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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
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LESSON 3033 Mon 17 Jun 2019 Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS) Model Question Paper 2018-19 Q 24
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
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LESSON 3033 Mon 17 Jun 2019

Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19

Buddha Quotes On Mind And Mastering Yourself


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He is able who thinks he is able. Click to tweet



It is a man’s own mind, not his enemy or foe, that lures him to evil ways.



Delight in heedfulness! Guard well your thoughts!



Everything is based on mind, is led by mind, is fashioned
by mind. If you speak and act with a polluted mind, suffering will
follow you, as the wheels of the oxcart follow the footsteps of the ox.



There is nothing so disobedient as an undisciplined mind, and there is nothing so obedient as a disciplined mind.



A mind unruffled by the vagaries of fortune, from sorrow
freed, from defilements cleansed, from fear liberated — this is the
greatest blessing.



Know from the rivers in clefts and in crevices: those in
small channels flow noisily, the great flow silent. Whatever’s not full
makes noise. Whatever is full is quiet.



You are a seeker. Delight in the mastery of your hands and your feet, of your words and your thoughts.



See them, floundering in their sense of mine, like fish
in the puddles of a dried-up stream — and, seeing this, live with no
mine, not forming attachment for states of becoming.



‘As I am, so are these. As are these, so am I.’ Drawing the parallel to yourself, neither kill nor get others to kill.



All experiences are preceded by mind, having mind as their master, created by mind.



To enjoy good health, to bring true happiness to one’s family, to bring peace to all, one must first discipline and control one’s own mind. If a man can control his mind he can find the way to Enlightenment, and all wisdom and virtue will naturally come to him.



All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?



What we are today comes from our thoughts of yesterday,
and our present thoughts build our life of tomorrow: Our life is the
creation of our mind.



The one who has conquered himself is a far greater hero than he who has defeated a thousand times a thousand men.



Transcendental intelligence rises when the intellectual
mind reaches its limit and if things are to be realized in their true
and essential nature, its processes of thinking must be transcended by an appeal to some higher faculty of cognition.



I will not look at another’s bowl intent on finding fault: a training to be observed.



The external world is only a manifestation of the
activities of the mind itself, and the mind grasps it as an external
world simply because of its habit of discrimination and false-reasoning.
The disciple must get into the habit of looking at things truthfully.



Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought.



If with a pure mind a person speaks or acts happiness follows him like his never-departing shadow.



Quotes By Buddha On Happiness And Joy


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There is no path to happiness: happiness is the path. Click to tweet



Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others.



Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle,
and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never
decreases by being shared.



It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.



The enlightened one, intent on jhana, should find delight
in the forest, should practice jhana at the foot of a tree, attaining
his own satisfaction.



Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.



Set your heart on doing good. Do it over and over again, and you will be filled with joy.



Should a person do good, let him do it again and again. Let him find pleasure therein, for blissful is the accumulation of good.



We are formed and molded by our thoughts. Those whose
minds are shaped by selfless thoughts give joy when they speak or act.
Joy follows them like a shadow that never leaves them.


See also: funny quotes



Quotes By Buddha On Peace, Forgiveness And Letting Go


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Resolutely train yourself to attain peace. Click to tweet



Indeed, the sage who’s fully quenched rests at ease in
every way; no sense desire adheres to him whose fires have cooled,
deprived of fuel. All attachments have been severed, the heart’s been
led away from pain; tranquil, he rests with utmost ease. The mind has
found its way to peace.



Do not turn away what is given you, nor reach out for what is given to others, lest you disturb your quietness.



Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace. Click to tweet



Quotes By Buddha On Meditation And Spirituality


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Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life. Click to tweet



Looking deeply at life as it is in this very moment, the meditator dwells in stability and freedom.



Meditation brings wisdom; lack of mediation leaves
ignorance. Know well what leads you forward and what hold you back, and
choose the path that leads to wisdom.



Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking and pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness.


See also: introvert quotes



Quotes By Buddha On Wisdom And Virtues


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The fool who knows he is a fool is that much wiser.



Whatever has the nature of arising has the nature of ceasing.



Unity can only be manifested by the Binary. Unity itself and the idea of Unity are already two.



What is the appropriate behavior for a man or a woman in
the midst of this world, where each person is clinging to his piece of
debris? What’s the proper salutation between people as they pass each
other in this flood?



The greatest gift is to give people your enlightenment, to share it. It has to be the greatest. Click to tweet



When watching after yourself, you watch after others. When watching after others, you watch after yourself.



Let none find fault with others; let none see the
omissions and commissions of others. But let one see one’s own acts,
done and undone.



The true master lives in truth, in goodness and restraint, non-violence, moderation, and purity.



Offend in neither word nor deed. Eat with moderation.
Live in your heart. Seek the highest consciousness. Master yourself
according to the law. This is the simple teaching of the awakened.



Life is like the harp string, if it is strung too tight
it won’t play, if it is too loose it hangs, the tension that produces
the beautiful sound lies in the middle.



Do not believe in anything simply because you have heard
it. Do not believe in anything simply because it is spoken and rumored
by many. Do not believe in anything simply because it is found written
in your religious books. Do not believe in anything merely on the
authority of your teachers and elders. Do not believe in traditions
because they have been handed down for many generations. But after
observation and analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason
and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it
and live up to it.



Just as treasures are uncovered from the earth, so virtue appears from good deeds, and wisdom appears from a pure and peaceful mind. To walk safely through the maze of human life, one needs the light of wisdom and the guidance of virtue.



The wise ones fashioned speech with their thought, sifting it as grain is sifted through a sieve.



The virtues, like the Muses, are always seen in groups. A good principle was never found solitary in any breast.


More wisdom quotes



Quotes By Buddha On Karma And Nirvana


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Someone who has set out in the vehicle of a Bodhisattva should decide that ‘I must lead all the beings to nirvana, into that realm of nirvana which leaves nothing behind’. What is this realm of nirvana which leaves nothing behind ?



Quotes By Buddha On Change, Failure And Suffering


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Nothing is forever except change. Click to tweet



There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed.



Both formerly and now, it is only suffering that I describe, and the cessation of suffering.



He who can curb his wrath as soon as it arises, as a
timely antidote will check snake’s venom that so quickly spreads, — such
a monk gives up the here and the beyond, just as a serpent sheds its
worn-out skin.



May all that have life be delivered from suffering.



It is easy to see the faults of others, but difficult to
see one’s own faults. One shows the faults of others like chaff winnowed
in the wind, but one conceals one’s own faults as a cunning gambler
conceals his dice.



Buddha Quotes On Anger And Jealousy


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You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger. Click to tweet



Wear your ego like a loose fitting garment.



Some do not understand that we must die, but those who do realize this settle their quarrels.



Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. By non-hatred alone is hatred appeased. This is a law eternal.



All tremble at violence; all fear death. Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill.



I do not dispute with the world; rather it is the world that disputes with me.



They blame those who remain silent, they blame those who
speak much, they blame those who speak in moderation. There is none in
the world who is not blamed.



Those who cling to perceptions and views wander the world offending people.



Whoever doesn’t flare up at someone who’s angry wins a battle hard to win.



Anger will never disappear so long as thoughts of resentment are cherished in the mind. Anger will disappear just as soon as thoughts of resentment are forgotten.



Do not overrate what you have received, nor envy others. He who envies others does not obtain peace of mind.


See also: jealousy quotes



Buddha Quotes On Success, Patience And Strength


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Neither fire nor wind, birth nor death can erase our good deeds. Click to tweet



Should you find a wise critic to point out your faults, follow him as you would a guide to hidden treasure.



As an elephant in the battlefield withstands arrows shot from bows all around, even so shall I endure abuse.



Praise and blame, gain and loss, pleasure and sorrow come
and go like the wind. To be happy, rest like a giant tree in the midst
of them all.



In separateness lies the world’s greatest misery; in compassion lies the world’s true strength.



Be a lamp for yourselves. Be your own refuge. Seek for no other. All things must pass. Strive on diligently. Don’t give up.



Better it is to live one day seeing the rise and fall of
things than to live a hundred years without ever seeing the rise and
fall of things.



If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.


More patience quotesstrength quotes



Buddha Quotes On Health


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Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship. Buddha



To keep the body in good health is a duty… otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.



Without health life is not life; it is only a state of langour and suffering – an image of death.



The secret of health for both mind and body is not to
mourn for the past, not to worry about the future, not to anticipate the
future, but to live the present moment wisely and earnestly.


More health quotes



Buddha Quotes On Truth


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Those who have failed to work toward the truth have missed the purpose of living. Click to tweet



Teach this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind
speech, and a life of service and compassion are the things which renew
humanity.



There are two mistakes one can make along the road to truth…not going all the way, and not starting.



The calmed say that what is well-spoken is best; second,
that one should say what is right, not unrighteous; third, what’s
pleasing, not displeasing; fourth, what is true, not false.



Conquer the angry one by not getting angry; conquer the wicked by goodness; conquer the stingy by generosity, and the liar by speaking the truth.



Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.



Part 4. Quotes About Buddha


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If you use your mind to look for a Buddha, you won’t see the Buddha. Bodhidharma Click to tweet



And the Buddha is the person who’s free: free of plans, free of cares. Bodhidharma



As long as you look for a Buddha somewhere else, you’ll never see that your own mind is the Buddha. Bodhidharma



Buddha means awareness, the awareness of body and mind that prevents evil from arising in either. Bodhidharma



Buddhas don’t practice nonsense. Bodhidharma



A Buddha is someone who finds freedom in good fortune and bad. Bodhidharma



Buddhas move freely through birth and death, appearing and disappearing at will. Bodhidharma



But deluded people don’t realize that their own mind is the Buddha. They keep searching outside. Bodhidharma



To find a Buddha all you have to do is see your nature. Bodhidharma



No one can force us to transform our minds, not even
Buddha. We must do so voluntarily. Therefore Buddha stated, ‘You are
your own master’. Dalai Lama



The color of the mountains is Buddha’s body; the sound of running water is his great speech. Dogen



The Buddha and all sentient beings are nothing but expressions of the one mind. There is nothing else. Huang Po



To awaken suddenly to the fact that your own Mind is the
Buddha, that there is nothing to be attained or a single action to be
performed. This is the Supreme Way. Huang Po



The words of the Buddha offer this truth: Hatred never ceases by hatred but by love alone is healed. Jack Kornfield



Respect Buddha and the gods without counting on their help. Miyamoto Musashi



Even the buddha does not want anyone to follow him. Even
the greatest masters cannot give you a single commandment. They see you
so uniquely you, they see your freedom to be so uniquely for you. Osho



Just two small things: meditation and let-go. Remember
these two key words: meditation and surrender. Meditation will take you
in, and surrender will take you into the whole. And this is the whole of
religion. Within these two words Buddha has condensed the whole essence
of religion. Osho



There is no need for God! If you want to meditate you can
meditate without God. Buddha meditated without God; he had no belief in
God. Osho



A Buddha is a Buddha, a Krishna is a Krishna, and you are you. Osho



He taught virtue, mindfulness, and wisdom. These are the
three pillars of Buddhist practice, as well as the wellsprings of
everyday well-being, psychological growth, and spiritual realization.
Rick Hanson



If you cannot bow to Buddha, you cannot be a Buddha. It is arrogance. Shunryu Suzuki



Buddha says there are two kinds of suffering: the kind
that leads to more suffering and the kind that brings an end to
suffering. Terry Tempest Williams



You need to have confidence that you have the capacity to
become a Buddha, the capacity of transformation and healing. Thich Nhat
Hanh



Part 5. Buddhism And Zen Quotes


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Man suffers only because he takes seriously what the gods made for fun. Alan Watts Click to tweet



The only thing that is ultimately real about your journey
is the step that you are taking at this moment. That’s all there ever
is. Alan Watts



Everything in moderation, including moderation. Buddhist saying



Learning to let go should be learned before learning to
get. Life should be touched, not strangled. You’ve got to relax, let it
happen at times, and at others move forward with it. Ray Bradbury



Even if things don’t unfold the way you expected, don’t
be disheartened or give up. One who continues to advance will win in the
end. Daisaku Ikeda



If we learn to open our hearts, anyone, including the people who drive us crazy, can be our teacher. Pema Chödrön



Awareness is the greatest agent for change. Huang Po Click to tweet



Zen has no business with ideas. Suzuki Roshi



To understand everything is to forgive everything. Osho



We are not going in circles, we are going upwards. The path is a spiral; we have already climbed many steps. Hermann Hesse



The secret of Buddhism is to remove all ideas, all
concepts, in order for the truth to have a chance to penetrate, to
reveal itself. Thich Nhat Hanh



If you want to change the world, start with the next person who comes to you in need. Maezumi Roshi



We are here to awaken from our illusion of separateness. Martin Luther King Jr



When you do something, you should burn yourself up completely, like a good bonfire, leaving no trace of yourself. Eckhart Tolle



Wherever you are, be there totally. Eckhart Tolle



Only the hand that erases can write the true thing. Meister Eckhart


Treat every moment as your last. It is not preparation for something else. Shunryu Suzuki

Q 20  What did the Buddha say regarding the nature of a Supreme Awakened One as given in the five verses ?
https://zenstudiespodcast.com/buddhas-enlightenment/
Shakyamuni Buddha’s Awakenment with Awareness : What Did He Realize?


According
to tradition, Buddhism began with the Buddha’s awakenment. This was the
spiritual awakening of one man, Siddhartha Gautama, somewhere between
528 and 445 BCE, who afterwards was called the “Buddha,” or “awakened
one.” He then taught others what he realized, along with the methods he
used to achieve that realization, and those teachings have been passed
down to the present day. What exactly did Siddhartha comprehend in his
awakenment?

Q 21  Write down the ideals enunciate by the Buddha in the five verses ?
https://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/qanda02.htm

Basic Buddhist Concepts

Question
What are the main teachings of the Buddha?

Answer
All of the many teachings of the Buddha center on the
Four Noble Truths just as the rim and spokes of a wheel center
on the hub. They are called ‘Four’ because there are four of them.
They are called ‘Noble’ because they ennoble one who understands
them and they are called ‘Truths’ because, corresponding with
reality, they are true.

Question
What is the First Noble Truth?

Answer
The First Noble Truth is that life is suffering. To live,
you must suffer. It is impossible to live without experiencing
some kind of suffering. We have to endure physical suffering like
sickness, injury, tiredness, old age and eventually death and
we have to endure psychological suffering like loneliness, frustrations,
fear, embarrassment, disappointment, anger, etc.

Question
Isn’t this a bit pessimistic?

Answer
The dictionary defines pessimism as ‘the habit of thinking
that whatever will happen will be bad,’ or ‘The belief that evil
is more powerful than good.’ Buddhism teaches neither of these
ideas. Nor does it deny that happiness exists. It simply says
that to live is to experience physical and psychological suffering
which is a statement so true and so obvious that it cannot be
denied. The central concept of most religions is a myth, a legend
or a belief that is difficult or impossible to verify. Buddhism
starts with an experience, an irrefutable fact, a thing that all
know, that all have experienced and that all are striving to overcome.
Thus Buddhism is the only truly universal religion because it
goes right to the core of every individual human being’s concern
- suffering and how to avoid it.

Question
What is the Second Noble truth?

Answer
The Second Noble Truth is that all suffering is caused
by craving. When we look at psychological suffering, it is easy
to see how it is caused by craving. When we want something but
are unable to get it, we feel frustrated. When we expect someone
to live up to our expectation and they do not, we feel let down
and disappointed. When we want others to like us and they don’t,
we feel hurt. Even when we want something and are able to get
it, this does not often lead to happiness either because it is
not long before we feel bored with that thing, lose interest in
it and commence to want something else. Put simply, the Second
Noble Truth says that getting what you want does not guarantee
happiness. Rather than constantly struggling to get what you want,
try to modify your wanting. Wanting deprives us of contentment
and happiness.

Question
But how does wanting and craving lead to physical suffering?

Answer
A lifetime wanting and craving for this and that and
especially the craving to continue to exist creates a powerful
energy that causes the individual to be reborn. When we are reborn,
we have a body and, as we said before, the body is susceptible
to injury and disease; it can be exhausted by work; it ages and
eventually dies. Thus, craving leads to physical suffering because
it causes us to be reborn.

Question
That’s all very well. But if we stopped wanting altogether,
we would never get or achieve anything.

Answer
True. But what the Buddha says is that when our desires,
our craving, our constant discontent with what we have, and our
continual longing for more and more does cause us suffering, then
we should stop doing it. He asks us to make a difference between
what we need and what we want and to strive for our needs and
modify our wants. He tells us that our needs can be fulfilled
but that our wants are endless - a bottomless pit. There are needs
that are essential, fundamental and that can be obtained and this
we should work towards. Desires beyond this should be gradually
lessened. After all, what is the purpose of life? To get or to
be content and happy.

Question
You have talked about rebirth, but is there any proof
that such a thing happens?

Answer
There is ample evidence that such a thing happens, but
we will look at this in more detail later on.

Question
What is the Third Noble Truth?

Answer
The Third Noble Truth is that suffering can be overcome
and happiness attained. This is perhaps the most important of
the Four Noble Truths because in it the Buddha reassures us that
true happiness and contentment are possible. When we give up useless
craving and learn to live each day at a time, enjoying without
restless wanting the experiences that life offers us, patiently
enduring the problems that life involves without fear, hatred
and anger, then we become happy and free. Then, and only then,
do we being to live fully. Because we are no longer obsessed with
satisfying our own selfish wants, we find we have so much time
to help others fulfil their needs. This state is called Nirvana.
We are free from all psychological suffering as well. This is
called Final Nirvana.

Question
What or where is Nirvana?

Answer
It is a dimension transcending time and space and thus
is difficult to talk about or even to think about. Words and thoughts
being only suited to describe the time-space dimension. But because
Nirvana is beyond time, there is no movement and so no aging or
dying. Thus Nirvana is eternal. Because it is beyond space, there
is no causation, no boundary, no concept of self and not-self
and thus Nirvana is infinite. The Buddha also assures us that
Nirvana is an experience of profound happiness. He says:

Nirvana is the highest happiness.
Dp 204

Question
But is there any proof that such a dimension exists?

Answer
No, there is not. But its existence can be inferred.
If there is a dimension where time and space do operate and there
is such a dimension - the world we experience, then we can infer
that there is a dimension where time and space do not operate
- Nirvana. Again, even though we cannot prove Nirvana exists,
we have the Buddha’s word that it does exist. He tells us:

“There is an. Unborn, a Not-become, a Not-made, a Not-compounded.
If there were not, this Unborn, Not become, Not-made, Not-compounded,
there could not be made any escape from what is born, become,
made, and compounded. But since there is this Unborn, Not become,
Not-made, Not-compounded, therefore is there made known an escape
from what is born, become, made, and compounded.”
Ud. 80

We will know it when we attain it. Until that time, we can still
practice.

Question
What is the Fourth Noble Truth?

Answer
The Fourth Noble Truth is the Path leading to the overcoming
of suffering. This path is called the Noble Eightfold Path and
consists of Perfect Understanding, Perfect Thought, Perfect Speech,
Perfect Action, Perfect Livelihood, Perfect Effort, Perfect Mindfulness
and Perfect Concentration. Being a Buddhist practice consists
of practicing these eight things until they become more complete.
You will notice that the steps on the Noble Eightfold Path cover
every aspect of life: the intellectual, the ethical, the social
and economic and the psychological and therefore contain everything
a person needs to lead a good life and to develop spiritually.



Q 22  Who is the real conquer (Jino), and why so ? elaborate.
 Inspirational Buddha quotes on karma, peace, and love

Q 23  On hearing the five gathas of the Buddha what did the other traveler say ?

https://quotesnsmiles.com/quotes/calming-buddha-quotes/

Below are 48 Calming Buddha Quotes:

“You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.”
Buddha

“You cannot travel the path until you have become the path itself
Buddha

“However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?
Buddha

“When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky”
Buddha

“Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.”
Buddha

You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.

“You only lose what you cling to.”
Buddha

“There is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt. Doubt
separates people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships and
breaks up pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and hurts; it
is a sword that kills.
Buddha

“The mind is everything. What you think you become.”
Buddha

“Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.”
Buddha

“Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of
throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.”
Buddha

“Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no
matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your
own common sense.
Buddha

“Have compassion for all beings, rich and poor alike; each has their suffering. Some suffer too much, others too little.
Buddha

“Thousands of candles can be lit from a single candle, and the life
of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being
shared.”
Buddha

“You yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.”
Buddha

“All that we are is the result of what we have thought. The mind is everything. What we think we become.
Buddha

“Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.”
Buddha

“To understand everything is to forgive everything”
Buddha

You cannot travel the path until you have become the path itself.

“We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.”
Buddha

Like our Page if you like these Quotes

“The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.
Buddha

“An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.
Buddha

“A jug fills drop by drop.”
Buddha

In recent years the concept of Zen has gained a lot of popularity,
which is a buddhist Mahayana movement originated from China which
emphasizes enlightenment for its student in a direct possible way. Zen
Buddism is a ancestral tradition which has been passed on since the time
of the Buddha. We also have a selection sayings and proverbs in the
form of zen quotes which convey and describe the philosophy behind Zen.

“The tongue like a sharp knife… Kills without drawing blood.
Buddha

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.
Buddha

“A dog is not considered a good dog because he is a good barker. A
man is not considered a good man because he is a good talker.”
Buddha

“The way is not in the sky. The way is in the heart.
Buddha

However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?

“Teach this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a
life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.
Buddha

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear. Never fear what
will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all
help are you freed.
Buddha

“No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.
Buddha

“The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past, worry about the future, or an

ticipate troubles, but to live in the present moment wisely and earnestly.
Buddha

“Your work is to discover your work and then with all your heart to give yourself to it.
Buddha

“Work out your own salvation. Do not depend on others.
Buddha

“What we think, we become.
Buddha

No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.

“To conquer oneself is a greater task than conquering others
Buddha

“Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.
Buddha

“He who loves 50 people has 50 woes; he who loves no one has no woes.
Buddha

“To keep the body in good health is a duty…otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.
Buddha

“There has to be evil so that good can prove its purity above it.
Buddha

“Hatred does not cease through hatred at any time. Hatred ceases through love. This is an unalterable law.
Buddha

“Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.
Buddha

“Every human being is the author of his own health or disease.
Buddha

“All that we are is the result of what we have thought. The mind is everything. What we think we become”
Buddha

Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.

“All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?”
Buddha

“Thousands of candles can be lit from a single candle, and the life
of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being
shared.”
Buddha

“Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.”
Buddha

“However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you If you do not act on

upon them?”
Buddha

“Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”
Buddha

“Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.”
Buddha

“In the sky, there is no distinction of east and west; people create
distinctions out of their own minds and then believe them to be true.”
Buddha

“If we could see the miracle of a single flower clearly, our whole life would change.”
Buddha

“The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.”
Buddha

“Doubt everything. Find your own light.”
Buddha

Q
24  Is it possible to construe the Buddha either as a god or an
incarnation, prophet or messaiah of a god from what has been said about
Boddhahood in Buddha’s own words in the five gathas ?

I ) If your answer is no, write why do you think so.
II) If your answer is yes, please explain why do you think so.

Q 25  Write an essay on Buddha’s own definition of Buddhahood as given in the Dona Sutta

Q 26  Why did the brahmin Dona put those four questions based on his knowledge of the footprint?

Q 27 Why did theBuddha give give negative answers to all the four questions and what was his explanation cankers ?

Q 28  What do you understand by the word i) ‘canker’? ii) by lotus analogy?

Q 29 What do you understand about the Buddha-nature as compared with the lotus ? Elaborate as clearly as you can.

Q
30 The message of the Buddha in this Sutta can be breifly expressed
thus: ” Though I am bor in the world, I am above it. It cannot spoil
me.” How would you interpret it ?

Q 31 How are you going to apply this message in your daily life ? Please write clearly.

Q 32 Please clarify:
i. What id Bodhi and how many kinds of Bodhi are there ?
ii Who is a Bodhisatta and how many typts of Bodhisattas are there ?
iii Who is a Buddha and how many types of Buddhas are there ?

Q 33 Together with the Three Refugees what moral principles should a Buddhist follow ?

Q 34 Write a brief esssay on the meaning of Buddha Vandana, as you understand it ?

Q 35 Is the word “Buddha ” a personal name or title, or does it stands for an office ?

Q 36 Explain clearly the meaning of the word “Buddha” as you understand it.

Q 37 Why is he called Buddha ? What are the prerequisites for becoming a Buddha ?

Q 38 What is the meaning of the term Bodhisatta ? How many different types of Bodhisatta are there ? Enumerate.

Q 39 What are the requirements for becoming the different types of Bodhisatta?

Q 40 How many types of Buddha are there ? What are the prerequisites for becoming these different types of Buddha ?

Q 41  What id parami ? How many Paramis are there ? Enumerate .

Q 42 How do the Paramis determine the attainment of different types of Bodhi ?

Q 43 Write an essay on on the core teaching of all Buddhas.

Q 44 How can the Middle path be explained in terms of ethics, psychology and philisophy ?

Q
45 Describe when the Buddha Ratana, Dhamma Ratana, and Sangha Ratana
arose. What is the significance of the term Ratana in this context,
i.e., why are Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha called Treasure Gems ?

Q 46 What is the essential points of the Discourse on non-self as found in his second discourse ?

Q 47 What is the Noble Eightfold Path ? Analyse in terms of 3 modes of Spiritual training ?

Q 48 Write an essay of twelve factors of the law of dependent origination. What does the dependent origination portray ?

Q 49 Write down text of the Paticca Samppada both in Pali and English in forward and backward orders ?

Q 50 Give details account of Ashoka’s Nine messengers of Dhamma dispatched to nine countries ?

Q 51 Write an essay on the Aditta Pariyaya sutta explaining the important features ?

Q 52 What id Dhammapada, in which pitaka it appears ? How many chapters and verses are there ?

Q 53 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 42 & Verse no. 43 with back ground story and give your comments ?

Q 54 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 127 and 128 with background story ?

Q 55 Write down in Pali any 10 verses from citta vagga ?

Q
56 What are the four protective meditations and how does one can
practice in daily life ? Write short Notes on each Arakkha bhavana ie.,
Buddhaanusatti, metta, ashubha and maranussati? 

Q 29



Q 18 On the full moon day of Ashala (July), two months after
awakenment, the Buddha walked all the way from Bodhi Mandapa (Bodhgaya)
to Isipatana in Baranasi. Why did he chooser this mode of travelling
rather than using psychic abilities as in the case of
other Buddhas?

Buddha spent his time immediately after attaining awakenment. It is said
that for one week after awakenment the Buddha continued to sit under
the Bodhi tree and bask in the glow of the bliss of pure and true
knowledge that had been revealed to him. He spent the second week gazing
meditatively at the Bodhi tree in gratitude for its benign benevolence
during his deep meditation. Later he went and meditated under another
tree where it is said a cobra came and spread its hood over him to
protect him against the rain. He spent yet another week walking back and
forth near the Bodhi tree, deep in meditation.

Later the Buddha moved to a place called Isipatana where he gave his
first sermon after awakenment with Awareness and unraveled the secrets
of life to a few blessed disciples. This place is today known as Sarnath
which is situated about 13 kilometers from Varanasi.

Travel is a transformative experience and some places touch you deep
inside and transform you in ways that you are not even aware of! Bodh
Gaya is one such place that reaches the very core of your being.

“My child, I understand the doubts and contradictions that fill your
mind and that is why I decided to break my silence and tell you my story
so that you can go from here in peace”. I am the Mahabodhi tree and
today I will tell you the story of how my ancestor became a Mahabodhi
from an ordinary Bodhi tree and the name has passed on from generation
to generation”.

The wind howled ominously, the branches of my ancestor swayed violently,
rocked by the winds. Rain poured down in torrents. But nothing seemed
to unsettle the man who sat cross-legged, deep in meditation under the
Bodhi tree who happened to be my ancestor. The man had been sitting
there for the past 7 days immersed in a deep trance, oblivious to the
outer world. His face radiated a strange calm, but my ancestor knew that
behind the facade of serenity had brewed a storm which had raged
violently till the sheer willpower of the man’s mind had stilled all the
forces and now his face radiated with the brightness of awakenment.

The man now was the master of three facets of knowledge that had
transformed him from Siddhartha Gautama to Gautama Buddha. He was. N The
Buddha, the enlightened one and he now knew about his past lives, had a
clear knowledge of Karma and Reincarnation and had clarity about the
four noble truths, namely, Misery, the arising or cause of misery, the
cessation of misery and the path leading to the cessation of misery.

From that day my ancestor also transformed from a mere Bodhi tree to the
Sri Mahabodhi tree.

Tÿcyyyhb m


DiplomainTheravadaBuddhistStudies(DBS) ModelQuestionPaper
2018-19
1. ItissaidBuddhism rejectsacreatorGod,butacceptstheexistenceofinfinite
numberofgodsindiferentdivineplanes.Doyoufinditcontradictory?Ifso,how,if
nowhy?Explain.
2. WhatisthemotivationunderlyingtheatemptatcalingtheBuddhaanavatarof
Vishnu?
3. Brieflydescribethefolowing–
i.TheDream ofQueenMahamaya
i.BirthofPrinceSiddhatha
i.PrinceSiddhatha’sproclamationathisbirth.
iv.Whatdoyouunderstandbythisproclamation?Whydidthebabyprincedothat?
Describe.
4. WriteanaccountofthevisitofSageAsitaandhisprophecy.Whydidhelaughand
thencry?Describethesignificanceofthiscontradictoryscene.
2.WriteanessayontheBodhisataIdeal.
5.AfterSumedhawasconsecratedasaBodhisatabyBuddhaDipankara,how didhe
contemplateontheprerequisitesofBuddhahood,namely,onthethirtyPàramis?
6.WriteclearlyanaccountonSumedha’sthoughtconcerningeachPārami.
7.WritedownSanghaVandanāinPāliaswelasinEnglish.
8.Writeanessayonwhatyouunderstandaboutthemeaningofeachoftheninequalities
oftheSangha.
9.WhatwasSiddhathainhisimmediatepastlife?Whatwashisrole?
10.GiveanaccountofBodhisataSetaketu.
11.HowmanytypesofBodhisatasarethere?Elaborateoneachofthem?
12.HowmanyperfectionsaBodhisatamustfulfiltobecomeaBuddha?
13.WriteanessayonthetenPàramis.
14.Explainthediferencebetweenanordinaryactofdàna(giving)andanactof dāna
pārami(perfectionofgiving).
15.WriteclearlyinPāliandEnglishtheDhammaVandanàGàtha?Explainthemeaning,as
youunderstandit.
16.EnumeratethequalitiesoftheDhammaandwritethesignificanceofeachquality.
17.WhatdoyouthinkofthefiveBuddhistprecepts(PancaSila)?Ifyouarepracticing,
whatarethebenefitsyouderive?Pleaseelaborate.
18.OnthefulmoondayofAsalha(July),twomonthsafterenlightenment,theBuddha
walkedalthewayfrom BodhiMandapa(Bodhgaya)toIsipatanainBaranasi.Whydidhe
choosethismodeoftravelingratherthanusinghispsychicabilitiesasinthecaseof
otherBuddhas?
19.Havinginmindwhosespiritualwel-beingdidhedecidetowalkratherthanlevitate?
20.WhatdidtheBuddhasayregardingthenatureofaSupremeEnlightenedOneasgiven
inthefiveverses?
21.WritedowntheidealsenunciatedbytheBuddhainthefiveverses.
22.Whoisthetrueconquer(Jino),andwhyso?Elaborate.
23.OnhearingthefivegāthāsoftheBuddhawhatdidtheothertravelersay?
24.IsitpossibletoconstruetheBuddhaeitherasagodoranincarnation,prophetor
messiahofagodfrom whathasbeensaidaboutBuddhahoodinBuddha’sownwordsin
thefivegāthas?
I)Ifyouranswerisno,writewhydoyouthinkso?

I)Ifyouranswerisyes,pleaseexplainwhydoyouthinkso?

25.WriteanessayonBuddha’sowndefinitionofBuddhahoodasgivenintheDonaSuta. 1
26.WhydidtheBrahminDonaputthosefourquestionsbasedonhisknowledgeofthe
footprint?
27.WhydidtheBuddhagivenegativeanswerstoalthefourquestionsandwhatwashis
explanationregardingcankers?
28.Whatdoyouunderstandbythewordi)‘canker’?i)bythelotusanalogy?
29.Whatdo you understand aboutThe Buddha-nature as compared with the
lotus? Elaborateasclearlyasyoucan.
30.ThemessageoftheBuddhainthissutacanbebrieflyexpressedthus:“ThoughIam
bornintheworld,Iam aboveit.Itcannotsoilme.”Howwouldyouinterpretit?
31.Howareyougoingtoapplythismessageinyourdailylife?Pleasewriteclearly.
32.Pleaseclarify:-
i.WhatisBodhiandhowmanykindsofBodhiarethere?
i.WhoisaBodhisataandhowmanytypesofBodhisatasarethere?
i.WhoisaBuddhaandhowmanytypesofBuddhasarethere?
33.TogetherwiththeThreeRefugeswhatmoralprinciplesshouldaBuddhistfolows?
34.WriteabriefessayonthemeaningofBuddhaVandanā,asyouunderstandit.
35.Istheword‘Buddha’apersonalnameortitle,ordoesitstandsforanofice?
36.Explainclearlythemeaningoftheword‘Buddha’asyouunderstandit.
37.WhyishecaledBuddha?Whatarethepre-requisitesforbecomingaBuddha?
38.Whatisthemeaningoftheterm Bodhisata?HowmanydiferenttypesofBodhisata
arethere?Enumerate.
39.WhataretherequirementsforbecomingthediferenttypesofBodhisata?
40.How manytypesofBuddhaarethere?Whataretheprerequisitesforbecomingthese
diferenttypesofBuddha?
41.WhatisPārami?HowmanyPāramisarethere?Enumerate.
42HowdothePāramisdeterminetheatainmentofdiferenttypesofBodhi?
4 3 . W rite a n e s s a y o n th e c o re te a c h in g o f a l l B u d
d h a s . W h e n a n d w h e re w a s th is discoursedelivered?
44.HowcantheMiddlePathbeexplainedintermsofethics,psychologyandphilosophy?
45.DescribewhentheBuddhaRatana,DhammaRatanaandSanghaRatanaarose.What
isthesignificanceoftheterm
Ratanainthiscontext,i.e.,whyareBuddha,Dhammaand SanghacaledTreasureGems?
4 6 . W h a t th e e s s e n tia l p o in ts o f th e D is c o u rs e o n
N o n -s e lf a s fo u n d in h is s e c o n d
discourse?
47.WhatistheNobleEightfoldPath?Analyzeintermsof3modesofSpiritualtraining?
48.WriteanessayoftwelvefactorsoftheLaw
ofdependentorigination.Whatdoesthe dependentoriginationportray?
49.WritedownthetextofthePaticcaSamuppadabothinPàliandEnglishinforwardand
backwardorders.
50.GivedetailsaccountofAshoka’sNinemessangersofDhammadispatchedtonine
countries?
51WriteanessayontheAditapariyāyasutaexplainingtheimportantfeatures?
52.WhatisDhammapada,inwhichpitakaitappears?Howmanychaptersandversesare
there?
53.Explain Dhpd.verse no.42 & Verse no 43 with back ground story and
give your comments?
54.ExplainDhpdverseno.127and128withbackgroundstory?
55.W rite dow n in pāliany 10 verses from cit ta vagga?
56.Whatarethefourprotectivemediationsandhowdoesonecanpracticeindialylife?
W rtie s h o rt N o te s o n e a c h A ra k k h ā b h a v a n a i.e . B u
d d h a ā n u s s a ti, m e t tā , a s u b h ā a n d

maranussati? 2



Voice of All Aboriginal Awakened Societies (VoAAAS)



M Venkaiah Naidu on Tuesday maintained that their getting converted
would not end prejudices, days after his ministerial colleague suggested
that members of the community should embrace Buddhism.

He said “No person who discriminates against another human being could
ever be called a Hindu.”

If you respect cow doesn’t mean that you can kill anybody on that
pretext. That is totally wrong,” Mr Naidu told reporters trying to get
medal from just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one
trrrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally
retarded foreigners from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy
Rakshasa SwYam Sevaks) full of hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion,
stupidity which are defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment at
mental asylums in zBene Israel who are against 99.9% all aboriginal
Awakened societies, why is he a stooge, slave, chamcha, chela,
bootlicker, own mother’s flesh eater
bothered about conversions, when the problem is about SC/STs
atrocities. freedom to religion change is constitutional right and why
he is saying it will not help. it is personal to any human being. they
are not serious about SC/STs.

https://www.nichirenlibrary.org/en/dic/Appendix/A

Sanskrit and Pali Words

In the left column are Sanskrit and Pali words romanized according to pronunciation as they appear in the dictionary and in the right column are the romanized forms with full diacritical marks. Words that require only macrons are not included in this appendix.

abhayam-dada abhayaṃ-dada
Abhidharma-hridaya-shāstra Abhidharma-hṛdaya-śāstra
Abhidharma-jnānaprasthāna-shāstra Abhidharma-jñānaprasthāna-śāstra
Abhidharmakosha Abhidharmakośa
Abhidharmakosha-bhāshya Abhidharmakośa-bhāṣya
Abhidharmakosha-shāstra Abhidharmakośa-śāstra
Abhidharma-mahāvibhāshā-shāstra Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā-śāstra
abhisheka abhiṣeka
Achala Acala
Achalā Acalā
Achalanātha Acalanātha
āchārya ācārya
Achiravatī Aciravatī
ādāna-vijnāna ādāna-vijñāna
ahimsā ahiṃsā
Ajātashatru Ajātaśatru
Ajita Keshakambala Ajita Keśakambala
Ajita Keshakambalin Ajita Keśakambalin
Ājnāta Kaundinya Ājñāta Kauṇḍinya
Akanishtha Akaniṣṭha
ākāsha ākāśa
Ākāshagarbha Ākāśagarbha
Ākāshānantya Ākāśānantya
Ākāshānantyāyatana Ākāśānantyāyatana
Ākimchanya Ākiṃcanya
Ākimchanyāyatana Ākiṃcanyāyatana
Akshobhya Akṣobhya
Ālāra Kālāma Āḷāra Kālāma
ālaya-vijnāna ālaya-vijñāna
amala-vijnāna amala-vijñāna
amrita amṛta
Amrita Amṛta
Amritodana Amṛtodana
Anantachāritra Anantacāritra
ananta-nirdesha-pratishthāna ananta-nirdeśa-pratiṣṭhāna
ananta-nirdesha-pratishthāna-samādhi ananta-nirdeśa-pratiṣṭhāna-samādhi
ānāpāna-smriti ānāpāna-smṛti
Anāthapindada Anāthapiṇḍada
Anāthapindika Anāthapiṇḍika
Anga Aṅga
Angaja Aṅgaja
Angulimāla Aṅgulimāla
Angulimālya Aṅgulimālya
Anguttara-nikāya Aṅguttara-nikāya
Anumodanā-punya-nirdesha Anumodanā-puṇya-nirdeśa
anuttara-dharma-chakra anuttara-dharma-cakra
anuttara-sambodhi anuttara-saṃbodhi
anuttara-samyak-sambodhi anuttara-samyak-saṃbodhi
anuttara-samyak-sambodhi-chitta anuttara-samyak-saṃbodhi-citta
Aparashaila Aparaśaila
Apramānābha Apramāṇābha
Apramānashubha Apramāṇaśubha
Ārāda Kālāma Ārāḍa Kālāma
aranya araṇya
ariya-atthangika-magga ariya-aṭṭhaṅgika-magga
ārya-ashtānga-mārga ārya-aṣṭāṅga-mārga
Ārya-prajnāpāramitā-naya-shatapanchashatikā Ārya-prajñāpāramitā-naya-śatapañcaśatikā
Āryasimha Āryasiṃha
Asamjnin Asaṃjñin
asamkhya asaṃkhya
asamkhyeya asaṃkhyeya
asamskrita asaṃskṛta
Asanga Asaṅga
ashoka aśoka
Ashoka Aśoka
ashtānga-mārga aṣṭāṅga-mārga
ashtāngika-mārga aṣṭāṅgika-mārga
Ashtasāhasrikā-prajnāpāramitā Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā
ashva aśva
Ashvaghosha Aśvaghoṣa
Ashvajit Aśvajit
Ashvaka Aśvaka
Ashvakarna Aśvakarṇa
ashvashīrsha aśvaśīrṣa
ashvattha aśvattha
Atata Aṭaṭa
Ātavaka Āṭavaka
Atīsha Atīśa
atthangika-magga aṭṭhaṅgika-magga
Avalokiteshvara Avalokiteśvara
Avatamsaka Avataṃsaka
Avīchi Avīci
Avriha Avṛha
avyākrita avyākṛta
Bahushrutīya Bahuśrutīya
Bāna Bāṇa
Bandhushrī Bandhuśrī
Bārānasī Bārāṇasī
Bhadraruchi Bhadraruci
bhaishajya bhaiṣajya
Bhaishajyaguru Bhaiṣajyaguru
Bhaishajyaguru-vaidūryaprabharāja-sūtra Bhaiṣajyaguru-vaiḍūryaprabharāja-sūtra
Bhaishajyarāja Bhaiṣajyarāja
Bhaishajyarājasamudgata Bhaiṣajyarājasamudgata
Bhaishajyasamudgata Bhaiṣajyasamudgata
bhikshu bhikṣu
bhikshunī bhikṣuṇī
Bhīshma-garjita-svara-rāja Bhīṣma-garjita-svara-rāja
bodhi-chitta bodhi-citta
bodhimanda bodhimaṇḍa
Bodhiruchi Bodhiruci
bodhyanga bodhyaṅga
brahma-charya brahma-carya
brahma-charyā brahma-caryā
brāhmana brāhmaṇa
Brihadratha Bṛhadratha
Brihatphala Bṛhatphala
Buddha-avatamsaka-nāma-mahāvaipulya-sūtra Buddha-avataṃsaka-nāma-mahāvaipulya-sūtra
Buddhacharita Buddhacarita
buddha-kshetra buddha-kṣetra
Buddhalochanā Buddhalocanā
Buddhashānta Buddhaśānta
Buddha-shāsana Buddha-śāsana
Buddhasimha Buddhasiṃha
Buddhayashas Buddhayaśas
Chaityavādin Caityavādin
chakkavattin cakkavattin
chakra cakra
Chakravāda Cakravāḍa
Chakravāda-parvata Cakravāḍa-parvata
chakravartin cakravartin
chakravarti-rāja cakravarti-rāja
chakravarti-rājan cakravarti-rājan
chakshur-vijnāna cakṣur-vijñāna
Champā Campā
champaka campaka
chandāla caṇḍāla
chandana candana
chandra candra
Chandra Candra
Chandragupta Candragupta
Chandrakīrti Candrakīrti
Chandraprabha Candraprabha
Chandra-sūrya-pradīpa Candra-sūrya-pradīpa
Chandra-sūrya-vimala-prabhāsa-shrī Candra-sūrya-vimala-prabhāsa-śrī
Chandrayashas Candrayaśas
Charaka Caraka
Charaka-samhitā Caraka-saṃhitā
chāritra cāritra
Chārvāka Cārvāka
Charyā-tantra Caryā-tantra
chatur-ārya-satya catur-ārya-satya
chatur-dhyāna catur-dhyāna
Chātur-mahārāja-kāyika Cātur-mahārāja-kāyika
Chedi Ceḍi
Cheka Ceka
Chinchā Ciñcā
Chinchāmānavikā Ciñcāmāṇavikā
chintāmani cintāmaṇi
Chitrabhāna Citrabhāna
chitta citta
chūda cūḍa
Chūdapanthaka Cūḍapanthaka
Chūlapanthaka Cūḷapanthaka
Chūlavamsa Cūḷavaṃsa
Chunda Cunda
Dandaka Daṇḍaka
Dandaloka Daṇḍaloka
darshana-mārga darśana-mārga
Dashabala Kāshyapa Daśabala Kāśyapa
dasha-bhūmi daśa-bhūmi
Dashabhūmika-sūtra Daśabhūmika-sūtra
deshanā deśanā
dhāranī dhāraṇī
dharma-chakra dharma-cakra
Dharmagathayashas Dharmagathayaśas
Dharmaraksha Dharmarakṣa
Dharmāranya Dharmāraṇya
Dharmaruchi Dharmaruci
Dharmashreshthin Dharmaśreṣṭhin
Dharmashrī Dharmaśrī
Dharmayashas Dharmayaśas
dhri dhṛ
Dhritaka Dhṛtaka
Dhritarāshtra Dhṛtarāṣṭra
Dīpamkara Dīpaṃkara
Dīpavamsa Dīpavaṃsa
Dona Doṇa
Drona Droṇa
Dronodana Droṇodana
duhukha duḥkha
dvesha dveṣa
Ekādasha-mukha Ekādaśa-mukha
eranda eraṇḍa
evam mayā shrutam evaṃ mayā śrutam
Gamgadasvara Gaṃgadasvara
gandhakutī gandhakuṭī
Gangā Gaṅgā
Gangadasvara Gaṅgadasvara
Gangā-nadī-vālikā Gaṅgā-naḍī-vālikā
Gangā-nadī-vālukā Gaṅgā-naḍī-vālukā
garuda garuḍa
Gayā Kāshyapa Gayā Kāśyapa
Gayāshīrsha Gayāśīrṣa
ghosha ghoṣa
Ghoshila Ghoṣila
Ghoshila-vihāra Ghoṣila-vihāra
ghrāna-vijnāna ghrāṇa-vijñāna
Gijjhakūta Gijjhakūṭa
goshīrsha gośīrṣa
goshīrsha-chandana gośīrṣa-candana
gridhra gṛdhra
Gridhrakūta Gṛdhrakūṭa
griha gṛha
griha-pati gṛha-pati
guna guṇa
Gunabhadra Guṇabhadra
Gunamati Guṇamati
Gunaprabha Guṇaprabha
Gunavarman Guṇavarman
Haklenayasha Haklenayaśa
Haklenayashas Haklenayaśas
Harsha Harṣa
Harsha-charita Harṣa-carita
Harshavardhana Harṣavardhana
himsā hiṃsā
Hiranyavatī Hiraṇyavatī
Īshādhāra Īśādhāra
Īshāna Īśāna
īshvara īśvara
itivrittaka itivṛttaka
Jaladhara-garjita-ghosha-susvara-nakshatra-rāja-samkusumitābhijnā Jaladhara-garjita-ghoṣa-susvara-nakṣatra-rāja-saṃkusumitābhijñā
jala-mandala jala-maṇḍala
jarā-marana jarā-maraṇa
Jatimdhara Jaṭiṃdhara
Jetri Jetṛ
jihvā-vijnāna jihvā-vijñāna
jīvamjīva jīvaṃjīva
jīvamjīvaka jīvaṃjīvaka
Jnānabhadra Jñānabhadra
Jnānachandra Jñānacandra
Jnānagupta Jñānagupta
Jnānākara Jñānākara
Jnānaprabha Jñānaprabha
Jnānayasha Jñānayaśa
Kacchāna Kaccāna
Kacchāyana Kaccāyana
kalavinka kalaviṅka
Kālayashas Kālayaśas
Kāli Kāḷi
Kalinga Kaliṅga
Kalmāshapāda Kalmāṣapāda
Kalpanā-manditikā Kalpanā-maṇḍitikā
kalyāna-mitra kalyāṇa-mitra
Kamalashīla Kamalaśīla
kāna kāṇa
Kanāda Kaṇāda
Kānadeva Kāṇadeva
kānchana kāñcana
kānchana-mandala kāñcana-maṇḍala
Kanishka Kaniṣka
Kanthaka Kaṇṭhaka
Kapisha Kapiśa
karunā karuṇā
Karunā-pundarīka-sūtra Karuṇā-puṇḍarīka-sūtra
Kāshī Kāśī
Kashmīra Kaśmīra
Kāshmīra Kāśmīra
Kāshyapa Kāśyapa
Kāshyapa Mātanga Kāśyapa Mātaṅga
Kāshyapīya Kāśyapīya
Kaukkutika Kaukkuṭika
Kaundinya Kauṇḍinya
Kaushāmbī Kauśāmbī
Kaushika Kauśika
kāya-vijnāna kāya-vijñāna
Keshinī Keśinī
Kharoshthī Kharoṣṭhī
kimnara kiṃnara
Kinkara Kiṅkara
klesha kleśa
klesha-māra kleśa-māra
Koshala Kośala
koti koṭi
Kriki Kṛki
Krishna Kṛṣṇa
Krita Kṛta
krosha krośa
kritya kṛtya
kshama kṣama
kshana kṣaṇa
kshānti kṣānti
Kshāntivādin Kṣāntivādin
Kshatriya Kṣatriya
kshetra kṣetra
kshiti kṣiti
Kshitigarbha Kṣitigarbha
Kukkutapada Kukkuṭapada
Kukkutapāda Kukkuṭapāda
Kukkutārāma Kukkuṭārāma
kula-duhitri kula-duhitṛ
Kumārayāna Kumārayāṇa
kumbhānda kumbhāṇḍa
Kundalī Kuṇḍalī
kunkuma kuṅkuma
Kurkutārāma Kurkuṭārāma
kusha kuśa
kushala-mūla kuśala-mūla
Kushāna Kuṣāṇa
Kushinagara Kuśinagara
Kusuma-tala-garbha-vyūhālamkāra-loka-dhātu-samudra Kusuma-tala-garbha-vyūhālaṃkāra-loka-dhātu-samudra
kūta kūṭa
Kūtadantī Kūṭadantī
Lakshmī Lakṣmī
Lankā Laṅkā
Lankāvatāra-sūtra Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra
Lokakshema Lokakṣema
Lokeshvararāja Lokeśvararāja
Madhyamaka-hridaya Madhyamaka-hṛdaya
Mādhyamika-shāstra Mādhyamika-śāstra
Mahābhijnā-jnānābhibhū Mahābhijñā-jñānābhibhū
Mahākacchāna Mahākaccāna
Mahākacchāyana Mahākaccāyana
Mahākāshyapa Mahākāśyapa
mahāparinirvāna mahāparinirvāṇa
mahāprajnā mahāprajñā
Mahāprajnāpāramitā-shāstra Mahāprajñāpāramitā-śāstra
Mahāprajnāpāramitā-sūtra Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra
Mahāpranāda Mahāpraṇāda
Mahāsamghika Mahāsaṃghika
Mahāsāmghika Mahāsāṃghika
Mahāsammata Mahāsaṃmata
Mahāsanghika Mahāsaṅghika
Mahāsānghika Mahāsāṅghika
Mahāshrī Mahāśrī
Mahāvairochana Mahāvairocana
Mahāvamsa Mahāvaṃsa
Mahayana Mahāyāna
Mahāyāna-samgraha Mahāyāna-saṃgraha
Mahāyāna-sūtrālamkāra Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra
Maheshvara Maheśvara
Mahīshāsaka Mahīśāsaka
Makutadantī Makuṭadantī
Mānava Māṇava
Mānavaka Māṇavaka
mānavikā māṇavikā
mandala maṇḍala
Māndhātri Māndhātṛ
mani maṇi
manjūshaka mañjūṣaka
Manjushrī Mañjuśrī
mano-vijnāna mano-vijñāna
Marīchi Marīci
Maskarin Goshālin Maskarin Gośālin
Maskarin Goshālīputra Maskarin Gośālīputra
Mātanga Mātaṅga
Micchaca Miccaca
Milindapanha Milindapañha
Mitrayashas Mitrayaśas
moksha mokṣa
mriga mṛga
Mrigadāva Mṛgadāva
mrityu-māra mṛtyu-māra
Munishrī Muniśrī
Nadī Kāshyapa Nadī Kaśyapa
Nairanjanā Nairañjanā
Naivasaṃjnānāsamjnā Naivasaṃjñānāsaṃjñā
Naivasamjnānāsaṃjnāyatana Naivasaṃjñānāsaṃjñāyatana
Nakshatra-rāja-samkusumitābhijna Nakṣatra-rāja-saṃkusumitābhijña
Nārāyana Nārāyaṇa
Narendrayashas Narendrayaśas
Neranjarā Nerañjarā
Nigantha Nātaputta Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta
Nimimdhara Nimiṃdhara
nirdesha nirdeśa
Nirgrantha Jnātaputra Nirgrantha Jñātaputra
Nirgrantha Jnātiputra Nirgrantha Jñātiputra
nirmāna-kāya nirmāṇa-kāya
Nirmānarati Nirmāṇarati
nirvāna nirvāṇa
om oṃ
Padmasambhava Padmasaṃbhava
Pakudha Kacchāyana Pakudha Kaccāyana
pāmsu-kūla pāṃsu-kūla
pancha-indriya pañca-indriya
Panchāla Pañcāla
pancha-skandha pañca-skandha
Panchavimshatisāhasrikā-prajnāpāramitā Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā
pāni pāṇi
Paranirmita-vasha-vartin Paranirmita-vaśa-vartin
parināma pariṇāma
parināmana pariṇāmana
parinirvāna parinirvāṇa
Parīttashubha Parīttaśubha
Pārshva Pārśva
pātala pāṭala
Pātaliputra Pāṭaliputra
paticcha-samuppāda paṭicca-samuppāda
pavāranā pavāraṇā
Pindola Piṇḍola
Pindolabhāradvāja Piṇḍolabhāradvāja
Pingala Piṅgala
pishācha piśāca
pitaka piṭaka
Piyankara Piyaṅkara
poshadha poṣadha
prajnā prajñā
Prajnā Prajñā
Prajnākūta Prajñākūṭa
prajnā-pāramitā prajñā-pāramitā
Prajnāpāramitā-hridaya-sūtra Prajñāpāramitā-hṛdaya-sūtra
Prajnā-pradīpa Prajñā-pradīpa
Prajnaptivādin Prajñaptivādin
Prajnāptivādin Prajñāptivādin
Prajnāruchi Prajñāruci
pranidhāna praṇidhāna
Prāsangika Prāsaṅgika
pratishthāna pratiṣṭhāna
Pratyutpanna-buddha-sammukhāvasthita-samādhi-sūtra Pratyutpanna-buddha-saṃmukhāvasthita-samādhi-sūtra
pravārana pravāraṇa
pravāranā pravāraṇā
prithag-jana pṛthag-jana
Priyankara Priyaṅkara
pundarīka puṇḍarīka
Punna Puṇṇa
punya puṇya
punya-kshetra puṇya-kṣetra
Punyamitra Puṇyamitra
punya-paryāya puṇya-paryāya
Punyaprasava Puṇyaprasava
Punyatāra Puṇyatāra
Punyayashas Puṇyayaśas
Pūrana Pūraṇa
Pūrana Kāshyapa Pūraṇa Kāśyapa
Pūrana Kassapa Pūraṇa Kassapa
Pūrna Pūrṇa
Pūrna Maitrāyanīputra Pūrṇa Maitrāyaṇīputra
purusha-damya-sārathi puruṣa-damya-sārathi
Purushapura Puruṣapura
pūrvapranidhāna pūrvapraṇidhāna
pushpa puṣpa
Pushpadantī Puṣpadantī
Pushyamitra Puṣyamitra
Rājagriha Rājagṛha
rākshasa rākṣasa
rākshasī rākṣasī
rashmi raśmi
Rashmiprabhāsa Raśmiprabhāsa
Rashmi-shatasahasra-paripūrna-dhvaja Raśmi-śatasahasra-paripūrṇa-dhvaja
Rāshtrapāla Rāṣṭrapāla
Ratnagotravibhāga-mahāyānottaratantra-shāstra Ratnagotravibhāga-mahāyānottaratantra-śāstra
riddhi ṛddhi
riddhi-pāda ṛddhi-pāda
Rigveda Ṛgveda
Rishabha Ṛṣabha
rishi ṛṣi
Rishipatana Ṛṣipatana
Rohana Rohaṇa
Ruchi Ruci
Saddharma-pundarīka-sūtra Saddharma-puṇḍarīka-sūtra
Saddharma-pundarīka-upadesha Saddharma-puṇḍarīka-upadeśa
shad-gati ṣaḍ-gati
Sāgara-vara-dhara-buddhi-vikrīditābhijna Sāgara-vara-dhara-buddhi-vikrīḍitābhijña
sakridāgāmin sakṛdāgāmin
samana samaṇa
sāmanera sāmaṇera
sāmanerī sāmaṇerī
Samaya-bhedoparachana-chakra Samaya-bhedoparacana-cakra
sambhoga-kāya saṃbhoga-kāya
sambodhi saṃbodhi
Samdhinirmochana-sūtra Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra
samgha saṃgha
Samghabhadra Saṃghabhadra
Samghabhūti Saṃghabhūti
Samghadeva Saṃghadeva
Samghamitrā Saṃghamitrā
Samghanandi Saṃghanandi
Samgharakshita Saṃgharakṣita
samghātī saṃghāṭī
Samghavarman Saṃghavarman
samghāvashesha saṃghāvaśeṣa
Samghayashas Saṃghayaśas
samgīti saṃgīti
Samjayin Vairatīputra Saṃjayin Vairaṭīputra
Samjīva Saṃjīva
Sāmkhya Sāṃkhya
Sammatīya Saṃmatīya
samsāra saṃsāra
samskāra saṃskāra
samyak-sambodhi samyak-saṃbodhi
samyak-sambuddha samyak-saṃbuddha
samyojana saṃyojana
Samyutta-nikāya Saṃyutta-nikāya
sangha saṅgha
Sanjaya Sañjaya
Sanjaya Belatthiputta Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta
Saptaparna Saptaparṇa
Saptaparnaguhā Saptaparṇaguhā
Sarva-sattva-priyadarshana Sarva-sattva-priyadarśana
Sarvatathāgata-tattvasamgraha Sarvatathāgata-tattvasaṃgraha
Satyasiddhi-shāstra Satyasiddhi-śāstra
shad-āyatana ṣaḍ-āyatana
shad-gati ṣaḍ-gati
shad-indriya ṣaḍ-indriya
Shāketa Śāketa
shakra śakra
Shakra Śakra
Shakra Devānām Indra Śakra Devānām Indra
Shakrāditya Śakrāditya
Shākya Śakya
Shakyamuni Śākyamuni
shāla śāla
Shānakavāsa Śāṇakavāsa
Shānakavāsin Śāṇakavāsin
Shānavāsa Śāṇavāsa
Shānavāsin Śāṇavāsin
Shankhāchārya Śaṅkhācārya
Shannāgarika Saṇṇāgarika
Shāntarakshita Śāntarakṣita
Shārī Śārī
Shāriputra Śāriputra
sharīra śarīra
shāsana śāsana
Shashiketu Śaśiketu
shāstā-deva-manushyānām śāstā-deva-manuṣyānāṃ
shatru śatru
Shibi Śibi
Shikhin Śikhin
shikshamānā śikṣamāṇā
Shikshānanda Śikṣānanda
shīla śīla
Shīlabhadra Śīlabhadra
Shīlāditya Śīlāditya
shīrsha śīrṣa
Shītā Śītā
Shītavana Śītavana
Shiva Śiva
shloka śloka
shraddhā śraddhā
shramana śramaṇa
shrāmanera śrāmaṇera
shrāmanerī śrāmaṇerī
shrāmanerikā śrāmaṇerikā
shrāvaka śrāvaka
shrāvaka-yāna śrāvaka-yāna
Shrāvastī Śrāvastī
Shrīmahādevī Śrīmahādevī
Shrīmālā Śrīmālā
Shrīmālādevī-simhanāda-sūtra Śrīmālādevī-siṃhanāda-sūtra
Shrīvijaya Śrīvijaya
shrota-vijnāna śrota-vijñāna
Shrutasoma Śrutasoma
Shubhakarasimha Śubhakarasiṃha
Shubhakritsna Śubhakṛtsna
Shubhavyūha Śubhavyūha
Shuddhachandra Śuddhacandra
shuddhāvāsa śuddhāvāsa
Shuddhodana Śuddhodana
Shūdra Śūdra
Shuklodana Śuklodana
Shunga Śuṅga
shūnya śūnya
shūnyatā śūnyatā
shūramgama śūraṃgama
Shūramgama Śūraṃgama
shūramgama-samādhi śūraṃgama-samādhi
Shūrasena Śūrasena
Shūryasoma Śūryasoma
Siddham Siddhaṃ
simha siṃha
Simhahanu Siṃhahanu
simhanāda siṃhanāda
Simhanādarāja Siṃhanādarāja
simhāsana siṃhāsana
smriti smṛti
sparsha sparśa
Sudarshana Sudarśana
Sudhana-shreshthi-dāraka Sudhana-śreṣṭhi-dāraka
Sudrisha Sudṛśa
Sunakshatra Sunakṣatra
Supratishthitachāritra Supratiṣṭhitacāritra
Sutta Pitaka Sutta Piṭaka
Suvarnaprabhāsa-sūtra Suvarṇaprabhāsa-sūtra
Suvarnaprabhāsottama-sūtra Suvarṇaprabhāsottama-sūtra
Takshaka Takṣaka
Takshashilā Takṣaśilā
Tamālapatra-chandana-gandha Tamālapatra-candana-gandha
Tamālapattra-chandana-gandha Tamālapattra-candana-gandha
tipitaka tipiṭaka
Trāyastrimsha Trāyastriṃśa
Trimshikā-vijnaptimātratā-siddhi Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā-siddhi
tripitaka tripiṭaka
Tushita Tuṣita
Tvashtri Tvaṣṭṛ
Ucchushma Ucchuṣma
Uddiyāna Uḍḍiyāna
Udra Uḍra
upadesha upadeśa
upasampadā upasaṃpadā
Upatishya Upatiṣya
upekshā upekṣā
uposhadha upoṣadha
Uppalavannā Uppalavaṇṇā
Urumanda Urumaṇḍa
Urumunda Urumuṇḍa
ūrnā-kesha ūrṇā-keśa
ūrnā-kosha ūrṇā-kośa
Uruvilvā Kāshyapa Uruvilvā Kāśyapa
ushnīsha-shiraskatā uṣnīṣa-śiraskatā
Utpalavarnā Utpalavarṇā
uttarāsanga uttarāsaṅga
Uttarashaila Uttaraśaila
Vairanjā Vairañjā
Vairochana Vairocana
Vaishālī Vaiśālī
vaishāradya vaiśāradya
Vaisheshika Vaiśeṣika
Vaishravana Vaiśravaṇa
Vaishya Vaiśya
Vajracchedikā-prajnāpāramitā Vajracchedikā-prajñāpāramitā
vajrapāni vajrapāṇi
Vajrashekhara Vajraśekhara
Vakshu Vakṣu
vamsa vaṃsa
Vārānasī Vārāṇasī
varsha varṣa
Varshakāra Varṣakāra
vārshika vārṣika
Vāshpa Vāṣpa
vāyu-mandala vāyu-maṇḍala
Vemachitrin Vemacitrin
venu veṇu
Venuvana Veṇuvana
Venuvana-vihāra Veṇuvana-vihāra
vetāda vetāḍa
veyyākarana veyyākaraṇa
vibhāshā vibhāṣā
Vidūdabha Viḍūḍabha
vidyā-charana-sampanna vidyā-caraṇa-saṃpanna
vijnāna vijñāna
Vijnānānantya Vijñānānantya
Vijnānānantyāyatana Vijñānānantyāyatana
Vijnānavāda Vijñānavāda
Vikramashilā Vikramaśilā
Vimalakīrti-nirdesha Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa
vimoksha vimokṣa
Vimshatikā-vijnaptimātratā-siddhi Viṃśatikā-vijñaptimātratā-siddhi
Vimuktichandra Vimukticandra
Vipashyin Vipaśyin
Virūdhaka Virūḍhaka
Virūpāksha Virūpākṣa
Visheshamitra Viśeṣamitra
Vishishtachāritra Viśiṣṭacāritra
Vishnu Viṣṇu
Vishuddhachāritra Viśuddhacāritra
Vishvabhū Viśvabhū
Vishvakarman Viśvakarman
Vriji Vṛji
Vritra Vṛtra
vyākarana vyākaraṇa
yaksha yakṣa
Yasa Kākandakaputta Yasa Kākaṇḍakaputta
Yasha Yaśa
Yashas Yaśas
Yashasketu Yaśasketu
Yashoda Yaśoda
Yashodharā Yaśodharā
Yashomitra Yaśomitra
Yogāchāra Yogācāra
Yogāchārabhūmi Yogācārabhūmi
Yugamdhara Yugaṃdhara

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06/15/19
LESSON 3032 Sun 16 Jun 2019 Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS) Model Question Paper 2018-19 Buddha quotes love Q 18. Q19, Q 20, Q 21, Q 22, Q 23
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LESSON 3032 Sun 16 Jun 2019

Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19
Buddha quotes love












Q 18. Q19, Q 20, Q 21, Q 22,  Q 23

Q 18  On the full moon day of Ashala (July), two months after awakenment, the Buddha walked all the way from

Bodhi
Mandapa (Bodhgaya) to Isipatana in Baranasi. Why did he chooser this
mode of travelling rather than using psychic abilities as in the case of
other Buddhas?

Q 19  Having in mind whose spiritual well-being did he decide to walk rather than levitate ?
https://buddhaimonia.com/blog/buddhas-8-fold-pathHow to Walk the Buddha's 8-Fold Path to Peace and Happiness via Buddhaimonia







150 Buddha Quotes That Will Make You Wiser (Fast)


get the quote of the day click here
by maxime lagacé

buddha quotes there fear for one whose mind not filled with desires wisdom



There is no fear for one whose mind is not filled with desires. Buddha Click to tweet


buddha quotes work out your own salvation not depend others wisdom



Work out your own salvation. Do not depend on others. Buddha Click to tweet


buddha quotes anything worth doing with your hearth wisdom



If anything is worth doing, do it with all your heart. Buddha Click to tweet


buddha quotes a man is not called wise because he talks and talks again but if he is peaceful loving and fearless then he is in truth called wise wisdom quotes



A man is not called wise because he talks and talks
again; but if he is peaceful, loving and fearless then he is in truth
called wise. Buddha Click to tweet


buddha quotes not look for sanctuary anyone except your self wisdom



Do not look for a sanctuary in anyone except your self. Buddha Click to tweet



buddha quotes no one saves us but ourselves can may ourselves must walk the path wisdom

No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path. Buddha Click to tweet


buddha quotes live pure unselfish life one must count nothing ones own the midst abundance wisdom



To live a pure unselfish life, one must count nothing as one’s own in the midst of abundance. Buddha Click to tweet


buddha quotes all that we are is the result of what we have thought wisdom quotes



All that we are is the result of what we have thought. Buddha Click to tweet


buddha quotes fail look after others when they need help who will look after us wisdom



If we fail to look after others when they need help, who will look after us? Buddha Click to tweet


buddha quotes one who acts truth happy this world beyond wisdom



One who acts on truth is happy in this world and beyond. Buddha Click to tweet


See also: zen quotes, Rumi quotes, gratitude quotes



The Best Buddha Quotes (aka Siddhartha Gautama)


Go to table of contents



Give, even if you only have a little.



Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.



Irrigators channel waters; fletchers straighten arrows; carpenters bend wood; the wise master themselves.



Drop by drop is the water pot filled. Likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.



Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.



If you knew what I know about the power of giving, you would not let a single meal pass without sharing it in some way.



The root of suffering is attachment.



Silence the angry man with love. Silence the ill-natured
man with kindness. Silence the miser with generosity. Silence the liar
with truth.



People with opinions just go around bothering each other.



Even as a solid rock is unshaken by the wind, so are the wise unshaken by praise or blame. Click to tweet





You yourself must strive. The Buddhas only point the way. Click to tweet



Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.



Meditate… do not delay, lest you later regret it.



Understanding is the heartwood of well-spoken words.



Ceasing to do evil, cultivating the good, purifying the heart: this is the teaching of the Buddhas.



Delight in meditation and solitude. Compose yourself, be happy. You are a seeker.



Ardently do today what must be done. Who knows? Tomorrow, death comes.



What you are is what you have been. What you’ll be is what you do now.



If you propose to speak always ask yourself, is it true, is it necessary, is it kind.



If you find no one to support you on the spiritual path, walk alone. (This is one of my favorite Buddha quote. Leave a reply and let me know what’s yours!)



Part 2. Buddha Quotes That ARE…



Inspirational Buddha Quotes


Go to table of contents



Stop, stop. Do not speak. The ultimate truth is not even to think. Click to tweet



We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.



Just as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt,
so also this teaching and discipline has one taste, the taste of
liberation.



The one in whom no longer exist the craving and thirst
that perpetuate becoming; how could you track that Awakened one,
trackless, and of limitless range.



Endurance is one of the most difficult disciplines, but it is to the one who endures that the final victory comes.



Long is the night to him who is awake; long is a mile to
him who is tired; long is life to the foolish who do not know the true
law.



Whatever precious jewel there is in the heavenly worlds, there is nothing comparable to one who is Awakened.



Our life is shaped by our mind; we become what we think. Joy follows a pure thought like a shadow that never leaves.



Like a fine flower, beautiful to look at but without scent, fine words are fruitless in a man who does not act in accordance with them.



Our theories of the eternal are as valuable as are those
which a chick which has not broken its way through its shell might form
of the outside world.



An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.



However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?



Chaos is inherent in all compounded things. Strive on with diligence.


See also: positive quote

Short Buddha Quotes

One liners, thoughts and captions for your bio, social status,
self-talk, motto, mantra, signs, posters, wallpapers, backgrounds,
tattoos, SMS, Facebook, WhatsApp, Snapchat, Tumblr, Twitter, Pinterest,
Instagram, etc.


Go to table of contents



Attachment leads to suffering. Click to tweet



May all beings have happy minds.



Born out of concern for all beings.



I am the miracle.



A jug fills drop by drop.



Every human being is the author of his own health or disease.



The tongue like a sharp knife… Kills without drawing blood.



The way is not in the sky. The way is in the heart. Click to tweet


More short quotes


You may also like: inspirational quotes
motivational quotes
happiness quotes
love quoteslife quotes

Fake Buddha Quotes (Most Of Them Are Famous Too)


Go to table of contents



The mind is everything. What you think you become.



Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.



You can only lose what you cling to.



I never see what has been done; I only see what remains to be done.



As you walk and eat and travel, be where you are. Otherwise you will miss most of your life.



The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.



A man asked Gautama Buddha, “I want happiness.” Buddha said, “First remove “I,” that’s Ego, then remove “want,” that’s Desire. See now, you are left with only “Happiness”.



A family is a place where minds come in contact with one another.



Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said
it, no matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason
and your own common sense.



If your compassion does not include yourself, it is incomplete.



In the end, only three things matter: how much you loved,
how gently you lived, and how gracefully you let go of things not meant
for you.



The foot feels the foot when it feels the ground.



A dog is not considered a good dog because he is a good barker. A man is not considered a good man because he is a good talker.



If we destroy something around us we destroy ourselves. If we cheat another, we cheat ourselves.



Every experience, no matter how bad it seems, holds within it a blessing of some kind. The goal is to find it.



Doubt everything. Find your own light.



A generous heart, kind speech, and a life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.



Just as a snake sheds its skin, we must shed our past over and over again.



When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky.



Meditate. Live purely. Be quiet. Do your work with mastery. Like the moon, come out from behind the clouds! Shine.



My doctrine is not a doctrine but just a vision. I have not given you any set rules, I have not given you a system.



In the sky, there is no distinction of east and west;
people create distinctions out of their own minds and then believe them
to be true.



Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.



What you think you create, what you feel you attract, what you imagine you become.



Your work is to discover your world and then with all your heart give yourself to it.



There has to be evil so that good can prove its purity above it.



When you like a flower, you just pluck it. But when you love a flower, you water it daily.



It is better to travel well than to arrive.



It is better to conquer yourself than to win a thousand
battles. Then the victory is yours. It cannot be taken from you, not by
angels or by demons, heaven or hell.



If you truly loved yourself, you could never hurt another.



Every morning we are born again. What we do today is what matters most.



Life is so very hard. How can we be anything but kind?


See also: https://fakebuddhaquotes.com/



Part 3. Buddha Quotes ABOUT…



Buddha Quotes About Life, Family And Friendship


Go to table of contents



Live every act fully, as if it were your last. Click to tweet



Virtue is persecuted more by the wicked than it is loved by the good.



Nothing ever exists entirely alone; everything is in relation to everything else.



Purity or impurity depends on oneself. No one can purify another.



To support mother and father, to cherish wife and child and to have a simple livelihood; this is the good luck.



One moment can change a day, one day can change a life and one life can change the world.



She who knows life flows, feels no wear or tear, needs no mending or repair.



An insincere and evil friend is more to be feared than a
wild beast; a wild beast may wound your body, but an evil friend will
wound your mind.



Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.



To be idle is a short road to death and to be diligent is a way of life; foolish people are idle, wise people are diligent.



Should a seeker not find a companion who is better or equal, let them resolutely pursue a solitary course.



If we could see the miracle of a single flower clearly, our whole life would change.


See also: family quotes, friendship quotes

Buddha Quotes On Love And Gratitude


Go to table of contents



True love is born from understanding. Click to tweet



Radiate boundless love towards the entire world.



You, yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.



Ambition is like love, impatient both of delays and rivals.



Love is a gift of one’s inner most soul to another so both can be whole.



Let all-embracing thoughts for all beings be yours.



We will develop and cultivate the liberation of mind by
lovingkindness, make it our vehicle, make it our basis, stabilize it,
exercise ourselves in it, and fully perfect it.



Hatred does not cease through hatred at any time. Hatred ceases through love. This is an unalterable law.



As rain falls equally on the just and the unjust, do not burden your heart with judgments but rain your kindness equally on all.



He who loves 50 people has 50 woes; he who loves no one has no woes.



Kindness should become the natural way of life, not the exception.



Speak only endearing speech, speech that is welcomed. Speech, when it brings no evil to others, is a pleasant thing.



One is not called noble who harms living beings. By not harming living beings one is called noble.



Being deeply learned and skilled, being well trained and using well spoken words: this is good luck.



Just as a mother would protect her only child with her life, even so let one cultivate a boundless love towards all beings.



In whom there is no sympathy for living beings: know him as an outcast.



Let us rise up and be thankful, for if we didn’t learn a
lot today, at least we learned a little, and if we didn’t learn a
little, at least we didn’t get sick, and if we got sick, at least we
didn’t die; so, let us all be thankful.



Buddha Quotes On Fear


Go to table of contents



Those attached to the notion ‘I am’ and to views roam the world offending people. Click to tweet



There is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt.
Doubt separates people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships
and breaks up pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and
hurts; it is a sword that kills.



Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a snared hare;
let therefore mendicant drive out thirst, by striving after
passionlessness for himself.



When one has the feeling of dislike for evil, when one
feels tranquil, one finds pleasure in listening to good teachings; when
one has these feelings and appreciates them, one is free of fear.



The instant we feel anger we have already ceased striving for the truth, and have begun striving for ourselves.


More fear quotes


See also: deep quotes

comments (0)
06/14/19
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 1:16 am


LESSON 3031 Sat 15 Jun 2019
Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19

Q 18 to Q 56

Q 18  On the full moon day of Ashala (July), two months after awakenment, the Buddha walked all the way from

Bodhi
Mandapa (Bodhgaya) to Isipatana in Baranasi. Why did he chooser this
mode of travelling rather than using psychic abilities as in the case of
other Buddhas?

Q 19  Having in mind whose spiritual well-being did he decide to walk rather than levitate ?

Q 20  What did the Buddha say regarding the nature of a Supreme Awakened One as given in the five verses ?

Q 21  Write down the ideals enunciate by the Buddha in the five verses ?

Q 22  Who is the real conquer (Jino), and why so ? elaborate.

Q 23  On hearing the five gathas of the Buddha what did the other traveler say ?

Q
24  Is it possible to construe the Buddha either as a god or an
incarnation, prophet or messaiah of a god from what has been said about
Boddhahood in Buddha’s own words in the five gathas ?

I ) If your answer is no, write why do you think so.
II) If your answer is yes, please explain why do you think so.

Q 25  Write an essay on Buddha’s own definition of Buddhahood as given in the Dona Sutta

Q 26  Why did the brahmin Dona put those four questions based on his knowledge of the footprint?

Q 27 Why did theBuddha give give negative answers to all the four questions and what was his explanation cankers ?

Q 28  What do you understand by the word i) ‘canker’? ii) by lotus analogy?

Q 29 What do you understand about the Buddha-nature as compared with the lotus ? Elaborate as clearly as you can.

Q
30 The message of the Buddha in this Sutta can be breifly expressed
thus: ” Though I am bor in the world, I am above it. It cannot spoil
me.” How would you interpret it ?

Q 31 How are you going to apply this message in your daily life ? Please write clearly.

Q 32 Please clarify:
i. What id Bodhi and how many kinds of Bodhi are there ?
ii Who is a Bodhisatta and how many typts of Bodhisattas are there ?
iii Who is a Buddha and how many types of Buddhas are there ?

Q 33 Together with the Three Refugees what moral principles should a Buddhist follow ?

Q 34 Write a brief esssay on the meaning of Buddha Vandana, as you understand it ?

Q 35 Is the word “Buddha ” a personal name or title, or does it stands for an office ?

Q 36 Explain clearly the meaning of the word “Buddha” as you understand it.

Q 37 Why is he called Buddha ? What are the prerequisites for becoming a Buddha ?

Q 38 What is the meaning of the term Bodhisatta ? How many different types of Bodhisatta are there ? Enumerate.

Q 39 What are the requirements for becoming the different types of Bodhisatta?

Q 40 How many types of Buddha are there ? What are the prerequisites for becoming these different types of Buddha ?

Q 41  What id parami ? How many Paramis are there ? Enumerate .

Q 42 How do the Paramis determine the attainment of different types of Bodhi ?

Q 43 Write an essay on on the core teaching of all Buddhas.

Q 44 How can the Middle path be explained in terms of ethics, psychology and philisophy ?

Q
45 Describe when the Buddha Ratana, Dhamma Ratana, and Sangha Ratana
arose. What is the significance of the term Ratana in this context,
i.e., why are Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha called Treasure Gems ?

Q 46 What is the essential points of the Discourse on non-self as found in his second discourse ?

Q 47 What is the Noble Eightfold Path ? Analyse in terms of 3 modes of Spiritual training ?

Q 48 Write an essay of twelve factors of the law of dependent origination. What does the dependent origination portray ?

Q 49 Write down text of the Paticca Samppada both in Pali and English in forward and backward orders ?

Q 50 Give details account of Ashoka’s Nine messengers of Dhamma dispatched to nine countries ?

Q 51 Write an essay on the Aditta Pariyaya sutta explaining the important features ?

Q 52 What id Dhammapada, in which pitaka it appears ? How many chapters and verses are there ?

Q 53 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 42 & Verse no. 43 with back ground story and give your comments ?

Q 54 Explain Dhpd. Verse no 127 and 128 with background story ?

Q 55 Write down in Pali any 10 verses from citta vagga ?

Q
56 What are the four protective meditations and how does one can
practice in daily life ? Write short Notes on each Arakkha bhavana ie.,
Buddhaanusatti, metta, ashubha and maranussati? 

Q 29
comments (0)
06/13/19
Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS) Model Question Paper 2018-19 Q 11 to Q 24
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 4:58 pm

LESSON 3030 Fri 14 Jun 2019

Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies

with their gracious presence and blessings

for our

OPENING CEREMONY

of

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI


TBSKPB

White Home for TIPITAKA

 to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta —
Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]
MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal


Day and Date will be announced




from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
“No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não

668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com



up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to mankind universal in character.”

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000
separate letters.

in
Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper
2018-19

Q 11 to 24

Q 11 How many types of Bodhisattas are there ? Elaborate on each of them.

Bodhisatta refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a
Buddha and has also received a confirmation or prediction from a living
Buddha that this will be so.
A Crowned Bodhisattva Head and its type. | Tom Swope Gallery
A Crowned Bodhisatta Head and its type
Top 6 Popular Types of Buddhism Figures in Tibet - China ...23China Buddhism Bronze Gild Three Bodhisattva Sakyamuni ...
Three Bodhisatta Sakyamuni …Wisdom | An Excerpt from The Bodhisattva Guide | Shambhala
An Excerpt from The Bodhisatta Guide | Shambhala
File:Gandhara, bodhisattva assiso, II sec..JPG - Wikipedia
Gandhara, bodhisatta assiso, II sec.
File:Seated Bodhisattva, c. 775, Japan, wood core, dry ...
Seated Bodhisatta, c. 775, Japan
File:Bodhisattva statue at National Museum, New Delhi.jpg ...
Bodhisatta statue at National Museum, New Delhi81 best images about Tibetan Culture on Pinterest | Tibet ...
best images about Tibetan Culture
File:Five Wisdom Buddhas and four Bodhisattvas at the ...
Five Wisdom Buddhas and four Bodhisattas Bodhisattva Maitreya (article) | Khan Academy
Bodhisatta Maitreya (article) | Khan Academy
1000+ images about Bodhisattvas on Pinterest | Guanyin ...
images about BodhisattasBodhisattva - JungleKey.in Image
Bodhisatta File:A 16-bodhisattva-siebold.jpg - Chinese Buddhist ...
16-bodhisattva-siebold.jpg - Chinese Buddhist …Powers & Abilities - Different types of Asura ? | Oro Jackson
Powers & Abilities - Different types of Asura ?The Buddha Amitabha with the eight great bodhisattvas ...
The Buddha Amitabha with the eight great bodhisattas …File:Chinese mural of a bodhisattva, ink and color on ...
Chinese mural of a bodhisatta, ink and colorFile:Amitabha with Eight Great Bodhisattvas (Jokyoji Kyoto ...
Amitabha with Eight Great Bodhisattvas (Jokyoji Kyoto …Bodhisattva (Jp. = Bosatsu) - Japanese Buddhism ...
Bodhisatta (Jp. = Bosatsu) - Japanese Buddhism …File:Bodhisattva at Iimori-yama closeup.JPG - Wikimedia ...
Bodhisatta at Iimori-yama closeupFile:Amitabha Buddha and Bodhisattvas.jpeg - Wikimedia Commons
Amitabha Buddha and Bodhisattas.YOGA LIFE: Are you on your way to Bodhisattva?
Are you on your way to Bodhisatta?
Bodhisattva - Wikipedia
Bodhisatta
File:Buddha and Bodhisattvas Dunhuang Mogao Caves.png ...
Buddha and Bodhisattas Dunhuang Mogao Caves.png …
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKhY2HxRojQ
Difference Between Buddha and Bodhisatta

Published on Mar 14, 2017

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Chinese: 虛空藏; pinyin: Xūkōngzàng; Japanese pronunciation: Kokūzō; Korean: 허공장, Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ།, THL: Namkha’i Nyingpo) is a bodhisattva who is associated with the great element (mahābhūta) of space (ākāśa).

(Chinese: 觀音; pinyin: Guanyin; Japanese pronunciation: Kannon; Korean: 관음; Vietnamese: Quán Thế Âm, Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, THL: Chenrézik)

The bodhisatta of compassion, the listener of the world’s cries
who uses skillful means to come to their aid; the most universally
acknowledged bodhisatta in Mahayana Buddhism and appears unofficially
in Theravada Buddhism in Cambodia under the name Lokeśvara. This
bodhisatta gradually became identified predominantly as female in East Asian Buddhism and its name may originally have been Avalokitāśvara.

(Chinese: 地藏; pinyin: Dìzáng; Japanese pronunciation: Jizō; Korean: 지장; Vietnamese: Địa Tạng, Tibetan: ས་ཡི་སྙིང་པོ, THL: Sayi Nyingpo).

Kṣitigarbha is a bodhisatta primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually depicted as a Buddhist monk.
His name may be translated as “Earth Treasury”, “Earth Store”, “Earth
Matrix”, or “Earth Womb”. Kṣitigarbha is known for his vow to take
responsibility for the instruction of all beings in the six worlds between the death of Gautama Buddha and the rise of Maitreya, as well as his vow not to achieve Buddhahood until all hells
are emptied. He is therefore often regarded as the bodhisatta of
hell-beings, as well as the guardian of children and patron deity of
deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture.


(Chinese: 大勢至; pinyin: Dàshìzhì; Japanese pronunciation: Daiseishi; Korean: 대세지; Vietnamese: Đại Thế Chí)

Mahāsthāmaprāpta (Korean: Daeseji) is a mahāsattva representing the power of wisdom, often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara, especially in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means “arrival of the great strength”.

In some Buddhist texts such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita.
Chinese: 彌勒; pinyin: Mílè; Japanese pronunciation: Miroku; Korean: 미륵; Vietnamese: Di-lặc, Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, THL: Jampa).

According to both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Maitreya is
regarded as the future buddha. Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a
bodhisattva who will appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dhamma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha.
The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya refers to a time in the future
when the dharma will have been forgotten by most on the terrestrial
world. This prophecy is found in the canonical literature of all major schools of Buddhism. Maitreya has also been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist religions in the past such as the White Lotus as well as by modern new religious movements such as Yiguandao.


(Chinese: 文殊; pinyin: Wénshū; Japanese pronunciation: Monju; Korean: 문수; Vietnamese: Văn Thù, Tibetan: འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས།, THL: Jampelyang)

Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (transcendent wisdom) in Mahayana Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means “Gentle Glory” Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[4] literally “Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth” or, less literally, “Prince Mañjuśrī”.



Chinese: 普賢菩薩; pinyin: Pǔxián; Japanese pronunciation: Fugen; Korean: 보현; Vietnamese: Phổ Hiền, Tibetan: ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ, THL: Küntu Zangpo, Mongolian: Хамгаар Сайн}

Samantabhadra Universal Worthy is associated with practice and meditation. Together with the Buddha and Mañjuśrī, he forms the Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron of the Lotus Sutra and, according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten great vows which are the basis of a bodhisatta. In China,
Samantabhadra is associated with action, whereas Mañjuśrī is associated
with prajñā. In Japan, Samantabharda is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon Buddhism, and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism. In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is also the name of the Adi-Buddha - in indivisible Yab-Yum union with his consort, Samantabhadrī.

(Chinese: 金剛手; pinyin: Jīngāngshǒu; Japanese pronunciation: Kongōshu; Korean: 금강수; Vietnamese: Kim cương thủ, Tibetan: ཕྱག་ན་རྡོ་རྗེ་, THL: Chakna Dorjé)

Vajrapāṇi (Sanskrit, “Vajra
in [his] hand”) is one of the earliest-appearing bodhisattvas in
Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of Gautama Buddha and
rose to symbolize the Buddha’s power.

Vajrapāṇi is extensively represented in Buddhist iconography as
one of the three protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them
symbolizes one of the Buddha’s virtues: Mañjuśrī manifests all the Buddhas’ wisdom, Avalokiteśvara manifests all the Buddhas’ compassion and Vajrapāṇi manifests all the Buddhas’ power as well as the power of all five tathāgatas. Vajrapāṇi is one of the earliest dharmapalas and the only Buddhist deity to be mentioned in the Pāli Canon as well as be worshiped in the Shaolin Monastery,
in Tibetan Buddhism and in Pure Land Buddhism, where he is known as
Mahasthamaprapta and forms a triad with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara.

Manifestations of Vajrapāṇi can also be found in many Buddhist temples in Japan as dharma protectors called the Niō (仁王) or “Two Kings”. The Niō are two wrathful and muscular guardians of the Buddha standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist temples in East Asian Buddhism.
They are said to be dharmapala manifestations of Vajrapāṇi. According
to Japanese tradition, they traveled with Gautama Buddha to protect him,
reminiscent of Vajrapāṇi’s role in the Ambaṭṭha Sutta of the Pali Canon. Within the generally pacifist tradition
of Buddhism, stories of dharmapalas justified the use of physical force
to protect cherished values and beliefs against evil. The Niō are also
seen as a manifestations of Mahasthamaprapta in Pure Land Buddhism and
as Vajrasattva in Tibetan Buddhism.[5]

Vajrapāṇi is also associated with Acala, who is venerated as Fudō-Myō in Japan, where he is serenaded as the holder of the vajra.

Classification

Four Great Bodhisattas

There are several lists of four Bodhisattas according to scripture and local tradition.

Popular Chinese Buddhism generally lists the following, as they are associated with the Four Sacred Mountains:


The Womb Realm Mandala of Esoteric Buddhism
provides another enumeration. These bodhisattvas are featured in the
Eight Petal Hall in the center of the mandala. They are as follows:



The Avataṃsaka Sūtra mentions four bodhisattvas, each of whom expounds a portion of the Fifty-two Stages of Bodhisattv Practice.



The Lotus Sutta provides a list of bodhisattvas that are the leaders of the Bodhisattas of the Earth.




Five Great Bodhisattas

Chapter 7 of the Humane King Sutra provides an enumeration of five bodhisattvas, known as the “Five Bodhisattvas of Great Power
(五大力菩薩).” There are two Chinese translations of this text, each
providing an entirely different name to these figures. Their association
with the cardinal directions also differs between versions.[7] They are as follows:



Old translation (Kumaravija) Direction New translation (Amoghavajra) Direction
無量力吼
West
Vajrapāramitā (剛波羅蜜多)
Central
雷電吼
North
Vajrayakṣa (金剛夜叉)
North
無畏方吼
East
Vajratīkṣṇa (金剛利)
West
龍王吼
South
Vajraratna (金剛宝)
South
金剛吼
Central
Vajrapāṇi (金剛手)
East


Sixteen Bodhisattas

The Niṣpannayogāvalī provides a list of bodhisattas known as the “Sixteen Honored Ones of the Auspicious Aeon.”
They also appear in a Sutra with the same title (賢劫十六尊). They are as
follows, along with their respective associated directions:



East South West North


Another set of sixteen are known as the “Sixteen Great Bodhisattas” and make up a portion of the Diamond Realm Mandala. They are associated with the Buddhas of the cardinal directions.



Akṣobhya
(East)
Ratnasaṃbhava
(South)
Amitābha
(West)
Amoghasiddhi
(North)


Twenty-five Bodhisattas

According to the Sūtta on Ten Methods of Rebirth in Amitābha Buddha’s Land (十往生阿彌陀佛國經), those people who are devoted to attaining rebirth in the Western Pure Land are protected by a great number of bodhisattvas. Twenty-five of them are given by name:


ood core, dry …

Chinese: 虛空藏; pinyin: Xūkōngzàng; Japanese pronunciation: Kokūzō; Korean: 허공장, Tibetan: ནམ་མཁའི་སྙིང་པོ།, THL: Namkha’i Nyingpo) is a bodhisattva who is associated with the great element (mahābhūta) of space (ākāśa).

(Chinese: 觀音; pinyin: Guanyin; Japanese pronunciation: Kannon; Korean: 관음; Vietnamese: Quán Thế Âm, Tibetan: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, THL: Chenrézik)

The bodhisatta of compassion, the listener of the world’s cries
who uses skillful means to come to their aid; the most universally
acknowledged bodhisatta in Mahayana Buddhism and appears unofficially
in Theravada Buddhism in Cambodia under the name Lokeśvara. This
bodhisatta gradually became identified predominantly as female in East Asian Buddhism and its name may originally have been Avalokitāśvara.

(Chinese: 地藏; pinyin: Dìzáng; Japanese pronunciation: Jizō; Korean: 지장; Vietnamese: Địa Tạng, Tibetan: ས་ཡི་སྙིང་པོ, THL: Sayi Nyingpo).

Kṣitigarbha is a bodhisatta primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually depicted as a Buddhist monk.
His name may be translated as “Earth Treasury”, “Earth Store”, “Earth
Matrix”, or “Earth Womb”. Kṣitigarbha is known for his vow to take
responsibility for the instruction of all beings in the six worlds between the death of Gautama Buddha and the rise of Maitreya, as well as his vow not to achieve Buddhahood until all hells
are emptied. He is therefore often regarded as the bodhisatta of
hell-beings, as well as the guardian of children and patron deity of
deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture.


(Chinese: 大勢至; pinyin: Dàshìzhì; Japanese pronunciation: Daiseishi; Korean: 대세지; Vietnamese: Đại Thế Chí)

Mahāsthāmaprāpta (Korean: Daeseji) is a mahāsattva representing the power of wisdom, often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara, especially in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means “arrival of the great strength”.

In some Buddhist texts such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita.
Chinese: 彌勒; pinyin: Mílè; Japanese pronunciation: Miroku; Korean: 미륵; Vietnamese: Di-lặc, Tibetan: བྱམས་པ་, THL: Jampa).

According to both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism, Maitreya is
regarded as the future buddha. Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a
bodhisattva who will appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dhamma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha.
The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya refers to a time in the future
when the dharma will have been forgotten by most on the terrestrial
world. This prophecy is found in the canonical literature of all major schools of Buddhism. Maitreya has also been adopted for his millenarian role by many non-Buddhist religions in the past such as the White Lotus as well as by modern new religious movements such as Yiguandao.


(Chinese: 文殊; pinyin: Wénshū; Japanese pronunciation: Monju; Korean: 문수; Vietnamese: Văn Thù, Tibetan: འཇམ་དཔལ་དབྱངས།, THL: Jampelyang)

Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (transcendent wisdom) in Mahayana Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is also a yidam. His name means “Gentle Glory” Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta,[4] literally “Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth” or, less literally, “Prince Mañjuśrī”.



Chinese: 普賢菩薩; pinyin: Pǔxián; Japanese pronunciation: Fugen; Korean: 보현; Vietnamese: Phổ Hiền, Tibetan: ཀུན་ཏུ་བཟང་པོ, THL: Küntu Zangpo, Mongolian: Хамгаар Сайн}

Samantabhadra Universal Worthy is associated with practice and meditation. Together with the Buddha and Mañjuśrī, he forms the Shakyamuni trinity in Buddhism. He is the patron of the Lotus Sutra and, according to the Avatamsaka Sutra, made the ten great vows which are the basis of a bodhisatta. In China,
Samantabhadra is associated with action, whereas Mañjuśrī is associated
with prajñā. In Japan, Samantabharda is often venerated by the Tendai and in Shingon Buddhism, and as the protector of the Lotus Sutra by Nichiren Buddhism. In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, Samantabhadra is also the name of the Adi-Buddha - in indivisible Yab-Yum union with his consort, Samantabhadrī.

(Chinese: 金剛手; pinyin: Jīngāngshǒu; Japanese pronunciation: Kongōshu; Korean: 금강수; Vietnamese: Kim cương thủ, Tibetan: ཕྱག་ན་རྡོ་རྗེ་, THL: Chakna Dorjé)

Vajrapāṇi (Sanskrit, “Vajra
in [his] hand”) is one of the earliest-appearing bodhisattvas in
Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of Gautama Buddha and
rose to symbolize the Buddha’s power.

Vajrapāṇi is extensively represented in Buddhist iconography as
one of the three protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them
symbolizes one of the Buddha’s virtues: Mañjuśrī manifests all the Buddhas’ wisdom, Avalokiteśvara manifests all the Buddhas’ compassion and Vajrapāṇi manifests all the Buddhas’ power as well as the power of all five tathāgatas. Vajrapāṇi is one of the earliest dharmapalas and the only Buddhist deity to be mentioned in the Pāli Canon as well as be worshiped in the Shaolin Monastery,
in Tibetan Buddhism and in Pure Land Buddhism, where he is known as
Mahasthamaprapta and forms a triad with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara.

Manifestations of Vajrapāṇi can also be found in many Buddhist temples in Japan as dharma protectors called the Niō (仁王) or “Two Kings”. The Niō are two wrathful and muscular guardians of the Buddha standing today at the entrance of many Buddhist temples in East Asian Buddhism.
They are said to be dharmapala manifestations of Vajrapāṇi. According
to Japanese tradition, they traveled with Gautama Buddha to protect him,
reminiscent of Vajrapāṇi’s role in the Ambaṭṭha Sutta of the Pali Canon. Within the generally pacifist tradition
of Buddhism, stories of dharmapalas justified the use of physical force
to protect cherished values and beliefs against evil. The Niō are also
seen as a manifestations of Mahasthamaprapta in Pure Land Buddhism and
as Vajrasattva in Tibetan Buddhism.[5]

Vajrapāṇi is also associated with Acala, who is venerated as Fudō-Myō in Japan, where he is serenaded as the holder of the vajra.

Classification

Four Great Bodhisattas

There are several lists of four Bodhisattas according to scripture and local tradition.

Popular Chinese Buddhism generally lists the following, as they are associated with the Four Sacred Mountains:


The Womb Realm Mandala of Esoteric Buddhism
provides another enumeration. These bodhisattvas are featured in the
Eight Petal Hall in the center of the mandala. They are as follows:



The Avataṃsaka Sūtra mentions four bodhisattvas, each of whom expounds a portion of the Fifty-two Stages of Bodhisattv Practice.



The Lotus Sutta provides a list of bodhisattvas that are the leaders of the Bodhisattas of the Earth.




Five Great Bodhisattas

Chapter 7 of the Humane King Sutra provides an enumeration of five bodhisattvas, known as the “Five Bodhisattvas of Great Power
(五大力菩薩).” There are two Chinese translations of this text, each
providing an entirely different name to these figures. Their association
with the cardinal directions also differs between versions.[7] They are as follows:



Old translation (Kumaravija) Direction New translation (Amoghavajra) Direction
無量力吼
West
Vajrapāramitā (剛波羅蜜多)
Central
雷電吼
North
Vajrayakṣa (金剛夜叉)
North
無畏方吼
East
Vajratīkṣṇa (金剛利)
West
龍王吼
South
Vajraratna (金剛宝)
South
金剛吼
Central
Vajrapāṇi (金剛手)
East


Sixteen Bodhisattas

The Niṣpannayogāvalī provides a list of bodhisattas known as the “Sixteen Honored Ones of the Auspicious Aeon.”
They also appear in a Sutra with the same title (賢劫十六尊). They are as
follows, along with their respective associated directions:



East South West North


Another set of sixteen are known as the “Sixteen Great Bodhisattas” and make up a portion of the Diamond Realm Mandala. They are associated with the Buddhas of the cardinal directions.



Akṣobhya
(East)
Ratnasaṃbhava
(South)
Amitābha
(West)
Amoghasiddhi
(North)


Twenty-five Bodhisattas

According to the Sūtta on Ten Methods of Rebirth in Amitābha Buddha’s Land (十往生阿彌陀佛國經), those people who are devoted to attaining rebirth in the Western Pure Land are protected by a great number of bodhisattvas. Twenty-five of them are given by name:



Q 12 How many perfections a Bodhisatta must fulfil to become a Buddha ?

Q 13 Write an essay on theten Paramis.

Q 12 How many perfections a Bodhisatta must fulfil to become a Buddha ?


Q 13 Write an essay on the ten Paramis.

https://quizlet.com/7936317/the-ten-perfections-paramis-flash-cards/

Terms in this set (10)


This
can be characterized by unattached and unconditional generosity, giving
and letting go. Giving leads to being reborn in happy states and
material wealth. Alternatively, lack of giving leads to unhappy states
and poverty. The exquisite paradox in Buddhism is that the more we give -
and the more we give without seeking something in return - the
wealthier (in the broadest sense of the word) we will become. By giving
we destroy those acquisitive impulses that ultimately lead to further
suffering.


It
is an action that is an intentional effort. It refers to moral purity
of thought, word, and deed. The four conditions of sila are chastity,
calmness, quiet, and extinguishment, i.e. no longer being susceptible to
perturbation by the passions like greed and selfishness, which are
common in the world today. Sila refers to overall (principles of)
ethical behaviour.


Nekkhamma
is a Pali word generally translated as “renunciation” while also
conveying more specifically “giving up the world and leading a holy
life” or “freedom from lust, craving and desires.” In Buddhism’s Noble
Eightfold Path, nekkhamma is the first practice associated with “Right
Intention.” In the Theravada list of ten perfections, nekkhamma is the
third practice of “perfection.”


Prajña
(Sanskrit) or pañña (Pali) has been translated as “wisdom,”
“understanding,” “discernment,” “cognitive acuity,” or “know-how.” In
some sects of Buddhism, it especially refers to the wisdom that is based
on the direct realization of the Four Noble Truths, impermanence,
interdependent origination, non-self, emptiness, etc. Prajña is the
wisdom that is able to extinguish afflictions and bring about
enlightenment.


It
stands for strenuous and sustained effort to overcome unskillful ways,
such as indulging in sensuality, ill will and harmfulness. It stands for
the right endeavour to attain dhyana. Virya does not stand for physical
strength. It signifies strength of character and the persistent effort
for the well-being of others. In the absence of sustained efforts in
practicing meditation, craving creeps in and the meditator comes under
its influence. Right effort known as viryabala is, thus, required to
overcome unskillful mental factors and deviation from dhyana.


Khanti
(Pali) has been translated as patience, forbearance and forgiveness. It
is the practice of exercising patience toward behavior or situations
that might not necessarily deserve it. It is seen as a conscious choice
to actively give patience as if a gift, rather than being in a state of
oppression in which one feels obligated to act in such a way.




Metta
(Pali) or maitri (Sanskrit) has been translated as “loving-kindness,”
“friendliness,” “benevolence,” “amity,” “friendship,” “good will,”
“kindness,” “love,” “sympathy,” and “active interest in others.” It is
one of the ten paramitas of the Theravada school of Buddhism, and the
first of the four Brahmaviharas. The metta bhavana (”cultivation of
metta”) is a popular form of meditation in Buddhism.

The object
of metta meditation is loving kindness (love without attachment).
Traditionally, the practice begins with the meditator cultivating loving
kindness towards themselves,then their loved ones, friends, teachers,
strangers, enemies, and finally towards all sentient beings. Commonly,
it can be used as a greeting or closing to a letter or note.

Buddhists
believe that those who cultivate metta will be at ease because they see
no need to harbour ill will or hostility. Buddhist teachers may even
recommend meditation on metta as an antidote to insomnia and nightmares.
It is generally felt that those around a metta-ful person will feel
more comfortable and happy too. Radiating metta is thought to contribute
to a world of love, peace and happiness.

Metta meditation is
considered a good way to calm down a distraught mind by people who
consider it to be an antidote to anger. According to them, someone who
has cultivated metta will not be easily angered and can quickly subdue
anger that arises, being more caring, more loving, and more likely to
love unconditionally.



American Buddhist monk Bhikkhu Bodhi wrote:
“The
real meaning of upekkha is equanimity, not indifference in the sense of
unconcern for others. As a spiritual virtue, upekkha means equanimity
in the face of the fluctuations of worldly fortune. It is evenness of
mind, unshakeable freedom of mind, a state of inner equipoise that
cannot be upset by gain and loss, honor and dishonor, praise and blame,
pleasure and pain. Upekkha is freedom from all points of self-reference;
it is indifference only to the demands of the ego-self with its craving
for pleasure and position, not to the well-being of one’s fellow human
beings. True equanimity is the pinnacle of the four social attitudes
that the Buddhist texts call the ‘divine abodes’: boundless
loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy, and equanimity. The last
does not override and negate the preceding three, but perfects and
consummates them.”



Q 14 Explain the difference between an ordinary act of Dana (giving) and an act of dana parami (perfection of giving)

https://www.learnreligions.com/perfection-of-giving-449724

Buddhism’s Perfection of Giving

Monks holding alms bowl.


Giving is essential to Buddhism. Giving includes charity, or giving
material help to people in want. It also includes giving spiritual
guidance to those who seek it and loving kindness to all who need it.
However, one’s motivation for giving to others is at least as important
as what is given.





Motivation



What is the right or wrong motivation? In sutra 4:236 of the
Anguttara Nikaya, a collection of texts in the Sutta-Pitaka, lists a
number of motivations for giving. These include being shamed or
intimidated into giving; giving to receive a favor; giving to feel good
about yourself. These are impure motivations.





The Buddha taught that when we give to others, we give without
expectation of reward. We give without attaching to either the gift or
the recipient. We practice giving to release greed and self-clinging.





Some teachers propose that giving is good because it accrues merit and creates karma that will bring future happiness.
Others say that even this is self-clinging and an expectation of
reward. In many schools, people are encouraged to dedicate merit to the
liberation of others.





Paramitas



Giving with pure motivation is called dana paramita (Sanskrit), or dana parami (Pali), which means “perfection of giving.” There are lists of perfections that vary somewhat between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, but dana, giving, is the first perfection on every list. The perfections might be thought of as strengths or virtues that lead one to enlightenment.





Theravadin monk and scholar Bhikkhu Bodhi said,





“The practice of giving is universally recognized as one of
the most basic human virtues, a quality that testifies to the depth of
one’s humanity and one’s capacity for self-transcendence. In the
teaching of the Buddha, too, the practice of giving claims a place of
special eminence, one which singles it out as being in a sense the
foundation and seed of spiritual development.”





The Importance of Receiving



It’s important to remember that there is no giving without receiving,
and no givers without receivers. Therefore, giving and receiving arise
together; one is not possible without the other. Ultimately, giving and
receiving, giver and receiver, are one. Giving and receiving with this
understanding is ​the perfection of giving. As long as we are sorting
ourselves into givers and receivers, however, we are still falling short
of dana paramita.





Zen monk Shohaku Okumura wrote in Soto Zen Journal
that for a time he didn’t want to receive gifts from others, thinking
that he should be giving, not taking. “When we understand this teaching
in this way, we simply create another standard to measure gaining and
losing. We are still in the framework of gaining and losing,” he wrote.
When giving is perfect, there is no loss and no gain.





In Japan, when monks carry out traditional alms begging, they wear
huge straw hats that partly obscure their faces. The hats also prevent
them from seeing the faces of those giving them alms. No giver, no
receiver; this is pure giving.





Give Without Attachment



We are advised to give without attaching to either the gift or the recipient. What does that mean?





In Buddhism, to avoid attachment doesn’t mean we can’t have any friends. Quite the opposite, actually. Attachment
can only happen when there are at least two separate things — an
attacher, and something to attach to. But, sorting the world into
subjects and objects is a delusion.





Attachment, then, comes from a habit of mind that sorts the world
into “me” and “everything else.” Attachment leads to possessiveness and a
tendency to manipulate everything, including people, to your own
personal advantage. To be non-attached is to recognize that nothing is
really separate.





This brings us back to the realization that the giver and the
receiver are one. And the gift isn’t separate, either. So, we give
without expectation of reward from the recipient — including a “thank
you” — and we place no conditions on the gift.





A Habit of Generosity



Dana paramita is sometimes translated “perfection of generosity.” A
generous spirit is about more than just giving to charity. It is a
spirit of responding to the world and giving what is needed and
appropriate at the time.






This spirit of generosity is an important foundation of practice. It
helps tear down our ego-walls while it relieves some of the sufferings
of the world. And it also includes being grateful for the generosity
shown to you. This is the practice of dana paramita.


Q 15 Write clearly in Pali and English Dhamma Vandana Gatha. Explain the meaning, as you understand it.

Svaakkhato Bhagavataa Dhamma, sandditthiko, akaaliko,


ehipassiko, opanayiko, paccattam veditabbo vinnuhiti.


Namo tassa niyyaanikassa Dhammassa!


Ya ca Dhammaa atitaaca,


Ya ca Dhammaa anaagataa


Paccuppannaa ca ye Dhammaa,


Aham Vandaami sabbadaa


Natthi me saranam annam


Dhammo me saranam varam


Etena Saccavajjene,


Hoto me jayamangalam


Uttamangena Vandeham


Dhammanca tividham varam


Dhamme yo Khalito doso,


Dhammo khamatu tam mamam


Dhamam yaava nibbaanapariyantam


Saranam gacchaami


The Teaching is perfectly
enunciated by the Blessed One; it is verifiable here and now, and bears
immediate fruit; it invites all the test for themselves, leads one
onward to Nibbana and is to be experienced by the wise for himself.


Reverential salutation to the Noble Teaching, leading


onwards to deliverance.


The Noble Teachings of the past (Buddhas),


The Noble Teachings of the future (Buddhas),


The Noble Teachings of the Buddhas of present (aeon),


Humbly do I ever worship.


There is no other refuge for me.


The Noble Teaching is my Supreme Refuge,


By this avowal of Truth,


May joyous victory be mine!


With my brow do I worship the most exce;;ent threefold


Teaching


If the Teaching I have transgressed in any way,


May my error the mighty Dhamma deign forgive.


I go to sacred Teaching for refuge,


Till deliverance is attained.


Kindly visit:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TlQtxa0KHnA




Buddhism - Pali Chantings {Salutations to Doctrine}


 

http://www.buddhanet.net/audio-chant.htm


Mp3 06-chant-06.mp3
201 KB

Dhamma Vandana - Homage to the Doctrine.

http://www.geocities.com/ssdahampasala/


Dhamma: the characteristics of purity, radiance and peace which arise from morality, concentration and wisdom

Svakkhato bhagavata dhammo
Dhammam namassami.

The Dhamma well-expounded by the Exalted One
I bow low before the Dhamma.

To the Way to Awakenment I go for refuge

The Three Refuges

When people ask, “Who is really a Buddhist?” the answer will be,
“One who has accepted the Three Refuges” — Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, as
his shelter and guiding ideal.”

So now that we have paid our respects to the Teacher, it is usual
for Buddhists to continue by affirming their Refuge in Awakenment
(bodhi) in three aspects: the Buddha, the rediscoverer of Awakenment;
the Dhamma, the way to that Awakenment; and the Sangha, those who are
practicing that way have discovered Awakenment for themselves. That
which has the nature of the Unsurpassed Perfect Awakenment, unconfused
and brilliant with the qualities of Great Compassion, Purity and Wisdom,
that is a secure refuge. So we recite this sure refuge as a reminder
every day:

To the Awakened One I go for refuge.
To the Way to Awakenment I go for refuge,
To the Awakened Community I go for refuge.

For the second time to the Awakened One I go for refuge.
For the second time to the Way Awakenment I go for refuge.
For the second time to the Awakened Community I go for refuge.

For the third time to the Awakened One I go for refuge.
For the third time to the Way to Awakenment I go for refuge.
For the third tome to the Awakened Community I go for refuge.

There is a reason for repeating each refuge three times. The mind is
often distracted and if words are spoken or chanted at that time then
it is as though they have not been spoken at all. There is no strong
intention behind them and one’s Going for Refuge will be like that of a
parrot. Repeating words three times is common in many Buddhist
ceremonies (such as ordination) and ensures that the mind is
concentrated during at least one repetition.

When one has gone for refuge and so affirmed that one is following
the way taught by the Buddha, then it is time to remind oneself of the
basic moral precepts for daily conduct.


Dhamma sadhu, kiyam cu dhamme ti?
Apasinave, bahu kayane, daya, dane, sace, socaye.

Dhamma is good, but what constitutes Dhamma?
(It includes) little evil, much good, kindness,
generosity, truthfulness and purity.



King Asoka



Q 16  Enumerate the qualities of the Dhamma and write the significance of each quality

Dhammam saranam gacchami:
I go to the Dhamma for refuge.


There are three levels to the Dhamma, the teachings of the Buddha —



A. Pariyatti: studying the words of the Buddha as recorded in the Canon — the Discipline, the Discourses, and the Abhidhamma.

B. Patipatti: following the practice of moral virtue, concentration, and discernment as derived from one’s study of the Canon.

C. Pativedha: Liberation.


A. The study of the Dhamma can be done in any of three ways —



1 Alagaddupama-pariyatti: studying like a water viper.

2 Nissaranattha-pariyatti: studying for the sake of emancipation.

3 Bhandagarika-pariyatti: studying to be a storehouse keeper.


Studying like a water viper
means to study the words of the Buddha without then putting them into
practice, having no sense of shame at doing evil, disobeying the
monastic code, making oneself like a poisonous snake-head, full of the
fires of greed, anger, and delusion.


Studying for the sake of
emancipation means to study the Buddha’s teachings out of a desire for
merit and wisdom, with a sense of conviction and high regard for their
worth — and then, once we have reached an understanding, bringing our
thoughts, words, and deeds into line with those teachings with a high
sense of reverence and respect. To try to bring the Buddha’s teachings
into line with ourselves is the wrong approach — because, for the most
part, we are full of defilements, cravings, views, and conceits. If we
act in this way we are bound to be more at fault than those who try to
bring themselves into line with the teachings: Such people are very hard
to find fault with.


Studying to be a storehouse
keeper refers to the education of people who no longer have to be
trained, i.e., of arahants, the highest level of the Noble Ones. Some
arahants, when they were still ordinary, run-of-the-mill people, heard
the Dhamma directly from the Buddha once or twice and were able
immediately to reach the highest attainment. This being the case, they
lacked a wide-ranging knowledge of worldly conventions and traditions;
and so, with an eye to the benefit of other Buddhists, they were willing
to undergo a certain amount of further education. This way of studying
the Dhamma is called ’sikkha-garavata’: respect for the training.


B. The practice of the Dhamma means to conduct oneself in line with the words of the Buddha as gathered under three headings:



— Virtue: proper behavior, free from vice and harm, in terms of one’s words and deeds.

— Concentration: intentness of mind, centered on one of the themes of meditation, such as the breath.

— Discernment: insight and
circumspection with regard to all fashioned things, i.e., physical
properties, aggregates, and sense media.


To conduct oneself in this
manner is termed practicing the Dhamma. By and large, though, Buddhists
tend to practice the Dhamma in a variety of ways that aren’t in line
with the true path of practice. If we were to classify their ways of
practice, there would be three:



1 Lokadhipateyya — putting the world first.
2 Attadhipateyya — putting the self first.
3 Dhammadhipateyya — putting the Dhamma first.


To put the world first means
to practice for the sake of such worldly rewards as prestige, material
gains, praise, and sensual pleasures. When we practice this way, we are
actually torturing ourselves, because undesirable things are bound to
occur: Having attained prestige, we can lose it. Having acquired
material gains, we can lose them. Having received praise, we can receive
censure. Having experienced pleasure, we can see it disintegrate. Far
from the paths, fruitions, and nibbana, we torture ourselves by clinging
to these things as our own.


To put the self first means to
practice in accordance with our own opinions, acting in line with
whatever those opinions may be. Most of us tend to side with ourselves,
getting stuck on our own views and conceits because our study of the
Dhamma hasn’t reached the truth of the Dhamma, and so we take as our
standard our own notions, composed of four forms of personal bias —



a Chandagati: doing whatever we feel like doing.

b Bhayagati: fearing
certain forms of power or authority, and thus not daring to practice the
Dhamma as we truly should. (We put certain individuals first.)

c Dosagati: acting under the power of anger, defilement, craving, conceits, and views.

d Mohagati: practicing
misguidedly, not studying or searching for what is truly good; assuming
that we’re already smart enough, or else that we’re too stupid to
learn; staying buried in our habits with no thought of extracting
ourselves from our sensual pleasures.


All of these ways of practice are called ‘putting the self first.’


To put the Dhamma first means to follow the Noble Eightfold Path —



a. Right View: seeing
that there really is good, there really is evil, there really is
stress, that stress has a cause, that it disbands, and that there is a
cause for its disbanding.

b. Right Resolve: thinking of
how to rid ourselves of whatever qualities we know to be wrong and
immoral, i.e., seeing the harm in sensual desires in that they bring on
suffering and stress.

c. Right Speech: speaking the
truth; not saying anything divisive or inciteful; not saying anything
coarse or vulgar in situations where such words would not be proper; not
saying anything useless. Even though what we say may be worthwhile, if
our listener isn’t interested then our words would still count as
useless.

d. Right Action: being true to our duties, not acting in ways that would be corrupt or bring harm to ourselves or others.

e. Right Livelihood: obtaining wealth in ways that are honest, searching for it in a moral way and using it in a moral way.

f. Right Effort: persisting
in ridding ourselves of all that is wrong and harmful in our thoughts,
words, and deeds; persisting in giving rise to what would be good and
useful to ourselves and others in our thoughts, words, and deeds,
without a thought for the difficulty or weariness involved; acting
persistently so as to be a mainstay to others (except in cases that are
beyond our control).

g. Right Mindfulness: being
mindful and deliberate, making sure not to act or speak through the
power of inattention or forgetfulness, making sure to be constantly
mindful in our thoughts (being mindful of the four frames of reference).

h. Right Concentration:
keeping the mind centered and resilient. No matter what we do or say, no
matter what moods may strike the heart, the heart keeps its poise, firm
and unflinching in the four levels of jhana.


These eight factors can be
reduced to three — virtue, concentration, and discernment — called the
middle way, the heart of the Buddha’s teachings. The ‘middleness’ of
virtue means to be pure in thought, word, and deed, acting out of
compassion, seeing that the life of others is like your own, that their
possessions are like your own, feeling benevolence, loving others as
much as yourself. When ‘you’ and ‘they’ are equal in this way, you are
bound to be upright in your behavior, like a well-balanced burden that,
when placed on your shoulders, doesn’t cause you to tip to one side or
the other. But even then you are still in a position of having to
shoulder a burden. So you are taught to focus the mind on a single
preoccupation: This can be called ‘holding in your hands’ — i.e.,
holding the mind in the middle — or concentration.


The middleness of
concentration means focusing on the present, not sending your thoughts
into the past or future, holding fast to a single preoccupation (anapanaka-jhana, absorption in the breath).


As for the middleness of
discernment: No matter what preoccupations may come passing by, you are
able to rid yourself of all feelings of liking or disliking, approval or
rejection. You don’t cling, even to the one preoccupation that has
arisen as a result of your own actions. You put down what you have been
holding in your hands; you don’t fasten onto the past, present or
future. This is release.


When our virtue,
concentration, and discernment are all in the middle this way, we’re
safe. Just as a boat going down the middle of a channel, or a car that
doesn’t run off the side of the road, can reach its destination without
beaching or running into a tree; so too, people who practice in this way
are bound to reach the qualities they aspire to, culminating in the
paths and fruitions leading to nibbana, which is the main point of the
Buddha’s teachings.


So in short, putting the Dhamma first means to search solely for purity of mind.


C.
The attainment of the Dhamma refers to the attainment of the highest
quality, nibbana. If we refer to the people who reach this attainment,
there are four sorts —



1 Sukha-vipassako:
those who develop just enough tranquillity and discernment to act as a
basis for advancing to liberating insight and who thus attain nibbana
having mastered only asavakkhaya-ñana, the knowledge that does away with the fermentation of defilement.

2 Tevijjo: those who attain the three skills.

3 Chalabhiñño: those who attain the six intuitive powers.

4 Catuppatisambhidappatto: those who attain the four forms of acumen.


To explain sukha-vipassako (those who develop insight more than tranquillity): Vipassana (liberating insight) and asavakkhaya-ñana
(the awareness that does away with the fermentation of defilement)
differ only in name. In actuality they refer to the same thing, the only
difference being that vipassana refers to the beginning stage of insight, and asavakkhaya-ñana to the final stage: clear and true comprehension of the four Noble Truths.


To explain tevijjo: The three skills are —



a Pubbenivasanussati-ñana:
the ability to remember past lives — one, two, three, four, five, ten,
one hundred, one thousand, depending on one’s powers of intuition. (This
is a basis for proving whether death is followed by rebirth or
annihilation.)

b Cutupapata-ñana: knowledge of where living beings are reborn — on refined levels or base — after they die.

c Asavakkhaya-ñana: the awareness that enables one to do away with the fermentations in one’s character (sensuality, states of being, ignorance).


To explain chalabhiñño: The six intuitive powers are —



a Iddhividhi:
the ability to display miracles — becoming invisible, walking on a dry
path through a body of water, levitating, going through rain without
getting wet, going through fire without getting hot, making a crowd of
people appear to be only a few, making a few to appear many, making
oneself appear young or old as one likes, being able to use the power of
the mind to influence events in various ways.

b Dibbasota: clairaudience; the ability to hear far distant sounds, beyond ordinary human powers.

c Cetopariya-ñana: the ability to know the thoughts of others.

d Pubbenivasanussati-ñana: the ability to remember previous lives.

e Dibba-cakkhu:
clairvoyance; the ability to see far distant objects, beyond ordinary
human powers. Some people can even see other levels of being with their
clairvoyant powers (one way of proving whether death is followed by
rebirth or annihilation, and whether or not there really are other
levels of being).

f Asavakkhaya-ñana: the awareness that does away with the fermentation of defilement.


To explain catuppatisambhidappatto: The four forms of acumen are —



a Attha-patisambhida:
acumen with regard to the sense of the Doctrine and of matters in
general, knowing how to explain various points in line with their proper
meaning.

b Dhamma-patisambhida: acumen with regard to all mental qualities.

c Nirutti-patisambhida: acumen with regard to linguistic conventions. (This can include the ability to know the languages of living beings in general.)

d Patibhana-patisambhida:
acumen in speaking on the spur of the moment, knowing how to answer any
question so as to clear up the doubts of the person asking (like the
Venerable Nagasena).


This ends the discussion of
the virtues of the four classes of people — called arahants — who have
reached the ultimate quality, nibbana. As for the essence of what it
means to be an arahant, though, there is only one point — freedom from
defilement: This is what it means to attain the Dhamma, the other
virtues being simply adornment.


The three levels of Dhamma we
have discussed are, like the Buddha, compared to jewels: There are many
kinds of jewels to choose from, depending on how much wealth —
discernment — we have.


All of the qualities we have
mentioned so far, to put them briefly so as to be of use, come down to
this: Practice so as to give rise to virtue, concentration, and
discernment within yourself. Otherwise, you won’t have a refuge or
shelter. A person without the qualities that provide refuge and shelter
is like a person without a home — a delinquent or a vagrant — who is
bound to wander shiftlessly about. Such people are hollow inside, like a
clock without any workings: Even though it has a face and hands, it
can’t tell anyone where it is, what time it is, or whether it’s morning,
noon, or night (i.e., such people forget that they are going to die).


People who aren’t acquainted
with the Dhamma within themselves are like people blind from birth: Even
though they are born in the world of human beings, they don’t know the
light of the sun and moon that enables human beings to see. They get no
benefit from the light of the sun and moon or the light of fire; and
being blind, they then go about proclaiming to those who can see, that
there is no sun, no moon, and no brightness to the world. As a result,
they mislead those whose eyes are already a little bleary. In other
words, some groups say that the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha don’t exist,
that they were invented to fool the gullible.


Now, the Dhamma is something subtle and fine, like the fire-potential (tejas)
that exists in the air or in various elements and that, if we have
enough common sense, can be drawn out and put to use. But if we’re
fools, we can sit staring at a bamboo tube [a device for starting fire
that works on the same principle as the diesel engine] from dawn to dusk
without ever seeing fire at all. Anyone who believes that there is no
Buddha, Dhamma, or Sangha, no series of paths or fruitions leading to
nibbana, no consciousness that experiences death and rebirth, is like
the fool sitting and staring at the bamboo tube.


Here I would like to tell a
story as an allegory of those who aren’t acquainted with the Dhamma.
There once was a man living in the woods who, with his five sons,
started growing crops in a clearing about a mile from their home
village. He built a small shack at the clearing and would often take his
sons to stay there. One morning he started a fire in the shack and told
his sons to look after the fire, for he was going out to hunt for food
in the forest. ‘If the fire goes out,’ he told them, ‘get some fire from
my bamboo tube and start it up again.’ Then he set out to search for
food for his sons.


After he had left, his sons
got so wrapped up in their play that when they finally took a look at
the fire, they found that it was completely out. So they had the first
son go get some fire to start it up again. The first son walked over and
tried knocking on the bamboo tube but didn’t see any fire. So they had
the second son get some fire from the tube: He opened it up but didn’t
see any fire inside. All he saw were two bamboo chips but he didn’t know
what to do with them. So the third son came over for a look and, since
he didn’t see any fire, he took a knife to cut the tube in half but
still didn’t see any fire. The fourth son went over and, seeing the two
halves lying there, shaved them down into thin strips to find the fire
in them but didn’t see any fire at all.


Finally the fifth son went
over to look for fire, but before he went he said to his brothers,
‘What’s the matter with you guys that you can’t get any fire from the
bamboo tube? What a bunch of fools you are! I’ll go get it myself.’ With
that, he went to look at the bamboo tube and found it split into strips
lying in pile. Realizing what his brothers had done, and thinking,
‘What a bunch of hare-brains,’ he reached for a mortar and pestle and
ground up the bamboo strips to find the fire in them. By the time he ran
out of strength, he had ground them into a powder, but he still hadn’t
found any fire. So he snuck off to play by himself.


Eventually, toward noon, the
father returned from the forest and found that the fire had gone out. So
he asked his sons about it, and they told him how they had looked for
fire in the bamboo tube without finding any. ‘Idiots,’ he thought,
‘they’ve taken my fire-starter and pounded it to bits. For that, I won’t
fix them any food. Let ‘em starve!’ As a result, the boys didn’t get
anything to eat the entire day.


Those of us who aren’t acquainted with the brightness of the Dhamma — ‘Dhammo padipo’
— lying within us, who don’t believe that the Dhamma has value for
ourselves and others, are lacking in discernment, like the boys looking
for fire in the bamboo tube. Thus we bring about our own ruin in various
ways, wasting our lives: born in darkness, living in darkness, dying in
darkness, and then reborn in more darkness all over again. Even though
the Dhamma lies within us, we can’t get any use from it and thus will
suffer for a long time to come, like the boys who ruined their father’s
fire-starter and so had to go without food.


The Dhamma lies within us, but
we don’t look for it. If we hope for goodness, whether on a low or a
high level, we’ll have to look here, inside, if we are to find what is
truly good. But before we can know ourselves in this way, we first have
to know — through study and practice — the principles taught by the
Buddha.


Recorded Dhamma (pariyatti dhamma)
is simply one of the symbols of the Buddha’s teachings. The important
point is to actualize the Dhamma through the complete practice of
virtue, concentration, and discernment. This is an essential part of the
religion, the part that forms the inner symbol of all those who
practice rightly and well. Whether the religion will be good or bad,
whether it will prosper or decline, depends on our practice, not on the
recorded doctrine, because the recorded doctrine is merely a symbol. So
if we aim at goodness, we should focus on developing our inner quality
through the Dhamma of practice (patipatti dhamma). As for the main point of Buddhism, that’s the Dhamma of attainment (pativedha dhamma), the transcendent quality: nibbana.


3. Can the Dhamma as
proclaimed by the Buddha be called a religious doctrine, or a
philosophy, or is it a spiritual path i.e., a way of life that each
seeker should adhere to at all times? If you think it is a way of life
to be lead every day, how have you tried doing it yourself? It would be
good to share your experience with others.


Is Buddhism a religion or a philosophy?

The Buddha referred to his teachings simply as Dhamma-vinaya
— “the doctrine and discipline” — but for centuries people have tried
to categorize the teachings in various ways, trying to fit them into the
prevailing molds of cultural, philosophical, and religious thought.
Buddhism is an ethical system — a way of life — that leads to a very
specific goal and that possesses some aspects of both religion and
philosophy:

It is a philosophy.
Like most philosophies,
Buddhism attempts to frame the complexities of human existence in a way
that reassures us that there is, in fact, some underlying order to the
Universe. In the
Four Noble Truths the Buddha crisply summarizes our predicament: there is suffering, it has a cause, it has an end, and there is a way to reach the end. The teachings on kamma provide a thorough and logically self-consistent description of the nature of cause-and-effect. And even the Buddhist view of cosmology,
which some may at first find farfetched, is a logical extension of the
law of kamma. According to the Dhamma, a deep and unshakable logic
pervades the world.
It is not a philosophy.
Unlike most philosophical
systems, which rely on speculation and the power of reason to arrive at
logical truths, Buddhism relies on the direct observation of one’s
personal experience and on honing certain skills in order to gain true
understanding and wisdom.
Idle speculation
has no place in Buddhist practice. Although studying in the classroom,
reading books, and engaging in spirited debate can play a vital part in
developing a cognitive understanding of basic Buddhist concepts, the
heart of Buddhism can never be realized this way. The Dhamma is not an
abstract system of thought designed to delight the intellect; it is a
roadmap to be used, one whose essential purpose is to lead the practitioner to the ultimate goal,
nibbana.
It is a religion.
At the heart of each of the
world’s great religions lies a transcendent ideal around which its
doctrinal principles orbit. In Buddhism this truth is
nibbana, the hallmark of the cessation of suffering and stress,
a truth of utter transcendence that stands in singular distinction from
anything we might encounter in our ordinary sensory experience. Nibbana
is the sine qua non of Buddhism, the guiding star and ultimate
goal towards which all the Buddha’s teachings point. Because it aims at
such a lofty transcendent ideal, we might fairly call Buddhism a
religion.
It is not a religion.
In stark contrast to the
world’s other major religions, however, Buddhism invokes no divinity, no
supreme Creator or supreme Self, no Holy Spirit or omniscient loving
God to whom we might appeal for salvation.1
Instead, Buddhism calls for us to hoist ourselves up by our own
bootstraps: to develop the discernment we need to distinguish between
those qualities within us that are unwholesome and those that are truly
noble and good, and to learn how to nourish the good ones and expunge
the bad. This is the
path
to Buddhism’s highest perfection, nibbana. Not even the Buddha can take
you to that goal; you alone must do the work necessary to complete the
journey:

“Therefore, Ananda, be
islands unto yourselves, refuges unto yourselves, seeking no external
refuge; with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge,
seeking no other refuge.”















Daily training myself to practice of the Dhamma  to conduct myself in line with the words of the Buddha to be Virtuous with proper behavior, free from vice and harm, in terms of my words and deeds.



To train my mind for Concentration: intentness of mind, centered on one of the themes of meditation, such as the breath.

To train my mind for
Discernment: insight and circumspection with regard to all fashioned
things, i.e., physical properties, aggregates, and sense media.


To conduct myself in this manner I feel is termed practicing the Dhamma by putting the Dhamma first.


To put the Dhamma first means to follow the Noble Eightfold Path —



a. Right View: seeing
that there really is good, there really is evil, there really is
stress, that stress has a cause, that it disbands, and that there is a
cause for its disbanding.

b. Right Resolve: thinking of
how to rid ourselves of whatever qualities we know to be wrong and
immoral, i.e., seeing the harm in sensual desires in that they bring on
suffering and stress.

c. Right Speech: speaking the
truth; not saying anything divisive or inciteful; not saying anything
coarse or vulgar in situations where such words would not be proper; not
saying anything useless. Even though what we say may be worthwhile, if
our listener isn’t interested then our words would still count as
useless.

d. Right Action: being true to our duties, not acting in ways that would be corrupt or bring harm to ourselves or others.

e. Right Livelihood: obtaining wealth in ways that are honest, searching for it in a moral way and using it in a moral way.

f. Right Effort: persisting
in ridding ourselves of all that is wrong and harmful in our thoughts,
words, and deeds; persisting in giving rise to what would be good and
useful to ourselves and others in our thoughts, words, and deeds,
without a thought for the difficulty or weariness involved; acting
persistently so as to be a mainstay to others (except in cases that are
beyond our control).

g. Right Mindfulness: being
mindful and deliberate, making sure not to act or speak through the
power of inattention or forgetfulness, making sure to be constantly
mindful in our thoughts (being mindful of the four frames of reference).

h. Right Concentration:
keeping the mind centered and resilient. No matter what we do or say, no
matter what moods may strike the heart, the heart keeps its poise, firm
and unflinching in the four levels of jhana.


These eight factors can be
reduced to three — virtue, concentration, and discernment — called the
middle way, the heart of the Buddha’s teachings. The ‘middleness’ of
virtue means to be pure in thought, word, and deed, acting out of
compassion, seeing that the life of others is like your own, that their
possessions are like your own, feeling benevolence, loving others as
much as yourself. When ‘you’ and ‘they’ are equal in this way, you are
bound to be upright in your behavior, like a well-balanced burden that,
when placed on your shoulders, doesn’t cause you to tip to one side or
the other. But even then you are still in a position of having to
shoulder a burden. So you are taught to focus the mind on a single
preoccupation: This can be called ‘holding in your hands’ — i.e.,
holding the mind in the middle — or concentration.


The middleness of
concentration means focusing on the present, not sending your thoughts
into the past or future, holding fast to a single preoccupation (anapanaka-jhana, absorption in the breath).


As for the middleness of
discernment: No matter what preoccupations may come passing by, you are
able to rid yourself of all feelings of liking or disliking, approval or
rejection. You don’t cling, even to the one preoccupation that has
arisen as a result of your own actions. You put down what you have been
holding in your hands; you don’t fasten onto the past, present or
future. This is release.


When our virtue,
concentration, and discernment are all in the middle this way, we’re
safe. Just as a boat going down the middle of a channel, or a car that
doesn’t run off the side of the road, can reach its destination without
beaching or running into a tree; so too, people who practice in this way
are bound to reach the qualities they aspire to, culminating in the
paths and fruitions leading to nibbana, which is the main point of the
Buddha’s teachings.


So in short, putting the Dhamma first means to search solely for purity of mind.


Q 17 What do you think of the five Buddhist precepts (Panca Sila) ?If you are practicing, what are the benefits you derive? Please elaborate.




Panca Sila

Pãnãti-pãtã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Adinnã-dãnã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Kãmesu micchã-cãrã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Musãvãdã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi
Surã meraya-majja-pamã-datthãnã
veramani sikkhã padam samãdiyãmi


I take the precept to
abstain from destroying living beings.
I take the precept to
abstain from taking things not given.
I take the precept to
abstain from sexual misconduct.
I take the precept to
abstain from false speech.
I take the precept to
abstain from taking anything that causes
intoxication or heedlessness.

By my daily training of my mind to practice Panca Sila I have realised that they are

Five faultless gifts

“There are these five gifts, five great gifts — original,
long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from
the beginning — that are not open to suspicion, will never be open to
suspicion, and are unfaulted by knowledgeable contemplatives &
priests. Which five?

 

As a disciple of the noble ones, abandoning the taking of life,
abstains from taking life. In doing so, I have dervived freedom from
danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless
numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from
animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings,I gain
a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and
freedom from oppression. This is the first gift, the first great gift —
original, long-standing, traditional, ancient, unadulterated,
unadulterated from the beginning — that is not open to suspicion, will
never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by knowledgeable
contemplatives & priests…

“Furthermore, abandoning taking what is not given (stealing), as a
true disciple of the noble ones I train my mind to abstain from taking
what is not given. In doing so, it gives freedom from danger, freedom
from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings.
In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from
oppression to limitless numbers of beings, I gain a share in limitless
freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from
oppression. This is the second gift…

“Furthermore, abandoning illicit sex, as a true disciple of the
noble ones I train my my mind to abstain from illicit sex. In doing so,
it gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from
oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from
danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless
numbers of beings, I gain a share in limitless freedom from danger,
freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the third
gift…

“Furthermore, abandoning lying, as a true disciple of the noble ones
I train my mind to abstain from lying. In doing so, it gives freedom
from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to
limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from
animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings,I
gain a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity,
and freedom from oppression. This is the fourth gift…

“Furthermore, abandoning the use of intoxicants, as a true disciple
of the noble ones I train my mind to abstain from taking intoxicants. In
doing so, it gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom
from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from
danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless
numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger,
freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression. This is the fifth
gift, the fifth great gift — original, long-standing, traditional,
ancient, unadulterated, unadulterated from the beginning — that is not
open to suspicion, will never be open to suspicion, and is unfaulted by
knowledgeable contemplatives & priests. And this is the eighth
reward of merit, reward of skillfulness, nourishment of happiness,
celestial, resulting in happiness, leading to heaven, leading to what is
desirable, pleasurable, & appealing; to welfare & to
happiness.”



Q 18  On the full moon day of Ashala (July), two months after awakenment, the Buddha walked all the way from

Bodhi
Mandapa (Bodhgaya) to Isipatana in Baranasi. Why did he chooser this
mode of travelling rather than using psychic abilities as in the case of
other Buddhas?

Q 19  Having in mind whose spiritual well-being did he decide to walk rather than levitate ?

Q 20  What did the Buddha say regarding the nature of a Supreme Awakened One as given in the five verses ?

Q 21  Write down the ideals enunciate by the Buddha in the five verses ?

Q 22  Who is the real conquer (Jino), and why so ? elaborate.

Q 23  On hearing the five gathas of the Buddha what did the other traveler say ?

Q
24  Is it possible to construe the Buddha either as a god or an
incarnation, prophet or messaiah of a god from what has been said about
Boddhahood in Buddha’s own words in the five gathas ?

I ) If your answer is no, write why do you think so.
II) If your answer is yes, please explain why do you think so.





in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu






Dove-02-june.gif (38556 bytes)


http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/


Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000
separate letters.


ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA

Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —
Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

from
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon,
describes the events leading up to, during, and immediately following
the death and final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful
narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Use
http://www.translate.google.com/

from


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(A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss

as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on

Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic

Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM).

Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by

Start

using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use

of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF.

Practice

Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,

lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for

health mind in a healthy body.

 






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is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio
Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions
of people all over the world in 112 Classical languages.

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LESSON 3030 Fri 14 Jun 2019 Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies with their gracious presence and blessings for our OPENING CEREMONY of TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB White Home for TIPITAKA to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Day and Date will be announced from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās “No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000 separate letters.
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 4:29 pm

LESSON 3030 Fri 14 Jun 2019

Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies

with their gracious presence and blessings

for our

OPENING CEREMONY

of

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI


TBSKPB

White Home for TIPITAKA

 to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta —
Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]
MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal


Day and Date will be announced




from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
“No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não

668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com



up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to mankind universal in character.”

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000
separate letters.

in



in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu






Dove-02-june.gif (38556 bytes)


http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/


Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000
separate letters.


ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA

Positive Buddha Vacana — The words of the Buddha —
Interested in All Suttas  of Tipitaka as Episodes in visual format including 7D laser Hologram 360 degree Circarama presentation

from
Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice
University
in
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

LESSONS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPydLZ0cavc
for
 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

This wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon,
describes the events leading up to, during, and immediately following
the death and final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful
narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDkKT54WbJ4
for
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ

http://www.buddha-vacana.org/sutta/digha.html
Use
http://www.translate.google.com/

from


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06/12/19
LESSON 3029 Thu 13 Jun 2019 Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies with their gracious presence and blessings for our OPENING CEREMONY of TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB White Home for TIPITAKA to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna hSutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Day and Date will be announced from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās “No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000 separate letters. Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 5:08 pm

LESSON 3029 Thu 13 Jun 2019
Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies with their gracious presence and blessings for our OPENING CEREMONY of TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB White Home for TIPITAKA to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna hSutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Day and Date will be announced from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās “No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000 separate letters.

Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

“It is better to conquer yourself than to win a thousand battles. Then the victory is yours. It cannot be taken from you.” -Buddha

“Learn this from water: loud splashes the brook but the oceans depth are calm.”

“I never see what has been done; I only see what remains to be done.”

“You only lose what you cling to.”

“The past is already gone, the future is not yet here. There’s only one moment for you to live.”
“The trouble is, you think you have time.”

“Your work is to discover your work and then with all your heart to give yourself to it.”
“Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense.”

“The tongue like a sharp knife… Kills without drawing blood.”
“Teach this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.”

“To abstain from lying is essentially wholesome.”
“Avoid evil deeds as a man who loves life avoids poison.”

“Holding onto anger is like drinking poison and expecting the other person to die.”

“What you think, you become. What you feel, you attract. What you imagine, you create.”

There are only two mistakes one can make along the road to truth; not going all the way, and not starting.” “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.” “If a man’s thoughts are muddy, If he is reckless and full of deceit, How can he wear the yellow robe? Whoever is master of his own nature, Bright, clear and true, He may indeed wear the yellow robe.” “Anger will never disappear so long as thoughts of resentment are cherished in the mind. Anger will disappear just as soon as thoughts of resentment are forgotten.”

“For soon the body is discarded, Then what does it feel? A useless log of wood, it lies on the ground, Then what does it know? Your worst enemy cannot harm you As much as your own thoughts, unguarded. But once mastered, No one can help you as much, Not even your father or your mother.”

“One should strive to understand what underlies sufferings and diseases – and aim for health and well-being while gaining in the path.”

“If you are quiet enough, you will hear the flow of the universe. You will feel its rhythm. Go with this flow. Happiness lies ahead. Meditation is key.”

“There has to be evil so that good can prove its purity above it. ”

“To conquer oneself is a greater task than conquering others.”

“The whole secret of existence is to have no fear. Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”

“Everything that has a beginning has an ending. Make your peace with that and all will be well.”

“The root of suffering is attachment.”

“You cannot travel the path until you have become the path itself.”

“The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.”

“Purity or impurity depends on oneself. No one can purify another.”

“However many holy words you read, However many you speak, What good will they do you If you do not act on upon them?”

ஆயிரம் போர்களை வெல்விட உங்களை கைப்பற்ற நல்லது. பிறகு வெற்றி உங்களுடையது. இது உங்களிடமிருந்து எடுக்கப்பட முடியாது. ”

நீ நடந்து, சாப்பிட மற்றும் பயணிக்கும்போது, நீ எங்கே இருக்கிறாய். இல்லையென்றால், உங்கள் வாழ்க்கையின் பெரும்பகுதியை இழப்பீர்கள். “-

உங்கள் உடல் விலைமதிப்பற்றது. இது விழிப்புணர்வுக்கான எங்கள் வாகனமாகும். அதை கவனமாக கவனித்துக் கொள்ளுங்கள். ”

ஆயிரம் வெற்று வார்த்தைகள் விட, அமைதி கொண்ட ஒரு வார்த்தை. ”

நன்மை செய்வதில் உங்கள் இதயத்தை அமைத்துக் கொள்ளுங்கள். அதை மீண்டும் மீண்டும் மீண்டும் செய் மற்றும் நீங்கள் மகிழ்ச்சியுடன் நிரப்பப்படுவீர்கள். “-

மூன்று விஷயங்களை நீண்ட மறைக்க முடியாது: சூரியன், சந்திரன், சத்தியம். “-

நீங்கள் யாராவது ஒரு விளக்கு வெளிச்சம் என்றால், அது உங்கள் பாதை பிரகாசிக்கும். “-

-புத்தர்

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06/11/19
LESSON 3019 Wed 12 Jun 2019 Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies with their gracious presence and blessings for our OPENING CEREMONY of TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB White Home for TIPITAKA to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna hSutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Day and Date will be announced from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās “No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000 separate letters.
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 7:14 pm

LESSON 3019 Wed 12 Jun 2019
Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies with their gracious presence and blessings for our OPENING CEREMONY of TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB White Home for TIPITAKA to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna hSutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Day and Date will be announced from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās “No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000 separate letters.
Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

http://wisdomquotes.com/buddha-quotes/

There is no fear for one whose mind is not filled with desires. Buddha

Work out your own salvation. Do not depend on others. Buddha

If anything is worth doing, do it with all your heart. Buddha

A man is not called wise because he talks and talks again; but if he is peaceful, loving and fearless then he is in truth called wise. Buddha

Do not look for a sanctuary in anyone except your self. Buddha

No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path. Buddha

To live a pure unselfish life, one must count nothing as one’s own in the midst of abundance. Buddha

All that we are is the result of what we have thought. Buddha

If we fail to look after others when they need help, who will look after us? Buddha

One who acts on truth is happy in this world and beyond. Buddha

Give, even if you only have a little.

Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.

Irrigators channel waters; fletchers straighten arrows; carpenters bend wood; the wise master themselves.

Drop by drop is the water pot filled. Likewise, the wise man, gathering it little by little, fills himself with good.

Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.

If you knew what I know about the power of giving, you would not let a single meal pass without sharing it in some way.

The root of suffering is attachment.

Silence the angry man with love. Silence the ill-natured man with kindness. Silence the miser with generosity. Silence the liar with truth.

People with opinions just go around bothering each other.

Even as a solid rock is unshaken by the wind, so are the wise unshaken by praise or blame.

You yourself must strive. The Buddhas only point the way.

Nothing can harm you as much as your own thoughts unguarded.

Meditate… do not delay, lest you later regret it.

Understanding is the heartwood of well-spoken words.

Ceasing to do evil, cultivating the good, purifying the heart: this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

Delight in meditation and solitude. Compose yourself, be happy. You are a seeker.

Ardently do today what must be done. Who knows? Tomorrow, death comes.

What you are is what you have been. What you’ll be is what you do now.

If you propose to speak always ask yourself, is it true, is it necessary, is it kind.

If you find no one to support you on the spiritual path, walk alone. This is one of my favorite Buddha quote

Stop, stop. Do not speak. The ultimate truth is not even to think

We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.

Just as the great ocean has one taste, the taste of salt, so also this teaching and discipline has one taste, the taste of liberation.

The one in whom no longer exist the craving and thirst that perpetuate becoming; how could you track that Awakened one, trackless, and of limitless range.

Endurance is one of the most difficult disciplines, but it is to the one who endures that the final victory comes.

Long is the night to him who is awake; long is a mile to him who is tired; long is life to the foolish who do not know the true law.

Whatever precious jewel there is in the heavenly worlds, there is nothing comparable to one who is Awakened.

Our life is shaped by our mind; we become what we think. Joy follows a pure thought like a shadow that never leaves.

Like a fine flower, beautiful to look at but without scent, fine words are fruitless in a man who does not act in accordance with them.

Our theories of the eternal are as valuable as are those which a chick which has not broken its way through its shell might form of the outside world.

An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.

However many holy words you read, however many you speak, what good will they do you if you do not act on upon them?

Chaos is inherent in all compounded things. Strive on with diligence.

Attachment leads to suffering

May all beings have happy minds.

Born out of concern for all beings.

I am the miracle.

A jug fills drop by drop.

Every human being is the author of his own health or disease.

The tongue like a sharp knife… Kills without drawing blood.

The way is not in the sky. The way is in the heart.

He is able who thinks he is able.

It is a man’s own mind, not his enemy or foe, that lures him to evil ways.

Delight in heedfulness! Guard well your thoughts!

Everything is based on mind, is led by mind, is fashioned by mind. If you speak and act with a polluted mind, suffering will follow you, as the wheels of the oxcart follow the footsteps of the ox.

There is nothing so disobedient as an undisciplined mind, and there is nothing so obedient as a disciplined mind.

A mind unruffled by the vagaries of fortune, from sorrow freed, from defilements cleansed, from fear liberated — this is the greatest blessing.

Know from the rivers in clefts and in crevices: those in small channels flow noisily, the great flow silent. Whatever’s not full makes noise. Whatever is full is quiet.

You are a seeker. Delight in the mastery of your hands and your feet, of your words and your thoughts.

See them, floundering in their sense of mine, like fish in the puddles of a dried-up stream — and, seeing this, live with no mine, not forming attachment for states of becoming.

‘As I am, so are these. As are these, so am I.’ Drawing the parallel to yourself, neither kill nor get others to kill.

All experiences are preceded by mind, having mind as their master, created by mind.

To enjoy good health, to bring true happiness to one’s family, to bring peace to all, one must first discipline and control one’s own mind. If a man can control his mind he can find the way to Enlightenment, and all wisdom and virtue will naturally come to him.

All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind is transformed can wrong-doing remain?

What we are today comes from our thoughts of yesterday, and our present thoughts build our life of tomorrow: Our life is the creation of our mind.

The one who has conquered himself is a far greater hero than he who has defeated a thousand times a thousand men.

Transcendental intelligence rises when the intellectual mind reaches its limit and if things are to be realized in their true and essential nature, its processes of thinking must be transcended by an appeal to some higher faculty of cognition.

I will not look at another’s bowl intent on finding fault: a training to be observed.

The external world is only a manifestation of the activities of the mind itself, and the mind grasps it as an external world simply because of its habit of discrimination and false-reasoning. The disciple must get into the habit of looking at things truthfully.

Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought.

If with a pure mind a person speaks or acts happiness follows him like his never-departing shadow.

There is no path to happiness: happiness is the path.

Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others.

Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared.

It is in the nature of things that joy arises in a person free from remorse.

The enlightened one, intent on jhana, should find delight in the forest, should practice jhana at the foot of a tree, attaining his own satisfaction.

Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.

Set your heart on doing good. Do it over and over again, and you will be filled with joy.

Should a person do good, let him do it again and again. Let him find pleasure therein, for blissful is the accumulation of good.

We are formed and molded by our thoughts. Those whose minds are shaped by selfless thoughts give joy when they speak or act. Joy follows them like a shadow that never leaves them.

Resolutely train yourself to attain peace.

Indeed, the sage who’s fully quenched rests at ease in every way; no sense desire adheres to him whose fires have cooled, deprived of fuel. All attachments have been severed, the heart’s been led away from pain; tranquil, he rests with utmost ease. The mind has found its way to peace.

Do not turn away what is given you, nor reach out for what is given to others, lest you disturb your quietness.

Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.

Just as a candle cannot burn without fire, men cannot live without a spiritual life

Looking deeply at life as it is in this very moment, the meditator dwells in stability and freedom.

Meditation brings wisdom; lack of mediation leaves ignorance. Know well what leads you forward and what hold you back, and choose the path that leads to wisdom.

Whatever a monk keeps pursuing with his thinking and pondering, that becomes the inclination of his awareness.

The fool who knows he is a fool is that much wiser.

Whatever has the nature of arising has the nature of ceasing.

Unity can only be manifested by the Binary. Unity itself and the idea of Unity are already two.

What is the appropriate behavior for a man or a woman in the midst of this world, where each person is clinging to his piece of debris? What’s the proper salutation between people as they pass each other in this flood?

The greatest gift is to give people your enlightenment, to share it. It has to be the greatest

When watching after yourself, you watch after others. When watching after others, you watch after yourself.

Let none find fault with others; let none see the omissions and commissions of others. But let one see one’s own acts, done and undone.

The true master lives in truth, in goodness and restraint, non-violence, moderation, and purity.

Offend in neither word nor deed. Eat with moderation. Live in your heart. Seek the highest consciousness. Master yourself according to the law. This is the simple teaching of the awakened.

Life is like the harp string, if it is strung too tight it won’t play, if it is too loose it hangs, the tension that produces the beautiful sound lies in the middle.

Do not believe in anything simply because you have heard it. Do not believe in anything simply because it is spoken and rumored by many. Do not believe in anything simply because it is found written in your religious books. Do not believe in anything merely on the authority of your teachers and elders. Do not believe in traditions because they have been handed down for many generations. But after observation and analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it and live up to it.

Just as treasures are uncovered from the earth, so virtue appears from good deeds, and wisdom appears from a pure and peaceful mind. To walk safely through the maze of human life, one needs the light of wisdom and the guidance of virtue.

The wise ones fashioned speech with their thought, sifting it as grain is sifted through a sieve.

The virtues, like the Muses, are always seen in groups. A good principle was never found solitary in any breast

Someone who has set out in the vehicle of a Bodhisattva should decide that ‘I must lead all the beings to Nibbana into that realm of Nibbana which leaves nothing behind’. What is this realm of nirvana which leaves nothing behind ?

Nothing is forever except change.

There is no fire like passion, there is no shark like hatred, there is no snare like folly, there is no torrent like greed.

Both formerly and now, it is only suffering that I describe, and the cessation of suffering.

He who can curb his wrath as soon as it arises, as a timely antidote will check snake’s venom that so quickly spreads, — such a monk gives up the here and the beyond, just as a serpent sheds its worn-out skin.

May all that have life be delivered from suffering.

It is easy to see the faults of others, but difficult to see one’s own faults. One shows the faults of others like chaff winnowed in the wind, but one conceals one’s own faults as a cunning gambler conceals his dice.

Neither fire nor wind, birth nor death can erase our good deeds

Should you find a wise critic to point out your faults, follow him as you would a guide to hidden treasure.

As an elephant in the battlefield withstands arrows shot from bows all around, even so shall I endure abuse.

Praise and blame, gain and loss, pleasure and sorrow come and go like the wind. To be happy, rest like a giant tree in the midst of them all.

In separateness lies the world’s greatest misery; in compassion lies the world’s true strength.

Be a lamp for yourselves. Be your own refuge. Seek for no other. All things must pass. Strive on diligently. Don’t give up.

Better it is to live one day seeing the rise and fall of things than to live a hundred years without ever seeing the rise and fall of things.

If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.

National Education policy must educate on above Buddha’s teachings and education policy as enshrined in our marvellous Modern Constitution.

https://duckduckgo.com/l/?kh=-1&uddg=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fpublication%2F322695770_DrBR_Ambedkar%27s_views_on_Education
Dr.B.R Ambedkar’s views on Education
This paper aims at Dr.B.R.Ambedkar’s views on Education; Ambedkar’s knew that education was the necessary precondition for the reconstruction of the society on the principles of equality and justice. Studying the development of education in Indian Society he found that during the rule of Peshwa in Maharashtra and even during the earlier period of British Raj, right to education was restricted to higher castes. He fought for the education of masses without discrimination of caste and sex. Participation in the budget to debate he said, Education is something which ought to be brought within the reach of everyone. The education department is not a department which can be treated on the basis of quid pro quo. Education ought to be cheapened in all possible ways and to the greatest possible extent. Taking active part in the discussion on Bombay University Act and Primary Education Amendment Bill, he contributed his views in the reform of Education. He founded the people’s Education society, and started colleges at Bombay and Aurangabad. He repeatedly with the government that providing equal educational opportunities to all without discrimination was its responsibility however, boys and girls should get the different education. Paper attains to understand the Dr. B R Ambedkars views on education with the uniform education system in India.
ABSTRACT
This paper aims at Dr.B.R.Ambedkar’s views on Education; Ambedkar’s knew that education was the necessary precondition for the reconstruction of the society on the principles of equality and justice. Studying the development of education in Indian Society he found that during the rule of Peshwa in Maharashtra and even during the earlier period of British Raj, right to education was restricted to higher castes. He fought for the education of masses without discrimination of caste and sex. Participation in the budget to debate he said, Education is something which ought to be brought within the reach of everyone. The education department is not a department which can be treated on the basis of quid pro quo. Education ought to be cheapened in all possible ways and to the greatest possible extent. Taking active part in the discussion on Bombay University Act and Primary Education Amendment Bill, he contributed his views in the reform of Education. He founded the people’s Education society, and started colleges at Bombay and Aurangabad. He repeatedly with the government that providing equal educational opportunities to all without discrimination was its responsibility however, boys and girls should get the different education. Paper attains to understand the Dr. B R Ambedkars views on education with the uniform education system in India.
Key Words: Dr.B.R.Ambedkar,Enlightened, Self-respect, Moral values Introduction:

Introduction:
„It is the education which is the right weapon to cut the social slavery and it is the education which will enlighten the downtrodden masses to come up and gain social status, economic betterment and political freedom‟, are the views of Ambedkar. B.R. Ambedkar, as is well known, the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution of India, devoted most of his intellectual, social and political efforts to give expression to his belief in the ideal, “Sarvenah Bhavantu Sukhinah SarveSantu Niramayah” i.e. the good and prosperity of all and

struggled throughout his life for securing the rightful place for the discriminated, deprived and downtrodden sections of our society. Though several efforts were made by Ambedkar to establish an equalitarian society in India and had been discussed widely by different scholars yet few studies are available to project him as a great educationist. Ambedkar made an attempt to achieve this objective through his educational project also and discussed at length in this paper.
OBJECTIVES:
1. To Assess the Contributions of Dr.B.R.Ambedkar to Educational field.
2. To explore the Changes in life style of marginalised section through
Dr.B.R.Ambedkars Contribution to field of Education.
METHODOLOGY:
The study was conducted by secondary sources of existing literature through historical, analytic approaches. Method consists, analysis concepts and arguments, synthesize ideas and evidence drawn from different sources, construct consistent and well-supported arguments, discuss an issue in a balanced way, evaluate the ideas and arguments of others, make judgments and express informed opinion.
Implications
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar‟sknew that education was the necessary precondition for the reconstruction of the society on the principles of equality and social justice. Studying the development of education in Indian Society he found that during the rule of Peshwa in Maharashtra and even during the earlier period of British Raj, right to education was restricted to higher castes. He fought for the education of masses without discrimination of caste and sex. Participation in the budget to debate he said, “Education is something which ought to be brought within the reach of everyone. The education department is not a department which can be treated on the basis of quid pro quo. Education ought to be cheapened in all possible ways and to the greatest possible extent”(Ambedkar, 40-41). Taking active part in the discussion on Bombay University Act and Primary Education Amendment Bill, he contributed his views in the reform of Education. He founded the

people‟s Education society, and started colleges at Bombay and Aurangabad. He repeatedly with the government that providing equal educational opportunities to all without discrimination was its responsibility however, boys and girls should get the different education.It is unfortunate that in the past India got divided into castes based on birth. The people belonging to low castes i.e. the scheduled castes were denied all privileges and facilities, including educational facilities. They were so poor that they could never think of sending their children to educational institutions. Door of all educational institutions were closed on them. If at all any scheduled caste dared to get elementary education he was required to sit outside the class room. His shadow should not fall on other student. Educationally therefore, they were extremely backward.
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar‟s believed that education would greatly contribute to the improvement of the untouchables. He always exhorted his followers to reach excellence in the field of knowledge. Knowledge is a liberating force. Education makes man enlightened, makes him aware of this self –respect and also helps him to lead a better life materially. One of the causes of the degradation of the untouchables was that they were denied the right to education. Ambedkar criticised the British Policy on education for not adequately encouraging education among the lower castes. He felt that even under the British rule education continued mainly to be an upper castes and untouchables and funded various centres of learning. While a labour member in the executive council of the Governor- General, he was instrumental in extending scholarships for education abroad to the untouchable students. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar wanted the untouchables to undergo both liberal education and technical education. He was particularly opposed to education under religious auspices. He warned that only secular in education could instil the values of liberty and equality among the student.
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar knew that Indian being a multilingual country has the possibility of problems for the unity of the country on account of regional pressures and pulls. When the ideas of linguistic states were mooted he favoured it for two reasons. Firstly it would facilitate functioning of democracy in the country; secondly, linguistic states would help in the removal of racial and cultural tensions. Expressing his views Dr.B.R.Ambedkar said, “In seeking to create linguistic states India is treading the right road. It is the road which all states have followed. In case of other linguistic states they have been so from the very beginning. In case of Indian she has to put herself in the reverse gear to reach the goal. But the road she proposes to travel is a well tried road” (Ambedkar, 145). According to Dr.B.R.Ambedkar‟s,

in the enthusiasm to accept the ideas of linguistic states India could commits the grave blunder of giving official status to regional Language. Therefore he warned that with regional languages as their official languages the states could aspire for Independent nationality and thus pose a threat to the national unity. To avoid this possibility in future he suggested that it should be laid down in the constitution that regional languages shall never be accepted as official language so long as Hindi does not become fit for this status. He warned that linguistic states without proviso would be a peril. Indian should be Indians first and Indians last to keep India a united country. The ideas of linguistic states regional Languages as their official languages was contrary to this principle. Dr.B.R.Ambedkar‟s said “one language can unite. Two languages are sure to divide people. Culture is observed by language. Since Indians wish to unite and develop a common culture it is the bounden duty of all Indians to own Hindi as Language” ( Ibid, 145). He said that any Indian who refused to accept his idea had no right to call himself an Indian. Such a person might be hundred per cent Tamil or Gujarati but could not be Indian in the real sense. Unfortunately, as his warning and suggestions were not understood in the proper spirit. Today, people in Punjab, Tamil Naidu, and Assam are openly asking for separate nationalities. As Indian politics is suffering from lack of unity of interests under the influence of castes. This will be sharpened with linguistic states. India is bound to move to disintegration if suitable amendment in our constitution is not made and a national consensus on one official language is not accepted and enforced
In order to promote education among untouchables Dr.B.R.Ambedkar‟sset up hostels for untouchable students at different places like Panvel, Pune, Nasik, Sholapur, Thane and Dharwad with donations and grant from district and local authorities. Having free facility of boarding to the hostel inmates, these were open to untouchables students, apart from financial constraints social and cultural stigma also affected full development of their personality in the Hindu dominated colleges. Therefore, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar‟s wanted to set up separate institutions for the untouchables. He established the People‟s Education Society in July 1945. The main Objectives were to:
1) Search after the trust
2) Start, establish and conduct educational institutions or give aid to such institutions.
He repeatedly emphasised the need to explode the myth created by Hindu orthodoxy that the untouchables were incapable of learning.

With the constant struggle of Dr.B.R.Ambedkar‟s, due to some of reasons education and literacy among the people belonging to these castes and classes is very low. The problem is likely to continue for quite some time, unless serious efforts are made to remove these hurdles and obstacles. Much attention is already being paid, but distance to be covered is very long. The government is giving scholarships liberally to these students. They are encouraged to go abroad for higher studies. Even in India for admission to professional and non- professional courses percentage of marks is kept low. Separate girl hostels have been opened for them. Book banks have been started and all hurdles which stand on the way of non- utilisation of educational facilities by them are removed
Conclusion
Ambedkar has deliberately included Article 45 in the Directive Principles of State Policy that, “the state shall Endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” The government of India has passed the bill of Right to Education Act 2008 and paid a great tribute to the contributions of Ambedkar to mass education. The policy of the Government of universalization of elementary education focusing particularly on marginalized groups, poorer sections and the girl child, enhancing enrollment in secondary education as well as its commitment to expand education facilities will empower and equip youth to face the future with hope and confidence. There are several challenges to cherish Ambedkar‟s vision of universal education. There is need to frame such policies starting from the primary stage to the higher stage that help to realize the vision of Ambedkar.
References:
1. Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writing and Speeches, Vol II, pp. 40-41
2. Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writing and Speeches,Vol XIX
3. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writing and Speeches, Vol. I, p. 15, Bombay: The
Education Department, Government of Maharashtra, (1979)
4. Dr. Babasahab Ambedkar Writings and speeches Bombay 1979, Vol.14, part 2.
6. Ambedkar,B. (1995).Writings and Speeches,14(1) Education Department, Govt of
5. Dr. Navjot - Education and Vulnerable Communities- Reading B.R. Ambedkar’s Visionhttp://ijellh.com/education-and-vulnerable-communities-reading-b-r-ambedkars- vision/ 2-10-2016 2-25pm

Maharashtra
7. Dhavaleshwar C U and Banasode, C.C. (2017), Dr. B R Ambedkar as a Social
Worker for the MarginalisedSections, International Research Journal of Human
Resources and Social Sciences 4 (10), 344-350.
8. Salagare, M..B. (2017) .Dr. B. R. Ambedkar‟s Views on Dalit Movement (September
28, 2017). International Journal of Research in Economics and Social Sciences
(IJRESS), 7 (9), Available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3061050
9. Salagare M.B,- Perspectives on Women Empowerment (April 16, 2017). Third
Concept, 31( 362) Available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=2968783
10. Dhavaleshwar C U and Swadi, S. Y. (2016), CSR and Empowerment of Marginalised
Sections, International Research Journal of Social Sciences 5, (11), 32-34.
11. Dhavaleshwar, C.U., (2017). Employment Opportunities for Marginalised Sections via CSR - Third Concept - An International Journal of Ideas, 31(369) 28-31,
November Available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=3064683.
12. Kamble, Ramesh and Dhavaleshwar (2014),,Ambedkar‟s Views on Indo-Pak Partition
and Social Concern International Journal of Research in Commerce, Economics &
Management, .4(1), Available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=2863842
13. Kamble,R. and Magar S.V(2016). Dr. B R Ambedkar‟s Social Movements and his Followers in Vijayapur District India Historical View, Int. Res. J. Social Sci., 5 (4),
43-45,
14. Magar,S.V., and Kallolikar, S. K., (2016). Dr. B R Ambedkar S Relation With North
Karnataka, Journal Of International Academic Research For Multidisciplinary 4(1).

https://mhrd.gov.in
A New Vision… A New Approach…

The essence of Human Resource Development is education, which plays a significant and remedial role in balancing the socio-economic fabric of the Country. Since citizens of India are its most valuable resource, our billion-strong nation needs the nurture and care in the form of basic education to achieve a better quality of life.
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LESSON 3018 Tue 11 Jun 2019 Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies with their gracious presence and blessings for our OPENING CEREMONY of TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB White Home for TIPITAKA to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna hSutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Day and Date will be announced from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās “No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000 separate letters.
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 1:08 pm

LESSON 3018 Tue 11 Jun 2019

Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies

with their gracious presence and blessings

for our

OPENING CEREMONY

of

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI

TBSKPB

White Home for TIPITAKA

to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna hSutta —
Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Day and Date will be announced

from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
“No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não

668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com,

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to mankind universal in character.”

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000
separate letters.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_design_process

The aircraft design process is the engineering design process by which aircraft are designed. These depend on many factors such as customer and manufacturer demand, safety protocols, physical and economic constraints etc. For some types of aircraft the design process is regulated by national airworthiness authorities. This article deals with powered aircraft such as airplanes and helicopter designs.

Aircraft design is a compromise between many competing factors and constraints and accounts for existing designs and market requirements to produce the best aircraft.

Design constraints
Edit

Purpose
Edit
The design process starts with the aircraft’s intended purpose. Commercial airliners are designed for carrying a passenger or cargo payload, long range and greater fuel efficiency where as fighter jets are designed to perform high speed maneuvers and provide close support to ground troops. Some aircraft have specific missions, for instance, amphibious airplanes have a unique design that allows them to operate from both land and water, some fighters, like the Harrier Jump Jet, have VTOL (Vertical Take-off and Landing) ability, helicopters have the ability to hover over an area for a period of time.[1]

The purpose may be to fit a specific requirement, e.g. as in the historical case of a British Air Ministry specification, or fill a perceived “gap in the market”; that is, a class or design of aircraft which does not yet exist, but for which there would be significant demand.

Aircraft regulations
Edit
Another important factor that influences the design of the aircraft are the regulations put forth by national airworthiness authorities.[2][3]

Airports may also impose limits on aircraft, for instance, the maximum wingspan allowed for a conventional aircraft is 80 m to prevent collisions between aircraft while taxiing.[4]

Financial factors and market
Edit
Budget limitations, market requirements and competition set constraints on the design process and comprise the non-technical influences on aircraft design along with environmental factors. Competition leads to companies striving for better efficiency in the design without compromising performance and incorporating new techniques and technology.[5]

In the 1950s and ’60s, unattainable project goals were regularly set, but then abandoned, whereas today troubled programs like the Boeing 787 and the Lockheed Martin F-35 have proven far more costly and complex to develop than expected. More advanced and integrated design tools have been developed. Model-based systems engineering predicts potentially problematic interactions, while computational analysis and optimization allows designers to explore more options early in the process. Increasing automation in engineering and manufacturing allows faster and cheaper development. Technology advances from materials to manufacturing enable more complex design variations like multifunction parts. Once impossible to design or construct, these can now be 3D printed, but they have yet to prove their utility in applications like the Northrop Grumman B-21 or the re-engined A320neo and 737 MAX. Airbus and Boeing also recognize the economic limits, that the next airliner generation cannot cost more than the previous ones did.[6]

Environmental factors
Edit
An increase in the number of aircraft also means greater carbon emissions. Environmental scientists have voiced concern over the main kinds of pollution associated with aircraft, mainly noise and emissions. Aircraft engines have been historically notorious for creating noise pollution and the expansion of airways over already congested and polluted cities have drawn heavy criticism, making it necessary to have environmental policies for aircraft noise.[7][8] Noise also arises from the airframe, where the airflow directions are changed.[9] Improved noise regulations have forced designers to create quieter engines and airframes.[10] Emissions from aircraft include particulates, carbon dioxide (CO2), Sulfur dioxide(SO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), various oxides of nitrates and unburnt hydrocarbons.[11] To combat the pollution, ICAO set recommendations in 1981 to control aircraft emissions.[12] Newer, environmentally friendly fuels have been developed[13] and the use of recyclable materials in manufacturing[14] have helped reduce the ecological impact due to aircraft. Environmental limitations also affect airfield compatibility. Airports around the world have been built to suit the topography of the particular region. Space limitations, pavement design, runway end safety areas and the unique location of airport are some of the airport factors that influence aircraft design. However changes in aircraft design also influence airfield design as well, for instance, the recent introduction of new large aircraft (NLAs) such as the superjumbo Airbus A380, have led to airports worldwide redesigning their facilities to accommodate its large size and service requirements.[15][16]

Safety
Edit
The high speeds, fuel tanks, atmospheric conditions at cruise altitudes, natural hazards (thunderstorms, hail and bird strikes) and human error are some of the many hazards that pose a threat to air travel.[17][18][19]

Airworthiness is the standard by which aircraft are determined fit to fly.[20] The responsibility for airworthiness lies with national aviation regulatory bodies, manufacturers, as well as owners and operators.[citation needed]

The International Civil Aviation Organization sets international standards and recommended practices for national authorities to base their regulations on [21][22] The national regulatory authorities set standards for airworthiness, issue certificates to manufacturers and operators and the standards of personnel training.[23] Every country has its own regulatory body such as the Federal Aviation Authority in USA, DGCA (Directorate General of Civil Aviation) in India, etc.

The aircraft manufacturer makes sure that the aircraft meets existing design standards, defines the operating limitations and maintenance schedules and provides support and maintenance throughout the operational life of the aircraft. The aviation operators include the passenger and cargo airliners, air forces and owners of private aircraft. They agree to comply with the regulations set by the regulatory bodies, understand the limitations of the aircraft as specified by the manufacturer, report defects and assist the manufacturers in keeping up the airworthiness standards.[citation needed]

Most of the design criticisms these days are built on crashworthiness. Even with the greatest attention to airworthiness, accidents still occur. Crashworthiness is the qualitative evaluation of how aircraft survive an accident. The main objective is to protect the passengers or valuable cargo from the damage caused by an accident. In the case of airliners the stressed skin of the pressurized fuselage provides this feature, but in the event of a nose or tail impact, large bending moments build all the way through the fuselage, causing fractures in the shell, causing the fuselage to break up into smaller sections.[24] So the passenger aircraft are designed in such a way that seating arrangements are away from areas likely to be intruded in an accident, such as near a propeller, engine nacelle undercarriage etc.[25] The interior of the cabin is also fitted with safety features such as oxygen masks that drop down in the event of loss of cabin pressure, lockable luggage compartments, safety belts, lifejackets, emergency doors and luminous floor strips. Aircraft are sometimes designed with emergency water landing in mind, for instance the Airbus A330 has a ‘ditching’ switch that closes valves and openings beneath the aircraft slowing the ingress of water.[26]

Design optimization
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A vegetarian restaurant in the Mamalla Heritage Hotel in Mahabalipuram. Staff is helpful and will assist in identifying the vegan suitable dishes.

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Cuisine: Vegan-friendly, Lacto, Indian, Italian, Indo-Chinese

Vegetarian restaurant serving authentic South Indian dishes including vegan options. Has valet parking facilities available.

The Newcafe

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No. 25/2, Othavadai Street, Fisherman Colony, Mahabalipuram, India

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Now Open: Mon-Sun 7:00am-12:00am

Cuisine: Lacto, Ovo, Indian, Western, Honey, Non-veg

Serves meat, vegan options available. Indian restaurant with some western options. Vegan choices are declared in the menu including juices, fruit salads, south Indian breakfast, dosa, uthappam, salads, pakoda, fries, masala potatoes, veg pasta or rice and veg pulau.

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Aircraft designers normally rough-out the initial design with consideration of all the constraints on their design. Historically design teams used to be small, usually headed by a Chief Designer who knows all the design requirements and objectives and coordinated the team accordingly. As time progressed, the complexity of military and airline aircraft also grew. Modern military and airline design projects are of such a large scale that every design aspect is tackled by different teams and then brought together. In general aviation a large number of light aircraft are designed and built by amateur hobbyists and enthusiasts.[27]

Computer-aided design of aircraft
Edit

The external surfaces of an aircraft modelled in MATLAB
In the early years of aircraft design, designers generally used analytical theory to do the various engineering calculations that go into the design process along with a lot of experimentation. These calculations were labour-intensive and time-consuming. In the 1940s, several engineers started looking for ways to automate and simplify the calculation process and many relations and semi-empirical formulas were developed. Even after simplification, the calculations continued to be extensive. With the invention of the computer, engineers realized that a majority of the calculations could be automated, but the lack of design visualization and the huge amount of experimentation involved kept the field of aircraft design stagnant. With the rise of programming languages, engineers could now write programs that were tailored to design an aircraft. Originally this was done with mainframe computers and used low-level programming languages that required the user to be fluent in the language and know the architecture of the computer. With the introduction of personal computers, design programs began employing a more user-friendly approach.[28][not in citation given]

Design aspects
Edit

The main aspects of aircraft design are:

Aerodynamics
Propulsion
Controls
Mass

Structure
All aircraft designs involve compromises of these factors to achieve the design mission.[29]

Wing design
Edit
See also: Wing configuration
The wing of a fixed-wing aircraft provides the lift necessary for flight. Wing geometry affects every aspect of an aircraft’s flight. The wing area will usually be dictated by the desired stalling speed but the overall shape of the planform and other detail aspects may be influenced by wing layout factors.[30] The wing can be mounted to the fuselage in high, low and middle positions. The wing design depends on many parameters such as selection of aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweepback angle, thickness ratio, section profile, washout and dihedral.[31] The cross-sectional shape of the wing is its airfoil.[32] The construction of the wing starts with the rib which defines the airfoil shape. Ribs can be made of wood, metal, plastic or even composites.[33]

The wing must be designed and tested to ensure it can withstand the maximum loads imposed by maneuvering, and by atmospheric gusts.

Fuselage
Edit
Main article: Fuselage
The fuselage is the part of the aircraft that contains the cockpit, passenger cabin or cargo hold.[34]

Propulsion
Edit

Aircraft propulsion may be achieved by specially designed aircraft engines, adapted auto, motorcycle or snowmobile engines, electric engines or even human muscle power. The main parameters of engine design are:[citation needed]

Maximum engine thrust available
Fuel consumption
Engine mass
Engine geometry
The thrust provided by the engine must balance the drag at cruise speed and be greater than the drag to allow acceleration. The engine requirement varies with the type of aircraft. For instance, commercial airliners spend more time in cruise speed and need more engine efficiency. High-performance fighter jets need very high acceleration and therefore have very high thrust requirements.[35]

Weight
Edit
Main article: Aircraft gross weight
The weight of the aircraft is the common factor that links all aspects of aircraft design such as aerodynamics, structure, and propulsion, all together. An aircraft’s weight is derived from various factors such as empty weight, payload, useful load, etc. The various weights are used to then calculate the center of mass of the entire aircraft.[36] The center of mass must fit within the established limits set by the manufacturer.

Structure
Edit
The aircraft structure focuses not only on strength, stiffness, durability (fatigue), fracture toughness, stability, but also on fail-safety, corrosion resistance, maintainability and ease of manufacturing. The structure must be able to withstand the stresses caused by cabin pressurization, if fitted, turbulence and engine or rotor vibrations.[37]

Design process and simulation
Edit

Learn more
This section needs expansion.
The design of any aircraft starts out in three phases[38]

Conceptual Design
Edit

Conceptual design of a Breguet 673
Aircraft conceptual design involves sketching a variety of possible configurations that meet the required design specifications. By drawing a set of configurations, designers seek to reach the design configuration that satisfactorily meets all requirements as well as go hand in hand with factors such as aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, structural and control systems.[39] This is called design optimization. Fundamental aspects such as fuselage shape, wing configuration and location, engine size and type are all determined at this stage. Constraints to design like those mentioned above are all taken into account at this stage as well. The final product is a conceptual layout of the aircraft configuration on paper or computer screen, to be reviewed by engineers and other designers.

Preliminary design phase
Edit
The design configuration arrived at in the conceptual design phase is then tweaked and remodeled to fit into the design parameters. In this phase, wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamic calculations of the flow field around the aircraft are done. Major structural and control analysis is also carried out in this phase. Aerodynamic flaws and structural instabilities if any are corrected and the final design is drawn and finalized. Then after the finalization of the design lies the key decision with the manufacturer or individual designing it whether to actually go ahead with the production of the aircraft.[40] At this point several designs, though perfectly capable of flight and performance, might have been opted out of production due to their being economically nonviable.

Detail design phase
Edit
This phase simply deals with the fabrication aspect of the aircraft to be manufactured. It determines the number, design and location of ribs, spars, sections and other structural elements.[41] All aerodynamic, structural, propulsion, control and performance aspects have already been covered in the preliminary design phase and only the manufacturing remains. Flight simulators for aircraft are also developed at this stage.

Delays
Edit
Some commercial aircraft have experienced significant schedule delays and cost overruns in the development phase. Examples of this include the Boeing 787 Dreamliner with a delay of 4 years with massive cost overruns, the Boeing 747-8 with a two-year delay, the Airbus A380 with a two year delay and US$6.1 billion in cost overruns, the Airbus A350 with delays and cost overruns, the Bombardier C Series, Global 7000 and 8000, the Comac C919 with a four year delay and the Mitsubishi Regional Jet, which was delayed by four years and ended up with empty weight issues.[42]

Program development
Edit

An existing aircraft program can be developed for performance and economy gains by stretching the fuselage, increasing the MTOW, enhancing the aerodynamics, installing new engines, new wings or new avionics. For a 9,100 nmi long range at Mach 0.8/FL360, a 10% lower TSFC saves 13% of fuel, a 10% L/D increase saves 12%, a 10% lower OEW saves 6% and all combined saves 28%.[43]

Re-engine
Edit
Jet airliners
Base Previous engines First flight Re-engined New engines First flight
DC-8 Super 60 JT3D May 30, 1958 DC-8 Super 70 CFM56 1982
Boeing 737 Original JT8D Apr 9, 1967 Boeing 737 Classic CFM56 Feb 24, 1984
Fokker F28 Rolls-Royce Spey May 9, 1967 Fokker 100/70 Rolls-Royce Tay Nov 30, 1986
Boeing 747 JT9D/CF6-50/RB211-524 Feb 9, 1969 Boeing 747-400 PW4000/CF6-80/RB211-524G/H Apr 29, 1988
Douglas DC-10 JT9D/CF6-50 Aug 29, 1970 MD-11 PW4000/CF6-80 Jan 10, 1990
Douglas DC-9/MD-80 JT8D Feb 25, 1965 MD-90 V2500 Feb 22, 1993
Boeing 737 Classic CFM56-3 Feb 24, 1984 Boeing 737 NG CFM56-7 Feb 9, 1997
Boeing 747-400 PW4000/CF6/RB211 Apr 29, 1988 Boeing 747-8 GEnx Feb 8, 2010
Airbus A320 CFM56/V2500 Feb 22, 1987 Airbus A320neo CFM LEAP/PW1100G Sep 25, 2014
Boeing 737 NG CFM56 Feb 9, 1997 Boeing 737 MAX CFM LEAP Jan 29, 2016
Embraer E-Jet CF34 Feb 19, 2002 Embraer E-Jet E2 PW1000G May 23, 2016
Airbus A330 CF6/PW4000/Trent 700 Nov 2, 1992 Airbus A330neo Trent 7000 Oct 19, 2017
Boeing 777 GE90/PW4000/Trent 800 Jun 12, 1994 Boeing 777X GE9X plan. Q1 2019
Fuselage stretch
Edit
Jet airliners
Base Base length First flight Stretched Stretched length First flight
Boeing 737-100 28.65 m (94.00 ft) Apr 9, 1967 737-200 30.53 m (100 ft 2 in)
737-500/600 31.00–31.24 m (101 ft 9 in – 102 ft 6 in)
737-300/700 33.4–33.63 m (109 ft 7 in – 110 ft 4 in)
737 MAX 7 35.56 m 116 / ft 8 in
737-400 36.40 m / 119 ft 7 in
737-800/MAX 8 39.47 m / 129 ft 6 in
737-900/MAX 9 42.11 m / 138 ft 2 in
737 MAX 10 43.80 m / 143 ft 8 in
Boeing 747-100/200/300/400 70.66 m / 231 ft 10 in Feb 9, 1969 Boeing 747SP 56.3 m / 184 ft 9 in Jul 4, 1975
Boeing 747-8 76.25 m / 250 ft 2 in Feb 8, 2010
Boeing 757 47.3 m / 155 ft 3 in Feb 19, 1982 Boeing 757-300 54.4 m / 178 ft 7 in
Boeing 767-200/ER 48.51m / 159 ft 2in Sep 26, 1981 Boeing 767-300/ER 54.94m / 180 ft 3in
Boeing 767-400ER 61.37m / 201 ft 4in
Boeing 777-200/ER/LR 63.73 m / 209 ft 1 in Jun 12, 1994 Boeing 777X-8 69.8 m / 229 ft
Boeing 777-300/ER 73.86 m / 242 ft 4 in Oct 16, 1997
Boeing 777X-9 76.7 m / 251 ft 9 in plan. Q1 2019
Boeing 787-8 56.72 m (186 ft 1 in) Dec 15, 2009 Boeing 787-9 62.81 m (206 ft 1 in) Sep 17, 2013
Boeing 787-10 68.28 m (224 ft) Mar 31, 2017
Airbus A300 53.61–54.08 m (175.9–177.4 ft) Oct 28, 1972 Airbus A310 46.66 ft (14.22 m) Apr 3, 1982
Airbus A320 (neo) 37.57 m (123 ft 3 in) Feb 22, 1987 Airbus A318 31.44 m (103 ft 2 in) Jan 15, 2002
Airbus A319 (neo) 33.84 m (111 ft 0 in) Aug 25, 1995
Airbus A321 (neo) 44.51 m (146 ft 0 in) Mar 11, 1993
Airbus A330-300/900 63.67 m (208.89 ft) Nov 2, 1992 Airbus A330-200/800 58.82 m (192.98 ft) Aug 13, 1997
Airbus A340-300 63.69 m (208 ft 11 in) Oct 25, 1991 Airbus A340-200 59.40 m (194 ft 11 in) Apr 1, 1992
Airbus A340-500 67.93 m (222 ft 10 in) Feb 11, 2002
Airbus A340-600 75.36 m (247 ft 3 in) Apr 23, 2001
Airbus A350-900 66.61 m / 218.54 ft Jun 14, 2013 A350-1000 73.59 m / 241.44 ft Nov 24, 2016

https://www.economist.com/technology-quarterly/2015/05/28/flying-into-the-future
Airline interiors
Flying into the future
How technology is changing the passenger cabin for whatever class you fly

https://www.economist.com/sites/default/files/images/print-edition/20150530_TQP003_0.jpg

THE twinkling stars above the passengers gradually fade away as the night sky lightens and the sun begins to rise. It is an illusion, as it has long been daylight outside. But the projected image has a purpose: gently to awaken those on board and help their body clocks adjust to a new time zone. As the airliner begins its descent to New York, the ceiling and walls turn transparent to provide a panoramic view of the Manhattan skyline. And on lining up to a runway, the aircraft’s seats automatically change shape, becoming more upright and firm to provide additional support for the landing. Welcome to JFK airport, sometime in 2050.

This vision of what it will be like inside an airliner of the future comes from Airbus. The European aerospace giant got its engineers to look at how flying might evolve from the passengers’ perspective. The fuselage has a “bionic” structure constructed from composite materials which mimic the bones of those masters of flight: birds. The composition of bone consists of fibres, which are light but also immensely strong when arranged to carry tension where it is needed. The structure saves space and also helps to reduce the aircraft’s weight, so it burns less fuel.
https://www.economist.com/sites/default/files/images/print-edition/20150530_TQP017_0.jpg

The upper part of the bionic cabin is covered with what Airbus describes as a “biopolymer membrane”, a sort of tough plastic coating which can be electronically controlled to turn opaque or transparent on command, thus eliminating the need for conventional windows. This too helps to make the fuselage light and strong.

The traditional rigid divisions into first, business and economy classes have gone. This is thanks to the transforming seats. Made from “memory” materials which can morph into a different shape and then return to their initial form, they adapt to the size of an individual’s body—and their travel budget. The more you pay, the more space and comfort the seat will provide. This would enable airlines to configure seating according to demand. And that means there will no longer be any need to upgrade passengers from cattle class if the rear is overbooked.

The technological elements that could make this concept become reality can already be seen in new aircraft and in cabin designs that are much closer to production. How the experience of flying will change depends, however, as much on the unforgiving economics of air travel as on the imagination of the designers.

Producing the interior of an aircraft is a costly business—not least because in order to provide a distinctive product most airlines want something different, so the insides are custom-built. As a result carriers will spend some $10 billion this year, up by 5% from 2014, on cabin interiors for new and refurbished aircraft, estimates ICF International, a consultancy based in Virginia. Making that kind of expenditure pay depends on what flyers you have in mind.

In the battle for passengers, the price of the ticket is usually the most important thing. Given a choice, air travellers always say they want more room and extra comfort, but are usually not prepared to pay any more money for them—or at least not a lot more. The emergence of various forms of a new airline class, often called “premium economy”, is an answer. But there is a widening gulf between the luxury of first and business classes, and the austerity endured by hoi polloi at the back.

The differences are most apparent in the amount of space a passenger gets. The seat pitch in standard economy (measured as a point on one seat to the same point on the seat in front) is typically between 78cm (31 inches) and 82cm. Spirit Airlines, a budget American carrier, has trimmed the pitch of its standard-economy seats to just 71cm. At the other end of the spectrum Abu Dhabi’s Etihad Airways is offering a nearly 12-square-metre three-room first-class suite with a shower called “The Residence” on its Airbus A380s. It comes complete with a private chef and a butler trained at the Savoy Hotel in London.

Turn left…
It is in the business-class cabin that airlines are spending most heavily, however, because it is more profitable for them. One seat manufacturer reckons that this year airlines will install in new and refurbished aircraft roughly 2,000 new seats in first class, but 50 times as many in business.

Business class has already changed a lot in recent years. It can provide the same or a better level of comfort than that available in the first-class cabin less than a decade ago. For a start, if a business-class seat does not extend into a fully flat bed, the airline’s offering is no longer “even in the game”, says Blake Emery of Boeing, America’s biggest aircraft manufacturer.

The result is that business seats are turning into areas of personal accommodation. These spaces will get more sophisticated and specialised. Teague, a Seattle company which has designed interiors for all models of Boeing’s airliners, worked with Nike, sleep experts and professional coaches to design a concept called the “athlete’s plane”. It includes a training room and a sleeper pod (pictured) to enhance relaxation. The effects of air travel on the body’s natural rhythms means that athletes travelling over multiple time zones are statistically more likely to lose against a home team, says Teague’s Devin Liddell.

https://www.economist.com/sites/default/files/images/print-edition/20150530_TQP010_0.jpg

Powerful computer-aided design and simulation provide designers with more ways to explore the clever engineering required to create as much room as possible in a confined space. Paperclip Design, a Hong Kong company, has come up with the closest thing yet to a morphing seat. Called Butterfly (also pictured), it is composed of units of double seats with the aisle seat offset backwards. In premium economy both seats would be used, but the cabin could be upgraded quickly to business by having the inboard seat left empty to flip over as a sleeping platform.

https://www.economist.com/sites/default/files/images/print-edition/20150530_TQP018_0.jpg

Another approach involves positioning seats at various heights to gain space. Jacob-Innovations, a Massachusetts firm, has a design called StepSeat that lifts every other seat about 18cm allowing extra room for them to recline. A more radical arrangement is a series of stacked cocoons called Air Lair (illustrated). It offers a third more passenger capacity, says Adam White, head of Factorydesign, its London creator. So far, airlines have tended to shun these so-called 3D-seating set-ups because they think that some passengers, for reasons of status, will not want to sit on different levels.

https://www.economist.com/sites/default/files/images/print-edition/20150530_TQP004_0.jpg

Developing and designing a new business-class sleeper-seat or pod can take two years or more, and top-of-the-line models might cost up to $350,000 each, once they are stuffed with electronics. The price is partly explained by the standard required to protect passengers from a seat breaking in a crash. This was raised in 2009 by America’s Federal Aviation Administration from withstanding a deceleration of nine times the force of gravity (9g) to 16g. Although this mean that seats and their fittings have to be made stronger, the use of lightweight composite materials, such as carbon fibre, allows thinner seats to meet what has now become a global standard.

Carbon fibre is already widely used to make aircraft fuselages and wings. It is stronger than steel but lighter even than aluminium. That strength comes from the powerful links between carbon atoms—similar to the toughness imparted to a diamond. The fibres are woven together and arranged in position using detailed computerised stress-analysis for maximum strength. The fibres are then embedded in a hard resin. Carbon technology is advancing rapidly, with even greater performance characteristics claimed for single-atom-thick layers of graphene. Such work may well lead to the advanced composites needed to make bionic fuselage structures.

… turn right
New lightweight technologies are also having an impact in the back of the aircraft. Last year Air Mediterranée, a French carrier, removed the 220 economy seats in an Airbus A321—it bought them for about $300,000 in 2006—and replaced them with a new, lighter version. The skinny seat (pictured) is made by a Paris startup called Expliseat and weighs just 4.2kg (9.3lb) compared with the 12kg seat it replaced, says Air Mediterranée’s Christophe Costes.

https://www.thebalance.com/savings-account-for-a-baby-2085556
How to Open a Savings Account for a Baby
How to Open a Savings Account for a Baby
The process is straightforward enough but requires some preparation.

Setting Up the Account
Children under the age of 18 are not legally allowed to sign documents. As a result, you must open the account in both your names. When the child turns of age (18, or 13 if you convert it to a checking account), you can go to the bank and remove your name.

While your child is still a minor, however, you will have control of the account. You will have the ability to make withdrawals, deposits, or close it if needed.

Most banks have no problem including a child’s name on an account if a parent will also be listed on the account. But the institution will want some confirmation of legal responsibility for the child. You should plan on showing your baby’s birth certificate, and you will need both of your Social Security numbers to open the account.

Fees
Savings accounts often carry fees, but ways to get around them do exist. Start by talking to the bank you currently use. They may let you link this new account to your other accounts, allowing you to avoid fees or minimum-balance requirements.

Otherwise, seek out a financial institution with low or no fees. Some banks waive charges provided a certain number of deposits are made to the account each month.

Another option is to choose an account that offers no service charges if there is a minimum balance—and to make that sum your initial deposit. You might reap some tax benefits by officially gifting the sum to your baby, which involves setting up the account as a Uniform Gift to Minors Act (UGMA) or Uniform Transfer to Minors Act (UTMA) account.

Bear in mind that funds deposited in these custodial accounts are irrevocable gifts and can be withdrawn only under certain more restrictive circumstances.
Location
Online banking is great for adults, but you will eventually want to take your child to visit the bank where the money is. Choosing a bank that is close to home will allow your growing child to make regular deposits and start to appreciate the value of saving.

Make Your Money Work for You.
Ready to start building wealth? Sign up today to learn how to save for an early retirement, tackle your debt, and grow your net worth.

Investment Ideas
The interest on many savings accounts is low. The best rates are often available from local credit unions, which also often offer the additional advantage of having no fees. Talk to your local bank about options that might provide you with more favorable interest rates or tax advantages.

You can also move the funds into a more attractive certificate of deposit or investment account as the amount grows, allowing your child to earn more interest on the savings.

https://m.wikihow.com/Shop-for-a-Home-Loan
How to Shop for a Home Loan
Author Info
Updated: July 2, 2017
Getting the financing for your home can seem daunting and tedious, but essential to the purchase. Most consumers call around or use the internet to shop rates. Then, they select the lender offering the lowest interest rate, oblivious to the myriad fees and charges that will be added onto the loan later. It is not the smartest way to shop, nor is the rate the only thing to think about when getting a home loan. A little knowledge of the home mortgage game can go a long way.
1
Decide what avenue to take to obtaining your financing: Credit unions, banks, big lender retail stores (e.g. Countrywide) and mortgage brokers.
Credit unions usually provide the best value and service, but regular banks and the big lender retail shops will also provide good service. A mortgage broker is a “wholesaler” who uses several lenders to service their customers. The advantage of a broker versus bank or retail store is that the broker has more selection of rates and products. A bank or big lender retail store will only offer the products their company provides.
2
Consider more than just interest rates. Ask for and question all of the charges on a Good Faith Estimate. This is a required document and while it is only an estimate, question the charges listed and ask what they are for and if they can change.
Image titled Shop for a Home Loan Step 3
3
Negotiate rates if you are using a broker. A broker makes his money in two ways: Origination fees or yield spread. Banks that lend money to consumers through brokers, entice the broker to use them with commissions, commonly known as yield spread or rebates. Essentially, the broker makes more money for the loan when he can sell a higher interest rate to the consumer. This means that your interest rate is, to an extent, negotiable, as are many of the fees on a Good Faith Estimate.
Image titled Shop for a Home Loan Step 4
4
When you are quoted an interest rate, ask the broker to tell you what his origination fee, rebate or yield spread on that rate is. A broker may not charge an origination, but will receive a large yield spread for the rate quoted. A fair amount would be a total of 1% of the loan amount, from yield spread, origination or combination of the two. A broker usually wants to make at least 2%. Don’t pay an origination unless he is telling you he is not getting anything on the back end of the deal.
Image titled Shop for a Home Loan Step 5
5
Consider paying discount fees or origination fees to get a lower rate. This is just another way for the broker to get paid when a customer wants a specific rate. If the bank is offering a particular rate, but requires money up front to get it, the customer will pay the discount and the broker will get his cut with the origination fee. Or, the rate will be par, which means the bank charges nothing, and the broker will get his money with the origination fee.
Image titled Shop for a Home Loan Step 6
6
Negotiate these items for your best deal.

https://duckduckgo.com/l/?kh=-1&uddg=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.thehindu.com%2Fsci-tech%2Fenergy-and-environment%2Faviation-sector-faces-heat-over-warming%2Farticle27706017.ece
Aviation sector faces heat over warming

Climate activists are calling for a boycott of air travel and ‘green tax’ on the industry is being mooted

Under pressure from frequent flyers alarmed over climate change, the airline industry says it is “hellbent” on reducing emissions — but the technology needed to drastically reduce its carbon footprint is still out of reach.

In recent months, climate activists have stepped up efforts to convince travellers to boycott air travel, with Swedish schoolgirl and campaigner Greta Thunberg spearheading the trains-over-planes movement and making “flygskam”, or flight shame, a buzzword in the Scandinavian country.

The sector is under considerable pressure,” admitted Alexandre de Juniac, Chief Executive of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), whose members met this week in Seoul.

The industry has been under fire over its carbon emissions, which at 285 g of CO2 emitted per km travelled by a passenger far exceed all other modes of transport. Road transportation follows at 158 and rail travel is at 14, according to European Environment Agency figures.

Mr. De Juniac said the industry was “hellbent” on lowering emissions but the sector is also accused of underestimating its environmental impact, with the IATA chief lobbying heavily against a “green tax” on aviation backed by several countries including the Netherlands.

The International Civil Aviation Organization estimates that air transport is responsible for 2% of global CO2 emissions — roughly equivalent to the overall emissions of Germany, according to consulting firm Sia Partners.

But aircraft also emit particles such as nitrogen oxides, which can trap heat at high altitude, meaning the industry is responsible for 5% of warming, according to the Climate Action Network.

The industry has committed to improving fuel efficiency by 1.5% per year from 2009 to 2020 and stabilising its CO2 emissions in preparation for a 50% reduction by 2050 compared to 2005.

Companies are banking on a new generation of less polluting planes with updated engines, aerodynamic modifications and fittings that weigh less.

However, Shukor Yusof, analyst with Malaysia-based Endau Analytics, said the industry had made progress but “that all these technological advances to cut emissions are tough to implement quickly due to the nature of the industry hemmed by high costs and the fact that planes typically take decades before they are replaced

https://www.instructables.com/assets/img/robot_transparent.png

Solar Plane

Introduction:
This instructable will show you how to create a solar powered plane. This project was done at Newman Smith High School (Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District [CFBISD]) in Carrollton, Texas and was sponsored by the Texas A&M University Society of Flight Test Engineers. We received most of the needed parts from Texas A&M University and built the plane for the High School Solar Plane Competition on May 25, 2013. The project is not for the beginner as it gets a bit complicated. Skills that you will need include soldering skills, plane building skills, monokoting skills, and general R/C plane knowledge. Our team ended up with the Most Creative award and 2nd place in Endurance.

Special Thanks to Texas A&M University, Newman Smith High School Teachers and Principal & the DIY Drones Community (http://diydrones.com/forum/topics/solar-powered-plane).

Below are some pictures of the completed project. The next step will be the list of materials needed.
Also included below is the link for build basics and aircraft aerodynamics- there are two PowerPoints included by Texas A&M University. If you are going to do the project, printing out these two PowerPoints will help you immensely. However, please take note that all the cells must be in series, not in parallel as one of the PowerPoint presentations describes.
https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B_bYmGJ0v1Ncb283TF8tWXF6ZWc&usp=sharing

Want to see more photos? PM me and I’ll give you a link.

UPDATE: 03/31/2014: Research Paper now included.

Materials Needed:
Glider (we used the Gentle Lady)
Monokote (We ended up using about 3 rolls- two for the 8 foot wing [bottom] & body of the plane and another clear roll for the panels)
3×6 Solar Panels
Tabbing Wire
Bus Wire
Normal Wire
Micro Servos
Push Rods
Nylon Control Horns
Propeller
Li-Po Battery
ESC (Electronic Speed Controller)
Charger
Connectors (for Wires)
Receiver
Propeller
Electric Motor
CA Glue
Heat Shrink Tubing
Sewing String
Pairing Connector (depends on your transmitter/receiver)
Nuts (for balancing wing)
Balsa Wood Sheets (optional- depends on how big your wing is)

Tools:
Soldering Iron
Flux
Solder
Hobby Knife and extra blades
Heat Gun
Sealing Iron
Large Table
Sand Paper
Drill
Wire Cutter
Digital Multi-Meter
First Aid Kit

Step 2: Building the Wing

Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing Picture of Building the Wing
To begin the project, start by building the wing. The wing is where the panels will go on. Depending on what glider/plane kit you use, you may want to do it differently. We extended our two meter wing span to make it 8 feet to fit 22 panels in-between the ribs. The other teams that we competed with did not do so this way. They put the panels directly on the wings and did not extend the wing span. By extending the wing span and putting the panels in between, we used less ribs and made the wing more fragile, but it paid off and did not break because we did a pretty good job of reinforcing it.

To extend our wing, we cut out extra ribs from some balsas wood and duplicated the middle of the wing to extend it.

Follow the plans provided with your kit and build the wing. Extend the wing from the center if necessary.

https://cdn.instructables.com/FXU/EAWF/HH2VZICT/FXUEAWFHH2VZICT.SMALL.jpg?auto=webp&height=182

https://cdn.instructables.com/FBC/RTZI/HH2VZICV/FBCRTZIHH2VZICV.SMALL.jpg?auto=webp&height=182

https://cdn.instructables.com/F37/ZXNT/HH2VZICX/F37ZXNTHH2VZICX.SMALL.jpg?auto=webp&height=182

https://cdn.instructables.com/FIH/K3C6/HH2VZICY/FIHK3C6HH2VZICY.SMALL.jpg?auto=webp&height=182

Step 3: Solar Panels

Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels Picture of Solar Panels
Solar Panels: something that is a pain in the butt to install.
These solar panels were about as fragile as anything we had ever handled before. Rigid and inflexible, we broke about half of them.
Handling them with the uttermost care is very important to avoid damage to them. Some cracks are okay, it just depends on where they are located and how they broke. Searching up how solar panels work, how to cut them, and how to tab them really helps.

Some background information: The shiny blue side of the panel is negative. The bottom grey side is positive. To connect in series, connect the top tabbing wire to the bottom tabbing wire. There is more information in the PowerPoint.

After tabbing the cells, CA glue them onto the wing in-between the ribs. After doing so, then connect them in series carefully with the soldering iron, making sure to not hurt yourself.

The bus wires go at the end of the panels and are connected to a wire that leads to the middle of the wing from either side.

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Step 4: Fuselage, Monokote & Electronics

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Building the fuselage
The construction of the fuselage is not very difficult. Follow the instructions on the airplane plan provided. Wiring on the other hand may be more difficult. If you extend the wing, the CG on the plane may shift and you might have to do some minor modifications on servo placement. Heat shrink all electrical components to avoid any short circuits.

Monokote

Monokoting is not hard either. Use youtube videos to learn how to do it. Make sure when you are monokoting the wing, do the bottom first and then the top and make sure you curve the monotkote over to maintain a good airfoil and reduce any drag. You want to have as much laminar flow as possible. Make sure to use clear monokote for the top of the wing so the solar panels can charge. Cut and Iron the monokote on the wing, then blow it with the heat gun so it contracts and creates a tight wrap around the skeleton of the wing.

Wiring & Electronics
Follow the PowerPoints provided and you should be fine. Put the Nylon control horns where they belong and wrap them in tape so they don’t fall off in flight.

Step 5: Testing Electronic Parts

Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts Picture of Testing Electronic Parts
To test the solar panels, plug them all into the charger where they belong and bring it outside to test on a sunny day. Plug the DMM into the output and measure the voltage. The charger that we used only started charging when the voltage was greater than 12 volts.

To test the other parts, pair the receiver and the transmitter together. Depending on which brand on transmitter you use, you may need a pairing plug.

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Step 6: Test Flying

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Bring the plane to an airfield and find an experienced pilot to fly the plane. That person will give you further instruction on how to modify the plane to give it better flight. For us, we needed to reinforce the elevator and rudder. We accomplished that with duct tape.

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Step 7: Conclusion

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The Solar Plane project is an amazing starting point to getting into green energy, R/C, planes, electronics, aerospace, or just about anything else. As for our team, we had an amazing four person group plus our amazing teacher. If you’re in a team, make some team shirts, it boosts morale and on competition day, everyone knows who you are.

We ended up with 2nd in endurance because the charger wouldn’t charge below 12 volts and competition day was an overcast day. But having the cells between the ribs gave us creativity points and using duct tape gave the judges a bit of a kick. We ended up with the most creative award and we’re proud. From doing this project, you will learn so much about planes, solar energy, teamwork. It is a great way to spend a couple of weeks on a cool project.

Make sure that if you’re interested in green technology and solar planes in general, check out the Swiss project Solar Impulse. Our team got to chat with them when they came to Dallas because of our involvement in a similar project. : http://www.solarimpulse.com/

This dude in Finland is also worth checking out. Here’s his Facebook link: https://www.facebook.com/SolarDrone

Steps from here: To move beyond what we’ve created for now, we can add an auto-pilot system, cameras, and other equipment to make it a semi-autonomous drone. Light sensors can be added on either side of the wing and the plane can circle up the sky with maximum sun exposure on the panels; then at night, it can loiter around, slowly circling back down to Earth. This plan however, would require a new plane, a new design, and a lot of effort, but that is what we intend on doing next year. Heck, we could even connect the plane to a cell tower as one commenter below suggested. The GPS system would then tell people in the vicinity of the plane that the plane is there and the plane could fly over on top, giving the people a live bird’s eye view of themselves. Awesome plan, right? The only part getting the technology down is acquiring FAA approval to do such a project.

It is Dr Subramanian Swamy who initiated the fight against these fraud EVMs in the Supreme Court. The ex CJI Sathasivam committed a grave error of judgement by ordering that the EVMs have to be replaced in a phased manner as suggested by the ex CEC Sampath because it cost Rs 1600 crore to replace the entire EVMs. They never bothered to order for Ballot Papers to be used thus buried the Universal Adult Franchise. The RSS also suggested for Ballot Papers to be used instead of the EVMs when BJP was in opposition. But after the BJP gobbled the Master Key they remain silent.
Now the 99.9% All Aboriginal Awakened societies must unite and go for a real freedom struggle against the 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded foreigners from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins who practice hatred, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity which are defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment at mental asylums in Bene Israel and make them quit Prabuddha Bharat.

https://study.com/articles/Chief_Financial_Officer_CFO_Requirements_and_Duties.html

Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Requirements and Duties
Learn about the education and preparation needed to become a chief financial officer (CFO). Get a quick view of the requirements as well as details about degree programs, job duties and necessary experience to find out if this is the career for you.

View Popular Schools
Chief financial officers (CFOs) help businesses achieve their financial goals. They perform perform broad business and accounting tasks, including analyzing financial statements, supervising finance personnel, and developing financial strategies. A bachelor’s degree is generally the minimum requirement though master’s degrees are common.

Essential Information
Chief financial officers monitor and work to improve the financial status of a business. While the requirements of becoming a CFO may vary depending on the organization hiring, most candidates will possess a bachelor’s or master’s degree in a discipline such as business administration or economics as well as at least a few years of experience working in a related position.

Required Education Bachelor’s degree in business administration or economics
Other Requirements Experience in a related position (in most cases)
Projected Job Growth (2014-2024) -1%* (all chief executives)
Median Salary (2015) $175,110* (all chief executives)
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Find schools that offer these popular programs

Banking Related Services
Credit Management
Financial Mgmt Services
Financial Planning Services
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https://ask.shiksha.com/getTopicDetail/1421901/What-Are-The-Qualifications-Required-To-Be-A-Governor-Of-Rbi-Which-Exams-Need-To-Be-Given

what are the qualifications required to be a governor of RBI ? which exams need to be given?

Generally, the people for such positions like governor or deputy governor of RBI are selected by the Government of India and form a part of Central Board of Directors of RBI, and there is no exam one needs to give to get selected for such positions. However, you really need to have good amount of work experience in the banking sector or any other relevant sector & need to have good educational back ground at post graduate level. For more information on RBI central board please check the link below:
http://tinyurl.com/2w2sgf2
I would also suggest you to go through the profiles of the previous 21 governors appointed by government of India to have more in-depth knowledge on the kind of profile required to become a governor of RBI. For your convenience I am placing a link below:
http://tinyurl.com/3ybfde8
Hope this will be of help. Feel free to put up more queries In case your query is resolved please close this question by choosing it as a best answer or pressing the thumbs up icon.

Generally, the people for such positions like governor or deputy governor of RBI are selected by the Government of India and form a part of Central Board of Directors of RBI.
There is no exam conducted for such positions. However, you need to have good amount of work experience in the banking sector besides being a highly qualified professional.
I would also suggest you to go through the profiles of the previous governors’ appointed by the GOI in order to have more in-depth knowledge on the kind of profile required to become a governor of RBI.
Refer the link below-
http://www.rbi.org.in/History/Mis_Governors.html
Good Luck

There is no age criteria. Generally, the people for such positions like governor or deputy governor of RBI are selected by the Government of India and form a part of Central Board of Directors of RBI.
There is no exam conducted for such positions. However, you need to have good amount of work experience in the banking sector besides being a highly qualified professional.
I would also suggest you to go through the profiles of the previous governors’ appointed by the GOI in order to have more in-depth knowledge on the kind of profile required to become a governor of RBI.
Refer the link below-
http://www.rbi.org.in/History/Mis_Governors.html
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https://www.jobmonkey.com/airline/engineer/

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https://www.jobmonkey.com/airline/engineer/

Airline Industry Section
Airplane Engineer Jobs

Aircraft are highly specialized pieces of equipment, as well as everything on it. Each piece or design needs to be thoroughly designed, tested, and then maintained to ensure that it works as intended. The passengers and crew depend entirely on the reliability of all aircraft parts and equipment and it is the airplane engineer jobs (also called aeronautical engineers) that keep the aircraft field growing and developing. Aircraft companies have a constant need for airplane engineers and there are often airplane engineer jobs available.

Aerospace engineers are also needed to help design and build workable spacecraft for government contractors such as NASA, and private contractors working to get into the field.

As the aviation industry grows airplane engineers will be needed to continue to design and build better and faster aircraft and equipment for both commercial and private purposes.

Job Responsibilities

Aircraft engineers are involved in the planning, design, testing, and analysis of aircraft and airports. There are many different types of engineers who work specifically with electronics, airport structure, environmental regulations, and flight methodology. Engineers are often hired because they have a specialized area of expertise and training.

Some airplane engineer jobs may require working directly with customers who buy a specific type of aircraft. They help customers resolve issues and write reports of problems and performance to management, engineers, and to the manufacturer. Other engineers will work with defense contractors in various capacities to design, test, and possibly demonstrate the aircraft to show performance and system capabilities.

Job Requirements

The exact job requirements for all airplane engineer jobs may vary widely with the position and the responsibilities. Much of the work of an engineer is done with computer and physical models prior to any actual testing. This requires thorough knowledge of various testing software, and troubleshooting methods and equipment. You will also work closely with other engineers and possibly physicists and others. Being able to communicate well is also necessary, and you will need to be familiar with writing reports and preparing documents in Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. Lifting of aircraft components that weigh up to about 70 pounds is often required.

Some aircraft engineers are given the responsibility of inspecting aircraft to ensure that there are no worn or failed parts, and will test to discover the reason for failed components. In some cases, you may be required to do some travel. You can also expect to work on any shift, have a significant amount of overtime, and work on weekends, and on holidays. Working with representatives of government agencies will also be necessary, and you will be expected to be familiar with FAA regulations. While most of your work will be in a hanger, some of it will be outside exposed to the weather when the hanger is full.

Training & Degrees

Getting into aircraft engineering requires a four-year Bachelor of Science degree with a major in Electrical, Aerospace, or Mechanical Engineering. It is also possible to get into the field at small airports where you may get some experience, in which case you may only need to be between 18 and 20. Some fields will require a Master’s Degree. Being in aircraft engineering may also require you to have a pilot’s license, an Airframes & Powerplants license (A&P), and/or aircraft mechanic experience. Other licenses may be needed for certain fields.

Military personnel who have worked with aircraft have an excellent opportunity to break into this field. It is even better if they already have a security clearance. Most defense contractors will require a clearance. You will also need to be able to pass a background investigation that goes back at least 10 years.

Salary & Benefits

In general, you can expect excellent benefits from the company that you work with. This often includes medical and dental insurance, life insurance, vacation pay and paid days off, and a retirement plan. Some airplane engineer jobs, however, hire them as contractors, which means that they are considered self-employed. Relocation may also be offered.

The salary for aircraft engineers is based on your type of expertise. Starting salary is near $58,000, and some engineers can make over $120,000.

Quick Summary of Airplane Engineer Employment:

Many airplane engineers are needed to handle all aspects of an aircraft.
Engineers need to be trained and licensed in specialized fields.
Aircraft engineers receive good pay.
Airline Industry Analyst Careers (NEXT PAGE)

https://www.jobmonkey.com/airline/financial_analyst/

Airline Industry Section
Airline Financial Analyst Jobs

Every business needs to watch its finances so that it ensures that it will continue to make a profit. When the economy changes, expenditures that are deemed not as necessary as others are cut back, enabling the company to remain in the black.

Airline Financial Careers are Important for Picking up on New Trends While Minimizing Losses
Airline financial analyst jobs ensure the best spending, investments, and use of money, so that a profit can continue to be made.

Airlines are very expensive to run and there are many costs. Multiply those costs by each plane, and even small amounts of costs per flight suddenly become very large. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that the job of financial analysts in general will increase faster than most other careers – at a rate of 20 percent until 2018.

Job Responsibilities

The primary responsibility of an airline financial analyst is to make financial reports and then make recommendations based on the data in them. Accurate reports require the constant input of data into computers and ensuring that it is correct. Some analysts may be hired to work with specific departments of an airline, such as the aircraft maintenance department.

Did You Know? The wing on a single 747-400 contains 5,600 square feet (524.9 m2), which is an area large enough to hold 45 medium-sized automobiles.

It is the job of a financial analyst to perform and interpret cost/benefit analyses as they relate to the financial success of an airline company. Financial analysts use data related to sales volume, and the costs of fuel, maintenance and repairs, as well as salaries and other expenses to determine how financially successful an airline is and what adjustments need to be made so that it can be more profitable. Some analysts may also track a competitor’s capabilities within a particular market.

Job Requirements

A financial analyst has few physical demands or requirements, except that it will be necessary to be seated through most of the workday. They often work in open cubicles. The individual working in this field needs to be highly organized, can pay attention to details, able to multitask, and be adept at problem-solving and math. They will also need to be able to work with a team. Those with prior aviation or military experience are often preferred.

It will be necessary to have excellent communication and writing skills, since ideas need to be communicated to others on the team, and to those who make the company’s decisions. The analyst will help gather financial data, determine relevance, and synthesize it into useful formats – with conclusions. Some travel may be required. The environment will be fast-paced, and there will be frequent deadlines. Employees are expected to be well-groomed at all times.

Training and Education

Different airlines will have a variety of qualifications. Some of it will depend on the type of tasks involved and the size of the airline. Most will require a Bachelor’s Degree in Finance, Accounting, or Economics, but degrees in Management Information Systems (MIS), Business or a similar area may also be acceptable. Some positions may require a Master’s Degree. Anywhere from one to three years of work experience may also be needed. In some cases, familiarity with particular software may be required, including Excel, databases, Visual Basic, and more.

Training is usually not offered for this position, since the applicant should already have some experience. You will receive on the job training to become familiar with the needs of the company and any specialized software and company policies. You will also be required to pass a background investigation that will go back at least ten years. A pre-employment drug test is also mandatory.

Salary and Benefits

Airline financial analyst jobs are usually well-paid, and starting salaries can range between $43,000 and $93,000. There are opportunities in this field for advancement. The highest ten percent of financial analysts in any field earned more than $141,000.

There are many benefits that may come with this job. You can typically expect to receive medical, dental, and vision insurance, paid vacations, a 401k or similar program, and possibly some travel benefits for yourself and family members. Some airlines may also offer stock options and profit-sharing. Work is usually performed during a standard day shift.

Quick Summary of Airline Financial Analyst Employment:

Airlines will always need to know about how to best use their money and where and when costs need to be reduced.
Financial analysts need to have a Bachelor’s Degree in Business or Accounting, or in related subjects.
They are paid well and usually only work on the day shift.
Opportunities for advancement in this position are possible.

Airline Inspector Careers (NEXT PAGE)

https://www.jobmonkey.com/airline/inspector/

Airline Industry Section
Airline Inspector Jobs

Airline inspector jobs can refer to many different kinds of inspectors. Inspectors are often very specific in the types of inspections they make, and are often hired on the basis of their past experience in certain fields.

Airline Inspectors are Needed to Make Sure Aircraft are Meeting Regulations
Inspectors may be used just to inspect parts to insure their quality, or they may inspect aircraft for problems, or possibly inspect a maintenance project performed on an aircraft. Inspectors have often been pilots previously – and they continue to fly to increase or maintain their own expertise.

As more aircraft are expected to take to the skies in the near future, if the economy does well, there will be an increased need for a greater number of inspectors. Aircraft safety depends on aircraft and parts being inspected frequently and ensuring that pilots are sufficiently trained to operate the aircraft safely. There is availability for promotion within the field.

Job Responsibilities

The job responsibilities of an airline inspector are varied and it will often depend on location and the company involved. Some inspectors will periodically inspect the abilities of the pilots of an airline, or of their mechanics and other personnel working for the company. They will also inspect an aircraft to determine its worthiness to fly, and of the systems that the aircraft uses. Other inspectors will examine an airline’s facilities, procedures and equipment. All of these are necessary to ensure the best safety and maintenance of the terminals, buildings, aircraft and crew members, and passengers.

Did You Know? There are only about 170 schools that are approved by the FAA where an A&P license can be obtained.

Airline inspectors are employed by the Federal Aviation Administration to ensure the safety of every aircraft that leaves the ground. They must enforce FAA standards for safety, maintenance, and other flight protocols. Inspectors perform routine safety checks and are also called in to investigate accidents or violations. There are different types of inspectors dealing with pilots, maintenance, accidents, and avionics equipment.

Job Requirements

It is possible that the airline may assign you to a domicile, and you may be moving around quite a bit. Travel may be expected for some type of inspectors, and you may often work with different people, different schedules, and possibly even different aircraft. At times, you may need to lift aircraft parts which could weigh about 45 pounds. Some airline inspectors will work outside in all kinds of weather – at times. You also may need to be willing to work on any shift.

You will need to be very familiar with the Federal Aviation Rules (FAR’s), and can understand and interpret them. You will need to have a second class FAA medical certificate. As far as flying goes, you will probably need at least 1,500 flying hours, a valid Flight Instructor Certificate, and at least 100 flight hours within the last three years. Being able to speak in front of groups is essential, and you will need to be proficient in writing, too. If you are an aircraft inspector, you must be experienced with the type of aircraft or maintenance that you will be inspecting.

Training & Degrees

Airline inspectors are hired because they already have the required experience and knowledge necessary to do the job. While the requirements will certainly depend on the type of inspector you are applying for, you may also need to have experience or training in investigations, surveillance, certification, and enforcement. Those working to inspect helicopters for emergencies may also need to know about emergency helicopter services.

Applying for an airline inspector job will require that you fill out the Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSA) government form. Successfully passing a background investigation that goes back at least 10 years is mandatory, and so is passing drug tests. A flight line inspector will need to have an A&P certificate. A H.S. Diploma or GED is often the only educational requirement, but military experience is preferred – possibly five years with complex jet aircraft.

Salary & Benefits

Since airline inspector jobs are usually government jobs, the benefits are going to be good. You can expect medical, dental and vision coverage, life insurance, paid vacations, a 401k, long-term care, flexible spending accounts, and more. Relocation is often not included for those just getting into the field. There may also be a one year probation period.

This job will often require a lot of overtime, which could greatly increase your annual income. The total salary runs between $39,500 and over $89,000.

Quick Summary of Airline Inspector Employment:

All airline inspectors are approved by the FAA.
You must be licensed to fly and have more than 100 hours in the last 3 years.
Extensive military flight and mechanic experience is preferred.
Pay and benefits for airline inspectors is good.
Airline Labor Relations (NEXT PAGE)
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https://www.jobmonkey.com/airline/labor_relations/

Airline Industry Section
Airline Labor Relations Personnel Jobs

As airlines and airports continue to grow, there will be a need for more and more employees. Each employee wants to be treated fairly and earn a decent living wage, but some employers do not always agree on what is fair. This has created a need for unions, which can also turn out to be unfair in some of their demands. Airline labor relations personnel jobs are necessary as a mediary help position between the two often strongly opposed groups.

The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts that air travel – for passengers and cargo – is going to be increasing in the next few years. Of course, this is good for the creation of more jobs in almost every area of the airline industry. It also means that there will probably continue to be problems between labor and management – as airports increase in size, and the number of employees that need to be represented by legal means.

Job Responsibilities

Labor relations personnel, with flight attendant unions and pilot unions for instance, ensure that airline employees are treated fairly and that airline employers get the quality of work they need from their employees. Often when there are workers who belong to the union it is the responsibility of labor relations personnel to negotiate with these groups. Employees in these positions also work to ensure that labor laws are not violated.

Did You Know? According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 46 percent of all employees in the air transportation industry are union members or are covered by union contracts.

When negotiations are needed in the airline industry, they come under the authority and rules of the Railway Labor Act. In addition, airline contracts do not expire, but they can be amended. Since strikes and other problems can have such an adverse effect on the bottom line of the employees involved, and of the airline, the goal of negotiations is often to avert a strike altogether.

Job Requirements

Most of the work will be conducted in an office. Typically, you will be working a 40-hour week. When crises come, however, and negotiations are needed to resolve that problem, you can expect to work more hours. Professional grooming standards will apply.

Training and Education

Due to the nature of the job, a Master’s Degree in law is often required. An undergraduate degree in personnel relations, labor economics, and industrial psychology or sociology may be sufficient. In addition, some experience may be required.

Salary and Benefits

The salary of someone working in airline labor relations personnel jobs can expect to earn between $37,000 and $98,000. The benefits are good. There is the possibility of promotion to labor relations manager.

https://www.jobmonkey.com/airline/meteorologist/

Airline Industry Section
Meteorologist Jobs

Knowing what kind of weather to expect ahead of a flight is essential for a pilot – and most of the passengers want them to know, too. Meteorologist jobs are important for the safety of the nation’s aircraft and passengers, although they are often unseen.

https://youtu.be/jinGW7ZDGPM

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https://namelymarly.com/vegan-recipes-potatoes/
Are you a potato fanatic? Then you’ll love these 31 vegan recipes with potatoes, including crispy french fries, tater tots, mashed potatoes, and more! Like it cheesy? Want some summertime vegan potato salad? You’ve come to the right place! Find vegan versions of all your favorite potato recipes all in one place!

If you’re a fan of the potato, you’ve got company. Millions of people around the world claim potatoes as their favorite food. It’s understandable because potatoes create a delicious base on which many flavors can be today. Today I’m answering some of the most frequently asked questions about potatoes and sharing some delicious vegan recipes with potatoes!

Can you eat potatoes if you are vegan?
Yes, you can eat potatoes as a vegan. In fact, potatoes, a starchy, nutrient-rich vegetable, is a great part of a vegan food because they’re plant-based.
Here are some of the best ways you can prepare potatoes as part of a vegan diet:
Baked Potatoes: use plant-based toppings like vegan butter, vegan cheese, coconut yogurt, or even smoky almond slivers (instead of bacon) for toppings.
Mashed Potatoes: replace butter with olive oil and plant-based milk, like almond milk, for dairy milk to make vegan mashed potatoes.
French Fries: it’s a no-brainer that french fries should be vegan (see recipe below for a healthier version of french fries), but it’s possible that some restaurants could use lard or animal-based seasonings, so it doesn’t hurt to ask when you’re out to eat.
Potato Salad: use vegan mayo and tofu scramble in place of hardboiled eggs and you’ve got yourself some delicious plant-based potato salad!

https://www.tripadvisor.com/Restaurants-g1162480-zfz10697-Mahabalipuram_Kanchipuram_District_Tamil_Nadu.html
Sandy Bottom Cafe
19 reviews
$$ - $$$, Cafe, Vegetarian Friendly, Vegan Options
Open Now:7:30 AM - 9:00 PM

WelcomCafe Riva
38 reviews
$$ - $$$, Indian, Italian, Cafe
Open Now:7:00 AM - 11:00 PM

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3 Vegan / Vegetarian Friendly Restaurants

Golden Palate

VegetarianVegetarian

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104 East Raja Street, Mamallapuram, Mahabalipuram, India

+91-4427442060

Call for hours - tell us

Cuisine: Vegan-friendly, Lacto, Indian

A vegetarian restaurant in the Mamalla Heritage Hotel in Mahabalipuram. Staff is helpful and will assist in identifying the vegan suitable dishes.

Motel Mamalla

VegetarianVegetarian
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77, East Coast Rd, Mahabalipuram, India

+91-4427443560

Now Open: Mon-Sun 6:00am-11:00pm

Cuisine: Vegan-friendly, Lacto, Indian, Italian, Indo-Chinese

Vegetarian restaurant serving authentic South Indian dishes including vegan options. Has valet parking facilities available.

The Newcafe

Veg-optionsVeg-options

1 Review
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No. 25/2, Othavadai Street, Fisherman Colony, Mahabalipuram, India

+91-9080592166

Now Open: Mon-Sun 7:00am-12:00am

Cuisine: Lacto, Ovo, Indian, Western, Honey, Non-veg

Serves meat, vegan options available. Indian restaurant with some western options. Vegan choices are declared in the menu including juices, fruit salads, south Indian breakfast, dosa, uthappam, salads, pakoda, fries, masala potatoes, veg pasta or rice and veg pulau.

Note: For sorting by Highest Rated and on Best of the City listings we use the Wilson Score Interval rather than a straight average of listing ratings; for this reason a business with less stars may appear above one with more stars.

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https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180715005038/en/Parker-Aerospace-GKN-Aerospace-Sign-Technology-Development

NPD SOLUTIONS
Highly experienced product development
consulting and training
The Principles of Integrated Product Development

1. UNDERSTAND CUSTOMER NEEDS AND MANAGE REQUIREMENTS. Better customer relationships, frequent communication, and feedback systems lead to better understanding the customer’s/user’s needs. Customer involvement increases the probability of the product meeting those needs and being successful in the market. Methodologies such as Quality Function Deployment aid in defining customer needs and translating those needs into specific product, process and quality requirements. Once customer requirements are defined, track and tightly manage those requirements and minimize creeping elegance that will stretch out development.

2. PLAN AND MANAGE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. Integrate product development and R&D with the business strategy and business plans. Determine the impact of time-to-market on product development and consider time and quality as a source of competitive advantage. Develop a longer-term perspective on investments in R&D and process technology and factor into business strategies. Communicate these plans to development and R&D personnel. Undertake fewer development projects at any point in time to allow a greater focus of resources and shorten development time.

3. USE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT TEAMS. Early involvement of marketing/ program management, manufacturing, material, test, quality, and product support personnel in product development provides a multi-functional perspective and facilitate the parallel design of product and process, reducing design iterations and production problems. Collocation improves communication and coordination among team members. Empowered, self-directed teams have greater ownership and are more committed to development objectives, improving the chance of a successful design on schedule and budget.

4. INTEGRATE PROCESS DESIGN. The design of manufacturing and product support processes must be integrated with the design of products in order to optimize the performance, availability and life cycle cost of the product. Understand existing and planned process capabilities and constraints. Develop and apply producibility and supportability guidelines and utilize formal tools such as design for manufacturability/assembly and maintainability analysis tools to improve product designs. Integrate design and business rule checking into automated design processes.

5. MANAGE COSTS FROM THE START. Develop a greater awareness of affordability and life cycle costs. Involve development team members in the plans and proposals for new products or programs to obtain their input and commitment. Establish target costs and manage to those targets. Use tools to project product and life cycle costs and consider these cost projections as part of decision-making to proactively manage costs. Manage non-recurring development costs by effective planning; incremental, low-risk development; and managing project scope.

6. INVOLVE SUPPLIERS AND SUBCONTRACTORS EARLY. Suppliers know their product technology, product application, and process constraints best. Utilize this expertise during product development and optimize product designs to the capabilities of the “virtual factory” which includes these suppliers. Reduce your supplier base to focus more attention on a long term relationship and incentivize early involvement. Maintain schedule stability and be open to improvement suggestions from suppliers to create better products at lower costs.

7. DEVELOP ROBUST DESIGNS. Quality engineering and reliability techniques such as Design of Experiments, FMECA, etc., provide an efficient way to understand the role and interaction of product and process parameters with a performance or quality characteristic leading to robust designs and enhanced reliability. Apply “lessons learned” to avoid repeating past mistakes and conduct formal design reviews to assure all design issues and risks have been appropriately addressed.

8. INTEGRATE CAE, CAD, CAM & CASE TOOLS. Integrated CAE/CAD tools working with a common digital product model facilitate capture, analysis, and refinement of product and process design data in a more timely manner. Integration of CAM tools facilitate process design/definition with fewer errors, greater accuracy, and a reduction in leadtime to production. CASE tools to support a standard development methodology and software re-useability with object-oriented design bring a similar level of productivity to software. A single repository of product data minimizes data handling, redundancy and errors as product data is used by various functions. Features-based solids modeling, electronic design frameworks and ultimately standards such as STEP and EDIF facilitate the downstream interpretation, analysis and use of this product data. These tools, when intelligently and cost effectively applied, can lead to a streamlined development process and project organization.

9. SIMULATE PRODUCT PERFORMANCE AND MANUFACTURING PROCESSES ELECTRONICALLY. Solids modeling with variation analysis and interference checking allows for electronic mock-ups. Analysis and simulation tools such as FEA, circuit simulation, thermal analysis, NC verification and software simulation can be used to develop and refine both product and process design inexpensively. These tools should be used early in the development process to develop a more mature design and to reduce the number of time-consuming design/build/test iterations for mock-ups and developmental prototypes.

10. CREATE AN EFFICIENT DEVELOPMENT APPROACH. Form compact product development teams with highly experienced and motivated members. Minimize the number of development teams and the coordination required with skillful architecture and a minimum of interfaces. Create a “skunk works” environment by minimizing bureaucracy, empowering product development teams, and providing technical productivity tools. Align policies, performance appraisal, and reward systems to support these development objectives and team-based approaches.

11. IMPROVE THE DESIGN PROCESS CONTINUOUSLY. Re-engineer the design process and eliminate non-value-added activities. Constantly question why things are done and how they could be done better. Make quality the basis for decisions. Continued integration of technical tools, design activities and formal methodologies will improve the design process. Use benchmarking as an objective basis for comparing the organization and its products to other companies and their products and identifying opportunities for improvement. Invest in training and develop personnel to improve productivity.

Related Links
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NPD Body Of Knowledge
Benchmarking Best Practices To Improve Product Development
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https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180715005038/en/Parker-Aerospace-GKN-Aerospace-Sign-Technology-Development

Parker Aerospace and GKN Aerospace Sign Technology Development Agreement for Integrated Engine Thermal Management Technologies
Parker macrolamination technology will support GKN Aerospace’s advanced static-structure development for next-generation aircraft engines

July 16, 2018 01:00 AM Eastern Daylight Time
FARNBOROUGH, England–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Parker Aerospace, a business group of Parker Hannifin Corporation, the global leader in motion and control technologies, today announces that its Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Division has entered into a technology development agreement with GKN Aerospace Sweden AB to develop integrated engine static-structure thermal management technologies.

Parker Aerospace and GKN Aerospace sign technology development agreement for integrated thermal management technologies in advanced static-structure development for next-generation aircraft engines
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Building on its thermal analysis and macrolamination manufacturing capabilities, Parker is collaborating with GKN Aerospace, as the leader in engine-structure design and manufacturing, to bring structurally integrated thermal management solutions to advanced engines. This technology improves heat rejection efficiency over traditional plate-fin designs while retaining structural load-bearing properties when integrated into the nacelle.

“Parker Aerospace is proud to bring its macrolamination pedigree from decades of fuel spray nozzle development, in collaboration with GKN Aerospace engine design and testing capabilities,” said Director of Business Development Shawn Isham from Parker’s Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Division. “Together, our companies will develop integrated structural thermal management solutions for current and future high by-pass turbine engines.”

“Structurally integrated thermal management solutions will be a key enabler for advanced engine architectures requiring more heat sink capability with limited weight impact,” said GKN Engine Systems Vice President of Business Development Alex Guruprasad. “The collaboration will create additional value to GKN’s engine product offering.”

The Parker Aerospace stand is in Hall 4, #4660, and the GKN Aerospace pavilion is at LEAP lane G1 at the Farnborough International Air Show, July 16-22, 2018.

About Parker Aerospace. Parker Aerospace is a global leader in the research, design, integration, manufacture, certification, and lifetime service of flight control, hydraulic, fuel and inerting, fluid conveyance, thermal management, lubrication, and pneumatic systems and components for aerospace and other high-technology markets. The company supports the world’s aircraft and aeroengine manufacturers, providing a century of experience and innovation for commercial and military aircraft.

About Parker Hannifin. Parker Hannifin is a Fortune 250 global leader in motion and control technologies. For 100 years the company has engineered the success of its customers in a wide range of diversified industrial and aerospace markets. Learn more at www.parker.com or @parkerhannifin.

About GKN Aerospace. GKN Aerospace is the world’s leading multi-technology tier 1 aerospace supplier. As a global company serving the world’s leading aircraft manufacturers, GKN Aerospace develops, builds and supplies an extensive range of advanced aerospace systems, components and technologies– for use in aircraft ranging from helicopters and business jets to the most used single aisle aircraft and the largest passenger planes in the world. Lightweight composites, additive manufacturing, innovative engine systems and smart transparencies help to reduce emissions and weight on the aircraft and enhance passenger comfort. GKN Aerospace is market leading in aerostructures, engine systems, transparencies and wiring systems and operates in 14 countries at 51 manufacturing locations employing approximately 17,000 people.

Contacts
Parker Aerospace
Brian King, +1 (714) 458-7416
brian.king@parker.com

PARKER AEROSPACE
NYSE:PH View stock quote and chart View SEC Filings

Headquarters: Cleveland, Ohio
Website: www.parker.com
CEO: Tom Williams
Employees: 59,000
Organization: PUB
Revenues: $12,711,744,000 (2015)
Net Income: $1,012,140,000 (2015)

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Parker Stratoflex’s 3D-printed fluid conveyance components can reduce part count by 50% or more - helping #Aircraft OEMs reduce weight and envelope to improve performance. Learn the details: https://prker.co/2W3N9Ov #ParisAirShow #PAS19 Additive Manufacturing Adds Value for Aerospace Fluid Conveyance Parker Aerospace is developing a line of fluid conveyance products that can be cost-effectively produced in lower quantities with additive manufacturing. Read how: blog.parker.com

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06/09/19
LESSON 3017 Mon 10 Jun 2019 Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies with their gracious presence and blessings for our OPENING CEREMONY of TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB White Home for TIPITAKA to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Day and Date will be announced from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās “No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000 separate letters.
Filed under: General, Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka, ಅಭಿಧಮ್ಮಪಿಟಕ, ವಿನಯಪಿಟಕ, ತಿಪಿಟಕ (ಮೂಲ)
Posted by: site admin @ 5:55 pm

LESSON 3017 Mon 10 Jun 2019

Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies

with their gracious presence and blessings

for our

OPENING CEREMONY

of

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI

TBSKPB

White Home for TIPITAKA

to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta —
Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Day and Date will be announced

from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
“No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não

668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com,

up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to mankind universal in character.”

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000
separate letters.

https://m.wikihow.com/Build-an-Airplane

How to Build an Airplane
Co-authored by wikiHow Staff
Updated: March 28, 2019 | References
For some people, building and flying your own plane is a satisfying personal experience. Constructing your own plane is legal in most countries and you don’t need to know any skills to begin. You can start by purchasing a kit online and getting involved with aviation organizations. Once you’re done building, register your plane with your government’s aviation board. Then, you can enjoy cruising the skies in a plane customized to your liking.

Part One of Three:
Constructing the Plane
Edit
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 1
1
Check your area regulations on building your own airplane. In many countries, building your own aircraft is legal. You typically do not need to have a pilot’s license until you are ready to fly the plane. All you have to do is buy supplies and get to work![1]
In the U.S., for example, the Federal Aviation Administration regulates aircraft.
Be aware of any building rules. For instance, the FAA requires you to construct 51% of your plane yourself. Prove this by making a logbook containing photos and videos of your work.[2]
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 2
2
Find a place to build your plane. Many builders choose their garage, basement, or another home workspace. Keep in mind that you will need a lot of space to store an airplane and its parts. It also helps to stay indoors where the temperature can be kept above 50 °F (10 °C), since bad weather makes working tough.
When choosing a workspace, consider how long the build will take you. With consistent work, the process can be as short as a few months, but it takes most builders years.
Some kit companies allow you to build inside their facility. This can be a good option if you live nearby.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 3
3
Choose what you want your plane to be made from. Your plane can be made from wood and fabric, aluminum, or composite materials. Each material has different price points and advantages, so research these before settling on a plane kit or design. Also consider your skills, such as metalworking, woodworking, and sewing, since this can make some material easier to use than others.
Wood and fabric combination frames are light but weak. Early planes used wood, and it is still a user-friendly option for custom planes.
Most planes today are made out of aluminum, an inexpensive material that is more aerodynamic than wood..
Composite materials are stronger and more aerodynamic than aluminum but also more expensive.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 4
4
Purchase a building kit online. A basic building kit can cost you between $6,500 and $15,000 USD. These kits provide all the plans and materials you need to build the external structure of your plane, so they save you time. You can find all sorts of different plane models by shopping with different kit manufacturers.[3]
Kits typically do not come with an engine, propeller, and flight control panel, so you will have to buy these separately.
If you want to save money, you can search online for airplane plans. You can download available plans, buy plans from kit companies, or design your own.
To design your own plans, use a program like Airplane PDQ to create the design, then a flight simulator like X-Plane to test it.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 5
5
Assemble your plane’s frame. Use the instructions in your kit or your plans to construct the plane. Concentrate on constructing 1 piece at a time. Usually you will start with the tail, build towards the nose, and attach the wings last. Work piece by piece until the frame is complete.
The skills and tools you need for this depend on your kit and the material you are working with.
You do not need to have technical expertise to begin. You can learn or refine skills as you go through the building process.
A few skills that may come in handy are riveting and welding.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 6
6
Install the engine in the nose of the plane. Position the engine at the front of the plane, behind where the flight control panel will be installed later. The engine can be heavy, so you may need some help lifting it. Mount it in place using a wrench and sockets.[4]
You can order an engine from kit manufacturers and online auction sites. You may also be able to repurpose engines from old cars and junkyards.
The engine can cost as much as your kit. Expect it to be ⅓ of your total costs, at least $2,000 USD.
Installing the engine can be tricky. If you get stuck, look for online guides and videos.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 7
7
Connect the propeller to the front of the engine. Push the propeller’s shaft through the plane’s nose, connecting it with the engine. Keep the blades on the outside of the plane. Secure the propeller to the engine and plane by using a socket wrench to tighten bolts holding it in place.[5]
If your kit does not come with a propeller, you can purchase 1 online from kit pr aviation manufacturers.
If you are using a car engine, get a propeller speed reduction unit and attach it to the engine first. Otherwise, the propeller will spin too quickly for the plane to fly properly.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 8
8
Place the flight panel inside the plane. The aviation panel should fit in front of the plane’s nose. You may need to do some electrical wiring to connect the panel to the engine. The panel itself can be set in place with rivets. The panel has instruments such as temperature gauges and a radio, so make sure they work before you move on.[6]
Order a flight panel online from an aviation company or an auction site. Expect to pay about $1,000 USD.
Some modern avionics panels come with a control module. You plug the panel components into the module for easier installation.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 9
9
Furnish the interior of your plane. Your interior design depends on your plane. A lot of planes don’t have much space in the interior, but you will at least need a comfortable seat. If it wasn’t included in your kit, you can order 1 online or make your own.
Most home-built planes are designed for 1 or 2 people. You may not be allowed to carry more than 4 people at a time.
Some helpful skills for this can include riveting and sewing.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 10
10
Paint your plane the color you want. Search online to order specially-designed aircraft paints in the color you want. Planning out a color scheme can help. Lay down a drop cloth and use painter’s tape to protect areas you don’t want to color. Apply the paint using a spray gun and use a brush to reach smaller areas.
Apply a primer first so the paint sticks to the aircraft better.
After the paint dries, spray on a finishing material such as acetone to protect your craft.
Be sure to work in a ventilated area. Wear a respirator and eye goggles.

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Part Two of Three:
Flying Your Plane
Edit
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 11
1
Get a pilot’s license in your free time. A pilot’s license is necessary before you can take flight. While you can wait until you finish your build to do this, you can begin the process before you even start on your plane. Take a flight class from a certified school in your area, then apply with the FAA or your government’s aerial authority.[7]
You won’t be able to use your plane for this, since it has to pass inspections first. You will use an instructional plane at the school.
The certification board gives you a medical exam, similar to going to a doctor for a check-up. They may also have you take a written test on flight rules.
Use your pilot’s license to test out many different types of aircraft. This can help you figure out what kind of plane you want to build.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 12
2
Bring your plane to an airport. You will need to transport your plane to an airport before you can fly it. If you can, detach parts like the wings and reassemble the plane in an airport hangar. Transport the plane by renting a truck or flatbed. Make sure all the parts are strapped down securely.[8]
Contact airports in your region. The employees can direct you on where to bring your plane for registration.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 13
3
Find a place to store your plane. Many planes are stored at hangars near the airport. You will have to pay a fee, which may be around $700 to $800 annually for a small plane. However, your plane will be safe in the hangar and always accessible.[9]
Contact your local airport for information on renting hangar space.
If you have a lot of property space or storage space like a large barn, you may keep the plane there.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 14
4
Complete your aircraft registration paperwork. Your government’s transportation safety board, such as the Federal Aviation Administration in the U.S., handles aircraft registration. Complete the paperwork to register your aircraft as amateur-built. They will likely give you an identification number for your plane.[10]
Registration can take 1 to 2 months to complete, so be prepared for this. While you wait, consider practicing by flying other airplanes.
Contact the EAA or other flying organizations for help with the paperwork.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 15
5
Complete the final plane inspection at the airport. A government agent at the airport will give your plane a thorough inspection to make sure it is safe. They check that your plane is built properly with quality materials. If your plane passes, you receive a document of official certification in 1 to 2 months.[11]
If your government requires you to keep a logbook detailing the building process, bring it in during the inspection.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 16
6
Have your first test flight. Schedule the test with the government agency that certified your plane. The EAA and other flight organizations can help you with this. To pass the test, you have to fly your plane for up to 40 hours total. You can do this within a couple of sessions.[12]
Once you pass the test, you can fly your plane according to the rules of the sky. You can fly cross-country and invite other people aboard.

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Part Three of Three:
Getting Involved
Edit
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 17
1
Have an inspector verify your work. The EAA, for example, provides free inspections while you build your plane. It’s a good idea to have them come out several times during the building process. These inspections are meant to identify any issues with your work and building material that can prevent your plane from passing an official inspection.
EAA inspectors are fellow builders volunteering their time. The inspections are free.
Find inspectors in your area at https://www.EAA.org/TechCounselors.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 18
2
Attend amateur aircraft groups and events. Visit events hosted by groups such as the Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA). The EAA hosts events such as the Air Venture in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. These are places to network with kit manufacturers and fellow builders. Learn valuable craft skills while you’re there.[13]
Organizations often hold workshops on building techniques, giving you a chance to experiment with wood and metal you might use on your plane.
Visit these events and view organization websites online to gather more information. For example, go to https://www.eaa.org/en/eaa.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 19
3
Take a ride in plane types you are interested in building. Joining a local chapter of an aviation organization and going to events can get you in touch with other flyers. You may be able to take to the skies as a passenger in a variety of plane types. Experimenting this way can help you learn more about building planes and how you want yours to be built.[14]
Try to ride in various plane types, such as wood, aluminum, and composite frames.
Only licensed pilots with registered aircraft can take you on a flight.
Image titled Build an Airplane Step 20
4
Connect with other builders to get more help. Many aircraft owners enjoy the building process as much as they do flying. Network with them when you attend events. Also search for building forums online. You can learn a lot about building and even find people willing to help you construct your plane.[15]
For example, try Wings Forum or the EAA forums.

Advertisement
Community Q&A
Question
How do i make clearance with the air traffic controllers?
wikiHow Staff Editor
Staff Answer
Install a radio in the flight panel inside your plane. Adjust the frequency when you approach the airport. They may not respond to you at first, but eventually they will radio back with some directions.
7 0
Question
How do I make a rubber band powered plane with materials in my home?
wikiHow Staff Editor
Staff Answer
You can make a basic plane out of paper or balsa wood. Use the rubber band to connect the propeller to the rest of the plane. Wrap it tightly to give the propeller power. There are some Youtube videos available that can show you how to do this. Have fun!
9 3
Question
Is it legal to build an airplane in the U.A.E?
wikiHow Staff Editor
Staff Answer
As of now, you can, but ask the U.A.E’s Aviation Authority for clarification. This may change as more planes head towards large cities like Dubai. You may not be able to fly near these areas.
4 1
Question
How do I learn about making aircraft?
wikiHow Staff Editor
Staff Answer
There are quite a few ways now thanks to the Internet. You can always go to aviation events such as ones hosted by the EAA. They have workshops where you can work with materials. Also look online, such as at Youtube videos.
3 2
Question
How do I create a simple electrical airplane containing a DC motor?
wikiHow Staff Editor
Staff Answer
You can make it out of Popsicle sticks or other material. Assemble the plane, then glue the motor to the front. Attach a propeller to it and wire the other end to a battery. There are some tutorials on Youtube you can use to get yourself started!
3 1
Question
Does my plane need to carry two black boxes?
wikiHow Staff Editor
Staff Answer
Black boxes typically are not required. Home-built planes are small and light, so chances are the boxes will get in the way. However, consult with your country’s aviation administration to make sure.
2 1
Question
Can I build a plane without fuel, but with wind turbines?
Community Answer
No, the electricity generation of the turbines spinning would slow the plane. If you mean can you build a plane with a rotor rather than a jet plane, that is what this article suggests you do.
11 1
Question
How do I fly a plane?
Community Answer
If you’re looking to fly a plane legally and safely, you’ll need to sign up for thorough training and your get your pilot’s license.
17 4
Question
Where can I can download aircraft plans for free?
Community Answer
There is a subsection of the Deep Web, known by some as the Air Web. Here you can find detailed descriptions of airplanes and other flying machines, some of which have been “re-engineered” by the government. Do not spend too much time looking at them, as you may suffer pain from your government-installed subcutaneous implants.
26 8
Question
What holds an airplane up in the air?
Community Answer
When taking off, a plane uses motor wheels to move fast. Because of the curve of the plane wings, more pressure builds up on the bottom of the plane’s wings than the top. The difference in pressure lifts the plane up.
Show more answers
Can I use more than one engine if I am building an airplane?
Answer
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comments (0)
06/08/19
LESSON 3016 Sun 9 Jun 2019 Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies with their gracious presence and blessings for our OPENING CEREMONY of TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB White Home for TIPITAKA to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal Day and Date will be announced from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās “No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com, up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/ Awakeness Practices All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas Traditionally there are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections: The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000 separate letters. in
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LESSON 3016 Sun 9 Jun 2019

Invitation to Bhikkhus, Bhikkunis, Upakakas, Upasikas of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies

with their gracious presence and blessings

for our

OPENING CEREMONY

of

TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI


TBSKPB

White Home for TIPITAKA

 to DO GOOD BE MINDFUL which is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness


Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta —
Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]
MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal


Day and Date will be announced




from

Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online and Offline Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
 in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās
“No entanto, muitas palavras sagradas que você lê, no entanto, muitos que você fala, que bem eles vão fazer você Se você não

668,
5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email: buddhasaid2us@gmail.com



up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level

Buddhasasana

“In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone,
battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a
message to mankind universal in character.”

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally there  are 84,000 Dhamma Doors - 84,000 ways to get
Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of
practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue
those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1).

There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate
addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I
received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are
divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into
361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses
including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are
divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and29,368,000
separate letters.

in
https://www.cnet.com/news/want-major-new-aircraft-designs-wait-until-2030/
CNET



Sci-Tech

Want major new aircraft designs? Wait until 2030

Boeing and Airbus are
tweaking the tried-and-true instead of going all out for all-new. Here’s
why the jet-age pizzazz has been grounded.

Airbus' A330neo, a new take on an old design, effectively replaces its all-new A350-800 XWB.
Airbus’ A330neo is a new take on an old design.
Airbus

FARNBOROUGH,
UK — Over the last century, the aviation industry has steadily pushed
ahead with bold new designs. But with a shift toward more incremental
improvements, the airplanes of tomorrow will look a lot like the
airplanes of today.

At the Farnborough International Airshow here
last week, top aircraft makers Boeing and Airbus announced new passenger
jets. But the difficulties of designing all-new aircraft, combined with
strong airline demand, mean the two companies have begun relying more
on updates to existing products rather than ground-up redesigns.

The
airlines aren’t standing still, but are refitting older craft with new
fuel-efficient engines, updated wings, and other improvements.

“You
do not need to do a new program to develop these new technologies,” Ray
Conner, chief executive of Boeing Commercial Airplanes, said in an
interview. “You’re able to take the things you create and bring them to
other aircraft, to develop a really good airplane that meets the market
needs.”

The biggest example that emerged at the show was the launch of Airbus’ A330neo, named for the “new engine option” that the France-based company is bringing to the older twin-aisle jet.

“We
are are looking for faster incremental improvements. This is one of the
best examples we could do,” said Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier.

Also in the limelight were Airbus’ smaller A320neo, Boeing’s 737 Max, and Boeing’s bigger 777X.

Boeing and Airbus announced hundreds of new orders at the show, which is a major event on the aerospace calendar for both civilian and military aircraft.

The
trend toward incremental change means that passengers hoping for a
significantly better flying experience and aviation buffs excited by the
latest technology should probably rein in their hopes.

A rendering of Boeing's 777X in Emirates livery.
A rendering of Boeing’s 777X in Emirates livery.
Boeing

But
shareholders can take heart: incremental improvements are a lower-risk
course of action than developing all-new designs like Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner, which was supposed to arrive in 2008 but actually took until 2011.

Even
with less reliance on dramatic new designs, Airbus and Boeing have huge
numbers of orders to fulfill as Asian airlines boom and all airlines
struggle with high fuel prices.

“There’s a seven-year backlog
without even taking new orders,” said Ben Moores, a senior analyst with
IHS Jane’s. “You’re going to see a doubling of wide-body production over
the next several years.”

That’s why the industry is focusing on
faster production and updates to existing designs rather than new jets
that are costly to design, test, and bring to market.

“Getting a
platform certified is an extremely expensive business,” Moores said.
“There’s not much point in designing a whole new platform when you just
want to change a few bibs and bobs.”

Updates big and small

Incremental
improvements need not be insignificant. For example, the 777X, due in
2020, will acquire innovations that came with the 787 Dreamliner. That
includes new composite wings instead of traditional aluminum designs; a
tail assembly that uses new, more aerodynamic materials; bigger windows;
and a more comfortable, higher interior air pressure.

Much of the
777X will be the same as the current 777, though, and many of the
changes coming in future years are less significant.

“The A330 is just an engine change,” Conner said. “The 787 Max is an engine change. The A320 is a new engine.”

On top of that, Airbus’ attempt to bring a significant new design to market, the A350 XWB
(extra-wide body) suffered a blow with one of the three planned models,
the 800. At Farnborough, Brégier acknowledged that the A350-800 was
effectively a flop even as he boasted that the company expects to sell
more than 1,000 A330neo jets. That’s on top of more than 3,000 A320neo
orders.

Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier
Airbus CEO Fabrice Brégier
Stephen Shankland/CNET

Incremental updates don’t guarantee success, said Seth Kaplan, managing partner of Airline Weekly.
Boeing’s 747-8, an update to its iconic but decades-old 747 design,
“has been such a slow seller that perhaps Boeing shouldn’t even have
bothered,” he said.

But flops are less painful with upgrades than
with all-new designs such as Airbus’ even bigger rival to the 747, the
550-passenger double-decker A380. The A380 hasn’t done as badly in the
marketplace as the 747, “but this is less of a problem for Boeing than
the A380 is for Airbus because…the 747-8 was a far lower-risk
proposition.”

High fuel costs mean new engines

A major
incentive for updates is better fuel efficiency — in particular fuel
efficiency per passenger. Fuel efficiency is a huge constraint, with oil
prices high and not expected to drop, Moores said.

The A330neo is
14 percent more fuel-efficient than the A330ceo (current engine
option), mostly because of its new engines but also because it squeezes
10 more seats by reconfiguring lavatories and crew galley areas. The 737
Max 8 gets a 20 percent fuel-efficiency boost through new engines and
11 more seats.

Since Boeing introduced the current 737NG (next
generation) in 1997, the company has improved its fuel efficiency by 6
percent. The 737 Max will improve it another 20 percent over that, and
each percentage point is worth about $600,000 in savings over the life
of the plane, said Randy Tinseth, vice president of marketing for
Boeing’s commercial airplane division.

Airbus has its own
arguments prepared, though. The new engines, passenger accommodation,
and wing aerodynamics on the A330neo mean that “we achieve the
equivalent [fuel consumption] of the 787-8,” Brégier said. And the
A330neo benefits from the A330’s proven reliability, pilot
certifications, and other incumbent advantages.

Next big steps

Innovation
is certainly not dead — it will just be a long time before the next
big bang arrives beyond the 787 Dreamliner and A350 XWB.

Boeing's 787-9 taking off at the Farnborough International Airshow.
Boeing’s 787-9 takes off at the Farnborough International Airshow.
Stephen Shankland/CNET

The
cycle time for big redesigns “used to be every 10 years. It takes that
kind of time to develop new engines and new airframe technology,” Conner
said. But now it looks like it will be closer to 20 years, Moores said,
when aircraft manufacturers choose to save significant weight by
replacing today’s hydraulic controls with electrical controls for plane
wings and other control surfaces.

“They’ll start looking at all-electric aircraft in the 2020s for production in the first half of the 2030s,” Moores said.

Airbus thinks electric and hybrid-electric aircraft have a future,
but absent major improvements in battery technology, that won’t extend
to larger aircraft that carry the vast majority of passengers.

The
long wait for major conventional jet improvements could give Boeing an
advantage because the 787 is a more radical redesign than the A350 XWB.
The 787 uses lots of composite materials like carbon fiber for its wings
and fuselage, but the A350 sticks with traditional aluminum. “It’s a
lot lower risk,” Moores said, and it’ll still sell well, but Boeing CEO
Jim McNerney said at the show the 787’s new technology gives Boeing a
“capability and performance advantage for the next or 20 or 30 years.”


Phones

From iPhone X to that MacBook keyboard: Tim Cook’s hits and misses

Here’s how Steve Jobs’ successor has fared over the past eight years as Apple CEO.

James Martin/CNET

The day before he was set to address thousands of developers, Apple
CEO Tim Cook walked into a cavernous conference space at the San Jose
McEnery Convention Center. The room was empty except for a few
reporters, some Apple execs and about a dozen students who’d won scholarships to attend the company’s annual Worldwide Developers Conference.

Cook
was there to surprise the students — and that he did. He worked the
room, talking to the burgeoning developers and getting quick demos of
projects they’d developed using Apple’s Swift coding tools. And he posed
for selfies. So many selfies.

“He’s really cool,” said Kirill
Averianov, a 17-year-old developer who’s been writing iOS apps in his
native Russia for nine years. “It was quite an experience,” added Will
Bishop, also 17, who’d journeyed from Australia. “I’ve only ever seen
him on stage. They didn’t tell us he’d be here.”



Watch this:

Everything Apple announced from its WWDC 2019 keynote





1:26

Cook is part of a cadre of executives with rock star status in
the tech industry. But he’s not like Facebook’s hoodie-wearing Mark
Zuckerberg or Tesla’s big-talking, big-tweeting Elon Musk. Instead of
pushing grandiose or hyperdisruptive visions for the future, Cook is
more grounded. He’s expanded Apple’s product lineup, moving into new
categories like smartwatches and smart speakers, but he also shows
restraint when it comes to jumping into markets. That long-rumored Apple
car? No sight of it.

Perhaps nowhere is Cook more of a cult figure than at WWDC.

The annual confab, which ends Friday, is where Apple sells developers on the next generation of its software for iPhones, iPads,
Apple Watches and Macs. While some of the news from the conference is
pretty technical (like updates to its programming language), Apple’s also persuading consumers to wait for its upcoming devices. It’s saying, why buy the new Galaxy S10 or OnePlus 7 Pro, when Apple will introduce new gadgets — and give old devices a facelift with software updates — in a few months?

The
man behind all of that is Cook. He took over as permanent CEO of Apple
on Aug. 24, 2011, as Steve Jobs reached the end of his battle with
pancreatic cancer. In Cook’s nearly eight years as CEO, Apple became the US’ first trillion-dollar company but only a few months later saw its value slide below that of rivals like Microsoft.
It’s sold about 2 billion iPhones, but is facing pressure from a
slowdown in the overall smartphone market. It’s released new products in
new categories but hasn’t yet introduced anything as life-changing as
the iPhone.  

This year at WWDC, Apple displayed Cook’s vision for the next era of
Apple, one in which it isn’t all about the iPhone. And it comes at a
time Apple’s moved on from being beholden to a figurehead.

“Apple
is no longer a one-man band,” Creative Strategies analyst Carolina
Milanesi said. “Apple is a different company than it used to be.”

Apple didn’t have anything to add to comments Cook made at WWDC and in an interview with CBS.

Hits

iPhone

By
every measure, the iPhone has been a success. Cook wasn’t CEO when the
first model hit the market in 2007, but he did oversee Apple’s push to
expand the lineup, both in screen size and market availability.

In 2014, Apple introduced its first big-screen iPhones — the 6 and 6 Plus — after years of saying it didn’t want to boost the display dimensions much above the 4 inches of the iPhone 5S. In 2017, the company ditched the home button in favor of Face ID and a bigger, edge-to-edge screen in the iPhone X.

Cook struck a deal with China Mobile in late 2013
to bring the iPhone to the world’s largest carrier in one of the
world’s largest markets. And he’s expanded into India and various other
areas where Apple previously didn’t have a formal presence.

He’s also succeeded in getting us to spend more money on our iPhones
(and other Apple devices) than before. When Apple launched its iPhone
X, some wondered if the $999 price tag would scare away consumers.
Instead, the iPhone X became Apple’s best-selling device up to the time.

apple-wwdc-2019-2446

Apple CEO Tim Cook met with student developers the night before the company’s WWDC keynote.


James Martin/CNET

All of those moves during Cook’s tenure have helped Apple become one of the world’s richest companies.

But
the iPhone is also one of Apple’s biggest challenges going forward.
Fewer people are upgrading as frequently as before. iPhone sales fell
for the first time ever in 2016, and in January of this year, Apple issued a rare warning
— its first in nearly 17 years — that its fiscal first-quarter
financial results wouldn’t be as strong as it had anticipated.

Apple,
which has long generated about two-thirds of its revenue from the
iPhone, has worked to diversify its operations beyond its popular phone,
but there’s nothing that’s yet close to the size of the iPhone
business.

At WWDC this week, though, Apple made several announcements that “spoke to a company moving forward,” as Stratechery’s Ben Thompson put it. That included the death of iTunes, the introduction of a new operating system specifically for iPads (called iPadOS) and the unveiling of an App Store on the Apple Watch.

“It
is a statement from Apple that the non-iPhone parts of its business
still matter,” Thompson wrote. “There is more urgency than there may
have been even six months ago, and that is a great thing: better urgency
than complacency.”

Services

Cook sees services as its next big opportunity. The area, which includes the App Store and Apple Music, has soared thanks to all of us who own the 1.4 billion active Apple devices out there.

In March, Apple hosted its first services-focused event, where it unveiled its first TV streaming service. Along with jumping into TV and music streaming, Apple introduced a gaming service called Apple Arcade and launched news subscriptions. It even plans to offer its own credit card, the Apple Card, this summer. Whether these services will be successful remains a question until they actually launch.

The biggest part of Apple’s services business remains the App Store, which has been facing scrutiny in over the last few months. In May, the Supreme Court ruled that iPhone owners can sue Apple
for allegedly operating a monopoly through its App Store, which is the
only way you can add apps to your iPhone and iPad. The day after Apple’s
WWDC keynote, a group of developers sued the company, saying Apple’s practices hurt competition. Amazon, Netflix, Spotify and other heavyweights that aren’t involved in the suit have also criticized Apple’s App Store model.

There also has been an outcry from parental control app makers that Apple unfairly banned their software because their apps compete with Apple’s own software. Apple ultimately reversed its decision and reinstated the apps earlier this week. The company ahead of WWDC published an explainer page outlining its App Store policies.

To
continue growing Apple’s services business, Cook also has to find a way
to keep both regulators and developers happy. For the latter group,
WWDC plays a key role.

Cook, talking with Norah O’Donnell on CBS News earlier this week said Apple is not a monopoly.
“If you look at any kind of measure about is Apple a monopoly or not, I
don’t think anybody reasonable is going to come to the conclusion that
Apple’s a monopoly,” he said. “Our share is much more modest. We don’t
have a dominant position in any market.”

(Disclosure: CBS News is owned by CBS, the parent company of CNET.)

Equality and the environment

Under Jobs, Apple largely avoided weighing in on social or cultural issues. But that’s changed with Cook as CEO. He came out as gay in October 2014,
giving a boost to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender movement,
and he’s pushed for more diversity at the company. Cook has been a
proponent for more equality and has made Apple more charitable,
eschewing Jobs’ belief that the company didn’t need to donate money
because it paid enough in taxes.

Apple has also moved to make itself greener. Last year, it said that all of its facilities around the world now run on 100 percent clean energy.
That includes the company’s retail stores, offices, data centers and
co-located facilities in 43 countries. It also has gotten some of its suppliers to vow to run on all renewable energy.

During
a shareholder meeting in 2014, Cook told a conservative finance group
that Apple doesn’t “consider the bloody [return on investment]” when it
comes to things like accessibility, environmental issues and worker
safety. “We want to leave the world better than we found it,” he said.

Cook hasn’t been shy about politics and working with President Donald Trump. Last year, Cook called for an end to the “inhumane” separation of immigrant families
and has pressed the administration to find a way to let Dreamers —
people who were brought to the US as young children — stay in the
country.

“I’m worried that we’re all losing the humanity of this,
and getting lost in numbers and politics,” Cook said to CBS. “These
folks that we have in Apple, and I believe they’re largely
representative of the total Dreamer population.
We have 300-plus. They are every bit of as a US citizen as I am. And I
just can’t conceive why anyone would spend 30 seconds in thinking
they’re not.”

Privacy and security

One of the biggest initiatives by Cook has been Apple’s emphasis on privacy and security.
The company makes money from selling hardware and from services, not
from selling user data for things like targeted advertising. Cook has
vowed time and again to maintain customer privacy for features such as
the company’s mobile payments service, Apple Pay. The company has been positioning itself as the counter to Facebook and Google, which have faced scrutiny over their data collection practices.

“We see privacy as a fundamental human right,”
Cook told CBS News. “And we’re very worried that the place that we’re
all in right now is a place that has dire consequences.”

At its WWDC keynote on Monday, Apple announced new protections to keep your data for your eyes only.
That included new restrictions on location tracking and a “Sign in With
Apple” tool that can be used to privately authenticate your login
credentials.

“The last few years, Apple spent a lot of time and
energy doing things to earn the trust of their customers and be seen as a
company who is on a mission to protect their privacy not just from
Apple but from others as well,” Creative Strategies analyst Ben Bajarin
said.

Apple Watch and AirPods

It took only two years for the Apple Watch to become the best-selling watch in the world.

At WWDC this year, Apple said the Apple Watch is getting its own App Store,
somewhat breaking from the Bluetooth tether of the main iPhone app.
It’s one step closer to becoming a truly independent device.

Then there are AirPods. The white, wireless earbuds, which start at $159, became a meme and a runaway hit after they launched in late 2016.

“When
walking in New York, I couldn’t see anybody not wearing AirPods,”
Milanesi said. “They have become the old white headset with a wire. They
transcend gender and status and everything.”

And misses

Siri and artificial intelligence

Apple
bought Siri technology in early 2010 and launched the service on the
iPhone 4S in October 2011, at the start of Cook’s tenure as CEO. By
simply holding down the “Home” button on the iPhone or saying “Hey
Siri,” users could issue voice commands to do things such as check the
weather, set alarms, launch apps and search the Web.

Apple was
the first to introduce a digital voice assistant, but it was slow to
capitalize on that lead. While Apple has updated Siri over the years,
it’s generally viewed to be not as helpful or intelligent as digital
assistants from rivals like Amazon and Google.
That may be because Apple initially saw Siri as a feature, not as a
platform that could be accessed by third-party developers and run on a
multitude of devices.

“One area Apple has done poorly under Tim Cook’s watch is in AI,” Techsponential analyst Avi Greengart said.

At WWDC this year, Apple unveiled some improvements to Siri.
For one, Apple’s new Neural Text to Speech will use a new
software-based approach to make Siri sound more natural, particularly
while reading long sentences. Siri also will be more proactive with
suggestions, and Siri Shortcuts has become more conversational and easy
to use.

Smart home tech

Similar to Siri, Apple made its move into the smart home early with HomeKit but let Amazon and Google surpass it.

Apple
first talked about HomeKit at its developer conference in 2014. The
feature allows developers to integrate controls for door locking, light
dimming, and other home automation gadgets and features in iOS apps for
the iPhone and iPad.

Apple signed up many initial HomeKit partners, including thermostat maker Honeywall, lightbulb maker Phillips
and smart lock-maker August. But HomeKit has been slower to take off
than originally anticipated, and Google and Amazon ended up buying some
of the biggest smart home device makers. Then the Apple-made device many
people expected to be the company’s entree into the smart home — HomePod — struggled.

apple-wwdc-2019-tim-cook-2672

Apple CEO Tim Cook is one of the most recognizable chiefs in tech. 


James Martin/CNET

Apple launched the $350 device in January 2018, positioned as a music experience rather than a smart-home hub.

HomePod has largely been considered a flop. Last year, the device made up only 6 percent of the US smart speaker market,
according to a study by Consumer Intelligence Research partners. CNET
editor Megan Wollerton, in her review of the HomePod, said that “Siri and HomeKit lack the polish and device compatibility of Alexa and Google Assistant.”

While
Apple hasn’t released a new version or HomePod — or a cheaper model –
the company has made some HomePod improvements since its launch, and it also updated the smart speaker’s capabilities at WWDC. A hand-off feature lets users transfer calls, podcasts and music from their iPhone to
their HomePod by bringing their phone near it. And HomePod now has
multiuser support, recognizing who is speaking and responding with
personalized recommendations for music, messages, reminders and more. 

Apple also unveiled new HomeKit features at WWDC. That included HomeKit Secure Video for security cameras. Video captured by a camera is analyzed locally on the resident iPad, HomePod
or AppleTV and then encrypted and send to iCloud where no one (not even
Apple) can see it. And new HomeKit-enabled routers from companies like Linksys and
Eero will automatically firewall off each of your smart home
accessories to protect them even if your network is compromised.

Forgetting creatives

Power
users, like graphic designers, have long been some of Apple’s most
loyal customers. But in recent years, they’ve largely felt neglected.
While Apple had updated its laptops and iMac computers over the years, its true workhorse, the Mac Pro, hadn’t seen big changes since 2013.

Even though Apple was slow to update the Mac Pro, it had been listening to user feedback and even set up a “pro workflow team” to learn more about how users are using their computers. Some of the team members presented demos at WWDC.

WWDC also is where we finally got to see a new Mac Pro with a design that some compared to a cheese grater.
The $5,999 entry-level configuration features an eight-core Xeon
processor, 32GB of RAM, a Radeon Pro 580X graphics card and a 256GB SSD,
and will start shipping in the fall. The accompanying new 6K Pro Display XDR, the first new monitor from Apple since 2016, costs an additional $5,000 for the display and $1,000 for its stand.

“The pro area is very important to us,” Cook said at a shareholder meeting in 2018.

Sticking with a sticky keyboard

It’s
not just the Mac Pro that’s been ignored. Apple’s other computers have
taken years before seeing significant updates. One of the changes the
company made during its computer revamp in 2015 — a new butterfly switch keyboard design — has become one of its most-criticized innovations.

“Tim
Cook is an excellent operational CEO who looks at the growth
opportunities … and doubles down on them,” Bajarin said. “Other products
weren’t as high a priority or wouldn’t get as much attention as they’d
get with more a product-centric type of CEO. I’d throw the Mac into
that.”

The redesign was part of an effort to make laptops
thinner and lighter than in the past. The butterfly switch replaced the
traditional “scissor” mechanism below each key and was meant to be more stable, responsive and comfortable.

But
almost immediately, users complained about the feel of the new
keyboards and said they could be easily damaged by specks of dust. In
response, Apple a year ago said it would replace “a small percentage of the keyboards
in certain MacBook and MacBook Pro models” whose letters or characters
repeated unexpectedly, whose letters or characters didn’t appear, or
whose keys felt “sticky” or didn’t respond consistently.

Last month, Apple extended its MacBook keyboard replacement program to all Macs with the butterfly switch
and sped up the repair process. It also changed the material used in
its keyboards in hopes it would prevent the issues — but it didn’t go
so far as to revamping the design entirely.

Challenges and opportunities

Cook’s
biggest challenges are likely ahead of him. He will have to deal with
the slowdown in iPhone sales and regulatory scrutiny over Apple’s App
Store — which makes up the biggest chunk of its growing services
business. Apple also could be impacted by the US trade war with China,
the location where Apple’s devices are built. And a slowdown in China
has hurt Apple’s iPhone sales.

Apple also is facing a changing tech market. Companies like Samsung
and Huawei are experimenting with foldable displays and new smartphone
technology, and nearly every major handset maker — except for Apple — will have a 5G phone this year. Because of Apple’s two-year battle with 5G chipmaker Qualcomm, it won’t have a 5G iPhone until 2020, at best.

Apple
also could be facing some of its biggest opportunities. It’s expanding
into health care and has barely gotten started with augmented reality.
Apple also has been reviving the iPad (sales have been growing in recent
quarters after falling for years) and making it into more of a work
machine, while at the same time bringing its devices even closer
together. Project Catalyst will let developers bring iOS apps to the Mac, and Sidecar, announced at WWDC, lets people use an iPads as a second display for a Mac.

Navigating
through all of that will be Cook’s challenge. But for now, at WWDC, he
can focus on what his developer community — particularly that youngest
generation of programmers — can accomplish with Apple’s tools.

“Your
dreams and your passion and dedication to fulfill those dreams comes
across so clearly in the apps you create,” Cook said as he kicked off
Apple’s WWDC keynote on Monday. “You make the world a better place, and
that is why we’re here this morning.”

CNET’s Connie Guglielmo contributed to this report.

The story originally published at 5 a.m. PT. 

Update, 6:50 a.m. PT: With additional background.

Mentioned Above
Apple iPhone XS (64GB, space gray)
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Computers

Apple’s next stage is about reclaiming privacy, and a different kind of PC

Software chief Craig
Federighi discusses dark mode, Sign In and the iPad as a laptop
replacement. Oh, and why he’s not superstitious about iOS 13.

Apple's WWDC 2019 conference in San Jose, California

Apple’s WWDC 2019 conference brought thousands to San Jose, California.


Stephen Shankland/CNET

Apple
builds things that people want to buy.” Seems like an obvious
sentiment, coming from the executive who leads software development at
one of the world’s most successful tech companies. 

But that comment underscores why Craig Federighi spent so much time highlighting new privacy features in the operating systems that power the iPhone, iPad and Mac at the start of Apple developers conference on Monday.

“Our
business model is one that doesn’t require exploiting customers
personal information in order to fund our operations,” Federighi said in
an interview on opening day of Apple’s WWDC.
“If fundamentally you’re depending…on building massive centralized
hordes of personal data that you find ways to monetize, that’s
intrinsically hostile to privacy. That’s just fundamentally not how we
work in anything we do.”

It’s an important selling point for Apple, as Federighi, Apple CEO Tim Cook and privacy chief Bud Tribble
have emphasized in interviews this week. And it comes at a time when
consumers, reeling from privacy blunders at Facebook and Google in the
last year, are asking more questions about how — and why — their
personal information is being co-opted by tech companies.

Craig Federighi talks iOS 13 at WWDC 2019

Craig Federighi talks iOS 13 at WWDC 2019.


Jason Hiner/CNET

For Apple, talking about privacy translated into a new single sign-in service — called Sign In with Apple
— to replace the sign-in option commonly used by social media networks
to help you navigate access to apps and online services. It will also
mean having developers ask for your permission every time they want
personal information, like your location, and spell out how that data is
being used.

Federighi, who oversees iOS, MacOS and a new iPadOS
for its tablet, also talked about Apple’s approach to tuning its
software for each of the devices it powers, and why that means keeping
the Mac and iPad separate. And he made a case for why the iPad, with iPadOS, may just be a laptop replacement for some users (though CNET’s Scott Stein says the tablet still isn’t quite the computer he needs.)

Here are edited highlights of what Federighi had to say in our conversation.

On privacy: Privacy
is foundational to Apple. You could go back to the very beginnings of
the company. I saw an interview with Steve [Jobs] in the late ’70s where
he was talking about how, in time-shared computers, they weren’t really
personal. All of your data was on someone else’s thing, and then an
Apple II was a very personal device because it’s yours. You own it, you
have your discs, that’s your data. This has been foundational to how we
think about computers. And of course our business model is one that
doesn’t require exploiting customers personal information in order to
fund our operations. We build things that people want to buy and we sell
them to them. That’s a really pure arrangement.

Many other
companies are now adopting this rhetoric of privacy. And honestly I
think it’s just watering down the word. We’re going to end up needing to
have come up with a new word for what privacy is… I don’t think
saying that, “Hey, we’ve got a switch that you can go into incognito
mode or privacy mode every once in a while is great, we’re a privacy
company, we gave you control.” No, if fundamentally you’re depending on
most people not throwing that switch and on building massive centralized
hoards of personal data that you find ways to monetize, that’s
intrinsically hostile to privacy. That’s just fundamentally not how we
work in anything we do.

On the evolution of the iPad:
We had a consistent point of view about iPad and where it’s been going
all along. Other companies may have entered the tablet space
opportunistically or with some kind of very narrow goals around maybe
just entertainment. But from the outset, we saw a place for iPad that
was better for many things than either of the alternatives — of a
device in your pocket or a laptop. And we’ve continued — whether you
look at our hardware or software  and those of course evolve in tandem
– to push that experience further and further. So what you saw today is
just a continuing result of what we’ve been doing since the beginning
of iPad.

There’s a symbiosis between the continuing, amazing hardware
innovations that have come to iPad and the software things we can
accomplish with that power. You look at today’s iPad Pro
and it is more powerful than … the vast majority of PCs out there in
terms of its microprocessor [and] in terms of its graphics.

It is in every respect a powerhouse system, but with a unique form factor.

Compare that to where iPad started. It wasn’t a capable PC replacement
or anything like that at the time. Technology now is sort of the sky’s
the limit. We continue to evolve what, what we can make of what we can
enable with iPad as that hardware evolves. And we’ve really just gotten
to a place where I think it’s incredible.

On creating the iPadOS: The fact that we decided today to really recognize where we are with the new name of iPadOS
was because we felt like when you take collectively where iPad has
gone, over this now many, many years of major improvements and the role
that iPad is now playing in many people’s lives, we think it’s a
distinct experience.

Our names around our operating systems are ultimately about reflecting unique experiences.

There’s an experience with TVOS. It’s a different experience than you have when you use WatchOS, which is a different experience than you have when you use iOS on your iPhone. Underlying those platforms is a ton of common technology. 

But
when we started to look at the totality of the distinct experiences
that constitute iPad, things like we talked about this morning, whether
it’s a slideover or split-view multiwindow multitasking — on an iPhone,
you just don’t have two documents open simultaneously for a given
application. Now on iPad, you can have as many as you want, spread
across as many spaces as you want, preconfigured.

When you talk about Apple Pencil
and everything that affords, or the power of now dragging and dropping
in a multitasking environment, it just has become a truly distinct
experience.

And it’s not an iPhone experience. It’s not a Mac experience. It’s an iPad experience.

The
name is ultimately a recognition of where we’ve gotten to over the
entire lifetime of the iPad. And so we just keep our foot on the gas in
this regard.



Watch this:

WWDC 2019: Mac Pro, iOS 13, MacOS and more…





13:39

On the iPad being a replacement for your PC — sort of:
It totally depends on how you use your PC. So for instance, for me …
iPad has come to consume the majority of my time using a digital device.
I am a software engineer by training and by passion. But iPad does so
much for me that I’m naturally reaching for it more than any other
device — honestly, more than my phone, more than my Mac. Now that’s me
and the things I do.

Many people at Apple, they want multiple monitors, they want everything else that the Mac contains. And we keep pushing the limits as you saw this morning on what a Mac can do.

So
I do think depending on who you are, we’ve continued to expand the
domain where one would say iPad is the best solution for many, many
people.

If you look at some of the things we announced this
morning — desktop browsing. This had been a situation where for many
people — “OK, iPad’s great for me, but boy I go to some websites and
suddenly I’m getting this watered-down experience. I can’t take
advantage of the full power of [what] these websites are, especially
these web apps.” Now that’s gone. If that is your important use case,
this device is suddenly fantastic.

File management — we have
incrementally made progress on file management, but this year you talk
about connecting to remote file servers, connecting to external storage,
being able to manipulate files in the file system, zipping them and
unzipping them … Things that in many people’s workflow are just so
central to what they do. In the past, that’s been a barrier. That
barrier is gone.

So depending on who you are and what you do,
iPad is becoming the best device for many, many people. And we’re not
forcing that. If they want to buy a Mac, we’re totally good with that as
well.



iPadOS  introduced at WWDC.


Stephen Shankland/CNET

On the iPad and Mac remaining separate: We’re not trying to drive a convergence of the user experience
because that would suppose that the right user experience was actually
the same for a device you’re going to hold in your hand and mostly
manipulate with your fingers to a device that’s on a table to a device
that’s in your pocket.

And so we’re trying to allow each of these
devices to have an experience that best expresses that form factor and
that use case. And that’s partly what we’re recognizing with the
distinct name.

We haven’t erected some new technology boundary
between iOS and iPadOS. In that respect it will be the same as always in
terms of the kind of compatibility you see, in terms of release
schedules for improvements, in terms of developers ability to produce
universal apps that run a single code base that run across both.

But
what we are signaling and continuing to signal is if you’re a developer
who’s building an app for iPad, we love the apps that take advantage of
what makes a great iPad app — and we keep extending what that means.  

If
you really consider where you can spend money on tools to make your
life better, these devices are central to how most of us get our work
done, how we entertain ourselves. And so, certainly for many people
you’re going to have all the tools, and you’re going to use each of them
in the role that makes most sense for you.

That’s why we engineered experiences like continuity and iCloud to
make sure that you can move across them without thinking about it. And
that’s how I work. I don’t think about, “Oh, well, that thing is on my
iPad. I guess I better go over there.” I just work across all my
devices. And so I don’t see it as necessarily for the vast majority
people pushing the Mac out. It may be that the kinds of things they
choose to do on their Mac, some of that is now the hours they spend on
their iPad instead of on their Mac.

But at the same time, the Mac keeps pushing further limits into the kinds of things you can take on then, where maybe you had to buy a workstation before.

On how the Mac still has plenty of big proponents:
Having a big screen, having multiple monitors, is really great with the
Mac. The Mac is a great hobbyist environment in terms of being able to
get custom tools, work at the terminal level. It’s a Swiss Army knife in
terms of its capabilities to do so many things.

On Sign In with Apple: These
set of capabilities that we talked about today are just one in a list
that we’ve established over, honestly, decades of working on this. If
you look at iOS from the outset, we were building protections into the
way apps are firewalled off from just reaching into your personal
information and making sure we put you in control of those things. As
the way people use apps and as the internet ecosystem evolves, it’s an
ongoing race for us to make sure that we’re providing the most important
capabilities to protect privacy.

These social logins, having
credentials that become well known and are shared across sites tied to
your identity and used to correlate information from many sources, as
well as just the absolutely nearly direct sharing of information —
let’s learn all this stuff about this user — has become we think of
significant concern…

We wanted to take the next logical step in
this and provide an account that in its very nature doesn’t expose your
identity to the third party. And what’s interesting is for most
developers actually they just want a really low-friction way for you to
start using their app. They want to say, “OK, download the app. I want
the person to be in and enjoying my app, not be sort of repelled at the
gates.” They want to get them in and get them experiencing their
application.

And one of the easiest ways to do that has been to
make this bargain around these social logins. And now we’re giving them
an alternative.  

Apple's WWDC 2019 conference

Federighi has something to say about the next version of iOS.


Stephen Shankland/CNET

On not having concerns about using the number 13 for iOS: 13 is not unlucky and we’re not superstitious people. So we’re cool. We’re happy to blaze ahead with the number 13.  

On dark mode in iOS 13: Dark mode
is honestly something that has just massive appeal. When we released it
last year for Mojave on the Mac, I mean we’ve been blown by the
fraction of Mojave users that are running in dark mode all the time.
 And on the phone, you tend to use that device in low-light environments
and on OLED, you even get some battery savings. So we expect it to be
just hugely popular and honestly, it just looks really cool. Those of us
who run it, it feels new.

On Catalyst bringing iOS apps to the Mac. We
think making it possible for a developer who’s already invested in
building that great iPad experience to be able to bring it to the Mac
and make it super easy for them. With relatively little investment in
tuning the experience for the Mac, they can end up with a really great
app. And that’s what we’re seeing in our own internal efforts on this
front in terms of our own adoption as well as the third parties we
brought in … We think it’s just gonna mean a much bigger market for
apps.

If you can now have a single team that’s going to work
across all these technologies, [then it’s a win]. When you talk to
developers, this is a central theme we hear. They say, “I’ve got a group
of people who understand a certain set of technologies and frameworks.
They’ve got the skills to build an iOS app. They have one code base
they’re working on. If you want me to move to a new platform then I have
to hire some different people with different skills and I now have to
maintain another code base. Wow, that’s a heavy decision for me to make.
[But] if you let me take that same team — not the same code base, [but
only have to] do a little bit of extra work and now reach a much larger
market, then I’m in.”

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Apple iPad 2018 (space gray, 32GB)
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https://www.popularmechanics.com/flight/airlines/news/a27055/797-boeing-nma-new-airliner/
Boeing 797? Aviation Giant Teases New Airliner at Paris Air Show
The New Midsize Airplane (NMA) will have more composites than any other Boeing passenger plane.

Here comes Boeing’s next big flyer. This week at
the 2017 Paris Air Show, the company discussed some design details for a
new passenger plane, revealing that the aircraft will have a composite
fuselage with a “hybrid cross-section” and “fifth-generation” composite
wings. The airliner has been called the 797 at the show. However,
Boeing’s official project name (for now) is simply New Midsize Airplane
(NMA).

The NMA is to be a twin-aisle plane with a capacity for 220 to 270 passengers and a range of 5,200 nautical miles, according toAviation Week.
The new airliner would fill a gap between the narrow-body 737 MAX and
wide-body 787 Dreamliner, which have ranges as high as 3,800 nmi and
over 8,000 nmi, respectively. Boeing wants a plane to fly routes in that
gap around 5,000 nmi—say, New York to Moscow, or even further.

Boeing unveiled a timetable in which design work
would happen in late 2018 through 2020. It would then build the aircraft
components in 2020-1, assemble the new plane in 2023, and fly it for
the first time in 2024, with the new aircraft ultimately entering
service in 2025. The company predicts a market for more than 4,000 of
these planes.

Building such a jet will require Boeing to expand
its carbon fiber composite manufacturing. The composite fuselage
sections of the 787 Dreamliner are manufactured in North Charleston,
South Carolina; Wichita, Kansas; and Nagoya, Japan. Boeing also just
built a billion-dollar factory in Everett, Washington, to bake the
epoxy-infused carbon fiber wings of the 777X. The NMA’s composite
fuselage may require a new factory.

Boeing hasn’t been exactly clear about what it
means when it refers to the NMA fuselage as composite with a “hybrid
cross-section.” However, the Seattle Times reports
that Boeing vice president Mike Delaney used the term to mean a
fuselage with elements of both a narrow-body and a wide-body—though the
plane will likely have two aisles—rather than “hybrid” meaning it would
use both composite and metallic materials.

For the new aircraft’s engines, Boeing is looking
for a geared turbofan. Geared turbofans are aircraft engines that
achieve greater efficiency by placing a gearbox in between the fan and
the turbine assembly so they can rotate at different velocities. The
versatility provides greater optimization of engine speed during
different parts of flight.

image