the same shall be recorded in
writing,” the bench held. Besides, the top court gave liberty to all
the parties, including the prosecution, complainants and witnesses, to
approach it directly if its “directions not being carried out, both in
letter and in spirit”.

Addition of conspiracy charges do not enhance the maximum punishment
of five years in jail, as prescribed under the alleged offences that
mainly related to promotion of enmity between different groups on the
ground of religion. But shifting of trial to a sessions judge take
away one right of appeal from the accused since the leaders were being
tried by a magisterial court in Rae Bareli and, therefore, they could
move the sessions court against the magistrate’s order at first
instance. Their appeal would now lie before the High Court.
There are two main FIRs registered in connection with the demolition —
one each in Lucknow and Rae Bareli. In Lucknow, the accused, chiefly
the kar sevaks, face charges of demolition whereas those in Rae
Bareli, including Advani and others, were being tried for allegedly
instigating the crowd through speeches.

Seeking a joint trial, the CBI had in October 1993 filed a
consolidated chargesheet against both set of accused at Lucknow but
the cases could not be clubbed for want of sanction from the High
Court before setting up a special court to try both FIRs as one case.
In 2001, the Allahabad High Court affirmed the decision that the
government’s notification was invalid due to lack of approval from the
High Court.

Since no new notification was issued by the state government after
this judgment, the Lucknow court dropped proceedings against 21
persons, which included Advani and Kalyan Singh. While Advani and
seven others continued to face trial at Rae Bareli where there was a
separate FIR against them for inciting the mob from a dais near the
site of the incident on December 6, 1992, 13 others, including Kalyan
Singh, were let off completely since no charges were pressed
separately against them at Rae Bareli after their exoneration in
Lucknow.

The CBI appealed against the HC order, and sought trial of all 21
accused under criminal conspiracy charges, apart from other offences.
Allowing the plea for a joint trial, the bench said that the evidence
for all these offences is almost the same and these offences,
therefore, cannot be separated from each other.

It maintained that the CBI’s failure to challenge the 2001 HC order on
invalidation of the notification on the joint trial “has completely
derailed the joint trial envisaged and has resulted in a fractured
prosecution going on in two places simultaneously based on a joint
chargesheet filed by the CBI itself”. The court turned down arguments
by senior advocate K K Venugopal, who appeared for Advani and Joshi,
that the court could not exercise its authority under Article 142 to
take away rights of a litigant when there are substantial provisions
on the particular subject.

“Article 142(1) of the Constitution of India had no counterpart in the
Government of India Act, 1935 and to the best of our knowledge, does
not have any counterpart in any other Constitution the world over. The
Latin maxim fiat justitia ruat cælum is what first comes to mind on a
reading of Article 142 — Let justice be done though the heavens fall,”
the bench said.

II.
http://indianexpress.com/…/babri-masjid-demolition-case-ay…/

Wheel of justice

Supreme Court order in the Babri demolition case holds out hope of
closure. Uma Bharti and Kalyan Singh must step down

By: Editorials | Updated: April 20, 2017 7:05 am

The apex court has ordered that the two separate trials related to the
demolition be bunched together and heard in the same court in Lucknow.

Finally, the wheels of justice are turning in the Babri Masjid
demolition case. The possibility of due process leading to justice and
closure in one of the most seminal cases in India’s political history
seems within reach now, 25 years after the 16th century mosque at
Ayodhya was demolished by Sangh Parivar activists in the wake of the
rath yatra of the-then BJP chief L.K. Advani, shaming a nation and
setting powerful new political dynamics in motion. The Supreme Court’s
order on Wednesday sets back on track the judicial process and lays
down conditions to ensure that the trial is not delayed or compromised
further.

READ | A case each in Rae Bareli and Lucknow, now a joint trial

The apex court has ordered that the two separate trials related to the
demolition be bunched together and heard in the same court in Lucknow.
Splitting the accused into two groups and holding the trial in
different courts in different districts has been an important factor
in slowing down the judicial process. Significantly, the apex court
has restored the CBI’s charge of criminal conspiracy against the
accused facing trial in a Rae Bareli court on the relatively mild
charge of addressing an unlawful assembly.

This group, which includes Advani, senior BJP leader Murli Manohar
Joshi and Union Minister for Water Resources Uma Bharti, will now be
tried for conspiring to demolish the mosque. Kalyan Singh, Uttar
Pradesh chief minister at the time of the demolition, and now the
governor of Rajasthan, has been exempted on the ground of
constitutional immunity. Both Bharti and Singh, however, must
immediately step down in order to uphold the principle of propriety
and the dignity of the office they hold.

READ | Consensus in BJP core: Best if they stand trial, get acquitted

The two-judge bench has ordered daily hearings, sought a verdict in
two years, indicated that the trial judge should not be transferred
and ruled against the demand for a retrial. These directives should
have come earlier, but even if belatedly, they have revived hopes that
the perpetrators, and conspirators, of the heinous assault on the rule
of law and the edifice of secular India, will finally be punished.
Over 2,000 persons were reportedly killed in the nation-wide riots
that followed the demolition.

READ | ‘Let law take its course’: Congress guarded in its response to SC order
The events of December 6, 1992 in Ayodhya were the culmination of the
abdications of several institutions. The Supreme Court has initiated a
welcome process that carries within it a belated opportunity to
rectify this shameful record. When it begins, the trial will be
monitored closely, especially since the BJP is in government in
Lucknow and at the Centre. The quality of prosecution and the
cooperation of state agencies will be key to the smooth conduct of the
trial. At stake is not merely the fate of an important case, but the
ability, and willingness, of the constitutional republic to stay true
to its foundational principles.


Peace Is Doable

comments (0)
04/19/17
2202 Thu 19 Apr 2017 LESSONS The Yoga Suttas of Patanjali: a manual of Buddhist meditation Translation and free adaptation of the article published on the blog “Theravadin - Theravada Practice Blog” (http://theravadin.wordpress.com/).
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 8:50 am


2202 Thu 19 Apr 2017 LESSONS




Dhammarakkhita







The Yoga Suttas of Patanjali: a manual of Buddhist meditation




Translation

and free adaptation of the article published on the blog “Theravadin -

Theravada Practice Blog” (http://theravadin.wordpress.com/).







We consider here the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, a classical text and revered in Hinduism, dated at approx. 200 BC and compared its semantics and vocabulary to Buddhist canonical texts. In

summary, this comparison is quite obvious that the author of Yoga Sutra

was highly influenced by Buddhist philosophy and meditation practice,

possibly contemporaneously to the author.





Moreover,

it appears that a student of Buddhist canonical texts may in fact be

more easily understood than the Yoga Sutra a Hindu practitioner with no

other previous reference parameter practical and philosophical.
 We

do not consider comments here later Hindu / Brahman existing this text,

some of which seem to avoid (or ignore) the original references to

Buddhism in this text.





The

proximity of the Yoga Sutra-style, vocabulary, and subject to canonical

texts in Pali could also mean simply that Patanjali - or whoever it is

that inspired his writings - had practiced meditation from a Buddhist

contemplative community, a community of monks for a time before

returning to Brahmanism and then the movement would have rephrased his

experience in order to add a divine touch to your experience, making

substantial use of technical terms of Buddhist meditation, as originally

framed or developed by the Buddha for the purpose of contemplative

practice.
 But this would be pure speculation, because there is so far no studies or historical finding that supports this understanding.





It

is also possible, even likely, that the Buddhist meditation had so

broadly permeated the practice Hindu / Brahman at the time (after years

of a strong cultural influence began with Buddhist proselytism promoted

by Ashoka the Buddhist Sangha in his reign and Consolidation of India),

that these technical terms as well as descriptions of practice of jhana /

dhyana (meditative absorptions) have it built into common knowledge at

the point of no longer sounding particularly Buddhists.
 Something

similar to what happens today with the adoption of the ideas of

“nirvana” and “karma” in Western culture, in Christian countries.





In

particular, if the Yoga Sutra is read in one continuous line is amazing

how close the text is the thoughts and topics about samadhi, jhana

meditation and Samatha (concentration) as defined in the ancient texts

in Pali Buddhist.





For a first analysis, an overview. Look

at the “Ashtanga Yoga” or the “Eightfold Path of Yoga” (sic) we are

certainly inclined to think the definition of the central Buddha of the

Noble Eightfold Path.





But

instead of following the Buddhist literary definition of the Noble

Eightfold Path, the interpretation of the eightfold path of yoga follows

(to our surprise?) Another description of the Buddhist path: the one

given by the Buddha as he described how he taught his disciples to

practice in your system meditative, which consists of a number of steps

outlined in various suttas of the volume of speeches with Mean Length

(as in Ariyapariyesana Sutta, MN 26, etc.) and remind us much of the way

“yogic” (pragmatic?), as devised by Patanjali at Yoga Sutra.





Then compare these two “paths to reach the samadhi.”





First what is in the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali:



1.                  Yama, on the field conduct, morality or virtue



2.                 Niyama, self-purification and study



3.                 Asana, proper posture



4.                 Pranayama, breath control



5.                 Pratyahara, the removal of the five senses



6.                 Dharana, concentration or apprehension of the object meditative



7.                  Samadhi, meditative absorption





And down the list of steps recommended by the Buddha when asked about the gradual development through his teachings. This list is found in many suttas of the volumes of speeches and Mean Length Long, as in other parts of the Canon:



1.                  Sila, moral conduct or virtue, and Santosa, contentment



2.                 Samvara, containment or removal of the senses



3.                 Kayagata-sati and Iriyapatha, or “Asana” means the cultivation of mindfulness and four correct postures.



4.                 Anapanasati, mindfulness of breathing



5.                 Overcoming Obstacles or five nivarana (sensual desire, ill will, anxiety and remorse, sleep and torpor, doubt, skeptical)



6.                 Sati, mindfulness, keep the object in mind, often quoted along with the comments dharana canonical.



7.                  Jhana, levels of meditative absorption



8.                 Samadhi, a result of absorption, the “realization” of various kinds or Samāpatti





Of course we’re not the first to notice similarities such as the list above. A handful of other authors have noted some more and others less obvious parallels. In fact, even Wikipedia has an entry for Yoga Sutra in which we read:





“Karel Werner writes that” the system of Patanjali is unthinkable without Buddhism. As

far as terminology goes aa long in the Yoga Sutra that reminds us of

formulations of the Buddhist Pali Canon and even more Abhidharma

Sarvastivada Sautrantika and school. “Robert Thurman writes that

Patanjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system

to formulate its own matrix for the version of thought he considered

orthodox (…) The division between Eight States (Sanskrit Ashtanga)

Yoga is reminiscent of the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddha, and the

inclusion of brahmavihara (Yoga Sutra 1:33) also shows the influence of

Buddhism in parts of the Sutras. “



Now

this is where the subject becomes interesting for us here on this blog

and its relevance to the practice of Buddhist meditation.





Does

all the above tells us that the Yoga Sutra is a comment Hindu / Brahmin

or at least a photograph of meditation practices common (influenced by

Buddhism) in the second century BC?





If this is the case, definitely warrants a closer look at. Certainly,

this is because the text is not a Buddhist but shares a “core” of

fundamental ideas on meditation to be able to take it as a sign pointing

to a deeper understanding of some of the terminology in the context of

the first centuries of Buddhist practice.





Thus,

if the Yoga Sutra is read in a Buddhist context, one can have some idea

of how people understood at that time and (ou!) practiced Buddhist

meditation?
 Could this be of some help in triangular or point of which was the direction of former Buddhist meditation?





The

more we know how people practiced a few centuries after the Buddha’s

Parinibbana, the more we can understand how some of his teachings have

evolved and how they were implemented and explained / taught.





What

makes this fascinating idea is that this text would definitely be

filterable through the eyes of a Hindu / Brahman, but he is still

influenced by the “knowledge” of Buddhist meditation apparently so well

received, and the time of his writing had become the mainstream

“contemplative practices.
 This

would show us how and in what particular point, was considered to be

the “essence” of meditation (in addition to being philosophical

discussion of its purpose) in order to be considered universally true,

then that can be “merged” into other forms of practice religious.





Under this view, the Yoga Sutra is actually quite revealing. Consider a few passages that copies may shed light on this idea. Passages like the following really seems a direct copy and paste the Buddha-Dhamma. Some of them even make much sense in a context of religious doctrine theological-in-search-of-the-soul-creationist , but it fits absolutely in the philosophy of liberation through concentration and wisdom. However,

they were considered “truth” and “accepted” so that the author Hindu /

Brahman had no other choice but to incorporate them into their theistic

philosophy, reminding us Western Christians today that due to the common

acceptance of the idea karma / kamma, sometimes find ways to

incorporate this idea in their religious views.





Let’s start seeing the following list of impurities that Yoga Sutra tells us must be overcome:





“Avidya

(ignorance), Asmita (egoism), raga-Dvesha (desires and aversions),

Abhinivesha (clinging to mundane life) are the five klesha or distress.
 Destroy these afflictions [e] You will realize Samadhi. “



[Free translation of the original quote from Wikipedia]



What

impresses the reader as Buddhist before this paragraph is the simple

fact that all these impurities listed are those that no longer are you

supposed to Arahant one, or Awakened (!!!).
 That is, according to the text of Patanjali, the “Samadhi of Conduct” would be conceptually the same as the Buddhist Liberation.





Consider the terms used:





Avijja,

ignorance or mental turvidão is even mentioned in the first place,

while clearly a Buddhist point of view is considered the root of all

problems.





Then

“asmita”, which is superficially translated as “selfishness” by

understanding that had developed in shallow Sanskrit tradition that was

ignorant of the deeper meaning of that term as used in the suttas of the

Pali Canon (or tried to distort to suit your context religious).





This

term Buddhist in particular, pointing to the deeply embedded “notion

that it is” (ASMI-tā) has a clear explanation in the suttas, but here in

this passage and elsewhere, is reduced to a mere “selfishness” as a

moral impurity devoid of its original psychological application.
 In

the suttas “ASMI-Mana” is a deeply rooted psychological tendency that

only a Arahant (Iluminsfo) won [see post “The scent of am” blog

Theravadin].





And

there is also “abhinivesa”, a term the Buddha uses to explain how our

mind comes in and assumes the five groups of attachment.
 The

term “Nives” denotes a dwelling, a house - a simile brought by the

Buddha to show how our consciousness moves “inside” of the contact

experience of the senses and settles as if living in a house (see Sutta

Nipata, Atthakavagga , and Haliddakani Magandiya Sutta Sutta). This

usage is decreased very particular psychological context in Hindu /

Brahmin to denote only an “attachment to worldly life.”But here is worth

questioning whether this was also shared by superficial understanding

or just by Patanjali Yoga Sutra later commentators, who have lost sight

of these implications for not having knowledge of or access to the

preceding context of Buddhism in the Yoga Sutra was written?





And sometimes something awakening about the “sati” Buddhist can also be found. We

have another pearl of a Buddhist point of view, which can be considered

truly revealing: the use of the word “Dharana” in the text of

Patanjali.





This is one area in which our contemporary knowledge of Buddhism can benefit from insights. The

term “Dharana”, which literally means short and “I can hold, carry,

keep (in mind)” is a good description of the task faced in Buddhist

contemplative practice, regardless of what tradition / school

considered.





In meditation we also need to maintain our meditation object firmly in focus in mind, without losing it. This

central feature of the task undertaken when trying to cultivate

meditative concentration, relates as an equivalent to the literal

meaning of the Buddhist term “sati” (which means reminder / recall) and

what is general and now translated simply as “mindfulness” - a

translation that often aboard with questions.





And the reason is as follows, in summary: To maintain the object of meditation in mind you need to remember it. Remember here that means you have to hold, keep in mind, your object of concentration. This

is exactly what makes the faculty of memory, usually being pushed away

by the impressions with new information by the six senses, which, if

penetrated, would result in more or less a wild spin.





If

you are able to sustain their concentration on one point however - or

even as much as you can keep it, one of the laws of functioning of the

mind that the Buddha rediscovered and explained in detail that this

rebate is “artificial” senses the support and focus on a particular

mental object equivalent to a minor sensory stimulus.





As

a result of mental calmness and happiness (piti) and happiness index

(sukha) will arise and show signs of the primeirs a stronger

concentration - these being two of the five factors of meditative

absorption (jhana), along with (i) directed thought (vitakka) (ii)

sustained (Vicara) and (iii) equanimity (Upekkha).





This

is also the reason why is quite logical that samma sati, mindfulness,

has to come before samma samadhi, full concentration in the Noble

Eightfold Path of Buddhism - or, as shown in this case in the Yoga

Sutra, “Dharana” would be the stage immediately prior to “Delivering the

Samadhi.”





In

this case the Yoga Sutra throws much light on the original meaning as

understood in the early centuries of Buddhist practice and can help us

reach a more precise understanding of what “samma sati, right

mindfulness, originally meant or pointed.
 (In Theravadin blog post is a rather plain and that shows how sati yoniso manasikara are coming in practical terms, check this link ).





On

the opposite side, or better, understanding it as a byproduct of the

practice of sati is no other term that would best be described as

“mindfulness.”
 The Pali term is sampajaññā -

which literally means “next-consideration”, eg, be well aware of when

performing an action, then a “clear understanding” of what it does - but

this activity is a result of sati, as having the mind fixed on an

object leads to a refined consciousness that arises when during the next

and keep the mind of an object, creating a clear understanding of the

few sensory impressions that may enter. According to this concept, mindfulness would be a result of sati and not the practice of sati in itself!





But

again, both activities are happening almost simultaneously, even if not

in the same order and then the current use of the term translated can

be done - at the same time a fine distinction, however, has its

benefits.
 You can not

keep an object from the standpoint of mind without which would create or

develop mindfulness in mind - but (unfortunately!) you may be aware of

all your actions that you work without the right concentration - as when

eat an ice cream, in seeking the sensual pleasure, an example of

improper care. This being the fact that unfortunately idealize the interpretations of some Westerners who want to say “Buddhist”.





There

is a difference between deliberately let himself be led by sense

impressions by focusing on their physical pleasures and enhancing /

supporting raga (desire) and nandi (joy) - and, from the perspective of

Gotama Buddha, put his feet on the ground using the mindful memory and

thus experiencing a more refined awareness of trying to get it off the

shaft so that it results in a greater mindfulness, in the culmination of

his experience flows into total equanimity in the face of both

pleasurable and painful sensations.





Thus,

then, we must understand as vipassanā is no way a synonym for

mindfulness (sati) but something that springs from the combination of

all these factors especially the last two, samma sati (mindfulness) and

samma samadhi (right concentration) applied to the relentless

observation of what appears to be in front of (yathabhuta).





You

could say, vipassanā is a name for the Buddhist practice of sati

associated samadhi directed to the view anicca / anatta / dukkha (ie,

generating the wisdom of the vision of these three features) in the

processes of the six senses, including any mental activity.
 Thus, one will find the term vipassanā but the idea of sati in

the Yoga Sutra, Buddhist texts mention as the first term clearly having

samādhi as just the beginning of the journey to insight and access -

for example aniccanupassana .





Finish here the parenthesis. Suffice

to say that any particular reference to the Buddhist philosophy citing

anicca antta or point to the goal of Nibbana, a philosophical

proposition to which the system of Yoga certainly does not refer.





In essence the school of Yoga can be placed below the postures eternalists. So,

while it definitely does need to produce sati-samadhi, definitely does

not need to understand is samadhi anicca, dukkha and anatta - that does

not sound very compatible with the worldview of a eternalistic. Before

this, all spiritual approach arise due to the attempt to interpret

Samadhi Yoga Sutra as marriage or at least as close as you can get from a

“God”, a “Lord.” Something

that sounds quite natural in the end to a theist - such as an

Evangelical Christian would never interpret the reduction of its focus

on mental object unique sensual ecstasy and consequently a mere effect

of a psychological technique, but he would label it “the divine sign of

God touching him. “ It is for

this reason that, according to the Buddha Dhamma, in fact in most

situations we are inclined to be led by the plots of our senses,

including the mental impressions / thoughts / feelings / perceptions -

and therefore tend to limit ourselves to go beyond such experiences also

distorted the merger would allow access to insight and liberation.





Returning

to the context of comparison with the Christian interpretation of this

ecstasy, in short what Patanjali is facing such a theistic

interpretation sounds like someone moving a large portion of vocabulary

and terminology for the New Testament, which gives this ring a Buddhist.





The

funny thing is that this is exactly how many of the contemporary New

Age books are written - an amalgam of the terms of Western Spirituality /

Christian trying to express a view east.
 So

one can imagine that the situation in India was similar to that when

the Yoga Sutra was written addressing the Buddhist philosophy of that

era.





The

remaining Buddhist philosophy with his particular terminology

established by the Buddha himself would have become so pervasive in

religious thought, so to make seemingly trusted what was written on

meditation was a need to borrow or rely on several of these Buddhist

concepts predominant.
 This

had largely been done or even conscious, as most New Age authors

present not even reflect the content of their texts but about the

message you want to spend.





Thus,

below is done in a way a translation - or rather a translation of a

transliteration given the proximity between languages - as was done with

the text of the Yoga Sutra in Sanskrit brought back to Pāli.
 Similar to what has been done this Sutra ( Theravadin available on the blog, in English on this link ),

the exercise helps us see how the same text would sound the Pāli

language, opening then find parallels in ancient Buddhist texts, the

suttas.





However,

having said all that, pragmatism invoked by the text (which is what

makes it so valuable) also indicates much more than a simple textual

exploration.
 As you

read this you can not discern the notion, especially since the position

of a meditator concentration of whoever has written or inspired by this

text, at some point personally experienced jhana and samadhi and wanted

to convey his experience making use a rich language Buddhist meditation

on the same interpretation being directed to an audience Brahman /

proto-Hindu India 200 BC.





Anyway,

check by itself - the pauses between sets of paragraphs labeled in bold

are the author / translator and some important technical terms

Buddhists were deployed, with additional comments made in italics:













Patañjalino yogasutta (Part I of IV)





Introduction





atha yogānusāsana | | 1 | |



And now a statement about the European Union (Yoga)





[1] Read yourself to be the object of meditation, or an instruction (anusāsana) on the meditative practice (yoga).







yogo-citta-vatta nirodho | | 2 | |



The Union (Yogo) is the extinction of the movement of the mind





[2] in this passage denotes vatta turbulence, swirl, activity - literally wandering, circling, confused. In

this context broadly means “meditation is (…) a stop to the busy

mind,” which is very active and its activity suggests a walk in circles.
 Probably the most direct (and correct) translation.







Tada ditthi (muni) svarūpe’avaṭṭhāna | | 3 | |



(Only) then he who sees is allowed (to be) in (his) true nature.





[3]

In the Pāli language Drist the word does not exist, and it would be

something like subsitituída by Muni, which has the same meaning -

except, of course, the fact that “he who sees” further points in this

case the seeing process.
 Here was however used the term Pāli ditthi so as to maintain the link with the term semantic ditthi. The alternate translation is then: “So lets see who (or have the opportunity - avaṭṭhāna) of being in their true and natural.”







Sarup-vatta itaritara | | 4 | |



(Otherwise) at other times we become (equal) to this activity (of mind).







Challenges





vatta Panza kilesa akilesā ca ca | | 5 | |



Activities (Mental) are five, some non-contaminating other contaminants:





pamanes-vipariyesa-vikappa-Nidda-sati | | 6 | |



i)

Experience (Evident-Measurement), ii) misperception (Illusion), iii)

Intentional Thinking / Willing, iv) Sleep / Numbness, v) Memory /

Mindfulness.







i) pamanes, experience or clear-measurement





Paccakkh’ānumān’āgamā honte pamāāni | | 7 | |



What one sees and looks directly (paccakha), taking as a reference - it’s called experience.





[7] Literally: “What comes through direct visualization and measurement is called the experience”







ii) Vipariyesa, misperception or illusion





Micca vipariyeso-Nanam atad-rūpa-patiṭṭhita | | 8 | |



Illusion is the wrong understanding, based on something (lit. “one way”) that is not really.







iii) Vikappa, Thought Intentional / Keen





Saddam-ñāānupattī vatthu-Sunna vikappo | | 9 | |



Intentional

Thinking / Willing is any way of understanding and unfounded assertion

(ie the internal speech, voltiva, partial and willful, based on mental

speculation).





[9]

Alternative translation: “Thinking is cognition without a sound object /

cause noise (vatthu).Think about it, thoughts are no more than sounds,

silent babble that passes through our being.







iv) Nidda, Sleep / Numbness





abhava-paccay’-ārammaā vatta Nidda | | 10 | |



Mental activity in the absence of mental objects is called Sleep / Torpor.







v) Sati, the Memory / Mindfulness





Anubhuti-visayāsammosā sati | | 11 | |



Not to be confused (or not lose) the object (sensory) previously experienced is called Memory / Mindfulness.







Abhyasa-virāgehi Tesam nirodho | | 12 | |



The extinction of these [activities] comes from the practice of detachment / cessation of passions (turning)





[12] We have here the words turn and nirodha in the same sentence! It can not be more Buddhist canon than this! Interestingly, however, is the current use and non-metaphysical terms of this stretch. They are applied in a simple process of meditation, in particular the process of concentration meditation. This can not go unnoticed and goes directly in line with readings jhanic cultivation practices in Buddhism.





 The Training 





tatra-tiṭṭha yatano abhyasi | | 13 | |



The

practice’s commitment to non-movement (ie, become mentally property (at

the same time it parmanece fluid - an excellent description for the

concentration!)







so-Kala-pana Dīgha nirantara-sakkār’āsevito dalhia-bhumi | | 14 | |



Mast this (practice) must be based firmly in a long and careful exercise [excellent point here!]





[14]

This goes in line with what the author wrote the medieval Pali

subcomentários the volume of the Digha Nikaya, where also we find the

combination of the terms and dalhia bhumi - “firmness” and

“establishment” - in the same sentence, denoting ” firm establishment “







diṭṭhānusavika-visaya-vitahāya Vasik-Sannes viraga | | 15 | |



Detachment is the mastery (VASI-kara) of perception, the dropping of the seat (vitahā) by the following (anu-savika, lit.’s Subsequent flow) experience a prey to view.







parama-tam Puris akkhātā gua-vitaha | | 16 | |



This is the climax: the abandonment of the current headquarters of the senses, based on personal revelation / knowledge of self.





[16] Here we turned a Brahman, is this approach that allows the soul to win the seat / attachment, Tanh. And this short sentence has much to offer! At

that moment in history, Patanjali was so convinced of the Buddhist goal

of “opening up the attachment, the seat stop,” which boils down to vita
hā term he uses. However,

it does not give up without a soul which its theistic philosophy simply

collapses and nothing in the text would make it distinguishable from a

treatise on the Buddha Dhamma.
 Thus,

mounted on a meditative Buddhist terminology and guidelines in the

conversation he introduces the term “Puris, which can be read as” soul,

“saying that the more you get closer to its” intrinsic nature “(svarūpa)

and inner body “Puri, or soul, you become able to stop itself this seat

/ attachment.
 Interesting.





Realization - Jhana / Dhyanas 





The first jhana / Dhyāna





vitakka-vicar-Anand-Asmita rūp’ānugamā sampajaññatā | | 17 | |



This

is the alertness (sampajañña) from (the) (Kingdom of) form: a

self-directed thought-based consciousness, which remains (to this) and

inner happiness.





[17] Here we describe an almost identical description of the first jhana used time and again by the Buddha in Pali texts ( see this example ). Indeed,

we have a very beautiful description of the first jhana as a form of

sampajaññatā (fully aware of what is happening), after the plan of the

form (the theme of our meditation is a mental form) and a combined

happiness at the thought we are trying to grasp what itself could be

described as the pure experience of “I am” (Asmita - the term is being

used more loosely in place as would suttas).



However,

the announcement vitakka / vicara the first mention of meditative

absorption is a clear reference to the origin of Buddhist Yoga Sutra.
 Interesting also is the connection that is being done now with sampajaññatā: Think of everything we have said before about sati. If sati is simply the seizure of an object (the paṭṭhāna

of sati, so to speak), so it’s interesting to see how sampajaññā this

case, is identified with the state of the first jhana.
 Could this mean that when the Buddha mentions these two texts in Pali, which implicitly means samatha-vipassana?



This

is not at all a strange idea, like many vipassana meditators, focusing

on objects will be much more subtle quickly show signs of the first

jhana.
 Could it be then that the term “sampajaññatā” was seen as the first result of a concentrated mind?



In

any case, experience will teach you very quickly that when you try to

hold an object in your mind, your awareness of what happens at this time

will increase dramatically, simply due to the fact that his effort to

keep the object is under constant danger during the siege of sense.







saw-Paticca Abhyasa-anno-pubbo sakhāraseso | | 18 | |



(This accomplishment) is based on detachment and previously applied for any subsequent activities.







bhava-Paticca videha-prakriti-layana | | 19 | |



(For example) Based on this existence and the characteristics of self







saddha-viriya-sati-samadhi-paññā-pubbaka itaresam | | 20 | |



This

flower gives himself (based on these qualities) of conviction (saddha),

energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom

(paññā)





[20] The Buddha mentions these five factors when he was training arupa jhana under his previous two teachers. He also mentions how crucial factors when striving for enlightenment under the Bodhi tree. Later,

during his years of teaching, he gave the name of “powers” (bullet) and

explained that, if perfected, would lead to enlightenment.







Tibba-savegānām āsanno | | 21 | |



(For those) with a firm determination reached (this accomplishment, the first Dhyana / jhana).







Advancing in jhana, tips and tricks.





Mudu-majjhim’ādhi-mattatā tato’pi Visions | | 22 | |



There is also a differentiation between (achievement) lower, middle and high







Issar paidhānā-go | | 23 | |



Or based on devotion (devotion) to a Lord (a master of meditation).







kilesa-kamma-vipākāsayā aparāmissā Puris-visions’ Issar | | 24 | |



The Lord (the Master) that is no longer influenced by the outcome kammic impurities and past desires.





[24]

Besides the question whether the term “Issar” found here could be read

as merely referring to a master of meditation (which fits perfectly into

the discussion until verse 27, where it starts to not fit any more) is

likely discussion, including on-line
 translation of the Yoga Sutra by Geshe Michael Roach . The

principle can be interpreted so as to skeptics recalling the first

sutta MN seemed more logical to assume Issar was first used to designate

“the Lord” (ie your God).



But with a little more research found that the term Issar Theragatha us are used to designate the “master”. Interesting is also the word in Pali āsayih replaced simple wish / desire - “Asa.” But

“almost” sounds like “Asava” that would fit even better in the context

of kamma and vipaka Asava.But the idea is very specific (”that which

flows within you, taking it) and may or may not be what was meant in

this passage.







tatra-niratisaya sabbaññatā bīja | | 25 | |



It is this that lies the seed of omniscience unmatched.







sa pubbesam api guru kālen’ānavacchedanā | | 26 | |



This Master from the beginning never abandoned him or abandon





[26] Literally, “not” drop “(an + evaluation + chedana), or abandon, even for a time (short) (Kalena)







tassa vācako Panavia | | 27 | |



His Word is the breath and the clamor of living





[27] On the panavah term, which can be interpreted as “om” in Hindu literature. It

all depends if we read verses 24-27 as involving “Issar” to mean “God”

or simply refer to consider meditation master of meditation you learn.
 If

you do a search in the Tipitaka, you see that when the Buddha used the

term was to refer to teachers (see for example Theragatha)







taj-tad-japp attha-bhavana | | 28 | |



Praying in unison with this, this is the goal of meditation







touch-pratyak cetanādhigamo’pi antarāyābhāvo ca | | 29 | |



So if the mind itself and carries it away all obstacles / hazards:







Vyadha-ṭṭhāna-samsaya-pamādālayāvirati-bhrānti-dassanā’laddhabhūmikatvā’navatthitatāni



Diseases,

skeptical questions, be moved to laziness of attachment, wrong view of

things, not meditative placements, or not yet firmly established in

these.







citta-vikkhepā te’ntarāyā | | 30 | |



These are the causes of mental distractions (they fall due).







dukkha-domanass’agam ejayatv’assāsa-Passaseo vikkhepa-saha-Bhuvah | | 31 | |



The physical and mental pain arises in the body, the shaking of the inhale and exhale conjução occur with such distractions.





[31] Here dukkha and Domanassam mentioned. They also appear in the definition of the Buddha’s four jhana, but in a different direction. The problem described here meditative seems out of place and looks as if someone had to fit these words here. Also

the inhale and exhale clearly has an important role in that they cease

to exist (nirodha) so subjective to the practitioner in the fourth

jhana.
 It is strange that all this is on the list, but is presented in a very different interpretation.







  The Objects of Meditation





tat-pratiedhārtham ekatattābhyāsa | | 32 | |



In order to control these distractions, this is the practice of unification of mind:







metta-karuna-mudita Upekkha-sukha-dukkha-Visayan-puññāpuñña bhāvanātassa cittapasādana | | 33 | |



The

cheerful calm the mind (citta-pasada) is achieved by meditation of

loving kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity in the face of pleasure,

pain as well as luck and misfortunes.





[33] And here we go. The

four brahmavihara, of course, famous for the way Buddha encouraged

monks to practice them to subdue the obstacles and enter the five jhana.
 It

is also interesting as the Tipitaka sometimes aligns them with the

progression in four jhana (which deserves to be studied separately).







pracchardana-vidhāraābhyā go prāasya | | 34 | |



Or the inhale and exhale, which is also an excellent exercise in meditation.







Visayavati go pa-vatta uppannā manaso thiti-nibandhinī | | 35 | |



It helps to stop and control the increasing mental activity that occurs through the power of the senses.





[34

and 35] Wow, now includes Anapanasati to the list of meditation

techniques, the most favorite topics of Buddhist meditation, in addition

to brahmavihara, which “coincidentally” was mentioned in the previous

passage.
 Here

he almost “cites” the benefit of Anapanasati of Pali suttas, the Buddha

gave in the Anapanasatisamyutta Mahavagga, where it is clearly said

that the greatest benefit of Anapanasati is the ability to quiet the

mind.
 Very interesting!







Visoko go jotimatī | | 36 | |



And the mind becomes free from sorrow and radiant.







vita-raga-visaya go citta | | 37 | |



Free from desire for sense objects





[36

and 37] These two passages seem more like a copy of what the Buddha

says in the suttas: “It is almost always remain in these states, O

monks, neither my body or my eyes get tired.” Although it immediately to

Explaining how the mind free from desires and radiant moves away from

the senses, as do the experienced meditators, this passage is important

because it shows that the author knew what he was talking in terms

pragmáticos.Não there is something more important to the induction of

samadhi (ie, jhana) that the resolution of the mind, the balance against

the attack of the senses to the mind.







svapna Nidda-go-jnānālambana | | 38 | |



Of dreaming and sleep,







yathābhimata dhyānād-go | | 39 | |



parama-anu-stop-mahattvānto’ssa vasīkāri | | 40 | |







kkhīa-vatta abhijātass’eva grahīt mani-Graham-grāhyeu stha-tat-tad-anjanatāsamāpatti | | 41 | |



When

it happens in the destruction of mental activity or movement

[Khin-vatta], there is the appearance of a jewel, the emergence of

someone who carries such an object, the object and the carrying of such

an object in itself - and this immobility is what is called a

realization, or state of completion.







tatra-nana-saddattha vikappai sakiṇṇā savitakkā Samāpatti, | | 42 | |



There is the state of realization is “with thought” and marked by impurity of speech of conscious thought, the internal speech.





[42], in the Pali Canon parlance we would say “savitakka-jhana.”







sati-parisuddha svarūpa-suññevattha-matta-nibbhāsā nivitakkā | | 43 | |



(However)

there is a state of achievement without thinking (nirvitakka) with full

attention and clearer that it is the nature of emptiness without a

voice.





[43] parisuddham sati is obviously the name the Buddha gave to the fourth jhana. It

seems that the author tries to show us the range of four jhana,

pointing to the criteria of the first, and then, in contrast to the

characteristics of the fourth jhana again using the terminology of the

Pali suttas.







etadeva savic Nirvicārā ca-sukkhuma visaya akkhātā | | 44 | |



Likewise, the state with and without research and consideration (vicara) is judged by subtlety of the object.





[44] Here we are somewhat hampered by the language, and tempted to ask: by whom discerned before the non-self (anatta)?







sukkhuma-visayatta c’āliga-pary’avasānam | | 45 | |



It culminates in a subtle object with no features







tā eva sa-Bijo samādhi | | 46 | |



But even this is a samadhi with seed / question.







Nirvicārā-visārad’ajjhatta-pasado | | 47 | |



Happiness

is attained with the inner conviction without regard to the

concentration already (vicara, which is paired with vitakka)







itabharā paññā tatra | | 48 | |



In this way, the truth is filled with wisdom.







sut’ānumāna paññāyā-anna-visaya vises’atthatā | | 49 | |



And this wisdom is of a different kind of knowledge acquired through learning.







taj-jo-sakhāro’ñña Samkhara-paibaddhī | | 50 | |



Such activity (meditative and induced) obstructs born (all) other activities.







tassāpi nirodha Sabba-nirodha nibbījo samādhi | | 51 | |



With the extinction of it all is also stopped - and this is the root-without-samadhi (samadhi-unborn)





[51]

This last sentence sounds more like a reporter who, after being invited

to a very important meeting, is eager to share what he heard from

relevant sources.



Here

we are given a definition, in fact, the definition of the Buddha

“phalasamāpatti” - a state of jhana, which can only happen after someone

has had a realization that the particular insight nirvanic, giving you

access to that which is samadhi no “seeds” (nibbīja).



This

whole concept fits nicely into a row of theistic argument, and no

attempt is being made here in the final set of samadhi, to explain it.



Did

the Buddhists speak of this matter so that among the philosophical

circles “mainstream” of the time it was automatically understood as “the

highest you can get,” and the argument was so powerful that, despite

not fit in the school already thinking of the times (an ancient

Hinduism) was considered indisputable?



Hard to say. This

argument appears in the Sutta Ratanasutta Nipata.Vemos this final

state, without seeds, as something that would target when trying to

“Sanna-vedayita-nirodha” cessation of perception and feeling, a

realization of the Buddha described as possible Arahants Anagami for

that, after entering the eighth jhana sequentially finally leave the

activity more subtle (the sankhara) back.







Patanjali Yoga viracite-iti-samadhi sutta pahamo-pated | | |



This is the first chapter on the Samadhi Yoga Sutra of Patanjali.


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2201 Wed 18 2017 LESSON Source for adaptation and translation http://theravadin.wordpress.com/2010/08/28/the-yoga-sutra-a-handbook-on-buddhist-meditation/
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2201 Wed 18 2017 LESSON






Source for adaptation and translation http://theravadin.wordpress.com/2010/08/28/the-yoga-sutra-a-handbook-on-buddhist-meditation/













Source for adaptation and translation http://theravadin.wordpress.com/2010/08/28/the-yoga-sutra-a-handbook-on-buddhist-meditation/



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http://yoga.org.nz/postures.htm



Main Page

Welcome to our yoga postures section. Here you will find



yoga moves that are broken down to the bare basics with colour photos



to match. We also have state of the art flash yoga animation technology that you can use to view these moves in full screen size, full colour and with full instruction.





Yogic exercises cater to the needs of each individual



according to his or her specific needs and physical condition. They



involve vertical, horizontal, and cyclical movements, which provide



energy to the system by directing the blood supply to the areas of the



body which need it most.

In yoga, each cell is observed, attended to, and



provided with a fresh supply of blood, allowing it to function smoothly.



The mind is naturally active and dynamic, while the innerself is



luminous. In this section we will give you plenty of yoga images and



instruction.



Breathing Pose
 
Arm Stretch
 
Kneeing Twist

Breathing Pose


The simple act of learning to control the breath





has a number of beneficial effects on your wellbeing, ranging from





increasing your energy, to improved relaxation into sleep. It purifies





the body by flushing away the gaseous by products of metabolism and will





also help you to remain calm in the face of the challenges that we





encounter in our everyday lives.

Control of the breath is an essential element in





the art of yoga. When bringing the air in to the abdomen, do not to puff





the stomach out, but pull the air into it while extending the inside





wall. By harnessing the power of the breath the mind can be stilled and





can be prepared for your Yoga practise.





Instruction Table Breathing Basics
1                              


   
Sit in a simple cross-legged position on



the floor. If you don’t feel comfortable in this position place a folded



blanket under your buttocks. 


Place your right hand on the rib cage and your left hand on your abdomen 


Inhale



slowly through the nose feeling the breath filling the abdomen,



bringing it slowly into the rib cage, then the upper chest. 


Exhaling



softly feeling the breath leave the abdomen first, then the ribs and



lastly the upper chest. Observe the space at the end of the exhale
 
2                               


Now move hands so your forearms come to a comfortable position




resting on your knees and continue the breathing with a relaxed rhythm.

Continue with a flowing controlled breath in your own time.

Yoga breathing is also call Pranayama . Many say that Pranayama (Rhythmic control of breath) is one of the bests medicines in the world .

Right click the link and save as to download a beginners breathing routine . Then watch in windows media player.

Click the BIG play button in the middle below. To watch a Pranayama Breathing overview .

Please visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t7WFq17NxWA&feature=player_embedded#at=24

 

The Virasana Arm/Shoulder Stretch


Hero Pose

The purpose of this pose is to help give the entire





body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It improves





strength and endurance and helps to control your breathing in





conjunction with the movements of the body.

It eases and stimulates the joints especially the





knees, ankles and shoulders. It reduces and alleviates backache and





improves the circulation of the entire body.





Instruction Table
1                        





Come in to a position on your hands and your 


knees with your knees together and your feet slightly wider than hip width apart. Your big 


toes & little toes pressing firmly into the floor
 
2                        





Push back with your hands & sit between your



buttocks on the floor, make sure you roll your calf muscles out wards so



your not sitting on them.
 
3                        


Make sure the inner calves are touching the outer thighs and your ankles are outside your buttocks, arms resting at the sides.
 
4                        


Inhale as you slowly raise your arms to shoulder height, shoulders down.
 
5                        


Exhale lengthen out through the fingertips & turn your palms to the roof. Inhale stretch your arms overhead.
 
6                        


Interlock the fingers. Slowly exhaling turn the palms



towards the ceiling, and with a powerful push lift up from the belly



into your chest and shoulders.
 
7                        


Exhale bring your hands down in a smooth continuance motion….
 
8                        


Now bringing your arms interlocking behind your back



with straight arms, being careful not to roll the shoulders forward,



squeezing the shoulder blades together and opening the chest on the



front of the body.
 
9                        


Inhale hands back to the side


Repeat 2-3 more times

  Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vvG-lekx64I&feature=player_embedded

Kneeing Twist Pose

Regular practice of the kneeling twist pose





will aid in your ability to rotate the spine and upper torso more





effectively, while increasing the flexibility and strength in your back





and abdominal muscles. It also massages, stimulates and rejuvenates the





internal abdominal organs.

This pose is a good beginners pose and will get you ready for more advanced twists.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                              


   

Sit on your heals with your knees together, the tops of the feet




pressing firmly into the ground. Your head, shoulders, and hips should




be in one straight line.

Arms relaxed by the side keep your base firm by contracting your buttocks.

 
2                               


Inhale, extending the spine upwards, exhale twist around to the




right, placing your left hand on the outside of your right thigh,




turning the head in the direction of the twist, but keeping the head and




shoulders relaxed.

Take a few breaths here, keeping the stomach soft and the eyes soft.

Repeat on the other side

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=91MT6kmP7zo&feature=player_embedded

 

Triangle Pose
Tree
Warrior

The Triangle Pose

Triangle pose tones the leg muscles, spinal nerves and abdominal organs; it contributes towards a strong healthy lower back.

The triangle gives an excellent and complete stretch


throughout the entire body.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                


Align yourself in mountain pose. 


Continuing with your smooth


flowing breath
 
2                


Inhale deeply and jump your feet out landing approx



1.2-1.5m apart. your feet need to be in line and pointing forward at



right angles. Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that they



are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle of



your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead.
 
3                


Now turn your right foot out while keeping your hips to



the front, and turn your left foot in from 90 to 70 degrees, by pivoting



on your heel. Insure your right heel is in line with the instep of the



left foot.


This is important as it sets the base for this pose.
 
4                


The kneecaps and thighs are pulling up,



simultaneously pushing downward through your feet into the floor.



Inhale, extend the spine, exhale as you bend to the right, pushing out



from the hips, through the right arm…
 
5                


Taking your right hand to a comfortable position on your



leg, your left arm coming up to straight, moving down as far as



possible without turning the hips or torso. Keep the thighs firm and



rolling around towards the buttocks, moving the left hip back and open



the chest.
 
6                


Inhale, extend the neck and spine, exhale, turn your head to look up at your left hand.


Keep



your head, your buttocks and your heels in one straight line,not



looking down with you body, keep opening your whole body up.


Breathe easy.

Click here to view the Triangle pose

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tutu7aE2dBI&feature=player_embedded

The Tree Pose

This pose harnesses the powers of mental concentration, while




allowing you to calm the mind. It develops balance and stability, and




strengthens the legs and feet, also increasing flexibility in the hips




and knees.

The tree pose is a balance pose incorporating three lines of




energy, emitting from the centre outwards. One line proceeds down the




straight leg, one line extends up the spine and out the fingertips, and




the third moves outward through the bent knee.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                


  
Align yourself in mountain pose. 


Continuing with your smooth


flowing breath
 
2                


On your next inhale; shift the bulk of your weight onto



your left foot. Exhale bend the right knee, and assisting with your



hand, place the sole of your right foot as high as possible into the



left inner thigh, with toes pointing down, steady yourself, and 


breathe easy.
 
3                


Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that



they are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle



of your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead. Keep completely



focused on the pose.
 
4                


Now bring your palms together in prayer



position. Keeping your eyes focused on a point in front of you, will



assist your balance.
 
5                


Inhale as you raise your arms overhead keeping your palms together and stretching upwards through the fingertips. 


Keep working your right knee back and contracting your buttocks muscles in and down.


Feel your abdomen plane and hips facing straight ahead, while lifting out of the waist.

 
Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V_V4gM4ExLI&feature=player_embedded< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />

The Warrior Pose


Virabhadra

The Warrior pose is




named after the mythic warrior-sage, Virabhadra. This challenging pose




strengthens the entire body while improving mental capacity and self




control.

It builds, shapes and tones the entire lower body. It tones the




abdominal section and helps to prevent, reduce and eliminate back pain.




The entire upper body -front and back- is worked and doing this pose




increases the capacity of the respiratory system.

To view in flash - click the image below




Instruction Table
1                




   
Stand in mountain pose continuing with your smooth flowing breath.
 
2                


Jump your feet sides ways and sweep your arms out to the side so your




ankles are below your wrists. Establish your foundation, by pulling




your knees and thighs up, tucking your tailbone under, pushing your feet




firmly into the floor.


Visualise




an imaginary line running vertically down the centre of your body,




dropping your shoulders. Squeeze your arms and legs away from the




centreline.

 
3                


Keep an awareness of this line as you turn your right



foot out to 90 degrees and turn your left foot in to 70 degrees. Ensure



the heel of your front foot aligns with arch of your back foot, hips



facing forward.


If your body wants to turn off centre, counter-act it by pushing simultaneously in opposite directions from the centre line.
 
4                


Inhale, an as you exhale bend your right



leg, pulling up with the outside and inside of the thigh to form a right



angle at the knee. Only go as low as you can with out turning your hips



off centre.


Ideally



you want your knee directly above your ankle with you leg coming



vertically out of the floor like pillar. Keep the power flowing through



the back leg into the floor.
 
5                


Inhale lift the spine; exhale turn your head to look over your right arm. Take a few deep breaths through the nose.

Hold the pose and breathe smooth.

Reverse the procedure back to mountain pose and repeat back to the other side.

 

  Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PVX6hATjfk&feature=player_embedded

 
Mountain Pose
Prayer Pose
Shrug

Mountain Yoga Pose

The Mountain Pose is one of the most important poses in yoga. It is the start and finish point of all standing poses.

When standing in mountain pose, the mind is quiet,





and the body strong and still, like a mountain. This is a pose you can





practise in your daily life, practising to stand correctly will have a





profound influence on your physical and mental well being.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                 


   Moutain Pose 1

Stand with your feet hip width apart, so the outsides of the feet are almost parallel edged.

Press and spread the toes into the floor. Feel the weight of your




body distributed evenly through your feet, from the toes to the heels,




keep pressing firmly into the floor.

 
2                 


Moutain Posture 2
Lift the kneecaps up by contracting the front thigh



muscles, but not locking the backs of the knees. Pull up with the back



of the thighs, and activate the hip and buttocks to level the pelvis. 


 
 
3                 


Mountain Poses Back
Your hips should be directly over your knees, and your



knees over your ankles. This gives you a stable foundation and by



positioning the pelvis properly, keeps the spine healthy.
 
4                 


Now extend the spine, by slowly inhaling, lifting up




through the legs as you lift the ribcage, opening the chest and dropping




the shoulders down, extending the neck, keeping the jaw and eyes soft.

 
5                                                                              


    Bring the shoulder blades into the back, to support the ribcage. Breathe slowly and softly.

Keep your head directly over your shoulders, and look at eye level at a point in front of you.


Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bz1SWd-cihA&feature=player_embedded
 

The Prayer Pose

This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a




key movement to more advanced poses. This pose will teach you how to




push from under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle




group of the back. A key movement in a lot of yoga poses.

It strengthens and aligns the upper body while




releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,




which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the




abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1                


   
Centre yourself in mountain pose and take a


few deep breaths here, breathing down into the abdomen, continuing the


breathing that you are now familiar with.
 
2                


Inhale, raise your arms to shoulder height and stretch them out in the opposite direction to each other 
 
3                


Now twist your arms from the shoulder and turning your palms upwards. Keep the body in a nice strong upright position
 
4                


Bring your arms out in front of you, pushing


your elbows firmly together and your fingers extending away from you,


while focusing on pulling your shoulder blades together..
 
5                


Continue squeezing the elbows together as you bring your palms together
 
6


Now bend at the elbow and take the forearms to vertical.


Keep pressing firmly with the palms and the elbows as you breathe the


arms upwards. With each exhale moving slightly higher.
Shoulder opener Yoga Posture. This


movement will teach you how to push from under the shoulders and out of


the lats, the major muscle group of the back. A key movement in a lot of


yoga poses. This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a key


movement to more advanced poses.
 
Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9TPzR6-Kmc&feature=player_embedded

The Shoulder Shrug

The shoulder rotation is another pose which can be practiced anywhere and at any time.

It strengthens and aligns the shoulder region while





releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,





which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the





abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                


  
Align yourself in mountain pose. 


Continuing with your smooth


flowing breath
 
2                


As you inhale, lift your shoulders to your ear lobes, keeping the head erect and soft.
 
3                


As you exhale, rotate the shoulders around 


by pushing up out of the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together, rotating them 


in a full circle.
 
4                


Back down into mountain pose


Repeat 3 more times

  Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SzWxM_W4DNA&feature=player_embedded

Lying Twist
Downward Dog
Seated Forward Bend

The Lying Basic Twist

Doing this pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

The lying twist is another pose which is very





simple yet extremely effective. This pose is soothing to the spine and





neck, and warms and frees the lower back and hips and it also improves





digestion and assists in toxin elimination.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1                              


   

Come to a position lying on your back and stretch your arms out to




the side and place your palms and shoulders firmly on the floor.

Move your shoulder blades under. Spread your toes apart. Feel the




back and shoulders moulding to the straight lines of the floor.

 
2                               


 

Bend your knees as far as they come towards the chest.

 

 
3                                


Inhale, keeping your knees and ankles together,



Exhale, rolling your knees to the right. Focus on keeping your arms



pressing out wards and your shoulders pushing firmly into the ground.



You may feel or hear your spine lengthening as it extends into the



correct alignment.


Knees & ankles together breathe, focus on creating length between the left lower rib and the hip,
 
4                                


Now turn your head to look over your left hand. Relax in to this pose, stomach soft, breathing soft and relaxed.

Reverse the pose back up and repeat to the other side

Please Visit:
 

The Downward Facing Dog


Adhomukha Svanasana

The downward yoga pose is





named as such as it resembles the shape of a Dog stretching itself out.





This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in the legs





while strengthening and shaping the upper body. Dog pose Yoga Posture .





One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try





this one.

Holding this pose for a minute or longer will





stimulate and restore energy levels if you are tired. Regular practice





of this pose rejuvenates the entire body and gently stimulates your





nervous system.

To view in flash - click the image below


Instruction Table
1


Come up onto your hands and knees with your knees hip



width apart and the hands shoulder width apart, your fingers wide



pressing firmly into the floor.
 
2


Inhale, arch your spine and look up as you turn your toes under.
 
3


As you exhale straighten your legs and pause here for a moment.
 
4


Now push the floor away from you hands, positioning your



body like an inverted V, achieving a straight line from your hands to



your shoulders to the hips. Straight arms and straight legs.


As you inhale press downward into your hands and lift outward out of the shoulders.


Lift your head and torso back through the line of your body.

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKx-LPTtvBQ&feature=player_embedded

The Seated Forward Bend


Paschimottanasana

The purpose of this pose is to give the entire back





of your body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It is





excellent for posture improvement and stimulates the internal organs as





well.

It adds in improved mental concentration and





endurance and helps to control and calm the mind. It relieves





compression while increasing the elasticity of the spine, it also





strengthens and stretches the hamstrings.

To view in flash - click the image below