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11/27/12
281112 WEDNESDAY LESSON 764 Il Poya day is the full-moon of November 28th WEDNESDAY. This sacred day celebrates:1: The Buddha Gotama’s declaration of the next Buddha Metteyya.2: The sending out in the world of the first 60 missionary Arahats. 3: The passing away of the general of the Dhamma: Sariputta.4: The Buddha’s 1st explanation of Anapanasati Breathing Meditation. தமிழில் திரபிடக மூன்று தொகுப்புகள்TIPITAKA from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
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281112 WEDNESDAY
LESSON 764  Il Poya day is the full-moon of November 28th WEDNESDAY. This sacred day celebrates:1: The Buddha Gotama’s declaration of the next Buddha Metteyya.2: The sending out in the world of the first 60 missionary Arahats  3: The passing away of the general of the Dhamma: Sariputta.4: The Buddha’s 1st explanation of Anapanasati Breathing Meditation. மிழில் திபி  மூன்று தொகுப்புள்TIPITAKA
from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and
Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

The last of the twenty-five Buddhas.


 

No comprehensive account of Gotama
Buddha is as yet possible. The details given in this article are those generally
accepted by orthodox Theravādins and contained in their books, chiefly the Pāli
Commentaries, more especially the Nidānakathā of the Jātaka and the Buddhavamsa
Commentary.

Biographical details are also found in
the Mahā Vagga and the Culla Vagga of the Vinaya Pitaka, the Buddhavamsa and in
various scattered passages of the Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka. References to
these are given where considered useful. Controversy exists with regard to many
of the matters mentioned; for discussion of the varying views regarding these,
reference should be made to the works of Oldenberg, Rhys Davids (both Professor
and Mrs. Rhys Davids), Kern, E. J. Thomas and other scholars. Further
particulars of persons and places mentioned can be obtained by reference to the
articles under the respective names.

He was a Sākiyan (the Sākiyans were
evidently subjects of the Kosala king; the Buddha calls himself a Kosalan,
M.ii.124), son of Suddhodana (all Pāli Commentaries and Sanskrit works represent
the Buddha as the son of a king, descendant of a long line of famous ancestors),
chief ruler of Kapilavatthu, and of Mahā Māyā, Suddhodana’s chief consort, and
he belonged to the Gotama-gotta. Before his conception he was in the Tusita
heaven, waiting for the due time for his birth in his last existence. Then,
having made the “five investigations” (pañcavilolcanāni) (see Buddha), he took
leave of his companions and descended to earth. (According to the Lalitavistara
he appointed the Bodhisatta Maitreya as king of Tusita in his place). Many
wondrous and marvellous events attended his conception and birth. (Given in the
Acchariyabbhutadhamma Sutta, M.iii.118f; also D.ii.12f. A more detailed account
is found in J. i.47ff; both the Lai. and the Mtu.ii.14ff differ as to the details
given here of the conception and the birth).

The conception takes place on the
full-moon day of Āsālha, with the moon in Uttarāsālha, and Maya has no relations
with her husband. She has a marvellous dream in which the Bodhisatta, as a white
elephant, enters her womb through her side. When the dream is mentioned to the
brahmins, they foretell the birth of a son who will be either a universal
monarch or a Buddha. An earthquake takes place and thirty-two signs appear,
presaging the birth of a great being. The first of these signs is a boundless,
great light, flooding every corner of the ten thousand worlds; everyone beholds
its glory, even the fires in all hells being extinguished. Ten months after the
conception, in the month of Visākha, Māyā wishes to visit her parents in
Devadaha. On the way thither from Kapilavatthu she passes the beautiful Lumbini
grove, in which she desires to wander; she goes to a great sāla-tree and seizes
a branch in her hand; labour pains start immediately, and, when the courtiers
retire, having drawn a curtain round her, even while standing, she is delivered
of the child. It is the day of the full moon of Visākha; four Mahābrahmas
receive the babe in a golden net, and streams of water descend from the sky to
wash him. The boy stands on the earth, takes seven steps north-wards and utters
his lion-roar, “I am the chief in the world.” On the same day seven other beings
were born: the Bodhi-tree, Rāhula’s mother (Rāhulamātā, his future wife), the
four Treasure-Troves (described at DA.i.284), his elephant, his horse Kanthaka,
his charioteer Channa, and Kāludāyī. The babe is escorted back to Kapilavatthu
on the day of his birth and his mother dies seven days later.

The isi Asita (or Kāladevala),
meditating in the Himālaya, learns from the Tāvatimsa gods of the birth of the
Buddha, visits Suddhodana the same day and sees the boy, whom they both worship.
Asita weeps for sorrow that he will not live to see the boy’s Buddhahood, but he
instructs his nephew Nālaka (v.l. Naradatta) to prepare himself for that great
day. On the fifth day after the birth is the ceremony of name-giving. One
hundred and eight brahmins are invited to the festival at the palace; eight of
them - Rāma, Dhaja, Lakkhana, Manti, Kondañña, Bhoja, Suyāma and Sudatta - are
interpreters of bodily marks, and all except Kondañña prophesy two possibilities
for the boy; but Kondañña, the youngest, says, quite decisively, that he will be
a Buddha. The name given to the boy at this ceremony is not actually mentioned,
but from other passages it is inferred that it was Siddhattha (q.v.).

Among other incidents recounted of the
Buddha’s boyhood is that of his attaining the first jhāna under a jambu-tree.
One day he is taken to the state ploughing of the king where Suddhodana himself,
with his golden plough, ploughs with the farmers. The nurses, attracted by the
festivities, leave the child under a jambu-tree. They return to find him seated,
cross-legged, in a trance, the shadow of the tree remaining still, in order to
protect him. The king is informed and, for the second time, does reverence to
his son. J. i.57f; MA.i.466f; the incident is alluded to in the Mahā Saccaka
Sutta (M.i.246); the corresponding incident recounted in Mtu. (ii.45f.) takes
place in a park, and the, details differ completely. The Lai. has two versions,
one in prose and one in verse and both resemble the Mtu.; but in these the
Buddha is represented as being much older. The Divy (391) and the Tibetan
versions (e.g., Rockhill, p.22) put the incident very much later in the Buddha’s
life. Other incidents are given in Lai. and Mtu.

The Bodhisatta is reported to have lived
in the household for twenty-nine years a life of great luxury and excessive
ease, surrounded by all imaginable comforts. He owns three palaces - Ramma,
Suramma and Subha - for the three seasons. Mention is made of his luxurious life
in A.i.145; also in M.i.504; further details are given in AA.i.378f.; J. i.58.
See also Mtu.ii.115; cf. Vin.i.15; D.ii.21.

When the Bodhisatta is sixteen years
old, Suddhodana sends messengers to the Sākyans asking that his son be allowed
to seek a wife from among their daughters; but the Sākyans are reluctant to send
them, for, they say, though the young man is hand-some, he knows no art; how,
then, can he support a wife? When this is reported to the prince, he summons an
assembly of the Sākyans and performs various feats, chief of these being twelve
feats with a bow which needs the strength of one thousand men. (The feats with
the bow are described in the Sarabhanga Jātaka, J. v.129f ). The Sākyans are so
impressed that each sends him a daughter, the total number so sent being forty
thousand. The Bodhisatta appoints as his chief wife the daughter of Suppabuddha,
who, later, comes to be called Rāhulamātā. She is known under various names:
Bhaddakaccā (or Kaccānā), Yasodharā. Bimbā, Bimbasundarī and Gopā. For a
discussion see Rāhulamātā.

According to the generally accepted
account, Gotama is twenty-nine when the incidents occur which lead to final
renunciation. Following the prophecy of the eight brahmins, his father had taken
every precaution that his son should see no sign of old age, sickness or death.
But the gods decide that the time is come for the Enlightenment, and instil into
Gotama’s heart a desire to go into the park. On the way, the gods put before him
a man showing signs of extreme age, and the Bodhisatta returns, filled with
desire for renunciation. The king, learning this, surrounds him with even
greater attractions, but on two other days Gotama goes to the park and the gods
put before him a sick man and a corpse. (According to some accounts, e.g. that
of the Dīghabhānakas, the four omens were all seen on the same day, J. i.59)

On the full-moon day of Āsālha, the day
appointed for the Great Renunciation, Gotama sees a monk and hears from his
charioteer praise of the ascetic life. Feeling very happy, he goes to the park
to enjoy himself. Sakka sends Vissakamma himself to bathe and adorn him, and as
Gotama returns to the city in all his majesty, he receives news of the birth of
his son. Foreseeing in this news a bond, he decides to call the babe Rāhula
(q.v.). Kisā Gotamī (q.v.) sees Gotama on the way to the palace and, filled with
longing for him, sings to him a song containing the word nibbuta. The
significance of the word (=extinguished, at peace) thrills him, and he sends to
Kisā his priceless gold necklace which she, however, accepts as a token of love.
Gotama enters the palace and sleeps. He wakes in the middle of the night to find
his female musicians sleeping in attitudes which fill him with disgust and with
loathing for the worldly life, and he decides to leave it. (In some versions the
Renunciation takes place seven days after the birth of Rāhula, J. i.62). He
orders Channa to saddle Kanthaka, and enters his wife’s room for a last look at
her and their son.

He leaves the city on his horse Kanthaka,
with Channa clinging to its tail. The devas muffle the sound of the horse’s
hoofs and of his neighing and open the city gates for Gotama to pass. Māra
appears before Gotama and seeks to stay him with a promise that he shall be
universal monarch within seven days. On his offer being refused, Māra threatens
to shadow him always. Outside the city, at the spot where later was erected the
Kanthakanivattana-cetiya, Gotama turns his horse round to take a last look at
Kapilavatthu. It is said that the earth actually turned, to make it easy for him
to do so. Then, accompanied by the gods, he rides thirty leagues through three
kingdoms - those of the Sākyans, the Koliyans and the Mallas - and his horse
crosses the river Anomā in one leap. On the other side, he gives all his
ornaments to Channa, and with his sword cuts off hair and beard, throwing them
up into the air, where Sakka takes them and enshrines them in the
Cūlāmani-cetiya in Tāvatimsa. The Brahmā Ghatikāra offers Gotama the eight
requisites of a monk, which he accepts and adopts. He then sends Channa and
Kanthaka back to his father, but Kanthaka, broken-hearted, dies on the spot and
is reborn as Kanthaka-devaputta.

The account given here is taken mainly
from the Nidānakathā (J.i.59ff) and evidently embodies later tradition; cp.
D.ii.21ff. From passages found in the Pitakas (e.g., A.i.145; M.i.163, 240;
M.ii.212f.) it would appear that the events leading up to the Renunciation were
not so dramatic as given here, the process being more gradual. I do not,
however, agree with Thomas (op. cit., 58) that, according to these accounts, the
Bodhisatta left the world when “quite a boy.” I think the word dahara is used
merely to indicate “the prime of youth,” and not necessarily “boyhood.” The
description of the Renunciation in the Lal. is very much more elaborate and adds
numerous incidents, no account of which is found in the Pāli.

From Anomā the Bodhisatta goes to the
mango-grove of Anupiya, and after spending seven days there walks to Rājagaha (a
distance of thirty leagues) in one day, and there starts his alms rounds.
Bimbisāra’s men, noticing him, report the matter to the king, who sends
messengers to enquire who this ascetic is. The men follow Gotama to the foot of
the Pandavapabbata, where he eats his meal, and they then go and report to the
king. Bimbisāra visits Gotama, and, pleased with his hearing, offers him the
sovereignty. On learning the nature of Gotama’s quest, he wins from him a
promise to visit Rājagaha first after the Enlightenment.

This incident is also mentioned in the
Pabbajjā Sutta (Sn.vv.405-24), but there it is the king who first sees Gotama.
It is significant that, when asked his identity, Gotama does not say he is a
king’s son. The Pali version of tile sutta contains nothing of Gotama’s promise
to visit Rājagaha, but the Mtu. version (ii.198-200), which places the visit
later, has two verses, one of which contains the request and the other the
acceptance; and the SnA. (ii.385f.), too, mentions the promise and tells that
Bimbisāra was informed of the prophecy concerning Gotama. There is another
version of the Mtu. (ii.117-20) which says that Gotama went straight to Vaisāli
after leaving home, joining Ālāra, and later visited Uddaka at Rājagaha. Here no
mention is made of Bimbisāra. We are told in the Mhv. (ii.25ff) that Bimbisāra
and Gotama (Siddhattha) had been playmates, Bimbisāra being the younger by five
years. Bimbisāra’s father (Bhātī) and Suddhodana were friends.

Journeying from Rājagaha, Gotama in due
course becomes a disciple of Ālāra-Kālāma. Having learnt and practised all that
ālāra has to teach, he finds it unsatisfying and joins Uddaka-Rāmaputta; but
Uddaka’s doctrine leaves him still unconvinced and he abandons it. He then goes
to Senānīgāma in Uruvelā and there, during six years, practises all manner of
severe austerities, such as no man had previously undertaken. Once he falls
fainting and a deva informs Suddhodana that Gotama is dead. But Suddhodana,
relying on the prophecy of Kāladevala, refuses to believe the news. Gotama’s
mother, now born as a devaputta in Tāvatimsa, comes to him to encourage him. At
Uruvelā, the Pañcavaggiya monks are his companions, but now, having realised the
folly of extreme asceticism, he decides to abandon it, and starts again to take
normal food; thereupon the Pañcavaggiyas, disappointed, leave him and go to
Isipatana.

J.i.66f. The Therīgāthā Commentary
(p.2) mentions another teacher of Gotama, named Bhaggava, whom Gotama visited
before Ālāra. Lal. (330 [264]) contains a very elaborate account of Gotama’s
visits to teachers; he goes first to two brahmin women, Sākī and Padmā, then
to Raivata and Rajaka, son of Trimandika, and finally (as far as this chapter
is concerned) to Ālāra at Vaisāli. A poem containing an account of the meeting
of Gotama with Bimbisāra is inserted into this account. The next chapter tells
of Uddaka. An account of Gotama’s visits to teachers and of the details of his
austerities is also given in the Mahā Saccaka Sutta, already referred to
(M.i.240ff); the Mahā Sīhanāda Sutta (M.i.77ff) contains a long and detailed
account of his extreme asceticisms. See also M.i.163ff; ii.93f.

Gotama’s desire for normal food is
satisfied by an offering brought by Sujātā to the Ajapāla banyan tree under
which he is seated. She had made a vow to the tree, and her wish having been
granted, she takes her slave-girl, Punnā, and goes to the tree prepared to
fulfil her promise. They take Gotama to be the Tree-god, come in person to
accept her offering of milk-rice; the offering is made in a golden bowl and he
takes it joyfully. Five dreams he had the night before convince Gotama that he
will that day become the Buddha. (The dreams are, recounted in A.iii.240 and in
Mtu.ii.136f). It is the full-moon day of Visākha; he bathes at Suppatittha in
the Nerañjarā, eats the food and launches the bowl up stream, where it sinks to
the abode of the Nāga king, Kāla (Mahākāla).

Gotama spends the rest of the day in a
sāla-grove and, in the evening, goes to the foot of the Bodhi-tree, accompanied
by various divinities; there the grass-cutter Sotthiya gives him eight handfuls
of grass; these, after investigation, Gotama spreads on the eastern side of the
tree, where it becomes a seat fourteen hands long, on which he sits
cross-legged, determined not to rise before attaining Enlightenment.

J.i.69. The Pitakas know nothing of
Sujātā’s offering or of Sotthiya’s gift. Lal. (334-7 [267-70]) mentions ten
girls in all who provide him with food during his austerities. Divy (392)
mentions two, Nandā and Nandabalā.

Māra, lord of the world of passion, is
determined to prevent this fulfilment, and attacks Gotama with all the strength
at his command. His army extends twelve leagues to the front, right, and left of
him, to the end of the Cakkavāla behind him, and nine leagues into the sky above
him. Māra himself carries numerous weapons and rides the elephant Girimekhala,
one hundred and fifty leagues in height. At the sight of him all the divinities
gathered at the Bodhi-tree to do honour to Gotama - the great Brahmā, Sakka, the
Nāga-king Mahākāla - disappear in a flash, and Gotama is left alone with the ten
pāramī, long practised by him, as his sole protection. All Māra’s attempts to
frighten him by means of storms and terrifying apparitions fail, and, in the
end, Māra hurls at him the Cakkāvudha. It remains as a canopy poised over
Gotama. The very earth bears witness to Gotama’s fitness to be the Enlightened
One, and Girimekhala kneels before him. Māra is vanquished and flees headlong
with his vast army. The various divinities who had fled at the approach of Māra
now return to Gotama and exult in his triumph.

The whole story of the contest with Māra
is, obviously, a mythological development. It is significant that in the
Majjhima passages referred to earlier there is no mention of Māra, of a
temptation, or even of a Bodhi-tree; but see D.ii.4 and Thomas (op. cit., n.1).
According to the Kālingabodhi Jātaka, which, very probably, embodies an old
tradition, the bodhi-tree was worshipped even in the Buddha’s life-time. The
Māra legend is, however, to be found in the Canonical Padhāna Sutta of the Sutta
Nipāta. This perhaps contains the first suggestion of the legend. For a
discussion see Māra.

Gotama spends that night in deep
meditation. In the first watch he gains remembrance of his former existences; in
the middle watch he attains the divine eye (dibbacakkhu); in the last watch he
revolves in his mind the Chain of Causation (paticcasamuppāda). As he masters
this, the earth trembles and, with the dawn, comes Enlightenment. He is now the
supreme Buddha, and he breaks forth into a paean of joy (udāna).

There is great doubt as to which were
these Udāna verses. The Nidānakathā and the Commentaries generally quote two
verses (153, 154) included in the Dhammapada collection (anekajāti samsāram,
etc.). The Vinaya (i.2) quotes three different verses (as does also DhsA.17),
and says that one verse was repeated at the end of each watch, all the watches
being occupied with meditation on the paticcasamuppāda. Mtu. (ii.286) gives a
completely different Udāna, and in another place (ii.416) mentions a different
verse as the first Udāna. The Tibetan Vinaya is, again, quite different (Rockhill,
p.33). For a discussion see Thomas, op. cit., 75ff.

For the first week the Buddha remains
under the Bodhi-tree, meditating on the Paticcasamuppāda; the second week he
spends at the Ajapālanigrodha, where the “Huhuhka” Brahmin accosts him (Mara now
comes again and asks the Buddha to die at once; D.ii.112) and where Mara’s
daughters, Tanhā, Aratī and Rāgā, appear before the Buddha and make a last
attempt to shake his resolution (J.i.78; S. i.124; Lal.490 (378)); the third week
he spends under the hood of the nāga-king Mucalinda (Vin.i.3); the fourth week
is spent in meditation under the Rājāyatana tree*; at the end of this period
takes place the conversion of Tapussa and Bhallika. They take refuge in the
Buddha and the Dhamma, though the Buddha does not give them any instruction.

*This is the Vinaya account
(Vin.i.1ff); but the Jātaka (i.77ff, extends this period to seven weeks, the
additional weeks being inserted between the first and second. The Buddha
spends one week each at the Animisa-cetiya, the Ratanacankama and the
Ratanaghara, and this last is where he thinks out the Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Doubts now assail the Buddha as to
whether he shall proclaim to the world his doctrine, so recondite, so hard to
understand. The Brahma Sahampati (according to J. i.81, with the gods of the
thousand worlds, including Sakka, Suyāma, Santusita, Sunimmita, Vasavatti, etc.)
appears before him and assures him there are many prepared to listen to him and
to profit by his teaching, and so entreats him to teach the Dhamma. The Buddha
accedes to his request and, after consideration, decides to teach the Dhamma
first to the Pañcavaggiyas at Isipatana. On the way to
Benares he meets the
ājīvaka Upaka and tells him that he (the Buddha) is Jina. On his arrival at
Isipatana the Pañcavaggiyas are, at first, reluctant to acknowledge his claim to
be the Tathāgata, but they let themselves be won over and, on the full-moon day
of Āsālha, the Buddha preaches to them the sermon which came to be known as the
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. (Vin.i.4ff; M.i.118ff; cp. D.ii.36ff. Regarding the
claim of this sutta to be the Buddha’s first sermon, see Thomas, op. cit., p.86;
see also Pañcavaggiyā). At the end of the sermon Kondañña becomes a sotāpanna
and they all become monks.

This sermon is followed five days later
by the Anattalakkhana Sutta, at the conclusion of which all five become
arahants. The following day the Buddha meets Yasa, whom he converts. Yasa’s
father, who comes seeking him, is the first to take the threefold formula of
Refuge.

Yasa becomes an arahant and is ordained.
The Buddha accepts a meal at his house, and Yasa’s mother and one of his former
wives are the first two lay-women to become the Buddha’s disciples. Then four
friends of Yasa and, afterwards, fifty more, enter the Order and become
arahants. There are now sixty arahants besides the Buddha, and they are sent in
different directions to preach the Dhamma. They return with many candidates for
admission to the Order, and the Buddha, who up till now had ordained men with
the “ehi bhikkhu” formula, now allows the monks themselves to perform the
ceremony of ordination (Vin.i.15ff; J. i.81f).

After spending the rainy season at
Benares (about this time Māra twice tries to tempt the Buddha, once after he had
sent the disciples out to preach and once after the Retreat, S. i.105, 111;
Vin.i.21, 22), the Buddha returns to Senānigāma in Uruvela, on the way
converting and ordaining the thirty Bhaddavaggiyā. At Uruvela, after a long and
protracted exercise of magical powers, consisting in all of three thousand five
hundred miracles, the Buddha wins over the three Kassapa brothers, the Tebhātika
Jatilā, with their thousand followers, and ordains them. They become arahants
after listening to the Ādittapariyāya Sutta preached at Gayāsīsa; with these
followers he visits Rājagaha, where King Seniya Bimbisāra comes to see him at
the Latthivanuyyāna. The following day the Buddha and the monks visit the
palace, preceded by Sakka disguised as a youth and singing the praises of the
Buddha. After the meal, the king gifts Veluvana to the Buddha and the Order. The
Buddha stays for two months at Rājagaha (BuA.4), and it is during this time that
Sāriputta and Moggallāna join the Order, through the instrumentality of Assaji
(Vin.i.23ff). It was probably during this year, at the beginning of the rainy
season, that the Buddha visited Vesāli at the request of the Licchavis, conveyed
through Mahāli. The city was suffering from pestilence and famine. The Buddha
went, preached the Ratana Sutta and dispelled all dangers (DhA.iii.436ff).

The number of converts now rapidly
increases and the people of Magadha, alarmed by the prospect of childlessness,
widow-hood, etc., blame the Buddha and his monks. The Buddha, however, refutes
their charges (Vin.i.42f).

The account of the first twenty years of
the Buddha’s ministry is summarised from various sources, chiefly from Thomas’s
admirable account in his Life and Legend of the Buddha (pp.97ff). The necessary
references are to be found under the names mentioned.

On the full-moon day of Phagguna
(February-March) the Buddha, accompanied by twenty thousand monks, sets out for
Kapilavatthu at the express request of his father, conveyed through Kāludāyī.
(This visit is not mentioned in the Canon; but see Thag.527-36; AA.i.107, 167;
J.i.87; DhA.i.96f; ThagA.i.997ff).

By slow stages he arrives at the city,
where he stays at the Nigrodhārāma, and, in order to convince his proud kinsmen
of his power, performs the Yamakapātihārjya and then relates the Vessantara
Jātaka. The next day, receiving no invitation to a meal, the Buddha begs in the
streets of the city; this deeply grieves Suddhodana, but later, learning that it
is the custom of all Buddhas, he becomes a sotāpanna and conducts the Buddha and
his monks to meal at the palace. There all the women of the palace, excepting
only Rāhulamātā, come and do reverence to the Buddha. Mahā Pajāpatī becomes a
sotāpanna and Suddhodana a sakadāgāmi. The Buddha visits Rāhulamātā in her own
apartments and utters her praises in the Candakinnara Jātaka. The following day
the Buddha persuades his half-brother, Nanda, to come to the monastery, where he
ordains him and, on the seventh day, he does the same with Rāhula. This is too
great a blow for Suddhodana, and at his request the Buddha rules that no person
shall be ordained without the consent of his parents. The next day the Buddha
preaches to Suddhodana, who becomes an anāgāmī. During the Buddha’s visit to
Kapilavatthu, eighty thousand Sākyans join the Order, one from each family. With
these he returns to Rājagaha, stopping on the way at Anupiya, where Anuruddha,
Bhaddiya, Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila and Devadatta, together with their barber,
Upāli, visit him and seek ordination.

On his return to Rājagaha the Buddha
resides in the Sītavana. (J.i.92, the story is also told in the Vinaya ii.154,
but no date is indicated). There Sudatta, later known as Anāthapindika, visits
him, is converted, and invites him to Sāvatthi. The Buddha accepts the
invitation and journeys through Vesāli to Sāvatthi, there to pass the rainy
season. (Vin.ii.158; but see BuA.3, where the Buddha is mentioned as having
spent the vassa in Rājagaha). Anāthapindika gifts Jetavana, provided with every
necessity, for the residence of the Buddha and his monks. Probably to this
period belongs the conversion of Migāra, father-in-law of Visākhā, and the
construction, by Visākhā, of the Pubbārāma at Sāvatthi. The vassa of the fourth
year the Buddha spends at Veluvana, where he converts Uggasena. (DhA.iv.59f). In
the fifth year Suddhodana dies, having realised arahant-ship, and the Buddha
flies through the air, from the Kūtāgārasālā in Vesāli where he was staying, to
preach to his father on his death-bed. According to one account it is at this
time that the quarrel breaks out between the Sākyans and the Koliyans regarding
the irrigation of the river Rohinī. (AA.i.186; SnA.i.357; ThigA.141; details of
the quarrel are given in J. v.412ff). The Buddha persuades them to make peace,
and takes up his abode in the Nigrodhārāma. Mahā Pajāpatī Gotamī, with other
Sākiyan women, visits him there and asks that women may be allowed to join the
Order. Three times the request is made, three times refused, the Buddha then
returning to Vesāli. The women cut off their hair, don yellow robes and follow
him thither. Ananda intercedes on their behalf and their request is granted.
(Vin.ii.253ff; A.iv.274f.; for details see Mahā Pajāpati).

In the sixth year the Buddha again
performs the Yamakapātihāriya, this time at the foot of the Gandamba tree in
Sāvatthi. Prior to this, the Buddha had forbidden any display of magic powers,
but makes an exception in his own case (DhA.iii.199f.; J. iv.265, etc.).

He spends the vassa at Mankulapabbata.
After the performance of the miracle he follows the custom of all Buddhas and
ascends to Tāvatimsa in three strides to preach the Abhidhamma to his mother who
is born there as a deva, and there he keeps the seventh vassa. The multitude,
gathered at Sāvatthi at the Yamakapātihāriya, refuse to go away until they have
seen him. For three months, therefore, Moggallāna expounds to them the Dhamma,
while Culla Anāthapindika provides them with food. During the preaching of the
Abhidhamma, Sāriputta visits the Buddha daily and learns from him all that has
been recited the previous day. At the end of the vassa, the Buddha descends a
jewelled staircase and comes to earth at Sankassa, thirty leagues from Sāvatthi.
(For details see Devorohana). It was about this time, when the Buddha’s fame was
at its height, that the notorious Ciñcā-mānavikā was persuaded by members of
some hostile sect to bring a vile accusation against the Buddha. A similar
story, told in connection with a paribbājikā named Sundarī, probably refers to a
later date.

The eighth year the Buddha spends in the
country of the Bhaggas and there, while residing in Bhesakalāvana near
Sumsumāragiri, he meets Nakulapitā and his wife, who had been his parents in
five hundred former births (A.A.i.217).

The same is told of another old couple
in Sāketa. See the Sāketa Jātaka. The Buddha evidently stayed again at
Sumsumāragiri many years later. It was during his second visit that
Bodhirājakumāra (q.v.) invited him to a meal at his new palace in order that the
Buddha might consecrate the building by his presence.

In the ninth year the Buddha is at
Kosambī. While on a visit to the Kuru country he is offered in marriage
Māgandiyā, the beautiful daughter of the brahmin Māgandiyā. The refusal of the
offer, accompanied by insulting remarks about physical beauty, arouses the
enmity of Māgandiyā who, thenceforward, cherishes hatred against the Buddha.

Sn., pp.163ff; SnA.ii.542ff; DhA.i.199ff
Thomas (op. cit., 109) assigns the Māgandiyā incident to the ninth year. I am
not sure if this is correct, for the Commentaries say the Buddha was then living
at Sāvatthi.

In the tenth year there arises among the
monks at Kosambī a schism which threatens the very existence of the Order. The
Buddha, failing in his attempts to reconcile the disputants, retires in disgust
to the Pārileyyaka forest, passing on his way through Bālakalonakāragāma and
Pācīnavamsadāya. In the forest he is protected and waited upon by a friendly
elephant who has left the herd. The Buddha spends the rainy season there and
returns to Sāvatthi. By this time the Kosambī monks have recovered their senses
and ask the Buddha’s pardon. This is granted and the dispute settled.
(Vin.i.337ff; J. iii.486f; DhA.i.44ff; but see Ud.iv.5; s.v. Pārileyyaka).

In the eleventh year the Buddha resides
at the brahmin village of Ekanālā and converts Kasi-Bhāradvāja (Sn., p.12f.;
S.i.172f). The twelfth year he spends at Verañjā, keeping the vassa there at the
request of the brahmin Verañja. But Verañja forgets his obligations; there is a
famine, and five hundred horse-merchants supply the monks with food.
Moggallāna’s offer to obtain food by means of magic power is discouraged
(Vin.iii.1ff; J. iii.494f; DhA.ii.153). The thirteenth Retreat is kept at
Cālikapabbata, where Meghiya is the Buddha’s personal attendant (A.iv.354;
Ud.iv.1). The fourteenth year is spent at Sāvatthi, and there Rāhula receives
the upasampadā ordination.

In the fifteenth year the Buddha
revisits Kapilavatthu, and there his father-in-law, Suppabuddha, in a drunken
fit, refuses to let the Buddha pass through the streets. Seven days later he is
swallowed up by the earth at the foot of his palace (DhA.iii.44).

The chief event of the sixteenth year,
which the Buddha spent at Ālavī, is the conversion of the yakkha Ālavaka. In the
seventeenth year the Buddha is back at Sāvatthi, but he visits Ālavī again out
of compassion for a poor farmer who becomes a sotāpanna after hearing him preach
(DhA.iii.262ff). He spends the rainy season at Rājagaha. In the next year he
again comes to Ālavī from Jetavana for the sake of a poor weaver’s daughter. She
had heard him preach, three years earlier, on the desirability of meditating
upon death. She alone gave heed to his admonition and, when the Buddha knows of
her imminent death, he journeys thirty leagues to preach to her and establish
her in the sotāpattiphala (DhA.iii.170ff).

The Retreat of this year and also that
of the nineteenth are spent at Cālikapabbata. In the twentieth year takes place
the miraculous conversion of the robber Angulimāla. He becomes an arahant and
dies shortly after. It is in the same year that Ananda is appointed permanent
attendant on the Buddha, a position which he holds to the end of the Buddha’s
life, twenty-five years later (For details see Ananda). The twentieth Retreat is
spent at Rājagaha.

With our present knowledge it is
impossible to evolve any kind of chronology for the remaining twenty-five years
of the Buddha’s life. The Commentaries state that they were spent at Sāvatthi in
the monasteries of Jetavana and Pubbārāma. (E.g., BuA.3; SnA. p.336f, says that
when the Buddha was at Sāvatthi, he spent the day at the Migāramātupāsāda in the
Pubbārāma, and the night at Jetavana or vice versa).

This, probably, only implies that the
Retreats were kept there and that they were made the head quarters of the
Buddha. From there, during the dry season, he went every year on tour in various
districts. Among the places visited by him during these tours are the following:

There is a more or less continuous
account of the last year of the Buddha’s life. This is contained in three suttas:
the Mahā Parinibbāna, the Mahā Sudassana and the Janavasabha. These are not
separate discourses but are intimately connected with each other. The only event
prior to the incidents recounted in these suttas, which can be fixed with any
certainty, is the death of the Buddha’s pious patron and supporter, Bimbisāra,
which took place eight years before the Buddha’s Parinibbāna (Mhv.ii.32). It was
at this time that Devadatta tried to obtain for himself a post of supremacy in
the Order, and, failing in this effort, became the open enemy of the Buddha.
Devadatta’s desire to deprive the Buddha of the leadership of the Sangha seems
to have been conceived by him, according to the Vinaya account (Vin.ii.184),
almost immediately after he joined the Order, and the Buddha was warned of this
by the devaputta Kakudha. This account lends point to the statement contained
especially in the Northern books, that even in their lay life Devadatta had
always been Gotama’s rival.

Enlisting the support of Ajātasattu, he
tried in many ways to kill the Buddha. Royal archers were bribed to shoot the
Buddha, but they were won over by his personality and confessed their
intentions. Then Devadatta hurled a great rock down Gijjhakūta on to the Buddha
as he was walking in the shade of the hill; the hurtling rock was stopped by two
peaks, but splinters struck the Buddha’s foot and caused blood to flow; he
suffered great pain and had to be taken to the Maddakucchi garden, where his
injuries were dressed by the physician Jīvaka (S.i.27). The monks wished to
provide a guard, but the Buddha reminded them that no man had the power to
deprive a Tathāgata of his life.

Devadatta next bribed the royal elephant
keepers to let loose a fierce elephant, Nālāgiri, intoxicated with toddy, on the
road along which the Buddha would go, begging for alms. The Buddha was warned of
this but disregarded the warning, and when the elephant appeared, Ananda,
against the strict orders of the Buddha, threw himself in its path, and only by
an exercise of iddhi-power, including the folding up of the earth, could the
Buddha come ahead of him. As the elephant approached, the Buddha addressed it,
pervading it with his boundless love, until it became quite gentle. (This
incident, with great wealth of detail, is related in several places - e.g., in
J.v.333ff).

These attempts to encompass the Buddha’s
death having failed, Devadatta, with three others, decides to create a schism in
the Order and asks the Buddha that five rules should be laid down, whereby the
monks would be compelled to lead a far more austere life than hitherto. When
this request is refused, Devadatta persuades five hundred recently ordained
monks to leave Vesāli with him and take up their residence at Gayāsīsa, where he
would set up an organisation similar to that of the Buddha. But, at the Buddha’s
request, Sāriputta and Moggallāna visit the renegade monks; Sāriputta preaches
to them and they are persuaded to return. When Devadatta discovers this, he
vomits hot blood and lies ill for nine months. When his end approaches, he
wishes to see the Buddha, but he dies on the way to Jetavana - whither he is
being conveyed in a litter - and is born in Avīci.

From Gijjhakūta, near Rājagaha, the
Buddha starts on his last journey. Just before his departure he is visited by
Vassākāra, and the talk is of the Vajjians; the Buddha preaches to Vassākāra and
the monks on the conditions that lead to prosperity. The Buddha proceeds with a
large concourse of monks to Ambalatthikā and thence to Nālandā, where Sāriputta
utters his lion-roar (sīhanāda) regarding his faith in the Buddha. The Buddha
then goes to Pātaligāma, where he talks to the villagers on the evil
consequences of immorality and the advantages of morality. He utters a prophecy
regarding the future greatness of Pātaliputta and then, leaving by the
Gotamadvāra, he crosses the river Ganges at Gotamatittha. He proceeds to
Kotigāma and thence to Ñātika, where he gives to Ananda the formula of the
Dhammādāsa, whereby the rebirth of disciples could be ascertained. From Ñātika
he goes to Vesāli, staying in the park of the courtesan Ambapāli. The following
day he accepts a meal from Ambapāli, refusing a similar offer from the
Licchavis; Ambapāli makes a gift of her park to the Buddha and his monks. The
Buddha journeys on to Beluva, where he spends the rainy season, his monks
remaining in Vesāli. At Beluva he falls dangerously ill but, with great
determination, fights against his sickness. He tells Ananda that his mission is
finished, that when he is dead the Order must maintain itself, taking the Dhamma
alone as its refuge, and he concludes by propounding the four subjects of
mindfulness (D.ii.100). The next day he begs in Vesāli and, with Ananda, visits
the Cāpāla-cetiya. There he gives to Ananda the opportunity of asking him to
live until the end of the kappa, but Ananda fails to take the hint. Soon
afterwards Māra visits the Buddha and obtains the assurance that the Buddha’s
nibbāna will take place in three months. There is an earthquake, and, in answer
to Ananda’s questions, the Buddha explains to him the eight causes of
earthquakes. This is followed by lists of the eight assemblies, the eight stages
of mastery and the eight stages of release. The Buddha then repeats to Ananda
his conversation with Māra, and Ananda now makes his request to the Buddha to
prolong his life, but is told that it is now too late; several opportunities he
has had, of which he has failed to avail himself. The monks are assembled in
Vesāli, in the Service Hall, and the Buddha exhorts them to practise the
doctrines he has taught, in order that the religious life may last long. He then
announces his impending death.

According to the Commentaries (e.g.,
DA.ii.549), after the rainy season spent at Beluva, the Buddha goes back to
Jetavana, where he is visited by Sāriputta, who is preparing for his own
Parinibbāna at Nālakagāma. From Jetavana the Buddha went to Rājagaha, where
Mahā-Moggallāna died. Thence he proceeded to Ukkācelā, where he spoke in praise
of the two chief disciples. From Ukkācelā he proceeded to Vesāli and thence to
Bhandagāma. Rāhula, too, predeceased the Buddha (DA.ii.549).

The next day, returning from Vesāli, he
looks round at the city for the last time and goes on to Bhandagāma; there he
preaches on the four things the comprehension of which destroys rebirth-noble
conduct, earnestness in meditation, wisdom and freedom.

He then passes through the villages of
Hatthigāma, Ambagāma and Jambugama, and stays at Bhoganagara at the Ananda-cetiya.
There he addresses the monks on the Four Great Authorities (Mahāpadesā), by
reference to which the true doctrine may be determined (Cf. A.ii.167ff). From
Bhoganagara the Buddha goes to Pāvā and stays in the mango-grove of Cunda, the
smith. Cunda serves him with a meal which includes sūkaramaddava. (There is much
dispute concerning this word. See Thomas, op. cit., 149, n.3). The Buddha alone
partakes of the sūkaramaddava, the remains being buried. This is the Buddha’s
last meal; sharp sickness arises in him, with flow of blood and violent, deadly
pains, but the Buddha controls them and sets out for Kusinārā. On the way he has
to sit down at the foot of a tree. Ananda fetches him water to drink from the
stream Kakutthā, over which five hundred carts had just passed; but, through the
power of the Buddha, the water is quite clear. Here the Buddha is visited by
Pukkusa, the Mallan, who is converted and presents the Buddha with a pair of
gold-coloured robes. The Buddha puts them on and Ananda notices the marvellous
brightness and clearness of the Buddha’s body. The Buddha tells him that the
body of a Buddha takes on this hue on the night before his Enlightenment and on
the night of his passing away, and that he will die that night at Kusinārā. He
goes to the Kākutthā, bathes and drinks there and rests in a mango-grove. There
he instructs Ananda that steps must be taken to dispel any remorse that Cunda
may feel regarding the meal he gave to the Buddha.

From Kakutthā the Buddha crosses the
Hiraññavatī to the Upavattana sāla-grove in Kusinārā. There Ananda prepares for
him a bed with the head to the north. All the trees break forth into blossom and
flowers cover the body of the Buddha. Divine mandārava-flowers and sandalwood
powder fall from the sky, and divine music and singing sound through the air.
But the Buddha says that the greater honour to him would be to follow his
teachings.

The gods of the ten thousand world
systems assemble to pay their last homage to the Buddha, and Upavāna, who stands
fanning him, is asked to move away as he obstructs their view.

Ananda asks for instruction on several
points, including how the funeral rites should be performed; he then goes out
and abandons himself to a fit of weeping; the Buddha sends for him, consoles him
and speaks his praises. Ananda tries to persuade the Buddha not to die in a
mud-and-wattle village, such as is Kusinārā, but the Buddha tells him how it was
once the mighty Kusāvatī, capital of Mahāsudassana.

The Mallas of Kusināra are informed that
the Buddha will pass away in the third watch of the night, and they come with
their families to pay their respects. The ascetic Subhadda comes to see the
Buddha and is refused admission by Ananda, but the Buddha, overhearing, calls
him in and converts him. Several minor rules of discipline are delivered,
including the order for the excommunication of Channa. The Buddha finally asks
the assembled monks to speak out any doubts they may have. All are silent and
Ananda expresses his astonishment, but the Buddha tells him it is natural that
the monks should have no doubts. Then, addressing the monks for the last time,
he admonishes them in these words: “Decay is inherent in all component things;
work out your salvation with diligence.” These were the Buddha’s last words.
Passing backwards and forwards through various stages of trance, he attains
Parinibbāna. There is a great earthquake and terrifying thunder, and the Brahmā
Sahampati, Sakka king of the gods, Anuruddha and Ananda utter stanzas, each
proclaiming the feeling uppermost in his mind. It is the full-moon day of the
month of Visākha and the Buddha is in his eightieth year.

The next day Ananda informs the Mallas
of Kusinārā of the Buddha’s death, and for seven days they hold a great
celebration. On the seventh day, following Ananda’s instructions, they prepare
the body for cremation, taking it in procession by the eastern gate to the
Makutabandhana shrine, thus altering their proposed route, in order to satisfy
the wishes of the gods, as communicated to them by Anuruddha. The whole town is
covered knee-deep with mandārava-flowers, which fall from the sky. When,
however, four of the chief Mallas try to light the pyre, their attempt is
unsuccessful and they must wait until Mahā Kassapa, coming with a company of
five hundred monks, has saluted it. The Commentaries (e.g., DA.ii.603) add that
Mahā Kassapa greatly desired that the Buddha’s feet should rest on his head when
he worshipped the pyre. The wish was granted: the feet appeared through the
pyre, and when Kassapa had worshipped them, the pyre closed together. The pyre
burns completely away, leaving no cinders nor soot. Streams of water fall from
the sky to extinguish it and the Mallas pour on it scented water. They then
place a fence of spears around it and continue their celebrations for seven
days. At the end of that period there appear several claimants for the Buddha’s
relics: Ajātasattu, the Licchavis of Vesāli, the Sākiyans of Kapilavatthu, the
Bulis of Allakappa, the Koliyas of Rāmagāma, a brahmin of Vethadīpa and the
Mallas of Pāvā. But the Mallas of Kusinārā refusing to share the relics with the
others, there is danger of war. Then the brahmin Dona counsels concord and
divides the relics into eight equal parts for the eight claimants. Dona takes
for himself the measuring vessel and the Moriyas of Pipphalivana, who arrive
late, carry off the ashes. Thūpas were built over these remains and feasts held
in honour of the Buddha.

S

The complete passing away.

 

The concluding passage of the
Mahā-Parinibbāna Sutta (D.ii.167) states that the Buddha’s relics were eight
measures, seven of which were honoured in Jambudīpa and the remaining one in the
Nāga realm in Rāmagāma. One tooth was in heaven, one in Gandhāra, a third in
Kālinga (later taken to Ceylon), and a fourth in the Nāga world. Ajātasattu’s
share was deposited in a thūpa and forgotten. It was later discovered by Asoka
(with the help of Sakka) and distributed among his eighty-four thousand
monasteries. Asoka also recorded the finding of all the other relics except
those deposited in Rāmagāma. These were later deposited in the Mahācetiya at
Anurādhapura (Mhv.Xxxi.17ff). Other relics are also mentioned, such as the
Buddha’s collar-bone, his alms bowl, etc. (Mhv.Xvii.9ff; Mhv.i.37, etc.).

It is said (E.g., DA.iii.899) that just
before the Buddha’s Sāsana disappears completely from the world, all the relics
will gather together at the Mahācetiya, and travelling from there to Nāgadīpa
and the Ratanacetiya, assemble at the Mahābodhi, together with the relics from
other parts. There they will reform the Buddha’s golden hued body, emitting the
six-coloured aura. The body will then catch fire and completely disappear, amid
the lamentations of the ten thousand world-systems.

The Ceylon Chronicles (Mhv.i.12ff;
Dpv.i.45ff; ii.1ff etc.) record that the Buddha visited the Island on three
separate occasions.

(The Burmese claim that the Buddha
visited their land and went to the Lohitacandana Vihāra, presented by the
brothers Mahāpunna and Cūlapunna of Vānijagāma (Ind. Antiq.xxii., and
Sās.36f.).

The first was while he was dwelling at
Uruvelā, awaiting the moment for the conversion of the Tebhātika Jatilas, in the
ninth month after the Enlightenment, on the full-moon day of Phussa (Dec. Jan.).
He came to the Mahānāga garden, and stood in the air over an assembly of yakkhas
then being held. He struck terror into their hearts and, at his suggestion, they
left Ceylon and went in a body to Giridīpa, hard by. The Buddha gave a handful
of his hair to the deva Mahāsumana of the Sumanakūta mountain, who built a thūpa
which was later enlarged into the Mahiyangana Thūpa. The Buddha again visited
Ceylon in the fifth year, on the new-moon day of Citta (March-April), to check
an imminent battle between two Nāga chiefs in Nāgadīpa; the combatants were
Mahodara and Cūlodara, uncle and nephew, and the object of the quarrel was a
gem-set throne. The Buddha appeared before them, accompanied by the deva
Samiddhi-Sumana, carrying a Rājayatana tree from Jetavana, settled their quarrel
and received, as a gift, the throne, the cause of the trouble. He left behind
him both the throne and the Rājayatana tree for the worship of the Nāgās and
accepted an invitation from the Nāga king, Maniakkhika of Kalyāni, to pay
another visit to Ceylon. Three years later Maniakkhika repeated the invitation
and the Buddha came to Kalyāni with five hundred monks, on the second day of
Vesākha. Having preached to the Nāgas, he went to Sumanakūta, on the summit of
which mountain he left the imprint of his foot (Legend has it that other
footprints were left by the Buddha, on the bank of the river Nammadā, on the
Saccabaddha mountain and in Yonakapura). He then stayed at Dīghavāpī and from
there visited Mahāmeghavana, where he consecrated various spots by virtue of his
presence, and proceeded to the site of the later Silācetiya. From there he
returned to Jetavana.

Very little information as to the
personality of the Buddha is available. We are told that he was golden-hued
(E.g., Sp.iii.689), that his voice had the eight qualities of the Brahmassāra
(E.g., D.ii.211; M.ii.166f. It is said that while an ordinary person spoke one
word, Ananda could speak eight; but the Buddha could speak sixteen to the eight
of Ananda, MA.i.283) - fluency, intelligibility, sweetness, audibility,
continuity, distinctness, depth and resonance - that he had a fascinating
personality - he was described by his opponents as seductive (E.g., M.i.269,
275) - that he was handsome, perfect alike in complexion and stature and noble
of presence (E.g., M.ii.167). He had a unique reputation as a teacher and
trainer of the human heart. He was endowed with the thirty-two marks of the
Mahāpurisa. (For details of these, see Buddha). There is a legend that Mahā
Kassapa, though slightly shorter, resembled the Buddha in appearance.

Attempts made, however, to measure the
Buddha always failed; two such attempts are generally mentioned - one by a
brahmin of Rājagaha and the other by Rāhu, chief of the Asuras (DA.i.284f). The
Buddha had the physical strength of many millions of elephants (e.g.,
VibhA.397), but his strength quickly ebbed away after his last meal and he had
to stop at twenty-five places while travelling three gāvutas from Pāvā to
Kusināra (DA.ii.573).

Mention is often made of the Buddha’s
love of quiet and peace, and even the heretics respected his wishes in this
matter, silencing their discussions at his approach (E.g., D.i.178f; iii.39;
even his disciples had a similar reputation, e.g., D.iii.37). Examples are given
of the Buddha refusing to allow noisy monks to live near him. (E.g., M.i.456;
see also M.ii.122, where a monk was jogged by his neighbour because he coughed
when the Buddha was speaking). He loved solitude and often spent long periods
away from the haunts of men, allowing only one monk to bring him his meals.
E.g., S. v.12, 320; but this very love of solitude was sometimes brought against
him. By intercourse with whom does he attain to lucidity in wisdom? they asked.
His insight, they said, was ruined by his habit of seclusion (D.iii.38).

According to one account (A.i.181), it
was his practice to spend part of the day in seclusion, but he was always ready
to see anyone who urgently desired his spiritual counsel (E.g., A.iv.438).

In the Mahā Govinda Sutta (D.ii.222f )
Sakka is represented as having uttered “eight true praises” of the Buddha.
Perhaps the most predominant characteristics of the Buddha were his boundless
love and his eagerness to help all who sought him. His fondness for children is
seen in such stories as those of the two Sopākas, of Kumāra-Kassapa, of Cūla
Panthaka and Dabba-Mallaputta and also of the novices Pandita and Sukha. His
kindness to animals appears, for instance, in the introductory story of the
Maccha Jātaka and his interference on behalf of Udena’s aged elephant,
Bhaddavatikā (q.v.). The Buddha was extremely devoted to his disciples and
encouraged them in every way in their difficult life. The Theragāthā and the
Therīgāthā are full of stories indicating that he watched, with great care, the
spiritual growth and development of his disciples, understood their problems and
was ready with timely interference to help them to win their aims. Such
incidents as those mentioned in the Bhaddāli Sutta (M.i.445), the introduction
to the Tittha Jātaka and the Kañcakkhandha Jātaka, seem to indicate that he took
a personal and abiding interest in all who came under him. It was his unvarying
custom to greet with a smile all those who visited him, inquiring after their
welfare and thus putting them at their ease (Vin.i.313). When anyone sought
permission to question him, he made no conditions as to the topic of discussion.
This is called sabbaññupavārana. E.g., M.i.230. When the Buddha himself asked a
question of any of his interrogators, they could not remain silent, but were
bound to answer; a yakkha called Vajirapāni was always present to frighten those
who did not wish to do so (e.g., M.i.231).

The Buddha was not over-anxious to get
converts, and when his visitors declared themselves his followers he would urge
them to take time to consider the matter - e.g., in the case of Acela Kassapa
and Upāligahapati.

When he was staying in a monastery, he
paid daily visits to the sick ward to talk to the inmates and to comfort them
(See, e.g., Kutāgārasālā). The charming story of Pūtigata-Tissa shows that he
sometimes attended on the sick himself, thus setting an example to his
followers. In return for his devotion, his disciples adored him, but even among
those who immediately surrounded him there were a few who refused to obey him
implicitly - e.g., Lāludāyī, the companions of Assaji and Punabbasuka, the
Chabbaggiyas, the Sattarasavaggiyas and others, not to mention Devadatta and his
associates.

The Buddha seems to have shown a special
regard for Sāriputta, Ananda and Mahā Kassapa among the monks, and for
Anāthapindika, Mallikā, Visakhā, Bimbisāra and Pasenadi among the laity. He
seems to have been secretly amused by the very human qualities of Pasenadi and
by his failure to appreciate the real superiority of Mallikā, his wife.

The Buddha always declared that he was
among the happy ones of this earth, that he was far happier, for instance, than
Bimbisāra (E.g., M.i.94), and he remained unmoved by opposition or abuse. E.g.,
in the case of the organised conspiracy of Māgandiyā (DhA.iv.1f.).

The Milindapañha (p.134) mentions
several illnesses of the Buddha: the injury to his foot has already been
referred to; once when the humours of his body were disturbed Jīvaka
administered a purge (Vin.i.279); on another occasion he suffered from some
stomach trouble which was cured by hot water, or, according to some, by hot
gruel (Vin.i.210f.; Thag.185). The Dhammapada Commentary (DhA.iv.232;
ThagA.i.311f) mentions another disorder of the humours cured by hot water
obtained from the brahmin Devahita, through Upavāna. The Commentaries mention
that he suffered, in his old age, from constant backache, owing to the severe
austerities practised by him during the six years preceding his Enlightenment,
and the unsuitable meals taken during that period were responsible for a
dyspepsia which persisted throughout the rest of his life (SA.i.200),
culminating in his last serious illness of dysentery. MA.i.465; DA.iii.974; see
also D.iii.209, when he was preaching to the Mallas of Pāvā.

The Apadāna (Ap.i.299f) contains a set
of verses called Pubbakammapiloti; these verses mention certain acts done by the
Buddha in the past, which resulted in his having to suffer in various ways in
his last birth. He was once a drunkard named Munāli and he abused the Pacceka
Buddha Surabhi. On another occasion he was a learned brahmin, teacher of five
hundred pupils. One day, seeing the Pacceka Buddha Isigana, he spoke ill of him
to his pupils, calling him “sensualist.” The result of this act was the calumny
against him by Sundarikā in this life.

In another life he reviled a disciple of
a Buddha, named Nanda; for this he suffered in hell for twelve thousand years
and, in his last life, was disgraced by Ciñcā. Once, greedy for wealth, he
killed his step-brothers, hurling them down a precipice; as a result, Devadatta
attempted to kill him by hurling down a rock. Once, as a boy, while playing on
the highway, he saw a Pacceka Buddha and threw a stone at him, and as a result,
was shot at by Devadatta’s hired archers. In another life he was a mahout, and
seeing a Pacceka Buddha on the road, drove his elephant against him; hence the
attack by Nālāgiri. Once, as a king, he sentenced seventy persons to death, the
reward for which he reaped when a splinter pierced his foot. Because once, as a
fisherman’s son, he took delight in watching fish being caught, he suffered from
a grievous headache when Vidūdabha slaughtered the Sākiyans. In the time of
Phussa Buddha he asked the monks to eat barley instead of rice and, as a result,
had to eat barley for three months at Verañja. (According to the Dhammapada
Commentary [iii.257], the Buddha actually had to starve one day at Pañcasālā,
because none of the inhabitants were willing to give him alms.) Because he once
killed a wrestler, he suffered from cramp in the back. Once, when a physician,
he caused discomfort to a merchant by purging him, hence his last illness of
dysentery. As Jotipāla, he spoke disparagingly of the Enlightenment of Kassapa
Buddha, and in consequence had to spend six years following various paths before
becoming the Buddha. He was one of the most short-lived Buddhas, but because of
those six years his Sāsana will last longer (Sp.i.190f).

The Buddha was generally addressed by
his own disciples as Bhagavā. He spoke of himself as Tathāgata, while
non-Buddhists referred to him as Gotama or Mahāsamana. Other names used are
Mahāmuni, Sākyamuni, Jina, Sakka (e.g., Sn.vs.345) and Brahma (Sn.vs.91;
SnA.ii.418), also Yakkha (q.v.).

The Anguttara Nikāya (A.i.23ff) gives a
list of the Buddha’s most eminent disciples, both among members of the Order and
among the laity. Each one in the list is mentioned as having possessed
pre-eminence in some particular respect.

Among those who visited the Buddha for
discussion or had interviews with him or received instruction and guidance
direct from him, the following may be included in addition to those already
mentioned (this list does not pretend to be complete; some of the names have
already been mentioned in this monograph in various connections):

A generic name, an appellative -  but not a proper name - given to one
who has attained Enlightenment (na mātarā katam, na pitarā katam –
vimokkhantikam etam buddhānam bhagavantānam bodhiyā mūle … paññatti, MNid.458;
Ps.i.174) a man superior to all other beings, human and divine, by his knowledge
of the Truth (Dhamma).

The texts mention two kinds of Buddha: viz.,

The Commentaries, however (e.g., SA.i.20; AA.i.65) make mention of four
classes of Buddha:

All arahants (khīnāsavā) are called Catusacca Buddhā and all learned men
Bahussuta Buddhā. A Pacceka Buddha practises the ten perfections (pāramitā) for
two asankheyyas and one hundred thousand kappas, a Sabbañu Buddha practises it
for one hundred thousand kappas and four or eight or sixteen asankheyyas, as the
case may be (see below).

Seven Sabbaññu Buddhas are mentioned in the earlier books; these are

E.g., D.ii.5f.; S. ii.5f.; cp. Thag.491; J. ii.147; they are also mentioned at
Vin.ii.110, in an old formula against snake bites. Beal. (Catena, p. 159) says
these are given in the Chinese Pātimokkha. They are also found in the Sayambhū
Purāna (Mitra, Skt. Buddhist Lit. of Nepal, p. 249).

This number is increased in the later books. The
Buddhavamsa
contains detailed particulars of twenty five Buddhas, including
the last, Gotama, the first twenty four being
those who prophesied Gotama’s appearance in the world. They are the predecessors
of Vipassī, etc., and are the following:

The same poem, in its twenty seventh chapter, mentions three other Buddhas - 
Tanhankara, Medhankara and Saranankara -  who appeared in the world before
Dīpankara.

The Lalitavistara has a list of fifty four Buddhas and the Mahāvastu of more
than a hundred. The Cakkavatti Sīhanāda
Sutta
(D.iii.75ff ) gives particulars of
Metteyya Buddha
who will be born in the world during the present kappa. The
Anāgatavamsa gives a detailed account of
him. Some MSS. of that poem (J.P.T.S. 1886, p. 37) mention the names of ten
future Buddhas, all of whom met Gotama who prophesied about them. These are
Metteyya, Uttama, Rāma, Pasenadi Kosala, Abhibhū, Dīghasonī, Sankacca, Subha,
Todeyya, Nālāgiripalaleyya (sic).

The Mahāpadāna Sutta (D.ii.5f ) which
mentions the seven Buddhas gives particulars of each under eleven heads (paricchedā) - 

The Commentary (DA.ii.422ff) adds to these other particulars - 

In the case of Gotama, the further fact is stated that on the day of his
birth there appeared also in the world Rāhulamātā,
Ananda, Kanthaka,
Nidhikumbhi (Treasure Trove), the Mahābodhi
and Kāludāyī.

Gotama was conceived under the asterism (nakkhatta) of Uttarāsālha, under
which asterism he also made his Renunciation (DA.ii425), preached his first
sermon and performed the Twin Miracle. Under the asterism of
Visākha he was born, attained Enlightenment and
died; under that of Māgha he held his first
assembly of arahants and decided to die; under Assayuja he descended from
Tāvatimsa.

The Buddhavamsa Commentary says (BuA.2f) that in the Buddhavamsa particulars
of each Buddha are given under twenty two heads, the additional heads being the
details of the first sermon, the numbers of those attaining realization of truth
(abhisamaya) at each assembly, the names of the two chief women disciples, the
aura of the Buddha’s body (ramsi), the height of his body, the name of the
Bodhisatta (who was to become Gotama Buddha), the prophecy concerning him, his
exertions (padhāna) and the details of each Buddha’s death. The Commentary also
says that mention must be made of the time each Buddha lived as a householder,
the names of the palaces he occupied, the number of his dancing women, the names
of his chief wife, and his son, his conveyance, his renunciation, his practice
of austerities, his patrons and his monastery.

There are eight particulars in which the Buddhas differ from each other (atthavemattāni).
These are length of life in the epoch in which each is born, the height of his
body, his social rank (some are born as khattiyas, others as brahmins), the
length of his austerities, the aura of his body (thus, in the case of Mangala,
his aura spread throughout the ten thousand world systems, while that of Gotama
extended only one fathom; - but when he wishes, a Buddha can spread his aura at
will, BuA.106); the conveyance in which he makes his renunciation, the tree
under which he attains Enlightenment, and the size of the seat (pallanka) under
the Bodhi tree.

Only the first five are mentioned in DA.ii.424; also at BuA.105; all eight
are given at BuA.246f., which also gives details under each of the eight heads,
regarding all the twenty five Buddhas.

In the case of all Buddhas, there are four fixed spots (avijahitatthānāni).
These are:

The monastery may vary in size; the site of the city in which it stands may
also vary, but not the site of the bed. Sometimes it is to the east of the
vihāra, sometimes to the north (DA.ii.424; BuA.247).

Thirty facts are mentioned as being true of all Buddhas (samatimsavidhā
dhammatā).

There are also mentioned four dangers from which all Buddhas are immune:

A Buddha is born only in this Cakkavāla out
of the ten thousand Cakkavālas which constitute the jātikkhetta (AA.i.251;
DA.iii.897). There can appear only one Buddha in the world at a time (D.ii.225;
D.iii.114; the reasons for this are given in detail inMil. 236, and quoted in
DA.iii.900f). No Buddha can arise until the sāsana of the previous Buddha has
completely disappeared from the world. This happens only with the
dhātuparinibbāna (see below). When a Bodhisatta takes conception in his mother’s
womb in his last life, after leaving Tusita, there is manifested throughout the
world a wonderful radiance, and the ten thousand world systems tremble.

Similar earthquakes appear when he is born, when he attains Enlightenment,
when he preaches the first sermon, when he decides to die, when he finally does
so (D.ii.108f.; cp. DA.iii.897).

The Mahāpādāna Sutta (D.ii.12-15) and
the Acchariya-bbhuta-dhamma Sutta
(M.iii.119-124) contain accounts of other miracles, which attend the conception
and birth of a Buddha. Later books (e.g., J. i.) have greatly enlarged these
accounts. They describe how the Bodhisatta, having practised the thirty Pāramī,
and made the five great gifts (pañcamahāpariccāgā), and thus reached the
pinnacle of the threefold cariyā -  ñātattha-cariyā, lokattha-cariyā and
buddhi-cariyā -  gives the seven mahādānā, as in the case of
Vessantara, making the earth tremble seven
times, and is born after death in Tusita.

The Bodhisatta, who later became Vipassī Buddha, remained in Tusita during
the whole permissible period -  fifty seven crores and sixty seven thousand
years. But most Bodhisattas leave Tusita before completing the full span of life
there. Five signs appear to warn the devaputta that his end is near (see
Deva); the gods of the ten thousand worlds gather
round him, beseeching him to be born on earth that he may become the Buddha. The
Bodhisatta thereupon makes the five investigations (pañcamahāvilokanāni).

Sometimes only one Buddha is born in a
kappa
, such a kappa being called Sārakappa; sometimes two, Mandakappa;
sometimes three, Varakappa; sometimes four, Sāramandakappa; rarely five,
Bhaddakappa (BuA.158f). No Buddha is born in the early period of a kappa, when
men live longer than one hundred thousand years and are thus not able to
recognize the nature of old age and death, and therefore not able to benefit by
his preaching. When the life of man is too short, there is no time for
exhortation and men are full of kilesa.
The suitable age for a Buddha is, therefore, when men live not less than one
hundred years and not more than ten thousand. The Bodhisatta must first consider
the continent and the country of birth. Buddhas are born only in
Jambudīpa, and there, too, only in the
Majjhimadesa. He must then consider the
family; Buddhas are born only in brahmin or khattiya families, whichever is more
esteemed during that particular age. Then he must think of the mother: she must
be wise and virtuous; and her life must be destined to end seven days after the
Buddha’s birth.

Having made these decisions, the Bodhisatta goes to
Nandanavana in Tusita, and while wandering
about there “falls away” from Tusita and takes conception. He is aware of his
death but unaware of his cuti-citta or dying thought. The Commentators seem to
have differed as to whether there is awareness of conception. When the
Bodhisatta is conceived, his mother has no further wish for indulgence in sexual
pleasure. For seven days previously she observes the uposatha vows, but there is
no mention of a virgin birth; the birth might be called parthenogenetic (see
Mil.123).

On the day of the actual conception, the mother, having bathed in scented
water after the celebration of the Asālha festival, and having eaten choice
food, takes upon herself the uposatha
vows and retires to the adorned state bedchamber. As she sleeps, she dreams that
the Four Regent Gods raise her with
her bed, and, having taken her to the Himālaya, bathe her in Lake
Anotatta, robe her in divine clothes, anoint
her with perfumes and deck her with heavenly flowers (according to the
Nidānakathā, J. i.50, it is their queens who do these things, re the Bodhisatta
assuming the form of an elephant, see Dial.ii.116n). Not far away is a silver
mountain and on it a golden mansion. There they lay her with her head to the
east. The Bodhisatta, assuming the form of a white elephant, enters her room,
and after circling right wise three times round her bed, smites her right side
with his trunk and enters her womb. She awakes and tells her husband of her
dream. Soothsayers are consulted, and they prophesy the birth of a
Cakka-vatti or of a Buddha.

The two Suttas mentioned above speak of the circumstances obtaining during
the time spent by the child in his mother’s womb. It is said (DA.ii.437) that
the Bodhisatta is born when his mother is in the last third of her middle age.
This is in order that the birth may be easy for both mother and child. Various
miracles attend the birth of the Bodhisatta. The Commentaries expound, at great
length, the accounts of these miracles given in the Suttas. Immediately after
birth the Bodhisatta stands firmly on his feet, and having taken seven strides
to the north, while a white canopy, is held over his head, looks round and
utters in fearless voice the lion’s roar: “Aggo ‘ham asmi lokassa, jettho ‘ham
asmi lokassa, settho ‘ham asmi lokassa, ayam antimā jāti, natthi dāni punabbhavo”
(D.ii.15).

To the later Buddhists, not only these acts of the Bodhisatta, but every item
of the miracles accompanying his birth, have their symbolical meaning. See,
e.g., DA.ii.439; thus, standing on the earth means the attaining of the four
iddhi-pādas; facing north implies the spiritual conquest of multitudes; the
seven strides are the seven bojjhangas; the canopy is the umbrella of
emancipation; looking round means unveiled knowledge; fearlessness denotes the
irrevocable turning of the Wheel of the Law; the mention of the last birth, the
arahantship he will attain in this life, etc.

There seems to have been a difference of opinion among the Elders of the
Sangha as to what happened when the Bodhisatta took his seven strides
northwards. Did he walk on the earth or travel through the air? Did people see
him go? Was he clothed? Did he look an infant or an adult? Tipitaka Culābhaya,
preaching on the first floor of the Lohapāsāda, settled the question by
suggesting a compromise: the Bodhisatta walked on earth, but the onlookers felt
he was travelling through the air; he was naked, but the onlookers felt he was
gaily adorned; he was an infant, but looked sixteen years old; and after his
roar he reverted to infancy! (DA.ii.442)

After birth, the Bodhisatta is presented to the soothsayers for their
prognostications and they reassert that two courses alone are open to him  
either to be a Cakka-vatti or a Buddha. They also discover on his body the
thirty two marks of the Great Man (Mahāpurisa)
(These are given at D.ii.17 19; also M.ii.136f). The Bodhisatta has also the
eighty secondary signs (asīti anubyañjana) such as copper coloured nails glossy
and prominent, sinews which are hidden and without knots, etc. (The list is
found in Lal. 121 [106]). The Brahmāyu Sutta (for details see M.ii.137f) gives
other particulars about Gotama, which are evidently characteristic of all
Buddhas. Thus, in walking he always starts with the right foot, his steps are
neither too long nor too short, only his lower limbs move; when he gazes on
anything, he turns right round to do so (nāgavilokana). When entering a house he
never bends his body (Cp. DhA.ii.136); when sitting down, accepting water to
wash his bowl, eating, washing his hands after eating, or returning thanks, he
sits with the greatest propriety, dignity and thoroughness. When preaching, he
neither flatters nor denounces his hearers but merely instructs them, rousing,
enlightening and heartening them (M.ii.139). His voice possesses eight
qualities: it is frank, clear, melodious, pleasant, full, carrying, deep and
resonant; it does not travel beyond his audience (for details concerning his
voice see DA.ii.452f.; and MA.ii.771f). A passage in the Anguttara (A.iv.308)
says that a Buddha preaches in the eight assemblies -  of nobles, brahmins,
householders, recluses, devas of the
Cātummahārājika
world, and of Tāvatimsa,
of Māras and of Brahmās. In these assemblies he becomes one of them and their
language becomes his.

The typical career of a Buddha is illustrated in the life of
Gotama. He renounces the world only after the
birth of a son. This, the Commentary explains (DA.ii.422), is to prevent him
from being taken for other than a human being. He sees the four omens before his
Renunciation: an old man, a sick man, a dead man, and a recluse. Some Buddhas
see all four on the same day, others, like Vipassī,
at long intervals (DA.ii.457). On the night before the Enlightenment, the
Bodhisatta dreams five dreams (A.iii.240). After the Enlightenment the Buddha
does not preach till asked to do so by Mahā Brahmā.
This is on order that the world may pay greater attention to the Buddha and his
teaching (DA.ii.467). A Buddha generally travels from the Bodhi tree to
Isipatana for his first sermon, through the
air, but Gotama went on foot because he wished to meet
Upaka
on the way (DA.ii.471).

The Buddha’s day is divided into periods, each of which has its distinct
duties (DA.i.45f; SnA.i.131f, etc.). He rises early, and having attended to his
bodily functions, sits in solitude till the time arrives for the alms round. He
then puts on his outer robe and goes for alms, sometimes alone, sometimes with a
large following of monks. When he wishes to go alone he keeps the door of his
cell shut, which sign is understood by the monks (Ibid., 271). Occasionally he
goes long distances for alms, travelling through the air, and then only
khīnāsavā are allowed to accompany him (ThagA.ii.65). Sometimes he goes in the
ordinary way (pakatiyā), sometimes accompanied by many miracles. After the meal
he returns to his cell; this is the pure bhattakicca.

Having washed his feet, he would emerge from his cell, talk to the monks and
admonish them. To those who ask for subjects of meditation, he would give them
according to their temperament. He would then retire to his cell and, if he so
desire, sleep for a while. After that, he looks around the world with his divine
eye, seeking whom he may serve, and would then preach to those who come to him
for instruction. In the evening he would bathe, and then, during the first
watch, attend to monks seeking his advice. The middle watch is spent with devas
and others who visit him to question him. The last watch is divided into three
parts: the first part is spent in walking about for exercise and meditation; the
second is devoted to sleep; and the third to contemplation, during which those
who are capable of benefiting by the Buddha’s teaching, through good deeds done
by them in the past, come into his vision. Only beings that are veneyyā (capable
of benefiting by instruction) and who possess upanissaya, appear before the
Buddha’s divine eye (DA.ii.470).

The Buddha gives his visitors permission to ask what they will. This is
called Sabbaññupavārana, and only a Buddha is capable of holding to this promise
to answer any question (SnA..i.229). Except during the rains, the Buddha spends
his time in wandering from place to place, gladdening men and inciting them to
lead the good life. This wandering is called cārikā and is of two kinds - 
turita and aturita. The first is used for a long journey accomplished by him in
a very short time, for the benefit of some particular person. Thus Gotama
travelled three gāvutas to meet Mahā
Kassapa
, thirty yojanas to see Alavaka and
Angulimāla, forty five yojanas to see
Pukusāti, etc. In the case of aturita cārikā
progress is slow. The range of a Buddha’s cārikā varies from year to year.
Sometimes he would tour the Mahāmandala of nine hundred yojanas, sometimes the
Majjhimamandala of nine hundred yojanas, sometimes only the Antomandala of six
hundred yojanas. A tour of the Mahāmandala occupies nine months, that of the
Majjhimamandala eight, and that of the Antomandala from one to four months.
Details of the cārikā and the reasons for them are given at length in DA.i.240
3. When the Buddha cannot go on a journey himself, he sends his chief disciples
(SnA..ii.474). The Buddha announces his intention of undertaking a journey two
weeks before he starts, so that the monks may get ready (DhA.ii.167).

The Buddha is omniscient, not in the sense that he knows everything, but that
he could know anything should he so desire (see MNid.178,179; see also
MNidA.223; SnA.i.18.). His ñāña is one of the four illimitables (neither can the
Buddha’s body be measured for purposes of comparison with other bodies,
MA.ii.790). He converts people in one of three ways:

It is the last method, which the Buddha most often uses (BuA.81) The Buddha’s
rivals say that he possesses the power of fascination (āvattanīmāyā); but this
is untrue, as sometimes (e.g., in the case of the
Kosambi
monks) he cannot make even his own disciples obey him. Some beings,
however, can be converted only by a Buddha. They are called buddha veneyyā
(SnA..i.331). Some are pleased by the Buddha’s looks, others by his voice and
words, yet others by his austerities, such as the wearing of simple robes, etc.;
and finally, those whose standard of judgment is goodness, reflect that he is
without a peer (DhA.iii.113f.).

Though the Buddha’s teaching is never really lost on the listener, he
sometimes preaches knowing that it will be of no immediate benefit (see, e.g.,
Udumbarikasīhanāda Sutta, D.iii.57). It is
said that wherever a monk dwells during the Buddha’s time, in the vicinity of
the Buddha, he would always have ready a special seat for the Buddha because it
is possible that the Buddha would pay him a special visit (DA.i.48). Sometimes
the Buddha will send a ray of light from his
Gandhakuti
to encourage a monk engaged in meditation and, appearing before
him in this ray of light, preach to him. Stanzas so preached are called
obhāsagāthā (SnA..i.16, 265).

Every Buddha founds an Order; the first pātimokkhuddesagāthā of every Buddha
is the same (DA.ii.479). The attainment of arahantship is always the aim of the
Buddha’s instruction (DA.iii.732). Beings can obtain the four abhiññā only
during the lifetime of a Buddha (AA.i.204). A Buddha has ten powers (balāni)
which consist of his perfect comprehension in ten fields of knowledge,

A.v.32f.; M.i.69, etc. At S. ii.27f., ten similar powers are given as
consisting of his knowledge of the
Paticasamuppāda. The powers
of a disciple are distinct from those of a Buddha (Kvu.228); they are seven
(see, e.g., D.iii.283) and physical strength equal to that of one hundred
thousand crores of elephants (BuA.37). He alone can digest the food of the devas
or food which contains the ojā put into it by the devas. No one else can eat
with impunity the food which has been set apart for the Buddha (SnA..i.154).
Besides these excellences, a Buddha possesses the four assurances (vesārajjāni,
given at M.i.71f)), the eighteen Āvenikadhammā*, and the sixteen anuttariyas**.

*Described at Lal. 183, 343, Buddhaghosa also gives (at DA.iii.994) a list
of eighteen buddhadhammā, but they are all concerned with the absence of
duccarita in the case of the Buddha.

**Given by Sāriputta in the
Sampasādāniya Sutta
(D.iii.102ff.).

The remembrance of former births a Buddha shares with six classes of purified
beings, only in a higher degree. This ability is possessed in ascending scale by
titthiyā, pakatisāvakā, mahāsāvakā, aggasāvakā, pacceka buddhā and buddhā
(E.g.,Vsm.411).

Every Buddha holds a Mahāsamaya, and
only a Buddha is capable of preaching a series of suttas to suit the different
temperaments of the mighty assembly gathered there (D.ii.255; DA.ii.682f).

A Buddha is not completely immune from disease (e.g.,
Gotama). Every Buddha has the power of living for
one whole kappa,” but no Buddha does so, his term of life being shortened by
reason of climate and the food he takes (DA.ii.413).

The Commentary explains (DA.ii.554f.) that kappa here means Āyukappa, the
full span of a man’s life during that particular age. Some, like Mahāsīva Thera,
maintained that if the Buddha could live for ten months, overcoming the pains of
death, he could as well continue to live to the end of this Bhaddakappa. But a
Buddha does not do so because he wishes to die before his body is overcome by
the infirmities of old age.

No Buddha, however, dies till the sāsana
is firmly established (D.iii.122).  There are three parinibbānā in the case
of a Buddha: kilesa parinibbāna, khandha parinibbāna and dhātu parinibbāna. The
first takes place under the Bodhi tree, the second at the moment of the Buddha’s
death, the third long after (DA.iii.899f.; for the history of Gotama’s relics
see Gotama). Some Buddhas live longer than others;
those that are dighāyuka have only sammukhasāvakā (disciples who hear the
Doctrine from the Buddha himself), and at their death their relics are not
scattered, only a single thūpa being erected over them (SnA.. 194, 195). Short
lived Buddhas hold the uposatha once a
fortnight; others (e.g. Kassapa Buddha) may have
it once in six months; yet others (e.g. Vipassī)
only once in six years (ThagA.ii.62).

After the Buddha’s death, his Doctrine is gradually forgotten. The first
Pitaka to be lost is the Abhidhamma, beginning with the Patthāna and ending with
the Dhammasangani. Then, the Anguttara Nikāya of the Sutta Pitaka, from the
eleventh to the first Nipāta; next the Samyutta Nikāya from the Cakkapeyyāla to
the Oghatarana; then the Majjhima, from the Indriyabhāvanā Sutta to the
Mūlapariyāya Sutta, and then the Dīgha, from the Dasuttara to the Brahmajāla.
Scattered gāthā like the Sabhiyapucchā, and the Ālavakapucchā, last much longer,
but they cannot maintain the sāsana. The last Pitaka to disappear is the Vinaya,
the last portion being the mātikā of the Ubhatovibhanga (VibhA.432).

When a Buddha dies, his body receives the honours due to a monarch (these are
detailed at D.ii.141f). It is said that on the night on which a Buddha attains
Enlightenment, and on the night during which he dies, the colour of his skin
becomes exceedingly bright (D.ii.134). Here we have the beginning of a legend
which later grew into an account of an actual “transfiguration” of the Buddha.

At all times, where a Buddha is present, no other light can shine
(SnA..ii.525).

No Buddha is born during the samvattamānakappa, but only during the
vivattamānakappa (SnA..i.51). A Bodhisatta who excels in paññā can attain
Buddhahood in four asankheyyas; one who exels in saddhā, in eight, and one whose
viriya is the chief factor, in sixteen (SnA..i.47f). When once a being has become
a Bodhisatta there are eighteen conditions from which he is immune (SnA..i.50).
The Buddha is referred to under various epithets. The Anguttara Nikāya gives one
such list. There he is called Samana, Brāhmana, Vedagū, Bhisaka, Nimmala, Vimala,
Ñānī and Vimutta (C.iv. 340). Buddhaghosa gives seven others: Cakkkumā,
Sabbabhūtanukampī, Vihātaka, Mārasenappamaddī, Vusitavā, Vimutto and Angirasa
(DA.iii.962f).

The Buddha generally speaks of himself as Tathāgata. This term is explained
at great length in the Commentaries -  e.g., DA.i.59f. His followers
usually address him as Bhagavā, while others call him by his name (Gotama). In
the case of Gotama Buddha, we find him also addressed as Sakka (Sn. vs. 345;
perhaps the equivalent of Sākya), Brahma (Sn. p.91; SnA.ii.418), Mahāmuni
(BuA.38) and Yakkha (M.i.386; also KS.i.262). Countless other epithets occur in
the books, especially in the later ones. One very famous formula, used by
Buddhists in their ritual, contains nine epithets, the formula being: Bhagavā
araham sammāsambuddho, vijjācaranasampanno, sugato, lokavidū, anuttaro,
purisadammasārathi, satthā devamanussānam, Buddho Bhagavā (these words are
analysed and discussed in Vsm. 198 ff). It is maintained (e.g., DA.i.288) that
the Buddha’s praises are limitless (aparimāna). One of his most striking
characteristics, mentioned over and over again, is his love of quiet.

E.g., D.i.178f.; he is also fond of solitude (patissallāna), (D.ii.70;
A.iv.438f.; S. v.320f., etc.). When he is in retirement it is usually akāla for
visiting him (D.ii.270). There are also certain accusations, which are brought
against a Buddha by his rivals, for this very love of solitude. “It is said that
his insight is ruined by this habit of seclusion. By intercourse with whom does
he attain lucidity in wisdom? He is not at his ease in conducting an assembly,
not ready in conversation, he is occupied only with the fringe of things. He is
like a one eyed cow, walking in a circle” (D.iii.38).

In this his disciples followed his example (D.iii.37). The dwelling place of
a Buddha is called Gandhakuti. His footprint
is called Padacetiya, and this can be seen only when he so desires it. When once
he wishes it to be visible, no one can erase it. He can also so will that only
one particular person shall see it (DhA.iii.194). It is also said that his power
of love is so great that no evil action can show its results in his presence
(SnA..ii.475). A Buddha never asks for praise, but if his praises are uttered in
his presence he takes no offence (ThagA.iii.42). When the Buddha is seated in
some spot, none has the power of going through the air above him (SnA..i.222). He
prefers to accept the invitations of poor men to a meal (DhA.ii.135).

See also Gotama and
Bodhisatta
. Also the article on Buddha in the N.P.D.

2. Buddha. A king of forty one kappas ago, a previous birth of
Vacchapāla (Pāyāsadāyaka) Thera. ThagA.i.160; Ap.i.157.

3. Buddha. A minister of Mahinda V. He was a native of Māragallaka
and, in association with Kitti, another minister, vanquished the Cola army at
Palutthagiri. He received as reward his native village. Cv.lv.26 31.

4. Buddha. A Kesadhātu, general of Parakkamabāhu I. He inflicted a
severe defeat on Mānābharana at Pūnagāmatittha. Cv.lxxii.7.

5. Buddha. See Buddhanāyaka.



1. Metteyya

The future Buddha, the fifth of this kappa (Bu.xxvii.21).

According to the Cakkavatti Sīhanāda Sutta, he will be born, when human beings
will live to an age of eighty thousand years, in the city of Ketumatī (present
Benares), whose king will be the Cakkavattī Sankha. Sankha will live in the
fairy palace where once dwelt King Mahāpanadā, but later he will give the palace
away and will himself become a follower of Metteyya Buddha (D.iii.75ff).

The Anāgatavamsa (J.P.T.S.1886, pp.42, 46ff., 52; DhSA.415
gives the names of his parents) gives further particulars. Metteyya will be born
in a very eminent brahmin family and his personal name will be Ajita. Metteyya
is evidently the name of his gotta. For eight thousand years he will live the
household life in four palaces   Sirivaddha, Vaddhamāna, Siddhattha
and Candaka -  his chief wife being Candamukhī
and his son Brahmavaddhana. Having seen the four signs while on his way to the
park, he will be dissatisfied with household life and will spend one week in
practicing austerities. Then he will leave home, travelling in his palace and
accompanied by a fourfold army, at the head of which will be eighty-four
thousand brahmins and eighty four thousand Khattiya maidens. Among his followers
will be Isidatta and Pūrana, two brothers, Jātimitta, Vijaya, Suddhika and
Suddhanā, Sangha and Sanghā, Saddhara, Sudatta, Yasavatī and Visākhā, each with
eighty four thousand companions. Together they will leave the household and
arrive on the same day at the Bodhi tree. After the Enlightenment the Buddha
will preach in Nāgavana and King Sankha will, later, ordain himself under him.
Metteyya’s father will be Subrahmā, chaplain to King Sankha, and his mother
Brahmavatī. His chief disciples will be Asoka and Brahmadeva among monks, and
Padumā and Sumanā among nuns. Sīha will be his personal attendant and his chief
patrons Sumana, Sangha, Yasavatī and Sanghā. His Bodhi will be the Nāga tree.
After the Buddha’s death, his teachings will continue for one hundred and eighty
thousand years.

According to the Mahāvamsa (Mhv.Xxxii.81f.; see Mil.159),
Kākavannatissa and Vihāramahādevī, father and mother of Dutthagāmani, will be
Metteyya’s parents, Dutthagāmani himself will be his chief disciple and
Saddhātissa his second disciple, while Prince Sāli will be his son.

At the present time the future Buddha is living in the
Tusita deva-world (Mhv.Xxxii.73). There is a tradition that Nātha is the name of
the future Buddha in the deva world.

The worship of the Bodhisatta Metteyya seems to have been
popular in ancient Ceylon, and Dhātusena adorned an image of him with all the
equipment of a king and ordained a guard for it within the radius of seven
yojanas (Cv.xxxviii.68).

Dappula I. made a statue in honour of the future Buddha
fifteen cubits high (Cv.xlv.62). It is believed that Metteyya spends his time in
the deva-world, preaching the Dhamma to the assembled gods, and, in emulation of
his example, King Kassapa V. used to recite the Abhidhamma in the assemblies of
the monks (Cv.lii.47). Parakkamabāhu I. had three statues built in honour of
Metteyya (Cv.lxxix.75), while Kittisirirājasīha erected one in the Rajata-vihāra
and another in the cave above it (Cv.c.248,259). It is the wish of all Buddhists
that they meet Metteyya Buddha, listen to his preaching and attain to Nibbāna
under him. See, e.g., J. vi.594; MT. 687; DhSA.430

.

For a complete description of the next Buddha Metteyya See:
The Coming Buddha, Ariya Metteyya. Sayagyi U Chit Tin:

http://www.buddhanet.net/budsas/ebud/metteya/arimet02.htm


and


http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/Metteyya/arimet00.htm


also published as BPS Wheel 381/383

More on the Significance of Il Poya Day:
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/III/The_Importance_of_Il_Poya.htm

‘Noble Ones’, ‘noble persons’.

(A) The 8 a. are those who have realized one of the 8 stages of
holiness,

 i.e. the 4 supermundane paths (magga) and the 4 supermundane
fruitions (phala) of these paths.

There are 4 pairs:

Summed up, there are 4 noble individuals (ariya-puggala):

In A.VIII.10 and A.IX.16 the gotrabhū
is listed as the 9th noble individual.

According to the Abhidhamma, ’supermundane path’, or simply ‘path’ (magga),
is a designation of the moment of entering into one of the 4 stages of holiness
- Nibbāna being the object - produced by intuitional insight (vipassanā)
into the impermanence, misery and impersonality of existence, flashing forth and
forever transforming one’s life and nature. By ‘fruition’ (phala) is
meant those moments of consciousness which follow immediately thereafter as the
result of the path, and which in certain circumstances may repeat for
innumerable times during the life-time.

The stereotype Sutta text runs as follows:

For the various classes of Stream-winners and Non-Returners, s.
Sotāpanna, Anāgāmī.

(B) The sevenfold grouping of the noble disciples is as follows:

This group of seven noble disciples is thus explained in Vis.M. XXI, 73:

Further details about the body-witness, the both-ways-liberated one and the
wisdom-liberated one, s. under the three Pāli terms. Cf. also M. 70; A. IX, 44;
S. XII, 70; Pts.M. II, p. 33, PTS.

1. Sāriputta Thera. The chief disciple (aggasāvaka)
of Gotama - Buddha. He is also called Upatissa, which was evidently his personal
name (M.i.150). The commentators say that Upatissa was the name of his village
and that he was the eldest son of the chief family in the village, but other
accounts give his village as Nālaka. His father was the brahmin,
Vanganta
(DhA.ii.84), and his mother, Rūpasāri. It was
because of his mother’s name that he came to be called Sāriputta. In Sanskrit
texts his name occurs as Sāriputra, Sāliputra, Sārisuta, Sāradvatīputra. In the
Apadāna (ii.480) he is also called Sārisambhava.

The name Upatissa is hardly ever mentioned in the books.
He had three younger brothers - 
Cunda, Upasena,
and Revata (afterwards called Khadiravaniya) - 
and three sisters -  Cālā,
Upacālā and Sisūpacālā;
all of whom joined the Order. DhA.ii.188; cf. Mtu.iii.50; for details of them
see s.v.; mention is also made of an uncle of Sāriputta and of a nephew, both of
whom he took to the Buddha, thereby rescuing them from false views (DhA.ii.230
2); Uparevata was his nephew (SA.iii.175).

The story of Sāriputta’s conversion and the account of his
past lives, which prepared him for his eminent position as the Buddha’s Chief
Disciple, have been given under Mahā
Moggallāna
. Sāriputta had a very quick intuition, and he became a
sotāpanna immediately after hearing the first two lines of the stanza spoken by
Assaji. After his attainment of sotāpatti, Kolita (Moggallāna) wished to go with
him to Veluvana to see the Buddha, but Sāriputta, always grateful to his
teachers, suggested that they should first seek their teacher, Sañjaya, to give
him the good news and go with him to the Buddha. But Sañjaya refused to fall in
with this plan. Moggallāna attained arahantship on the seventh day after his
ordination, but it was not till a fortnight later that Sāriputta became an
arahant. He was staying, at the time, with the Buddha, in the Sūkarakhatalena in
Rājagaha, and he reached his goal as a result of hearing the Buddha preach the
Vedānapariggaha Sutta to Dīghanakha. This account is summarized from DhA.i.73
ff.; AA.i.88 ff.; ThagA.ii.93 ff. Ap.i.15ff.; the story of their conversion is
given at Vin.i.38ff.

Sariputta and Mahamoggallana

In the assembly of monks and nuns, Sāriputta was declared
by the Buddha foremost among those who possessed wisdom (etadaggam mahāpaññānam,
A.i.23). He was considered by the Buddha as inferior only to himself in wisdom.
SA.ii.45; his greatest exhibition of wisdom followed the Buddha’s descent from
Tāvatimsa to the gates of Sankassa, when the Buddha asked questions of the
assembled multitude, which none but Sāriputta could answer. But some questions
were outside the range of any but a Buddha (DhA.iii.228 f.; cf. SnA.ii.570f.).
Similarly knowledge of the thoughts and inclinations of people were beyond
Sāriputta; only a Buddha possesses such knowledge (DhA.iii.426; J. i.182).
Further, only a Buddha could find suitable subjects for meditation for everybody
without error (SnA..i.18), and read their past births without limitation (SnA.,
ii.571).

The Buddha would frequently merely suggest a topic, and
Sāriputta would preach a sermon on it in detail, and thereby win the Buddha’s
approval. (See, e.g., M.i.13; iii.46, 55, 249). The Buddha is recorded as
speaking high praise of him: “Wise art thou, Sāriputta, comprehensive and
manifold thy wisdom, joyous and swift, sharp and fastidious. Even as the eldest
son of a Cakkavatti king turns the Wheel as his father hath turned it, so dost
thou rightly turn the Wheel Supreme of the Dhamma, even as I have turned it.”
(S.i.191; cf. Sn.vs.556 f., where the Buddha is asked by Sela, who is his
general, and the Buddha replies that it is Sāriputta who turns the Wheel of the
Law; also M.iii.29). He thus came to be called Dhammasenāpati, just as Ananda
was called Dhammabhandāgārika. The Anupada Sutta is one long eulogy of Sāriputta
by the Buddha. He is there held up as the supreme example of the perfect
disciple, risen to mastery and perfection in noble virtue, noble concentration,
noble perception, noble deliverance. M.iii.25ff. In the Mahāgosinga Sutta
Sāriputta expresses his view that that monk is beat who is master of his heart
and is not mastered by it. The Buddha explains that Sāriputta was stating his
own nature (M.i.215 f.). The Buddha did not, however, hesitate to blame
Sāriputta when necessary   e.g., the occasion when some novices,
becoming noisy, were sent away by the Buddha, whose motive Sāriputta
misunderstood (M.i.459). And again, when Sāriputta did not look after Rāhula
properly, making it necessary for Rāhula to spend the whole night in the
Buddha’s jakes (J.i.161f.).

In the Saccavibhanga Sutta (M.iii.248) he is compared to a
mother teacher, while Moggallāna is like a child’s wet nurse; Sāriputta trains
in the fruits of conversion, Moggallāna trains in the highest good. In the
Pindapāta pārisuddhi Sutta (M.iii.294f) the Buddha commends Sāriputta for the
aloofness of his life and instructs him in the value of reflection. Other
instances are given of the Buddha instructing and examining him on various
topics   e.g., on bhūtam (”what has come to be”) (S.ii.47f), on the
five indriyas, (S.v.220f., 225f., 233f ) and on sotāpatti. S. v.347; we find the
Buddha also instructing him on the cultivation of tranquillity (A.i.65); on the
destruction of “I” and “mine” (A.i.133); the reasons for failure and success in
enterprises (A.ii.81f.); the four ways of acquiring personality (attabhāva)
(A.ii.159); the methods of exhortation (A.iii.198); the acquisition of joy that
comes through seclusion (A.iii.207); the noble training for the layman (211f.);
six things that bring spiritual progress to a monk (424f.); seven similar things
(A.iv.30); the seven grounds for praising a monk (35); the things and persons a
monk should revere (120f.); the eight attributes of a monk free from the fermentations
(223 f.); the nine persons who, although they die with an attached remainder for
rebirth, are yet free from birth in hell among animals and among petas (379 f.);
and the ten powers of a monk who has destroyed the fermentations (A.v.174 f.).

We also find instances of Sāriputta questioning his
colleagues, or being questioned by them, on various topics. Thus he is
questioned by Mahā Kotthita on kamma (S.ii.112 f.); and on yoniso manasikāra
(progressive discipline, S. iii.176 f.); on avijjā and vijjā (ibid., 172 f.); on
the fetters of sense perception (S.iv.162 f.); on certain questions pronounced
by the Buddha as indeterminate (ibid., 384 f.); on whether anything is left
remaining after the passionless ending of the six spheres of contact (A.ii.161);
and on the purpose for which monks lead the brahmacariya under the Buddha
(A.iv.382). The Mahāvedalla Sutta (M.i.292 ff.) records a long discourse
preached by Sāriputta to Mahā Kotthita. He is mentioned as questioning Mahā
Kassapa on the terms Ātāpī and ottāpī (S.ii.195f.), and Anuruddha on sekha
(S.v.174 f., 298f.). On another occasion, Anuruddha tells Sāriputta of his power
of seeing the thousand fold world system, his unshaken energy, and his
untroubled mindfulness. Sāriputta tells him that his deva sight is mere conceit,
his claims to energy conceit, and his mindfulness just worrying, and exhorts him
to abandon thoughts of them all. Anuruddha follows his advice and becomes an
arahant. A.i.281f.

Moggallāna asks Sāriputta regarding the “undefiled” (their
conversation forms the Anangana Sutta, M.i.25 ff.), and, at the conclusion of
the Gulissāni Sutta, inquires whether the states of consciousness mentioned in
that sutta were incumbent only on monks from the wilds or also on those from the
villages (M.i.472f.). Sāriputta questions Upavāna regarding the bojjhangā
(S.v.76), and is questioned by Ananda regarding sotāpatti (S.v.346, 362) as
regards the reason why some beings are set free in this very life while others
are not (A.ii.167), and on the winning of perfect concentration (A.v.8, 320).
Ananda also questions Sāriputta (A.iii.201f.) on the speedy knowledge of aptness
in things (kusaladhammesu khippanisanti), and, again, on how a monk may learn
new doctrines and retain old ones without confusion (A.iii.361). In both these
cases Sāriputta asks Ananda to answer the questions himself, and, at the end of
his discourse, praises him. The Rathavinīta Sutta (M.i.145 ff.) records a
conversation between Sāriputta and Punna Mantānīputta, for whom he had the
greatest respect, after hearing the Buddha’s eulogy of him. Sāriputta had given
instructions that he should be told as soon as Punna came to Sāvatthi and took
the first opportunity of seeing him. Among others who held discussions with
Sāriputta are mentioned Samiddhi (A.iv.385), Yamaka (S.iii.109f.), Candikāputta
(A.iv.403), and Laludāyi (A.iv.414).

Among laymen who had discussions with Sāriputta are Atula
(DhA.iii.327), Nakulapitā (S.iii.2f.) and Dhānañjāni (M.ii.186); Sīvalī
(immediately after his birth; J. i.408), also the Paribbājakas, Jambukhādaka
(S.iv.251f.), Sāmandaka (S.iv.261 f.; A.v.120), and Pasūra (SnA..ii.538), and the
female Paribbājakas Saccā, Lolā, Avavādakā and Patācārā (J.iii.1), and
Kundalakesī (DhA.ii.223f.). He is also said to have visited the Paribbājakas in
order to hold discussion with them (A.iv.378); see also S. iii.238f., where a
Paribbājaka consults him on modes of eating.

The care of the Sangha and the protection of its members’
integrity was Sāriputta’s especial concern by virtue of his position as the
Buddha’s Chief Disciple. Thus we find him being sent with Moggallāna to bring
back the monks who had seceded with Devadatta. His admonitions to the monks
sometimes made him unpopular   e.g., in the case of the Assaji
Punaabbasukā, the Chabbaggiyā (who singled him out for special venom) and
Kokālika (See Channa, who reviled both Sāriputta and Moggallāna, DhA.ii.110 f.).
When Channa declared his intention of committing suicide, Sāriputta attempted to
dissuade him, but without success (S.iv.55ff.; see also the Channovāda Sutta).
Monks sought his advice in their difficulties. (See, e.g., S. iv.103, where a
monk reports to him that a colleague has returned to the household life, and
asks what he is to do about it). He was greatly perturbed by the dissensions of
the monks of Kosambī, and consulted the Buddha, at length, as to what he could
do about it (Vin.i.354).  He was meticulous about rules laid down by the
Buddha. Thus a rule had been laid down that one monk could ordain only one
samanera, and when a boy was sent to him for ordination from a family which had
been of great service to him, Sāriputta refused the request of the parents till
the Buddha had rescinded the rule (Vin.i.83). Another rule forbade monks to eat
garlic (lasuna), and when Sāriputta lay ill and knew he could be cured by
garlic, even then he refused to eat them till permission was given by the Buddha
for him to do so (Vin.ii.140). The Dhammapada Commentary (Vin.ii.140f) describes
how, at the monastery in which Sāriputta lived, when the other monks had gone
for alms, he made the round of the entire building, sweeping the un-swept
places, filling empty vessels with water, arranging furniture, etc., lest
heretics, coming to the monastery, should say: “Behold the residences of
Gotama’s pupils.” But even then he did not escape censure from his critics. A
story is told (DhA.iv.184f) of how he was once charged with greed, and the
Buddha himself had to explain to the monks that Sāriputta was blameless. While
Sāriputta was severe in the case of those who failed to follow the Buddha’s
discipline, he did not hesitate to rejoice with his fellow monks in their
successes. Thus we find him congratulating Moggallāna on the joy he obtained
from his iddhi powers, and praising his great attainments (praise which evoked
equally generous counter praise), (S.ii.275 f ) and eulogising Anuruddha on his
perfected discipline won through the practice of the four satipatthānas
(S.v.301f). It was the great encouragement given by Sāriputta to Samitigutta
(q.v.), when the latter lay ill with leprosy in the infirmary, which helped him
to become an arahant. It was evidently the custom of Sāriputta to visit sick
monks, as did the Buddha himself (ThagA.ii.176). So great was Sāriputta’s desire
to encourage and recognize merit in his colleagues that he once went about
praising Devadatta’s iddhi powers, which made it difficult for him when later he
had to proclaim, at the bidding of the Sangha, Devadatta’s evil nature
(Vin.ii.189).

Several instances are given (E.g., S. ii.274; v.70; A.i.63;
ii.160; iii.186, 190, 196, 200, 292, 340; iv.325, 328, 365; v.94, 102, 123, 315,
356f) of Sāriputta instructing the monks and preaching to them of his own accord
on various topics -  apart from the preaching of the well known suttas
assigned to him. Sometimes these suttas were supplementary to the Buddha’s own
discourses (E.g., M.i.13, 24, 184, 469). Among the most famous of Sāriputta’s
discourses are the Dasuttara and the Sangīti Suttas (q.v.). Though Sāriputta was
friendly with all the eminent monks surrounding the Buddha, there was very
special affection between him and Ananda and also Moggallāna. We are told that
this was because Amanda was the Buddha’s special attendant, a duty which
Sāriputta would have been glad to undertake For details of this see Mahā
Moggallāna, Ananda. Ananda himself had the highest regard and affection for
Sāriputta. It is recorded in the Samyutta Nikāya (S.i.63) that once, when the
Buddha asked Ananda, “Do you also, Ananda, approve of our Sāriputta?” Amanda
replied, “Who, Sir, that is not childish or corrupt or stupid or of perverted
mind, will not approve of him? Wise is he, his wisdom comprehensive and joyous
and swift, sharp and fastidious. Small is he in his desires and contented;
loving seclusion and detachment, of rampant energy. A preacher is he, accepting
advice, a critic, a scourge of evil.”

Sāriputta was specially attached, also, to Rāhula, the
Buddha’s son, who was entrusted to Sāriputta for ordination. Mention is made of
a special sutta in the Majjhima Nikāya, (the Mahā Rāhulovāda Sutta; M.i.421f )
in which he urges Rāhula to practise the study of breathing. The special regard
which Sāriputta had for the Buddha and Rāhula extended also to Rāhulamātā, for
we find that when she was suffering from flatulence. Rāhula consulted Sāriputta,
who obtained for her some mango juice, a known remedy for the disease.
(J.ii.392f) On another occasion (J.ii.433) he obtained from Pasenadi rice mixed
with ghee and with red fish for flavouring when Rāhulamātā suffered from some
stomach trouble. Among laymen Sāriputta had special regard for Anāthapindika;
when the latter lay ill he sent for Sāriputta, who visited him with Ananda and
preached to him the Anāthapindikovāda Sutta. At the end of the discourse
Anāthapindika said he had never before heard such a homily. Sāriputta said they
were reserved for monks only, but Anāthapindika asked that they could be given
to the laity and to young men of undimmed vision. Anāthapindika died soon after
and was reborn in Tusita. M.iii.258 ff.; cf. S. v.380, which probably refers to
an earlier illness of Anāthapindika. He recovered immediately after the
preaching of Sāriputta’s sermon, and served Sāriputta with rice from his own
cooking pot.

Sāriputta also, evidently, had great esteem for the
householder Citta, for we are told (DhA.ii.74) that he once paid a special visit
to Macchikāsanda to see him.

Several incidents are related in the books showing the
exemplary qualities possessed by Sāriputta   e.g., the stories of
Tambadāthika, Punna and his wife, the poor woman in the Kundakakucchisindhava
Jātaka and Losaka Tissa (q.v.). These show his great compassion for the poor and
his eagerness to help them. Reference has already been made to his first
teacher, Sañjaya, whom he tried, but failed, to convert to the Buddha’s faith.
His second teacher was Assaji. It is said that every night on going to bed he
would do obeisance to the quarter in which he knew Assaji to be and would sleep
with his head in that direction. DhA.iv.150 f.; cf. SnA.i.328. If Assaji were in
the same vihāra, Sāriputta would visit him immediately after visiting the
Buddha. It was in connection with this that the Dhamma Sutta (q.v.) was
preached.

The stories of the Sāmaneras Sukha and Pandita, and of the
monk Rādhā, also show his gratitude towards any who had shown him favour (See
also Vin.i.55 f). His extreme affection for and gratitude to the Buddha are
shown in the Sampasādanīya Sutta (q.v.). That Sāriputta possessed great patience
is shown by the story (DhA.iv.146f) of the brahmin who, to test his patience,
struck him as he entered the city for alms. But when he was wrongly accused and
found it necessary to vindicate his good name, he did not hesitate to proclaim
his innocence at great length and to declare his pre eminence in virtue. (See,
e.g., his “lion’s roar” at A.iv.373ff). Another characteristic of Sāriputta was
his readiness to take instruction from others, however modest. Thus one story
relates how, in absent mindedness, he let the fold of his robe hang down. A
novice said, “Sir, the robe should be draped around you,” and Sāriputta agreed,
saying, “Good, you have done well to point it out to me,” and going a little
way, he draped the robe round him (ThagA.iii.116). A quaint story is told
(Ud.iv.4) of a Yakkha who, going through the air at night, saw Sāriputta wrapt
in meditation, his head newly shaved. The sight of the shining head was a great
temptation to the Yakkha, and, in spite of his companion’s warning, he dealt a
blow on the Thera’s head. The blow was said to have been hard enough to shatter
a mountain, but Sāriputta suffered only a slight headache afterwards.

Mention is made of two occasions on which Sāriputta fell
ill. Once he had fever and was cured by lotus stalks which Moggallāna obtained
for him from the Mandākinī Lake (Vin.i.214). On the other occasion he had
stomach trouble, which was again cured by Moggallāna giving him garlic (lasuna),
to eat which the rule regarding the use of garlic had to be rescinded by the
Buddha (Vin.ii.140).

Sāriputta was fond of meal cakes (pitthakhajjaka), but
finding that they tended to make him greedy he made a vow never to eat them
(J.i.310).

Sāriputta died some months before the Buddha. It is true
that the account of the Buddha’s death in the Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta ignores all
reference to Sāriputta, though it does introduce him (D.ii.81 ff ) shortly
before as uttering his “lion’s roar” (sīhanāda), his great confession of faith
in the Buddha, which, in the commentarial account, he made when he took leave of
the Buddha to die. The Samyutta Nikāya (S.v.161) records that he died at
Nālagāmaka (the place of his birth), and gives an eulogy of him pronounced by
the Buddha after his death (S.v.163f).

There is no need to doubt the authenticity of this
account. It merely states that when Sāriputta was at Nālagāmaka he was afflicted
with a sore disease. His brother, Cunda Samanuddesa, was attending on him when
he died. His body was cremated, and Cunda took the relics to Sāvatthi with
Sāriputta’s begging bowl and outer robe. The relics were wrapped in his
water-strainer. Cunda first broke the news to Ananda, who confessed that when he
heard it his mind was confused and his body felt as though drugged. Cf.
Thag.vs.1034; see also the eulogy of Sāriputta by Vangīsa during his lifetime
(Thag.1231 3). Hiouen Thsang saw the stūpa erected over the relics of Sāriputta
in the town of Kālapināka (Beal., op. cit., ii.177).

Together they sought the Buddha and told him of the event,
and the Buddha pointed out to them the impermanence of all things.

The Commentaries give more details. The Buddha returned to
Sāvatthi after his last vassa in Beluvagāma. Sāriputta sought him there, and,
realizing that his death would come in seven days, he decided to visit his
mother, for she, though the mother of seven arahants, had no faith in the
Sangha. [This was because all her children joined the Order and left her
desolate in spite of the forty crores of wealth which lay in the house. It is
said (DhA.iv.164f.) that when Sāriputta had gone home on a previous occasion,
she abused both him and his companions roundly. Rāhula was also in the company.]
He therefore asked his brother, Cunda, to prepare for the journey to Nālagāmaka
with five hundred others, and then took leave of the Buddha after performing
various miracles and declaring his faith in the Buddha and uttering his “lion’s
roar.” A large concourse followed him to the gates of Sāvatthi, and there he
addressed them and bade them stay behind. In seven days he reached Nālaka, where
he wais met by his nephew, Uparevata, outside the gates. Him he sent on to warn
his mother of his arrival with a large number of people. She, thinking that he
had once more returned to the lay life, made all preparations to welcome him and
his companions. Sāriputta took up his abode in the room in which he was born (jātovaraka).
There he was afflicted with dysentery. His mother, unaware of this and sulking
because she found he was still a monk, remained in her room. The Four Regent
Gods and Sakka and Mahā Brahmā waited upon him. She saw them, and having found
out who they were, went to her son’s room. There she asked him if he were really
greater than all these deities, and, when he replied that it was so, she
reflected on the greatness of her son and her whole body was suffused with joy.
Sāriputta then preached to her, and she became a sotāpanna. Feeling that he had
paid his debt to his mother, he sent Cunda to fetch the monks, and, on their
arrival, he sat up with Cunda’s help and asked if he had offended them in any
way during the forty four years of his life as a monk. On receiving their
assurance that he had been entirely blameless, he wiped his lips with his robe
and lay down, and, after passing through various trances, died at break of dawn.

His mother made all arrangements for the funeral, and
Vissakamma assisted in the ceremony. When the cremation was over, Anuruddha
extinguished the flames with perfumed water, and Cunda gathered together the
relics. This account is summarized from SA.iii.172ff.; similar accounts are
found at DA.ii.549f, etc. Sāriputta’s death is also referred to at J. i.391.

Among those who came to pay honour to the pyre was the
goddess Revatī (q.v.). Sāriputta died on the full moon day of Kattika (October
to November) preceding the Buddha’s death, and Moggallāna died a fortnight
later. SA.iii.181; J. i.391; both Sāriputta and Moggallāna were older than the
Buddha because they were born “anuppanne yeva hi Buddhe” (DhA.i.73).

Sāriputta had many pupils, some of whom have already been
mentioned. Among others were Kosiya, Kandhadinna, Cullasārī, Vanavāsika Tissa,
Sankicca (q.v.), and Sarabhū, who brought to Ceylon the Buddha’s collar bone,
which he deposited in the Mahiyangana-cetiya (Mhv.i.37f). Sāriputta’s brother,
Upavāna, predeceased him, and Sāriputta was with him when he died of snake bite
at Sappasondikapabbāra (S.iv.40f).

Sāriputta’s special proficiency was in the Abhidhamma. It
is said (DhSA.16f., DA.i.15, where it is said that at the end of the First
Recital the Abhidhamma was given in charge of five hundred arahants, Sāriputta
being already dead) that when preaching the Abhidhamma, to the gods of
Tāvatimsa, the Buddha would visit Anotatta every day, leaving a nimitta Buddha,
on Sakka’s throne to continue the preaching. After having bathed in the lake he
would take his midday rest. During this time Sāriputta would visit him and learn
from the Buddha all that had been preached of the Abhidhamma during the previous
day. Having thus learnt the Abhidhamma, Sāriputta taught it to his five hundred
pupils. Their acquirement of the seven books of the Abhidhamma coincided with
the conclusion of the Buddha’s sermon in Tāvatimsa. Thus the textual order of
the Abhidhamma originated with Sāriputta, and the numerical series was
determined by him.

Sāriputta is identified with various characters in
numerous Jātakas. Thus he was

2. Sāriputta Thera. A monk of Ceylon. He lived in
the reign of Parakkamabāhu I., and was called Sāgaramatī (SadS.63) on account of
his erudition. The king built for him a special residence attached to the
Jetavana-vihāra in Pulatthipura (Cv.lxxviii.34).

Among his works are the Vinayasangaha or the Vinaya-Vinicchaya, a summary of the Vinaya, and the
Sāratthadīpanī on the Samantapāsādikā,, the Sāratthamañjūsā on the Atthasālinī
and the Līnatthappakāsinī on the Papañcasūdani.

Sāriputta had several well known
pupils, among whom were Sangharakkhita,
Sumangala, Buddhanāga, Udumbaragiri
Medhankara and Vācissara (Gv. 67, 71; Svd.1203; SM. 69; P.L.C, 189ff).

Sāriputta
was also a Sanskrit scholar, and wrote the Pañjikālankāra or
Ratnamatipañjikātīkā to Ratnasrījñāna’s Pañjikā to the Candragomivyākarana.

3. Sāriputta. A monk of Dala in the Rāmañña
country. He was born in Padīpajeyya in the reign of Narapatisithu, and was
ordained by Ananda of the Sīhalasangha. He became one of the leaders of this
group in Rāmañña. Narapati conferred on him the title of “Dhammavilāsa,” and he
was the author of one of the earliest law codes (dhammasattha) of Burma.
Sās.41f.; Bode, op. cit., 31.

4. Sāriputta. A Choliyan monk, author of the
Padāvatāra. Gv.67; Svd.12, 44.

5. Sāriputta. One of the sons of king Buddhadāsa.
Cv.xxxvii.177.


MN 118

PTS: M iii 78
Anapanasati Sutta: Mindfulness of Breathing
translated from the Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi in the Eastern Monastery, the palace of Migara’s mother, together with many well-known elder disciples — with Ven. Sariputta, Ven. Maha Moggallana, Ven. Maha Kassapa, Ven. Maha Kaccana, Ven. Maha Kotthita, Ven. Maha Kappina, Ven. Maha Cunda, Ven. Revata, Ven. Ananda,
and other well-known elder disciples. On that occasion the elder monks
were teaching & instructing. Some elder monks were teaching &
instructing ten monks, some were teaching & instructing twenty
monks, some were teaching & instructing thirty monks, some were
teaching & instructing forty monks. The new monks, being taught
& instructed by the elder monks, were discerning grand, successive
distinctions.

Now on that occasion — the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, the
full-moon night of the Pavarana ceremony — the Blessed One was seated in
the open air surrounded by the community of monks. Surveying the silent
community of monks, he addressed them:

“Monks, I am content with this practice. I am content at heart with
this practice. So arouse even more intense persistence for the attaining
of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached, the
realization of the as-yet-unrealized. I will remain right here at
Savatthi [for another month] through the ‘White Water-lily’ Month, the
fourth month of the rains.”

The monks in the countryside heard, “The Blessed One, they say, will
remain right there at Savatthi through the White Water-lily Month, the
fourth month of the rains.” So they left for Savatthi to see the Blessed
One.

Then the elder monks taught & instructed the new monks even more
intensely. Some elder monks were teaching & instructing ten monks,
some were teaching & instructing twenty monks, some were teaching
& instructing thirty monks, some were teaching & instructing
forty monks. The new monks, being taught & instructed by the elder
monks, were discerning grand, successive distinctions.

Now on that occasion — the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, the
full-moon night of the White Water-lily Month, the fourth month of the
rains — the Blessed One was seated in the open air surrounded by the
community of monks. Surveying the silent community of monks, he
addressed them:

“Monks, this assembly is free from
idle chatter, devoid of idle chatter, and is established on pure
heartwood: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The
sort of assembly that is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy
of offerings, worthy of respect, an incomparable field of merit for the
world: such is this community of monks, such is this assembly. The sort
of assembly to which a small gift, when given, becomes great, and a
great gift greater: such is this community of monks, such is this
assembly. The sort of assembly that it is rare to see in the world: such
is this community of monks, such is this assembly — the sort of
assembly that it would be worth traveling for leagues, taking along
provisions, in order to see.

“In this community of monks there are monks who are arahants, whose
mental effluents are ended, who have reached fulfillment, done the task,
laid down the burden, attained the true goal, laid to waste the fetter
of becoming, and who are released through right gnosis: such are the
monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are monks who, with the wasting
away of the five lower fetters, are due to be reborn [in the Pure
Abodes], there to be totally unbound, destined never again to return
from that world: such are the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are monks who, with the wasting
away of [the first] three fetters, and with the attenuation of passion,
aversion, & delusion, are once-returners, who — on returning only
once more to this world — will make an ending to stress: such are the
monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are monks who, with the wasting
away of [the first] three fetters, are stream-winners, steadfast, never
again destined for states of woe, headed for self-awakening: such are
the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are monks who remain devoted to the
development of the four frames of reference… the four right
exertions… the four bases of power… the five faculties… the five
strengths… the seven factors for awakening… the noble eightfold
path: such are the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are monks who remain devoted to the
development of good will… compassion… appreciation… equanimity…
[the perception of the] foulness [of the body]… the perception of
inconstancy: such are the monks in this community of monks.

“In this community of monks there are monks who remain devoted to mindfulness of in-&-out breathing.

“Mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, when developed & pursued,
is of great fruit, of great benefit. Mindfulness of in-&-out
breathing, when developed & pursued, brings the four frames of
reference to their culmination. The four frames of reference, when
developed & pursued, bring the seven factors for awakening to their
culmination. The seven factors for awakening, when developed &
pursued, bring clear knowing & release to their culmination.

Mindfulness of In-&-Out Breathing

“Now how is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing developed & pursued so as to be of great fruit, of great benefit?

“There is the case where a monk, having
gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building,
sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect, and
setting mindfulness to the fore.[1] Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

“[1] Breathing in long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in long’; or breathing out long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out long.’ [2]
Or breathing in short, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in short’; or
breathing out short, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out short.’ [3] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the entire body.’[2] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the entire body.’ [4] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in calming bodily fabrication.’[3] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.’

“[5] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to rapture.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to rapture.’ [6] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to pleasure.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to pleasure.’ [7] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to mental fabrication.’[4] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to mental fabrication.’ [8]
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in calming mental fabrication.’ He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming mental fabrication.’

“[9] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the mind.’ [10] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in satisfying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out satisfying the mind.’ [11] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in steadying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out steadying the mind.’ [12] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in releasing the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out releasing the mind.’[5]

“[13] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on
inconstancy.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on
inconstancy.’ [14] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on dispassion [literally, fading].’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on dispassion.’ [15] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on cessation.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on cessation.’ [16]
He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on relinquishment.’ He
trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on relinquishment.’

“This is how mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued so as to be of great fruit, of great benefit.

The Four Frames of Reference

“And how is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing developed &
pursued so as to bring the four frames of reference to their
culmination?

 ”[1] On whatever occasion a monk breathing in long discerns,
‘I am breathing in long’; or breathing out long, discerns, ‘I am
breathing out long’; or breathing in short, discerns, ‘I am breathing in
short’; or breathing out short, discerns, ‘I am breathing out short’;
trains himself, ‘I will breathe in…&… out sensitive to the
entire body’; trains himself, ‘I will breathe in…&…out calming
bodily fabrication’: On that occasion the monk remains focused on the body
in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed
& distress with reference to the world. I tell you, monks, that
this — the in-&-out breath — is classed as a body among bodies,
which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on the body in
& of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed
& distress with reference to the world.

“[2] On whatever occasion a monk trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out sensitive to rapture’; trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out sensitive to pleasure’; trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out sensitive to mental fabrication’; trains
himself, ‘I will breathe in…&…out calming mental fabrication’:
On that occasion the monk remains focused on feelings in & of
themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed &
distress with reference to the world. I tell you, monks, that this —
careful attention to in-&-out breaths — is classed as a feeling
among feelings,[6]
which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on feelings in
& of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed
& distress with reference to the world.

“[3] On whatever occasion a monk trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out sensitive to the mind’; trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out satisfying the mind’; trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out steadying the mind’; trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out releasing the mind’: On that occasion the monk
remains focused on the mind in & of itself — ardent, alert,
& mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the
world. I don’t say that there is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing
in one of lapsed mindfulness and no alertness, which is why the monk on
that occasion remains focused on the mind in & of itself — ardent,
alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference
to the world.

“[4] On whatever occasion a monk trains himself, ‘I will
breathe in…&…out focusing on inconstancy’; trains himself, ‘I
will breathe in…&…out focusing on dispassion’; trains himself,
‘I will breathe in…&…out focusing on cessation’; trains himself,
‘I will breathe in…&…out focusing on relinquishment’: On that
occasion the monk remains focused on mental qualities in & of
themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed &
distress with reference to the world. He who sees with discernment the
abandoning of greed & distress is one who watches carefully with
equanimity, which is why the monk on that occasion remains focused on
mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful —
putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world.

“This is how mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed &
pursued so as to bring the four frames of reference to their
culmination.

The Seven Factors for Awakening

“And how are the four frames of reference developed & pursued so
as to bring the seven factors for awakening to their culmination?

“[1] On whatever occasion the monk remains focused on the body
in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed
& distress with reference to the world, on that occasion his
mindfulness is steady & without lapse. When his mindfulness is
steady & without lapse, then mindfulness as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

“[2] Remaining mindful in this way, he examines, analyzes,
& comes to a comprehension of that quality with discernment. When he
remains mindful in this way, examining, analyzing, & coming to a
comprehension of that quality with discernment, then analysis of qualities as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

“[3] In one who examines, analyzes, & comes to a
comprehension of that quality with discernment, persistence is aroused
unflaggingly. When persistence is aroused unflaggingly in one who
examines, analyzes, & comes to a comprehension of that quality with
discernment, then persistence as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

“[4] In one whose persistence is aroused, a rapture
not-of-the-flesh arises. When a rapture not-of-the-flesh arises in one
whose persistence is aroused, then rapture as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

“[5] For one enraptured at heart, the body grows calm and the
mind grows calm. When the body & mind of a monk enraptured at heart
grow calm, then serenity as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

“[6] For one who is at ease — his body calmed — the mind
becomes concentrated. When the mind of one who is at ease — his body
calmed — becomes concentrated, then concentration as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

“[7] He carefully watches the mind thus concentrated with
equanimity. When he carefully watches the mind thus concentrated with
equanimity, equanimity as a factor for awakening becomes aroused. He develops it, and for him it goes to the culmination of its development.

(Similarly with the other three frames of reference: feelings, mind, & mental qualities.)

“This is how the four frames of reference are developed & pursued
so as to bring the seven factors for awakening to their culmination.

Clear Knowing & Release

“And how are the seven factors for awakening developed & pursued
so as to bring clear knowing & release to their culmination? There
is the case where a monk develops mindfulness as a factor for
awakening dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on
cessation, resulting in relinquishment. He develops analysis of qualities as a factor for awakening… persistence as a factor for awakening… rapture as a factor for awakening… serenity as a factor for awakening… concentration as a factor for awakening… equanimity as a factor for awakening dependent on seclusion, dependent on dispassion, dependent on cessation, resulting in relinquishment.

“This is how the seven factors for awakening are developed &
pursued so as to bring clear knowing & release to their
culmination.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Notes

1.
To the fore (parimukham): The Abhidhamma takes an etymological approach to this term, defining it as around (pari-) the mouth (mukham).
In the Vinaya, however, it is used in a context (Cv.V.27.4) where it
undoubtedly means the front of the chest. There is also the possibility
that the term could be used idiomatically as “to the front,” which is
how I have translated it here.
2.
The commentaries insist that “body” here means the breath, but this
is unlikely in this context, for the next step — without further
explanation — refers to the breath as “bodily fabrication.” If the
Buddha were using two different terms to refer to the breath in such
close proximity, he would have been careful to signal that he was
redefining his terms (as he does below, when explaining that the first
four steps in breath meditation correspond to the practice of focusing
on the body in and of itself as a frame of reference). The step of
breathing in and out sensitive to the entire body relates to the many
similes in the suttas depicting jhana as a state of whole-body awareness
(see MN 119).
3.
“In-&-out breaths are bodily; these are things tied up with the
body. That’s why in-&-out breaths are bodily fabrications.” — MN 44.
4.
“Perceptions & feelings are mental; these are things tied up
with the mind. That’s why perceptions & feelings are mental
fabrications.” — MN 44.
5.
AN 9.34
shows how the mind, step by step, is temporarily released from
burdensome mental states of greater and greater refinement as it
advances through the stages of jhana.
6.
As this shows, a meditator focusing on feelings in themselves as a
frame of reference should not abandon the breath as the basis for
his/her concentration.

See also: SN 54.8.

How is constant

Awareness
Established only by Breathing?

Sitting cross-legged, with straight back,
elevated chin, in a
silent place,
the
yogi remains focusing all attention on the touch point of air in his
nostrils:

Fully aware one inhales and fully aware one exhales…
When inhaling a long breath, one notices just that…
When exhaling a
long breath, one notices just that…
When inhaling a short breath,
one notices just that…
When exhaling a short breath, one notices
just that…
Experiencing the whole body, one inhales…

Experiencing the whole body, one exhales…
Calming all bodily activity, one inhales…
Calming all bodily activity, one exhales…


One trains thus:


Experiencing joyous rapture, I will inhale…
Experiencing joyous rapture, I will exhale…
Experiencing a happy pleasure, I will inhale…
Experiencing a happy pleasure, I will exhale…
Experiencing
all mental activity, I will inhale…
Experiencing all
mental activity, I will exhale…
Calming all mental activity, I will inhale…
Calming
all mental activity, I will exhale…

One trains thus:
Experiencing
& evaluating the present mood, I will inhale…
Experiencing
& evaluating the present mood, I will exhale…
Satisfying, gladdening
& elevating the mind, I will inhale…
Satisfying, gladdening &
elevating the mind I will exhale…
Focusing & condensing the mind by concentration, I will inhale…
Focusing & condensing the mind by concentration, I will exhale…
Releasing the mind from
any hindrance, I will inhale…
Releasing the mind from any hindrance, I will exhale…

One trains thus:
Considering the impermanence inherent in all change, I will inhale…
Considering the impermanence
inherent in all change, I will exhale…
Considering the detachment induced
by disillusion, I will inhale…
Considering the detachment induced
by disillusion, I will exhale…
Considering the stilled silence due
to ceasing, I will inhale…
Considering the stilled silence due to ceasing, I will exhale…
Considering
the open freedom of relinquishment, I will inhale…
Considering the open freedom of relinquishment, I will exhale…

This is how continuous
Awareness is established just by breathing!!!
Breathing meditation can bring the yogi into 1st, 2nd, 3rd
& 4th Jhāna
It is a unique praxis used by all Buddhas at their very Enlightenment!!!


Details are found in this Meditation Manual:

http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/pdfs/anapanasati.pdf



More on Awareness by Breathing (
Ānāpāna-sati):


Breathing_Calm_and_Insight
,
The_LAMP_I,
The_LAMP_II,

The_LAMP_III,
The_LAMP_IV,
Peaceful_&_Sublime_on_the_Spot,

Unique_Thing_Awareness_by_Breathing,

Magnificent_Meditation
,

Experiencing_the_Breath,


1_Producing_4
,
Four_Fulfilling_Seven.


Source:

Middle Length Sayings of the Buddha.
Majjhima Nikāya 118


Ānāpānasati:

http://www.pariyatti.com/book.cgi?prod_id=25072X
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/majjhima/mn118.html


Breath Meditation!



Manual on the 4 Main Meditation Methods:

 



The Buddha’s core Teachings on Mental Training.


 





  



  


 


 



The 4 Main Meditation Methods are:


 


1: Metta (the 4 Divine States) - Universal
Friendliness. The medicine for curing Aversion & Anger.

2: KayagataSati – Knowing the
Body to be a mere Form of Matter. The Antidote for curing Attraction.



3: AnapanaSati – Mindfulness
focused by Breathing. The Complete Concentration Method.



4: The 4 Satipatthanas -  Form-Feeling-Mind-Mental
States. The Purification of Insight Method.

If only time & stamina to one sitting meditation session a day: Do Metta in morning.
If time & will to two sitting meditation sessions a
day: Do Metta + KayagataSati.
If time & energy to three sessions a day: Do Metta
+ KayagataSati + AnapanaSati.
If embarking on Perfection of the Noble Path: Do all
4 every day as the most precious.

May the Bliss of Infinite Ease & Clear-sighted Peace
thereby indeed bless all beings.

The 4 techniques are described in different ways, expressions
& degree of detail in the following.

 


 

Exclusively for free forward, distribution,
publication & copy as a gift of

Dhamma sublime.

Namo
tassa Bhagavato Arahato SammàSambuddhassa
.


Worthy, Honorable & Perfectly Self-Enlightened is the Blessed Buddha.




1: Metta; The 4
Divine States
= 4 BrahmaViharas = Universal Friendliness.

Sources are all from
the Pali Tipitaka,which are the 56 volume ancient sacred scriptures of the Buddhist, recited
& compiled 483 BC, approximately 4 months after Buddhas death. All source texts here
are so originally spoken by the Blessed Lord Buddha himself.


 I:   Brahma-Vihara Sutta: How to develop
complete harmlessness & infinite friendliness.

 II:   Making oneself the Mighty Friend.
From Itivuttaka 27.

 III:   The 11 benefits from cultivating
friendliness, amity & Goodwill. From AN V [342]

 IV:  Joined by & associated with Unbounded, Endless
& Infinite Goodwill. From SN V [119]






 
 


I: Brahma-Vihara


 



How to d
evelop
complete Harmlessness & infinite Friendliness

 


Free as a gift of Dhamma supreme

 


Adapted after appreciated translation of Nyanatiloka
Mahathera (Germany/Sri Lanka)


 

‘There, Oohh friends, the Bhikkhu with a mind
full of friendly loving-kindness

 pervading first one direction, then a second
one, then a third one

 then the fourth one, as below so above,
across & all around, everywhere


 identifying himself with all sentient beings,
he is encompassing the whole world


 with a mind full of friendly loving-kindness,
with a mind wide, developed,

 unbounded, cleared, exalted, pure & bright,
free from hate and ill will …

 
 There, Oohh friends, the Bhikkhu with a
mind full of understanding compassion

 pervading first the front, then the right
side, then the back, then the left side,


 as below so above, across & all around,
all over, far & wide;

 identifying himself with all sentient beings,
he is
perfusing
the whole universe

 with a mind imbued with emphatic compassion,
with a spacious mind,

 a refined mind, infinite, cleared, pure
& brilliant, free from anger and enmity …

 
 There, Oohh friends, the Bhikkhu with a
mind full of altruistic sympathetic joy

 pervading the North, then the East, then
the South, then the West,

 as below so above, across & all around,
universally, infinitely;

 identifying himself with all sentient beings,
he is suffusing all galaxies


 with a mind full of genuine mutual & altruistic
sympathetic joy, with an open mind,

 vast, limitless, purified, cleared, pure
& shining, free from aversion and bitterness …

 
 There, Oohh friends, the Bhikkhu with a
mind full of balanced equanimity

 pervading first the frontal quadrant, then
the right, then the rear & thenthe left quadrant, as below so above, across
& all around; and everywhereidentifying himself with all sentient beings,
he is permeating the whole worldwith a mind satiated of balanced equanimity,
calmed, with a mountain-like mind,cultivated, endless, cleared, pure & dazzling,
free from irritation and resentment …’



 
 

 


II:  Making oneself the Mighty Friend tool

 

Itivuttaka - Spoken
by Buddha

The bringing Friendliness
into Existence Sutta #27

 

,-

This unquestionably - as been heard by me was
so stated by the Lord, was so stated by the Arahat:

 
‘Whatever reasons causing one to do meritorious
actions, all these together are not worth one-sixteenth fraction, of a Mind
Released into Friendliness!!!  Since a mind released into friendliness
- in itself - friends! blazes forth, outshine all these with unsurpassable
brilliance.   


Just as the radiance from all the stars and planets
does not match even a sixteenth of the radiance from the moon, even so as the
moon outshines all the stars and planets, similarly; whatever thoughts making
one do meritorious actions, all these together are not worth one-sixteenth
fraction, of a Mind Released by Friendliness! Since a mind released into friendliness
- by itself - friends! blazes forth, outshine all these with incomparable radiance.

Just as the mighty sun, friends, as it rise at
early autumn dawn, by making any misty fog evaporate, scattering any thundercloud,
makes the sky all blue & clear, so it alone freely shines, blazes in very brilliance
- exactly like that - whatever intentions there may be for gaining merit, all
these together are not worth one sixteenth fraction, of a Mind Released into
Friendliness! Since a Mind Released into Friendliness - all alone - friends!
- blazes forth, outshine all these with inestimable luminosity. 


Just as Venus, friends, in early morning rise
to stand lighting up all directions of the dark, indiscriminately shining,
blazing in brilliance, - just like that - whatever motivations there may be
behind doing good, all these together are not worth one sixteenth fraction
of a Mind Released into Friendliness! Since a Mind Released into unreserved
Friendliness - all by itself - friends, blazes forth, outshines all such with
a matchless brightness.’    


 
So did the Lord state this matter, & in this context
he further added:

 
‘For the noble friend, who by will, who fully
aware, who deliberately  bring infinite, boundless and endless friendliness
into being, this mountain like limitless Goodwill makes any substrate evaporate,

the chains of mind, the mental fetters wears thin,
slender and slack. If one without ill will cares for even one single living
being, such one through that becomes quite skilled and clever, so far more
the case for the Noble Friend, who by possessing a caring heart for all sentient
beings without any even single exception, accumulates massive - yeah! - monumental
amounts of merit!

Those kings, gurus & priests who sacrifices life,
objects or fire, who baths ceremoniously, devoted to mere forms and empty ritual,
blindly attached to & obsessed by culture, tradition of ancient & unknown habit, 
do not ever experience even a sixteenth of the Release of Mind by Friendliness 
fully brought into being, just like the vagueness of even all the stars together,
cannot neither ever outshine the moon. Since there cannot be any animosity
whatsoever, nor enmity at all,  neither any even atomic trace of hostility
in a Nobly Released One, who by caring indiscriminately and infinitely for
all living beings,  who by possessing such treasure of a Mind Released
into Friendliness, simply cannot never ever suppress, harm, repress nor kill
any being, and cannot neither never ever cause another to suppress, harm, repress 
or kill any breathing being.’ 

 
So too did the Lord state this matter, so too
has there been heard by me.

Adapted from the appreciated translation 
of Peter Masefield. Pali Text Society 2000.  


Comment:
Even minor Goodwill breaks major barriers, ever
spreading like sweet rings in water!

What then to say about infinite Goodwill! Such
forceful tidal wave of pure loving-care


cannot ever be restrained nor surpassed. Make
Mind Like a Smiling Mountain :-)


 


III: The 11 Advantages
of cultivating Friendliness, Amity & Goodwill.

 

The 11 benefits, 11 profits, 11 effects, the 11
results of developing the:

The four Brahma Viharas
The four Divine States
The four Supreme States
The four Boundless States
 
‘Friends, eleven advantages are to be expected
as effect from the release of mind into friendliness

 by the practice of Goodwill, by cultivating
amity, by making much of it frequently,

 by making friendliness the vehicle, the
tool, a basis, a medium , a foundation,


 by persisting in it, by making it a familiar
habit, by being well established in it.


 What are the eleven advantages ?

 
 One sleeps Happy!
 One wakes Happy!
 One dreams No Evil dreams!
 One is Liked & Loved by all human beings!

 One is Liked & Loved by all non-human beings
too!

 One is Guarded & Protected by the divine
Devas!

 One cannot be Harmed by Fire, Poison or
Weapons!

 One swiftly Attains the Concentration of
Absorption!

 Ones appearance becomes Serene, Calm & Composed!

 One dies without Confusion, Bewilderment
nor Panic!

 One reappears after death on the Brahma
level if one has penetrated to no higher level  in life!

 
 When the mind is released into friendliness
by the practice of Goodwill, by manifesting Friendliness

 by cultivating Amity, by frequently making
much of it, by making Friendliness the vehicle,

 the tool, the basis, the medium , the foundation, 
by persisting in it, by insisting on it,

 by properly consolidating it, by thoroughly
undertaking it, by making it a familiar habit,

 by so being well established in it, these
eleven blessings can be expected…’

 

Source:          
The Gradual Sayings (Anguttara Nikaya) V [342].

                       
The book of the elevens: “Advantages”


 

 







IV:  Joined by &
associated with Unbounded, Endless & Infinite Goodwill.

 

‘And how, friends, does one cultivate the Release
of Mind by Friendly Goodwill ?

 
 What is its aim?
 What is its fruit?

 How is it excellent?
 Where does it lead to and end?

 
 In this, friends, a Noble Friend train and
cultivates the:

 Awareness enlightenment-factor joined &
combined with Goodwill,

 Investigation of Curiosity enlightenment-factor
joined & combined with Goodwill,

 Energy of Enthusiasm enlightenment-factor
joined & combined with Goodwill,

 Rapture of Joy enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with Goodwill,

 Tranquility enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with Goodwill,

 Concentration enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with Goodwill,

 Equanimity enlightenment-factor joined &
combined with Goodwill,


 All based on seclusion, solitude based on
dispassion, based on cessation,


 maturing via self-surrender, ending in release.

 
 [When that aim of Goodwill is achieved,
then]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me experience only disgust even faced
with the attractive’

 this friend experiences only disgust even
by what is attractive.

 [Thereby being able to resist any alluring
attracting temptation
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me not perceive any disgust, even faced
with some that is disgusting’

 this friend does not perceive any disgust,
even facing something utterly disgusting.

 [Thereby being able to accept any displeasing
disagreeable sensation
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me experience only disgust both when
faced with the disgusting and the attractive’

 this friend does experience only disgust,
both when facing the disgusting and the attractive.

 [Free choice of felt experience whatever
the sense-input are
…]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me feel only pleasure both when faced
with the disgusting and with the attractive’

 this friend does indeed feel only pleasure
both when facing the disgusting and the attractive.

 [Perceiving only calm ease despite and
whatever the situation is …
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me avoid both the attractive and the
disgusting as well & instead remain unaffected,

 well-balanced in equanimity, evenly composed,
clearly aware, unperturbed and self-possessed.’

 this friend does indeed silence both attractiveness
and disgust & so remain at ease,

 imperturbable in well-balanced equanimity,
evenly composed, clearly aware and self-possessed …

[Undisturbable, Unprovokable, Unaffectable,
Unhurtable, Unfoolable, Untemptable, Utter immune
…]

 
 Or this Noble Friend attain the mental release
called


 ’exquisite, bliss- & beautiful’ and as such
abides therein.

 
 
 Friends, I declare that the release of mind
by Goodwill

 has this ‘exquisite, bliss- & beautiful’
state for its excellence …

 Herein appears the deep intuitive insight
for the friend,

 who has not yet penetrated to a still higher
release.

 [By this exquisite state: ‘release of
mind by Goodwill’; Insight comes.

  Wisdom is so where the ‘release of mind
by Goodwill’ lead to and end!

  Not just ‘a romantic idealism’ but solid
advance of mental refinement.
]
 
                                                   
,-

 
 And how, friends, does one cultivate the
release of mind by empathy based on understanding ?

 
 What is its’ aim ?
 What is its fruit ?

 How is it excellent ?
 Where does it lead to and end ?

 
 In this, friends, a Noble Friend train and
cultivates the:

 
 Awareness enlightenment-factor joined &
combined with by understanding empathy,

 Investigation of Curiosity enlightenment-factor
joined & combined with by understanding empathy,

 Energy of Enthusiasm enlightenment-factor
joined & combined with by understanding empathy,

 Rapture of Joy enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with by understanding empathy,

 Tranquility enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with by understanding empathy,

 Concentration enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with by understanding empathy,

 Equanimity enlightenment-factor joined &
combined with by understanding empathy,

 All based on seclusion in solitude, based
on dispassion, based on ceasing,

 maturing via self-surrender, ending in release..

 
 [when that aim of understanding empathy
is achieved, then]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me experience only repulsion even faced
with the appealing’

 this friend experiences only repulsion even
by what is appealing.

 [Thereby being able to resist any alluring
attracting temptation
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me not perceive any repulsion, even
faced with some that is repulsive’

 this friend does not perceive any repulsion,
even facing something utterly repulsive.

 [Thereby being able to accept any displeasing
disagreeable sensation
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me experience only repulsion both when
faced with the repulsive and the appealing’

 this friend does experience only repulsion,
both when facing the repulsive and the appealing.

 [Free choice of felt experience whatever
the sense-input are
…]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me feel only pleasure both when faced
with the repulsive and with the appealing’

 this friend does indeed feel only pleasure
both when facing the repulsive and the appealing.

 [Perceiving only calm ease despite and
whatever the situation is …
]

 
 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me avoid both the appealing and the
repulsive as well & instead remain in well-balanced

 equanimity, evenly composed, clearly aware,
unperturbed and self-possessed.’

 this friend does indeed silence both appeal
& repulsion & so remain imperturbable

 in well-balanced equanimity, evenly composed,
clearly aware and self-possessed …

 [Undisturbable, Unprovokable, Unaffectable,
Unhurtable, Unfoolable, Untemptable, Utter immune
…]

 
 Or such friend by passing utterly beyond
all notions of object,

 by ending all experience of sense response,
with no sense reaction at all,

 by not attending to any phenomenal diversity
nor to any difference or detail

 continuously fixed on the thought: ‘Infinite
is space …’,

 such friend attains to and abides in the
realm of the infinitude space …

 
 Friends, I declare that the release of mind
by understanding empathy

 has the ‘infinitude of space’ for its excellence

 Herein appears certain intuitive insight
for the friend,

 who has not yet penetrated to a still higher
release.

 
                         
,-

 
 And how, friends, does one cultivate the
mental release by well-wishing

 by unselfish Joy, beneficially wishing good
for others, for all beings success ?

 
 What is its’ aim ?
 What is its fruit ?

 How is it excellent ?
 Where does it lead to and end ?

 
 In this, friends, a Noble Friend train and
cultivates the:

 
 Awareness enlightenment-factor joined &
combined with altruistic Joy,

 Investigation of Curiosity enlightenment-factor
joined & combined with altruistic Joy,

 Energy of Enthusiasm enlightenment-factor
joined & combined with altruistic Joy,

 Rapture of Joy enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with altruistic Joy,

 Tranquility enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with altruistic Joy,

 Concentration enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with altruistic Joy,

 Equanimity enlightenment-factor joined &
combined with altruistic Joy,

 All based on seclusion, solitude based on
dispassion, based on cessation,

 maturing via self-surrender, ending in release..

 
 [when that aim of wishing-Joy-for-others-and-all
is achieved, then]

 
If this Noble Friend so wish:
 ’Let me experience only revulsion even faced
with the desirable’

 this friend experiences only revulsion even
by what is desirable.

 [Thereby being able to resist any alluring
attracting temptation
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me not perceive any revulsion, even
faced with some that is revolting’

 this friend does not perceive any revulsion,
even facing something utterly revolting.

 [Thereby being able to accept any displeasing
disagreeable sensation
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me experience only revulsion both when
faced with the revolting and the desirable’

 this friend does experience only revulsion,
both when facing the revolting and the desirable.

 [Free choice of felt experience whatever
the sense-input are
…]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me feel only pleasure both when faced
with the revolting and with the desirable’

 this friend does indeed feel only pleasure
both when facing the revolting and the desirable.

 [Perceiving only calm ease despite and
whatever the situation is …
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me avoid both the desirable and the
revolting as well & instead remain in well-balanced

 equanimity, evenly composed, clearly aware,
unperturbed and self-possessed.’

 this friend does indeed silence both desirability
and revulsion & so remain imperturbable

 in well-balanced equanimity, evenly composed,
clearly aware and self-possessed …

 [Undisturbable, Unprovokable, Unaffectable,
Unhurtable, Unfoolable, Untemptable, Utter immune
…]

 
 Or such friend by passing utterly beyond
the realm of infinite space,

 so continuously fixed on the idea: ‘Infinite
is consciousness …’,

 such friend attains and abides in this formless
realm of the infinitude of consciousness…

 
 Friends, I declare that the release of mind
by sympathetic joy

 has the ‘infinitude of consciousness’ for
its excellence.

 Herein appears intuitive insight for the
friend,

 who has not yet penetrated to a still higher
release.

 
                         
,-

 
 And how, friends, does one cultivate the
mental release of evenly balanced equanimity ?

 
 What is its’ aim ?
 What is its fruit ?

 How is it excellent ?
 Where does it lead to and end ?

 
 In this, friends, a Noble Friend train and
cultivates the:

 
 Awareness enlightenment-factor joined &
combined with firmly balanced equanimity ,

 Investigation of Curiosity enlightenment-factor
joined & combined with firmly balanced equanimity,

 Energy of Enthusiasm enlightenment-factor
joined & combined with firmly balanced equanimity,

 Rapture of Joy enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with firmly balanced equanimity,

 Tranquility enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with firmly balanced equanimity,

 Concentration enlightenment-factor joined
& combined with firmly balanced equanimity,

 Equanimity enlightenment-factor joined &
combined with firmly balanced equanimity,

 All based on seclusion in solitude, based
on dispassion, based on cessation,

 maturing via self-surrender, ending in release..

 
 [when that aim of mountain like, rock solid
indifferent equanimity is achieved, then]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me experience only dislike even faced
with the agreeable’

 this friend experiences only dislike even
by what is agreeable.

 [Thereby being able to resist any alluring
attracting temptation
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me not perceive any dislike, even faced
with some that is disagreeable’

 this friend does not perceive any dislike,
even facing something utterly disagreeable.

 [Thereby being able to accept any displeasing
disagreeable sensation
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me experience only dislike both when
faced with the disagreeable and the agreeable’

 this friend does experience only dislike,
both when facing the disagreeable and the agreeable.

 [Free choice of felt experience whatever
the sense-input are
…]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me feel only pleasure both when faced
with the disagreeable and with the agreeable’

 this friend does indeed feel only pleasure
both when facing the disagreeable and the agreeable.

 [Perceiving only calm ease despite and
whatever the situation is …
]

 
 If this Noble Friend so wish:

 ’Let me avoid both the agreeable and the
disagreeable as well & instead remain in well-balanced

 equanimity, evenly composed, clearly aware,
unperturbed and self-possessed.’

 this friend does indeed silence both agreement
and dislike & so remain imperturbable

 in well-balanced equanimity, evenly composed,
clearly aware and self-possessed …

 [Undisturbable, Unprovokable, Unaffectable,
Unhurtable, Unfoolable, Untemptable, Utter immune
…]

 

 Or such friend by passing utterly beyond
,by leaving all behind the realm of infinite consciousness,

 so continuously fixed on the idea: ‘Nothing
exists, nothing is there, all is an empty void … ‘,

 such friend attains and abides in this formless
realm of nothingness.

 
 Friends, I declare that the release of mind
by equanimity, by equipoise, by equability

 has the ‘void empty nothingness’ for its
excellence!

 Herein appears the intuitive insight for
the friend,

 who has not yet penetrated to a still higher
release…’

 
 Source: Samyutta Nikaya V. Mahavagga. “Associated
with Goodwill” [119].

 
 Comment;
 
 This Unbounded combined Metta-vihara is
so able to take any friend all way up to the

 level of  Nothingness … Only two
more levels to pass and such one reach Enlightenment,

 Utter Freedom! This being so, studying this
intensively is highly advantageous & beneficial.

 Memorizing this to perfection and completeness
is at excellence.

 Then what to say about meditating on this
infinite Goodwill … ?

 

 





Angor Wat, Kambodia.

 



 

 


2: KayagataSati: Seeing
the Body merely as a form of matter.


 

Source: Majjhima Nikaya
119, KayagataSati Sutta.

 



 

Mindfulness of the body, continually seeing it
as a skeleton, hair, skin, nails, teeth, flesh, organs and nothing else – just
an ownerless filthy sack of bones, not-me-nor-mine, but the creator of physical
pain - is the easy way of establishing continuous mindfulness of the danger
of existence: Decay & Death!


A prerequisite for initiating the difficult at
length but more complete & final Satipatthana technique …                         

 
 

Majjhima Nikaya
119: Kayagata-Sati Sutta


 

Mindfulness Focused on
the Body as just a Form of mere Matter.

     

‘I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed
One was staying in Savatthi at Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. Now
at that time a large number of Bhikkhus, after the meal, on returning from
their alms  round, had gathered at the meeting hall when this discussion 
arose: “Isn’t it amazing, friends! Isn’t it astounding! , the extent to which 
mindfulness focused on the Body as a Form of Matter, when developed & practiced, 
is said by the Blessed One who knows, who sees , the worthy one, rightly self-awakened
, to be of great fruit & great benefit.” And this discussion came to no conclusion. 
Then the Blessed One, emerging from his seclusion in the late afternoon, went
to the meeting hall and, on arrival, sat down on a seat made ready. As he sat
down there, he addressed the Bhikkhus: “For what topic are you gathered together
here? And what was the topic of discussion that came to no conclusion?”


 
“Just now, lord, after the meal, on returning
from our alms round, we gathered at the meeting hall when this discussion arose:
‘Isn’t it amazing, friends! Isn’t it astounding! , the extent to which mindfulness
focused on the body as a form of matter, when developed & practiced, is said
by the Blessed One who knows, who sees , the worthy one, rightly self-awakened
, to be of great fruit & great benefit.’ This was the  discussion that
had come to no conclusion when the Blessed One arrived.”


 
Then the Blessed One said: “And how is mindfulness
focused on the body as [impersonal] matter developed, how is it practiced,
undertaken & completed so as to be of great fruit & great advantage?


 
Awareness gained by Breathing.

There is the case where a Bhikkhu , having gone
out into nature, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building , sits down
folding his legs crosswise, holding his body upright erect and setting up mindfulness
up in front. Always aware, he breathes in; always aware he breathes out:


When inhaling long, he notes that he inhaling
long; exhaling long, he notes that he is exhaling long.


Inhaling short, he notes that he is inhaling short;
exhaling short, he notes that he is exhaling short.

He trains himself to inhale aware of the entire
body and to exhale sensitive to the entire body.1

He trains himself to inhale calming bodily construction 
and to exhale calming bodily construction.2 And
as he remains thus attentive, enthusiastic & determined, any memories & motivations
related to the household life are left & with their removal his mind gathers
& settles inwardly, calms down & focus into unification. This is how a Bhikkhu
develops  mindfulness focused on the body as an ownerless form
of matter..


 
Noting the four Postures.
Furthermore, when walking, the Bhikkhu notes that
he is walking.  When standing, he notes that he is standing. When sitting,
he notes that he is sitting. When lying down, he notes that he is lying down.
Or however his body is disposed, that is how he notes it so. And as he remains
thus attentive, enthusiastic & determined, any memories & motivations related
to the household life are left & with their removal his mind gathers & settles
inwardly, calms & focus into unification. This is how a Bhikkhu develops mindfulness
focused on the body merely as a form of matter.. [remote control bio-robot]


 
Clear Comprehension of action.

Furthermore, when going forward & returning, he
makes himself fully aware, clearly comprehending the current action; when looking
toward & looking away…when bending & extending his limbs…when carrying
his robe & his bowl., when eating, drinking, chewing, & tasting, when urinating
& excreting,

when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep,
waking up, talking, & remaining silent, he makes himself fully aware of that.
And as he remains thus attentive, enthusiastic & determined, any memories &
motivations related to the household life are left & with their removal his
mind gathers & settles inwardly, calms & focus into unification. This is how
a Bhikkhu develops mindfulness focused on the body as an alien form
of fatter..


 
Scanning the Disgusting Body parts.

Furthermore, the Bhikkhu reflects as by scanning
on this very body from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head
on down, surrounded by  skin and full of various kinds of disgusting things3:
‘In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,
large intestines, small intestines, feces, bile, lymph, pus, blood, sweat,
fat, tears, skin-oil, spit, slime, fluid in the  joints, urine.’ Just
as if a sack with openings at both ends were full of various kinds of grain
, wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice , and
a man with good eyesight, pouring it out, were to reflect, ‘This is wheat.
This is rice. These are mung beans. These are kidney beans. These are sesame
seeds. This is husked rice’; in the same way, the Bhikkhu reflects on this
very body  from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head
on down, surrounded by skin and full of various kinds of unclean disgusting
things: ‘In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,
flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen,
lungs, large intestines, small intestines, feces, bile, lymph, pus, blood,
sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, spit, slime, fluid in the  joints, urine.’
And as he remains thus attentive, enthusiastic & determined, any memories &
motivations related to the household life are left & with their removal his
mind gathers & settles inwardly, calms & focus into unification. This is also
how a Bhikkhu develops mindfulness focused on the body simply as a complex
structure of [loathsome] material..


 
Analysis of Elements.
Furthermore, the Bhikkhu contemplates this very
body , however it  stands, however it is disposed , in terms of elements:
‘In this body there is the solid earth element (extension), the fluid liquid
element (cohesion), the fire element (heat), & the wind element (mobility of
diffusion).’ Just as a skilled butcher or his apprentice, having killed a cow,
would sit at a crossroads cutting it up into pieces, the Bhikkhu contemplates
this very body , however it stands, however it is disposed , in terms of
elements: ‘In this body there is the solid earth element (extension), the fluid
liquid element (cohesion), the fire element, & the wind element (mobility of
diffusion).’ And as he remains thus attentive, enthusiastic & determined, any
memories & motivations related to the household life are left & with their
removal his mind gathers & settles inwardly, calms & focus into unification.
This is too how a Bhikkhu develops mindfulness focused on the body as solely
a group of [exchanging] material phenomena..


 
As inspiration and acquisition
of the sign of disgust (asubha-nimitta) curing lust have

an collection of corpse
pictures be deposited at the link below. It can only be viewed by



adults > 18 years
http://s914.photobucket.com/albums/ac350/Asubha
 Guest login: corpses

 
The 9 Corpse Contemplations.

Furthermore, as if he were to see a corpse cast
away in a cemetery , one day, two days, three days dead – bloated3,
livid, putrid, rotting, stinking & festering, he applies it to this very body;
‘This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable
destiny’…


 
Or again, as if he were to see a corpse cast away
in a cemetery , picked at by crows, vultures, & hawks, by dogs, hyenas, & various
other animals…a skeleton covered partly with flesh & blood, connected with
tendons…a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, connected with tendons…a
skeleton without flesh or blood yet still connected with tendons… as bones
detached from their tendons, scattered in all directions , here a hand bone,
there a foot bone, here a shinbone, there a thigh bone, here a hip bone, there
a back bone, here a rib, there a chest bone, here a shoulder bone, there a
neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth, here a skull…the bones whitened,
somewhat  like the color of shells…piled up, more than a year old…decomposed
into a powder: He applies it to this very body, ‘This body, too: Such is its
nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable destiny.’  And as he
remains thus attentive, enthusiastic & determined, any memories & motivations
related to the household life are left & with their removal his mind gathers
& settles inwardly, calms & focus into unification. This is also how a Bhikkhu
develops mindfulness focused on the body merely as a [putrid & rotting] form
of matter..


 
The Four Jhanas:
Furthermore, quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures,
secluded from disadvantageous mental states, he enters & remains aloof in the
first jhana: mental joy & physical pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied
by directed & sustained thought. He permeates & pervades, suffuses & fills
this very body with the joy & pleasure born from seclusion. Just as if a skilled
bathman or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and
knead it together, sprinkling it again & again with water, so that his ball
of bath powder , saturated, moisture- laden, permeated within & without
,
would nevertheless not drip; even so, the Bhikkhu permeates…this very body
with the joy & pleasure born of withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire
body unpervaded by joy & pleasure born from withdrawal. And as he remains thus
attentive, enthusiastic & determined, any memories & motivations related to
the household life are left & with their removal his mind gathers & settles
inwardly, calms & focus into unification. This is also how a Bhikkhu develops
mindfulness focused on the body as a [painful restricting] form of matter..


 
And furthermore, with the stilling of by directed
& sustained thought, he enters & remains in the second jhana: joy & pleasure
born of concentration, unification of awareness devoid of directed & sustained
thought , internal silence. He permeates & pervades, suffuses &  fills
this very body with the joy & pleasure born of concentration.  Just like
a lake with spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from the
east, west, north, or south & with the skies supplying no abundant showers
time & again, that the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake,
from the underground would permeate & pervade, suffuse & fill it with cool
waters, there being no part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even
so, the Bhikkhu permeates this entire body with the joy & pleasure born of
concentration. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by joy & pleasure
born of concentration. And as he remains thus attentive, enthusiastic & determined,
any memories & motivations related to the household life are left & with their
removal his mind gathers & settles inwardly, calms & focus into unification.
This is how a Bhikkhu develops mindfulness focused on the body as a [deadly]
form of matter..


 
And furthermore, with the fading of joy, he remains
in equanimity, attentive & aware,  sensitive to physical  pleasure.
So he enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare:
‘In aware equanimity, one abides in pleasure.’ He  permeates & pervades,
suffuses & saturates this very body with the bodily pleasure divested of mental
joy. Just as in a lotus pond, some of the lotuses, born & growing in the water,
stay immersed in the water and flourish without standing up out of the water,
so that they are permeated & pervaded, suffused & saturated with cool water
from their roots to their tips & nothing of those lotuses would be unpervaded
with cool water; even so, the Bhikkhu permeates…this very body with the pleasure
divested of joy. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure
divested of joy. And as he remains thus attentive, enthusiastic & determined,
any memories & motivations related to the household life are left & with their
removal his mind gathers & settles inwardly, calms & focus into unification.
This is too how a Bhikkhu develops mindfulness focused on the body as [heavy]
heaped up stuff..


 
And furthermore, with the removal of pleasure
& pain , as with the earlier disappearance of joy & distress , he enters
& remains in the fourth jhana: purity of aware equanimity, perceiving neither
pleasure nor pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright & luminous
awareness. Just as if a man were sitting covered from head to foot with a white
cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did
not extend; even so, the Bhikkhu sits,  permeating the body with a pure,
bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright
luminous awareness. And as he remains thus attentive, enthusiastic & determined,
any memories & motivations related to the household life are left & with their
removal his mind gathers & settles inwardly, calms & focus into unification.
This is too how a Bhikkhu develops mindfulness focused on the body as bits
& pieces.

 
Completeness of Mind
Bhikkhus, whoever develops & refines awareness
focused on the body merely as a form of matter, include whatever advantageous
quality, which is part of true & direct knowledge. Just as whoever pervades
the great ocean with his awareness encompasses whatever streams that flow down
into the ocean, likewise, whoever develops & refines awareness focused
on the body as a form of matter, achieves whatever advantageous state contributing
to clear & direct knowing.


 
In whomever mindfulness Focused on the Body as
a Form of Matter is not developed, not practiced, Mara gains entry, Mara gains
a foothold! Suppose that a man were to throw a heavy stone ball into a pile
of wet clay. What do you think, Bhikkhus, would the heavy stone ball gain entry
into the pile of wet clay?  “Yes, Venerable Sir.” In the same way, in
whomever mindfulness focused on the body as a form of matter is not developed,
not practiced, Mara gains entry, Mara gains a foothold.


 
Now, suppose that there were a dry, sapless piece
of timber & a man were to come along with an upper fire-stick, thinking, ‘I’ll
light a fire. I’ll produce heat.’ What do you think , would he be able to
light a fire and produce heat by rubbing the upper fire-stick in the dry piece
of timber?”


“Yes, Venerable Sir.” Similarly, in whomever mindfulness
focused on the body as just a form of matter is not developed, not practiced,
Mara gains entry, Mara gains a foothold.


 
Now, suppose that there were an empty, hollow
water-pot set on a stand & a man was to come along carrying a load of water.
What do you think , would he get a place to place his water? “Yes, Venerable
Sir.” Likewise, in whomever mindfulness focused on the body as a mere form
of matter is not developed, not practiced, Mara gains entry, Mara gains a foothold.


 
Now, in whomever mindfulness focused on the body
as just a form of matter is developed, is practiced, Mara gains no entry, Mara
gains no foothold. Suppose that a man were to throw a ball of thread against
a door panel made entirely of hardwood. What do you think , would that light
ball of thread gain entry into that door panel made entirely of hardwood? 
“No, Venerable Sir.” Exactly so, in whomever mindfulness focused on the body
as just a form of matter is developed, is practiced, Mara gains no entry, Mara
gains no foothold.


 
Now, suppose that there were a wet, soaked & damp
piece of timber & a man were to come along with an upper fire-stick, thinking,
‘I’ll light a fire. I’ll produce heat.’ What do you think , would he be able
to light a fire and produce heat by rubbing the upper fire-stick in the wet,
soaked & damp piece of timber?  “No, Venerable Sir.” Even so, in whomever
mindfulness focused on the body as just a form of matter is developed, is practiced,
Mara gains no entry, Mara gains no foothold.


 
Now, imagine that there were a water-pot set on
a stand, full of water up to the brim so that crows could drink out of it &
a man were to come along carrying a load of water. What do you think , would
he get a place to put his water? “No, Venerable Sir.”  In the same way,
in whomever mindfulness focused on the body as just a form of matter is developed,
is practiced, Mara gains no entry, Mara gains no foothold.


 
Opening to the Higher Knowledges:

When anyone has developed & refined awareness
focused on the body, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his
mind to know & realize, he can witness them in all their aspects for himself
as an eyewitness, since their cause is provided.

 
Assume that there was a water jar, set on a stand,
brimful of water so that a crow could drink from it. If a strong man were to
tip it in any way at all, would water spill out?  “Yes, Venerable Sir.” 
In the same way, when anyone has developed & practiced mindfulness Focused
on the Body as a Form of Matter, then whichever of the six higher knowledges
he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them in all their aspects
for himself as an eyewitness, since their cause is provided.

 
Imagine there were a rectangular water tank ,
set on level ground, bounded by dikes , brimful of water so that a crow could
drink from it. If a strong man were to destroy the dikes anywhere at all, would
water flow out? “Yes, Venerable Sir.” Correspondingly, when anyone has developed
& practiced mindfulness focused on the body as a form of mere matter, then
whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know & realize,
he can witness them for himself since the suitable condition have been provided.


 
Imagine there were a wagon on level ground at
four crossroads, yoked to full-blooded horses, waiting with the whip lying
ready, so that a skilled driver, a trainer of tamable horses, might mount and
, taking the reins with his left hand and the whip with his right , drive
out & back, to whatever place & by whichever road he preferred; in exactly
the same way, when anyone has developed & practiced mindfulness focused on
the body as a remote form of matter, then whichever of the six higher knowledges
he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them for himself as their
basis have been provided.


 
Ten Advantages:
Bhikkhus, for one in whom mindfulness focused
on the body as just a form of matter is cultivated, developed, practiced, given
a means of transport, given a grounding, steadied, consolidated, & well-undertaken,
ten advantages can be expected. Which ten?


 
1: Painless:
One conquers pain & pleasure & pain – whether
mental or physical - does not conquer one.


One remains victoriously overcoming any pain that
has arisen.


 
2: Fearless:
One conquers any fear, anxiety & panic & fear,
anxiety & panic do not conquer one. 


One remains victoriously triumphant over any fear,
anxiety & panic that have arisen.


 
3: Robust:
One is resistant to cold, heat, hunger, thirst,
the touch of gadflies & mosquitoes, wind & sun & creeping things; to abusive,
hurtful speech; one becomes the sort that can endure bodily feelings that,
when they arise, are painful, sharp, stabbing, fierce, revolting, disagreeable,
deadly.


 
4: Concentrated:

One can attain at will, easily, without trouble
or difficulty, the four jhanas , heightened mental states providing a pleasant
abiding right here & now.


 
5: Supra-human:
One wields manifold supernormal powers. Having
been one becomes many [instant cloning by mind-made body]; having been many
one becomes single. One appears. One vanishes. One goes unimpeded through walls,
ramparts, & mountains as if through space. One dives in & out of the earth
as if it were water. One walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land.
Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With one’s
hand hone touches & strokes even the sun & moon, so mighty & powerful. One
can travel to & influence by bodily acts even as far as the Brahma realms.


 
6: Divine hearing:
One hears , by means of the divine ear-element,
purified & surpassing the human , both kinds of sounds: divine & human, whether
near or far.


 
7: Mind reading:
One knows the awareness of other beings, other
individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. One recognizes a
mind with passion as an impassioned mind & a mind without passion as a dispassioned
mind. One recognizes a mind with aversion as an aversive mind & a mind without
aversion as a mind without aversion. One recognizes a mind with delusion as
a confused mind & an undeluded mind as a mind without confusion. One recognizes
a contracted mind as a restricted mind & a scattered mind as a splintered &
distracted mind. One recognizes an enlarged mind as an aloof& exalted mind
& an unenlarged mind as an average mind. One recognizes a surpassable mind
as a surpassable mind & an unsurpassable mind as an unsurpassable mind. 
One recognizes a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind & an unconcentrated
mind as an unconcentrated mind. One recognizes a released mind as a released
mind & an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind.


 
8: Remembrance of previous lives:

One recollects his manifold past lives (lit: previous
homes), i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty,
thirty, forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many
eons of cosmic contraction, many eons of cosmic expansion, many eons of cosmic
contraction & expansion, remembering: ‘There I had such a name, belonged to
such a family, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience
of pleasure & pain & such the end of my life. Passing away from that state,
I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had
such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure & pain
& such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.’
Thus one remembers his manifold past lives in their modes & details.


 
9: Divine Eye:
One sees , by means of the divine eye, purified
& surpassing the human , beings passing away & re-appearing & he discerns
how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate
in accordance with their kamma, their behavior: ‘These beings , who were endowed
with bad conduct of body, speech, & mind, who reviled the Noble Ones, held
wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views , with
the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation,
the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings , who were
endowed with good conduct of body, speech, & mind, who did not revile the Noble
Ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the influence of right
views , with the break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the
good destinations, in the heavenly world.’ Thus , by means of the


Divine eye, purified & surpassing the human
,
he sees beings passing away & re-appearing & he discerns how they are inferior
& superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance with their
kamma (actions).


 
 
10: Eliminating the mental fermentations:

Through the ending of the mental fermentations,
he remains in the fermentation-free release of consciousness & release by direct
knowledge, having known and made them manifest for himself right in the here
& now.


 
Bhikkhus, for one in whom mindfulness focused
on the body as just a form of mere matter, is thus

cultivated, developed, refined, made a vehicle,
made a tool, established, consolidated, & properly undertaken, these ten advantages
can be expected…’   That is what the Buddha said.


Grateful, inspired & uplifted, the Bhikkhus were
pleased with the Blessed One’s words.


 

Notes & Comments:

1:
“Entire Body” here has several connotations:


A: Whole body experienced sequentially
scanning all parts & furthermore in one & same sensation.

B: Both the Physical Body made of the
4 great elements: (extension, cohesion, heat, diffusion);


    & the Mental Body 
‘made of’: (contact, feeling, perception, intention & attention).

C: Whole ‘Breath Body’ which means awareness
of the start, middle & end of the in&exhalations.

 
2:”Calming
Bodily Construction” here means calming all movement of muscles, thereby also
breathing.

 Calming bodily construction also
includes reducing all biochemical metabolism of sugar, protein,


 lipids & all other compounds. It
also means slowing the heartbeat & the deceleration of the blood flow.

 It signifies the stilling of all
physical or chemical processes taking place in the body. On the elemental


 level it means relaxing the extension,
spreading the cohesion, cooling the heat & slow down the

 diffusion.

 
3:
For illustrative inspiration: ‘Protect the nimitta’ it is said = remember these
‘signs of disgust’:


 

 
 
 





 



 


3: AnapanaSati
– Mindfulness focused on & by Breathing in-&-out.

 

Sources:
I: From Majjhima Nikaya 118. The classic
AnapanaSati sutta.

II: The Lamp! From the Samyutta Nikaya V. The Mahavagga.
III: The One Condition! From same. Section
on Breathing in&out.

IV: The Tathagatas Way of Life

All sources here are so canonical & extracted from the Tipitaka, which is
the
only authentic &  accurate recording of what the Buddha actually said
& taught.
This is so to eliminate ‘personal’ opinions, views & other distortions of
these precious & ancient methods.




  


Majjhima Nikaya 118


Anapanasati Sutta



Mindfulness of Breathing


For free distribution only, as a gift of Dhamma

 

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying
at Savatthi in the Eastern Monastery, the palace of Migara’s mother, together
with many well-known elder disciples , with Ven. Sariputta, Ven. Maha Moggallana,
Ven. Maha Kassapa, Ven. Maha Kaccayana, Ven. Maha Kotthita, Ven. Maha Kappina,
Ven. Maha Cunda, Ven. Revata, Ven. Ananda & other well-known elder disciples.
On that occasion the elder Bhikkhus were teaching & instructing. Some elder
Bhikkhus were teaching & instructing ten Bhikkhus, some were teaching & instructing
twenty Bhikkhus, some were teaching & instructing thirty Bhikkhus, some were
teaching & instructing forty Bhikkhus. The new Bhikkhus, being taught & instructed
by the elder Bhikkhus, were successively discriminating significant distinctions.
Now on that occasion , the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, the full-moon
night of the Pavarana ceremony , the Blessed One was seated in the open
air surrounded by the community of Bhikkhus. Surveying the silent community
of Bhikkhus, he addressed them:

 
“Bhikkhus, I am content with this practice. I am really
content in mind with this exercise. So arouse even more intense persistence
for the attaining of the as-yet-unattained, the reaching of the as-yet-unreached,
and the realization of the as-yet-unrealized. I will remain right here at
Savatthi [for another month] through the ‘White water-lily’ month, the fourth
month of the rains.”

 
The Bhikkhus in the countryside heard, “The Blessed One,
they say, will remain right there at Savatthi through the White water-lily
month, the fourth month of the rains.”  So they left for Savatthi to
see the Blessed One.

 
Then the elder Bhikkhus taught & instructed even more intensely.
Some elder Bhikkhus were teaching & instructing ten Bhikkhus, some were teaching
& instructing twenty Bhikkhus, some were teaching & instructing thirty Bhikkhus,
some were teaching & instructing forty Bhikkhus. The new Bhikkhus, being
taught & instructed by the elder Bhikkhus, were discerning even higher1a
successive distinctions.

 
Now on that occasion , the Uposatha day of the fifteenth,
the full-moon night of the White water-lily month, the fourth month of the
rains , the Blessed One was seated in the open air surrounded by the community
of Bhikkhus. Surveying the silent community of Bhikkhus, he addressed them:

 
Bhikkhus, this assembly is free from idle chatter, devoid
of empty babble & is established on pure heartwood: such is this community
of Bhikkhus, such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that is worthy of
gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, an
incomparable field of merit for the world: such is this community of Bhikkhus,
such is this assembly. The sort of assembly to which a small gift, when given,
becomes great & a great gift greater: such is this community of Bhikkhus,
such is this assembly. The sort of assembly that it is rare to see in the
world: such is this community of Bhikkhus, such is this assembly , the sort
of assembly that it would be worth traveling for leagues, taking along provisions,
in order to see.

 
In this community of Bhikkhus there are Bhikkhus who are
Arahants, whose mental fermentations are ended, who have reached fulfillment,
done the task, laid down the burden, attained the true goal, totally destroyed
the fetter of becoming & who are released through right gnosis: such are
the Bhikkhus in this community of Bhikkhus.

In this community of Bhikkhus there are Bhikkhus who, with
the total ending of the first set of five fetters, are due to be reborn [in
the Pure Abodes], there to be totally unbound, never again to return from
that world: such are the Bhikkhus in this community of Bhikkhus.


In this community of Bhikkhus there are Bhikkhus who, with
the total ending of [the first] three fetters1 & with the attenuation of
passion, aversion, & delusion, are once-returners, who , on returning only
one more time to this world , will make an ending to pain: such are the
Bhikkhus in this community of Bhikkhus.

In this community of Bhikkhus there are Bhikkhus who, with
the total ending of [the first] three fetters, are stream-winners, steadfast,
never again destined for states of woe, headed for self-awakening: such are
the Bhikkhus in this community of Bhikkhus.

In this community of Bhikkhus there are Bhikkhus who remain
devoted to the development of the four frames of reference…the four right
exertions…the four sources of force… the five abilities…the five powers…the
Seven Factors of Awakening…the Noble Eightfold Way: such are the Bhikkhus
in this community of Bhikkhus.

In this community of Bhikkhus there are Bhikkhus who remain
devoted to the development of good will…understanding…joy…equanimity…
disgust of the body… the perception of impermanence: such are the Bhikkhus
in this community of Bhikkhus.  In this community of Bhikkhus there
are Bhikkhus who remain devoted to mindfulness by in-&-out breathing.

 
Mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, when developed & practiced,
is of great fruit, of great advantage. Mindfulness of in-&-out breathing,
when developed & practiced, brings the four frames of reference to their
culmination. The four frames of reference, when developed & practiced, bring
the Seven Factors of Awakening to their culmination. The Seven Factors of
Awakening, when developed & practiced, bring clear knowing & release to their
culmination.

 

Establishment
of Mindfulness by awareness of In-&-Out Breathing

Now how is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing developed
& practiced so as to bring the four frames of reference to their culmination?

There is the case where a Bhikkhu, having gone to the wilderness,
to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building, sits down folding his legs
crosswise, holding his body erect & setting mindfulness up in front.
2 Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

 
Inhaling long, he notes that he is inhaling long & exhaling
long, he notes that he is exhaling long.

Inhaling short, he notes that he is inhaling short & exhaling
short, he notes that he is exhaling short.

He trains himself to inhale experiencing the entire body
& to exhale sensitive to the entire body.3


He trains himself to inhale calming the bodily processes
& to exhale calming the bodily construction. 4

 
He trains himself to inhale perceptive of mental joy &
to exhale experiencing to mental joy.

He trains himself to inhale receptive of bodily pleasure
& to exhale experiencing bodily pleasure.

He trains himself to inhale sensitive to mental construction
& to exhale experiencing mental construction.  He trains himself to
inhale calming mental construction & to exhale calming mental construction.
5  

 
He trains himself to inhale perceiving the mind & to exhale
experiencing the mind.6

He trains himself to inhale gladdening the mind & to exhale
satisfying the mind.7

He trains himself to inhale focusing the mind & to breathe
out concentrating the mind.8

He trains himself to inhale releasing the mind & to exhale
liberating the mind.9

 
He trains himself to inhale focusing on impermanence &
to exhale reflecting on inconstancy. 10

He trains himself to inhale reflecting on disinterest &
to breathe out reflecting on disillusion. 11



He trains himself to inhale reflecting on stopping & to
exhale reflecting on ending.

He trains himself to inhale reflecting on relinquishment
& to exhale reflecting on relinquishment. 12

 

The Four
Frames of Reference

Now, on whatever occasion a Bhikkhu inhaling long notes
that he is inhaling long; or exhaling long, notes that he is exhaling long;
or inhaling short, notes that he is inhaling short; or exhaling short, notes
that he is exhaling short; trains himself to in & exhale experiencing the
entire body; trains himself to in & exhale calming the bodily construction:
On that occasion the Bhikkhu remains focused on the body in & of itself
,
enthusiastic, alert, & aware, thereby eliminating greed & distress relating
to the world. I tell you, Bhikkhus, that this , the in-&-out breath , is
classed as a body among bodies, which is why the Bhikkhu on that occasion
remains focused on the body in & of itself , enthusiastic, alert, & aware,
thereby eliminating greed & distress relating to the world.


 
On whatever occasion a Bhikkhu trains himself to in & exhale
experiencing joy; trains himself to in & exhale perceiving pleasure; trains
himself to in & exhale experiencing mental construction; trains himself to
in & exhale calming mental construction: On that occasion the Bhikkhu remains
focused on feelings in & of themselves , enthusiastic, alert, & aware,
subduing greed & distress relating to the world. I tell you, Bhikkhus, that
this , close attention to in-&-out breaths , is classed as a feeling among
feelings, which is why the Bhikkhu on that occasion remains focused on feelings
in & of themselves , enthusiastic, alert, & aware, thereby eliminating
greed & distress relating to the world.

 
On whatever occasion a Bhikkhu trains himself to in & exhale
experiencing to the mind; trains himself to in & exhale satisfying the mind;
trains himself to in & exhale concentrating the mind; trains himself to in
& exhale releasing the mind: On that occasion the Bhikkhu remains focused
on the mind in & of itself , enthusiastic, alert, & aware, subduing greed
& distress relating to the world. I don’t say that there is mindfulness of
in-&-out breathing in one of confused mindfulness and no alertness, which
is why the Bhikkhu on that occasion remains focused on the mind in & of itself
, enthusiastic, alert, & aware, thereby eliminating greed & distress relating
to the world.

 
On whatever occasion a Bhikkhu trains himself to in & exhale
reflecting on impermanence; trains himself to in & exhale reflecting on disillusion;
trains himself to in & exhale reflecting on ceasing; trains himself to in
& exhale reflecting on relinquishment: On that occasion the Bhikkhu remains
focused on mental states in & of themselves , enthusiastic, alert, & aware,
subduing greed & distress relating to the world. He who sees clearly with
discernment the removal of greed & distress is one who oversees with equanimity,
which is why the Bhikkhu on that occasion remains focused on mental quality
in & of itself , enthusiastic, alert, & aware, thereby eliminating greed
& distress relating to the world.

 
This is how mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed
& practiced so as to bring the four frames of reference to their culmination…



The Seven Factors of Awakening:
And how, friends, when the Four Foundations of Awareness
– the four frames of reference have been developed, how when they have been
made much of, do they bring to fulfillment, to culmination the Seven Links
to enlightenment, the Seven Factors of Awakening?

 
At the time, friends, when a friend is living by contemplating
the body as a mere body, just a disgusting form, though enthusiastic & clearly
conscious of it, continually Aware of it, steady & without lapse so as to
control the desire & aversion, greed & distress [for bodies and forms] in
& of the world: At that time undisrupted Awareness is aroused in this friend….
At the time, friends, when undisrupted Awareness, when unrelaxed, unslack
Awareness, when unlapsing, continual Awareness is aroused & irreversibly
established in such friend: At that exact occasion is the Factor of Awakening
that is Awareness stirred up in this friend; at that time such friend develops
the Factor of Awakening that is Awareness; at that time the factor of awakening
that is Awareness comes to fulfillment, to culmination of development in
this friend.

 
Living thus Aware, awake, mindful such curious & interested
friend examines, inquires into, scrutinizes, analyzes, & bring all phenomena
forward for Investigation by means of insight by observation.  At the
time, friends, when such a friend, living thus aware, mindful, examines,
inquires into, scrutinizes, analyzes, & bring these things forward for Investigation,
he comes to comprehension by means of insight: At exactly that occasion the
Factor of Awakening that is Investigation of phenomena, of states, of dhammas
& of The Dhamma - The Norm is stirred up in such friend; at that time the
friend develops the Factor of Awakening that is Investigation into things;
at that time the factor of awakening that is Investigation into things comes
to fulfillment, to culmination of development in this friend.


 
While such friend is thus examining, analyzing, inquiring
into all phenomena, the unsluggish Energy of enthusiasm inherent in curiosity
is stirred up in this friend. At the time, friends, when such unsluggish
enduring Energy is stirred up in a friend, who is examining, who inquires
into that quality of unflagging persistence; at that time the Factor of Awakening
that is Energy is stirred up in such friend; at that time such friend develops
the Factor of Awakening that is Energy; at that time the factor of awakening
that is Energy comes to fulfillment, to culmination of development in this
friend.

 
When such a friend has stirred up energy an immaculate
joy not of this world, a rapture not of this body arises.  A joy not
experienced before, a bliss not of the flesh, not caused by sensing anything.


At the time, friends, when such immaculate joy not of this
world, such ecstasy not of this body arises in a friend of stirred up energy:
At that time the Factor of Awakening that is Rapture, is stirred up in such
friend; at that time the friend develops the Factor of Awakening that is
Rapture; at that time the factor of awakening that is Rapture comes to fulfillment,
to culmination of development in this friend.

 
The body of one whose mind is enraptured, [- as happy as
can be, satisfied & content -] grows calm & is all tranquilized, and mind
& thought too grows calm & is all tranquilized. At the time when both the
body of a friend whose mind is enraptured is tranquilized and his thought
too is all tranquilized: At that time the Factor of Awakening that is Tranquility
is aroused in such friend; at that time the friend develops the Factor of
Awakening that is Tranquility; at that time the factor of awakening that
is Tranquility comes to fulfillment, to culmination of development in this
friend.

 
The mind of one whose body is thus calm, tranquil and at
ease becomes quite concentrated. At the time, friends, when the mind is concentrated
in a friend whose body is calm, tranquil and at ease: At that time the Factor
of Awakening that is Concentration is aroused in such friend; at that time
the friend develops the Factor of Awakening that is Concentration; at that
time the factor of awakening that is Concentration comes to fulfillment,
to culmination of development in this friend.

 
Such noble friend with mind concentrated thus is one who
reviews with reason, with proper care with prudence any of his thoughts.
At the time, friends, when a friend looks with proper care at the thought
concentrated thus: At that time the Factor of Awakening that is Equanimity,
solid even mental balance, settles in such friend; at that time the friend
develops the Factor of Awakening that is Equanimity; at that time the factor
of awakening that is Equanimity comes to fulfillment, to culmination of development
in this friend. At the time, friends, when a friend is faring along contemplating
the Feelings just as Responses…., the Mind just as Moods…., the Reality
as mere Mental States …., enthusiastic, clearly conscious of them, continually
Aware of them, so as to control the attraction and rejection, greed & aversion
provoked by this world: at that time the factor of Awakening that is Equanimity
comes to fulfillment of development in this friend.

 
Friends, when the Four Frames of Reference, the Four Foundations
of Awareness are developed thus, made much of thus, refined thus, they bring
to fulfillment the Seven Links in Awakening ….!

 
And How, friends, when the Seven Links of Awakening have
been developed thus, refined thus, completed thus: How when they are made
much of, do they bring to fulfillment:

Complete Freedom through Knowledge?
 
Herein, friends, a friend develops the Factor of Awakening
that is Awareness dependent on aloofness, seclusion & solitude, dependent
on detachment, disillusion & dispassion dependent on cessation, stopping
& ending in surrender of letting go; the friend develops the Factor of Awakening
that is Investigation into things…

The friend develops the Factor of Awakening that is Energy…
The friend develops the Factor of Awakening that is Rapture…
The friend develops the Factor of Awakening that is Tranquility…
The friend develops the Factor of Awakening that is Concentration…
The friend develops the Factor of Awakening that is Equanimity

The friend develops dependent on aloofness, seclusion &
solitude, dependent on detachment, disillusion & dispassion, dependent on
cessation, stopping & ending in the surrender of letting go….!

Friends, when the Seven Links in Awakening are developed
thus, are made much of thus, are refined thus, they bring to utter fulfillment:
Final Freedom through Direct Knowledge ….!

 
Thus spoke the Buddha….
 
Delighted, aroused, uplifted, inspired & gratified these
Bhikkhus rejoiced in what the Blessed One had said…. ‘

___________________________________________________________________________________________


 

Adapted from appreciated translation of
Thanissaro Bhikkhu:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/majjhima/mn118.html


 

Notes & Comments:

1: The first three lower Fetters (Samyojana)
obstructing one from entering the stream:

Personality view or ‘ego’ belief (Sakkaya-ditthi). The false idea
that there is a fixed person ‘I & Me’.

Skeptical Doubt (Vicikiccha). Uncertainty about whether the Buddha
actually was perfectly enlightened.

Attachment to rule & ritual (silabbata-paramasa): The belief that
morality or rituals can purify mind.

 
2:”Setting mindfulness up in front”. Means attention should be focused
where the breath touch & is felt

either inside the nostrils or on the upper lip. (Lit: ‘around the
mouth’). The closed eyes should ‘look for’

the same location, down & central, since that enhance the attention
& perception of the gentle air touch. 

 
3: “Entire Body” here has several connotations:

A: Whole body experienced sequentially scanning all parts & furthermore
in one & same sensation.

B: Both the Physical Body made of the 4 great elements: (extension,
cohesion, heat, diffusion);  

& the Mental Body  ‘made of’: (contact, feeling, perception,
intention & attention).

C: Whole ‘Breath Body’ which means awareness of the start, middle
& end of the in&exhalations.

 
4:”Calming Bodily Construction” here means calming all movement
of muscles, thereby also breathing. Calming bodily construction also includes
reducing all biochemical metabolism of sugar, protein, lipids & all other
compounds. It also means slowing the heartbeat & the deceleration of the
blood flow. It signifies the stilling of all physical or chemical processes
taking place in the body. On the elemental level it means relaxing the extension,
spreading the cohesion, cooling the heat & slow down the diffusion.


 
5:” Calming mental construction”  Mental
construction here signifies perception & feeling. So calming the mental
construction (formation) means tranquilizing the mental process of creating
a perception from the raw sense input & the mental process of assigning
a feeling thereto, one here systematically calms:

‘The mental construction of visual perception & the connected feeling
(Pleasurable, painful or neutral)

 The mental construction of auditory perception & the connected
feeling. (Important disturber while sitting!)

 The mental construction of smell perception & the connected
feeling.

 The mental construction of taste perception & the connected
feeling.

 The mental construction of bodily tactile perception & the
connected feeling. (Pain-maker while sitting!)

 The mental construction of mental experience & the connected
feeling.’ Then quite silent mind can be!

 
6:”Experiencing the mind” means initially
which mood the mind currently is in. Aversive or resisting? Wanting or searching
or urging? Confused, bewildered or in doubt? Contracted or scattered? Alert
or sluggish? Aloof or engaged? Calm or anxious? Absorbed or average? Released
or bound?  After 1st access to Jhana it means perceiving in which Jhana
the mind abides?

1st: Absorbed into undistracted directed & sustained thought joined
by joy & pleasure?

2nd: Absorbed into unified mental stillness void of thought but
joined by joy & pleasure?

3rd: Absorbed into the balanced awareness of equanimity joined
by pleasure?

4th: Absorbed into purity of aware equanimity?
 
7:”Satisfying the mind” means rejoicing,
pleasing & delighting the mind initially by recollecting the exquisite qualities
of the Buddha or other similar advantageous pleasant object. After the 1st  
access to Jhana it means first creating or entering the rapture connected
with 1st & 2nd Jhana & then when returning from absorption reviewing this
exquisite excellence of the quality of joy. 

 
8:”Concentrating the mind” means initially
focusing, steadying, fixing & evenly placing it on the object: The ‘sign’
of air touching the nostrils. This gradually stabilizes into one-pointedness
of mind where only one object is anchored in the attention. This non-excess
of thoughts, this non-distraction is the door, this edge, this entrance,
is the access point to absorption into 1st Jhana. So keep on polishing here!


 
9:”Releasing the mind” means setting the
mind free from the hindrances of 1: Urge for sensing by reflecting on the
disgusting aspects. 2: Ill will by reflecting on the release of mind by
friendship. 3: Lethargy & Laziness by reflecting on initiative, launching
& persistence. 4: Restlessness & Regret by reflecting on the stable inner
calm of body & the serene inner calm of mind. 5: Confused uncertainty by
reflecting on the advantageous & the detrimental, the blamable & unblamable,
the average & the excellent, the bright & the dark. And thereby entering
the 1st Jhana. In the Jhanas this means releasing the mind from: The ‘noise’
of thoughts, the ‘tension’ of joy (& depression). and the distress of pleasure
(& pain) .

 
10 : “Reflecting on impermanence.“ means realizing
the inevitable change, otherwiseness, vanishing, ending & thereby certain
loss of whatever form in world, loss of whatever body, loss of whatever
feeling, loss of whatever experience, loss of whatever construction, loss
of whatever consciousness there possibly can be. Divine or not …  

 
11: “Reflecting on disillusion.“ means noting the disinterest, indifference,
disenchantment  & disappointment that inevitably emerge with whatever
object as time goes by. Mind grows bored even with what it loved! This ‘Virago’
‘= lit. Fading away’ is a general feature. For rich people it is very difficult
to find satisfaction for this reason. Whatever you can have, they already
had plenty of it & thereby grown dispassioned towards it, realizing its
emptiness. Only Dukkha appears. Only Dukkha fades away! 


 
12: “Reflecting on relinquishment.“ means seeing that having a body
means having pain one gives up body, one lets go of ‘form’ and is thereby
mentally released & relinquished into entering the bliss & peace of Nibbana
in which form is absent. Seeing the inherent detrimental distress of feeling,
perception, construction & consciousness one gives up those too. Then one
is cleared for the final climax.         





II: The LAMP

  


‘At Savatthi, there the Blessed One said:

 
‘Bhikkhus & friends, intent concentration on in&out breathing,
if cultivated & made much of,

 is of Great Fruit, of Great Advantage! 

 
 And how is intent concentration on in&out breathing
cultivated & made much of in order to

 guarantee great fruit, great advantage? 

 
 Bhikkhus & friends, in this teaching, the Noble One
goes to a forest, root of tree or empty place,

 sits down with legs crossed, spine straight, with
awareness set up front;  & so determined such 


 such one inwardly repeats:
 
 Aware of ‘I shall inhale a long breath’ just that
is noticed. 

 Aware of ‘I shall exhale a long breath’ just that
is noticed.

 Aware of ‘I shall inhale a short breath’ just that
is noticed.

 Aware of ‘I shall exhale a short breath’ just that
is noticed.

 While inhaling aware of whole body, the entire body
is sensed,

 While exhaling aware of whole body, the complete
body is experienced.

 Calming the constructions of this compounded body,
I shall breathe in.

 Calming the construction in this compounded body,
I shall breathe out.

 
 Feeling great joy, I shall breathe in.  Feeling
great mental joy, I will inhale.

 Feeling calm pleasure I breathe in. Feeling calm
pleasure in the body, I will exhale.

 Aware of & perceptive of the process of mental construction,
I will inhale.

 Aware of & discerning the process of mental construction,
I will exhale.

 Calming this process of mental construction I breathe
in.

 Stilling this process of mental construction1 I will
exhale.

 
 Experiencing the current mentality, I will inhale.
Observing the current mood, I will exhale.

 Satisfying mind by gladness, I will inhale. 
Delighting the mind by cheerfulness, I will exhale.

 Condensing & collecting the mind into focused concentration,
I will inhale.

 Composing & converging the mind into focused concentration,
I will exhale.

 Releasing mind into openness, I will inhale. Relinquishing
the mind into freedom I will exhale.2

 
 Considering impermanence, I will inhale. Considering
inconstancy, transience, I will exhale. 3


 Seeing the fading of all attractions, I will inhale.
Noting disillusion, disenchantment, I will exhale.

 Thinking on ending (this narcotic slavery), 
I will inhale. Thinking on stopping, I will exhale.

 Contemplating letting go, giving it up, leaving all
this pain behind, I will inhale.

 Reflecting on relinquishment, release by cutting
mental bonds, I will exhale.

 
 Only so cultivated, just thus made much of, is intent
concentration on

 in&out breathing, of guaranteed Great Fruit, is Great
Advantage assured …

 
 Formerly, bhikkhus & friends, when I was yet a Boddhisattva,
I used to live mostly and so

 dwelled quite often in this very way. As I lived
just this way, neither my body nor my eyes were

 fatigued. Furthermore & importantly; I was gradually
freed from the Asavas….4

 
Wherefore, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should wish:
‘May neither my body nor my eyes

be fatigued, & may I by detachment be freed of all the
Asavas’; then such one must pay faithful

attention to & invest a frequent effort in this very awareness
of in&out breathing.

 
Similarly, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should wish:
‘Whatsoever of memories, dreams & plans I have bound to worldly life, may
I leave all those all behind’; then such one must do so too.
 

Likewise, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should wish:
‘May I be repulsed by the attractive. May the disgusting neither repulse
me. May I be repelled both by what is attractive & not attractive. May
I not be dismayed neither by what is disgusting & not disgusting. May I
by leaving all notice of both the attractive & the disgusting, remain aware,
at ease, unaffected & established in calm’; then such one must pay exact
attention to & invest an effort in this very awareness by in&out breathing.

Equally, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should wish: 
‘Aloof from sensual attraction,  secluded from detrimental mental
states, having entered 1st jhana, absorbed in directed & sustained thought,
born of seclusion in solitude, filled with ecstatic joy & pleasure, may
I remain therein’; then such one must also do likewise.

 
Furthermore, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should
wish: ‘By calming down directed & sustained thought, may I enter 2nd jhana,
that inner calm & naked one-pointed attention,

void of all directed & sustained thought, which born of
concentration is filled with joy & ease,

and remain therein’;  then such one must pay strict
attention to & invest an additional effort in this very same awareness
of in&out breathing.

 
Moreover, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should wish:
‘By the fading of the unrest of ecstatic joy, may I stay indifferent, aware
& composed by entering the 3rd jhana of which The Nobles declare: “Pleasure
has one who remain aware & evenly balanced in equanimity”‘; then such one
must indeed do likewise.

 
Additionally, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should
wish: ‘May I by leaving all prior bodily ease & pain behind, by also ending
all prior mental happiness & frustration, enter on the state being neither
pleasant nor painful, which is neither joyous nor depressing, that utter
purity of Equanimity, this stilled unified awareness of 4th jhana.’; then
such one must pay strict attention to & invest considerable effort in this
very awareness of in&out breathing.

 
Essentially, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should
wish: ‘Passing completely beyond any perception of any object, unconscious
of & unresponsive to all sense input, not experiencing any difference at
all, firmly fixed on the fact ‘Infinite is space’; may I attain and remain
in the sphere of infinitude of space.’; then such one must definitely do
likewise.

 
Correspondingly, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should
wish: ‘Passing utterly beyond this infinity of space, reaching & expanding
into infinity of consciousness, may I attain and remain in the sphere of
the infinitude of consciousness; then such one must pay firm attention
to & invest quite an effort in this very same awareness of in&out breathing.

Accordingly, bhikkhus
& friends, if a Noble One should
wish: ‘Passing utterly beyond such infinity of consciousness
realizing
the inaccessible & transcendent fact ‘There is nothing at
all’, may I touch, attain and remain in the sphere of the empty
void.’; then such one must assuredly train this same awareness
by in&out
breathing.

 
Certainly, bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should wish:
‘Passing utterly beyond this state of nothingness, reaching the sphere
of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, may I touch, attain and remain
therein. then such one must assign importance to & invest quite an effort
in this very same awareness of in&out breathing.

 
Finally bhikkhus & friends, if a Noble One should wish:
‘Leaving the plane of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, may I end
any sensation, cease to feel & extinguish all perception, and by that enter
the sphere of cessation of consciousness, then such one must show interest,
give priority & invest a substantial cumulated effort in this very same
awareness of in&out breathing.

 
Now, bhikkhus & friends, if this quite intent concentration
on in&out breathing, is so developed & refined exactly in this way, then
this Noble One, when feeling a pleasant feeling, knows: this is impermanent,
is not lured by it & does not cling to nor delight in it. If such Noble
One feels a painful feeling this noble knows too: this is not lasting,
is therefore not dominated by it, or stay being suppressed by it. Even
so when feeling a neither pleasant nor painful feeling such one knows:
this is impermanent, is not tricked by it, or does he lean back in that
neutral ease neither. Consequently, if this Noble One feels a pleasant
feeling, such one feels it, as one detached & all free from bondage to
it. Even so, if this Noble One feels a painful feeling, such one feels
it, as one released & all free from suppressed by it. Similarly, if this
Noble One feels a neutral feeling, such one feels it, as one indifferent
& all free from attachment to it. If such Noble One has the feeling, that
the bodily endurance has reached its limit, such one is aware of & recognizes
that feeling. If such Noble One has a feeling that life has reached its
limit, such one is aware of & recognizes that feeling too! Such Noble One
also understands, is assured & accepts:  ‘When body breaks up, all
my experiences will loose their attraction & grow cold.’  Just as
a lamp keep burning as long as there is wick & oil but go out if wick and
oil is used up & not again reinstalled, - even so when The Noble feels:
that bodily endurance has reached its limit; that life has reached its
limit; that after body breaks up, when life is used up, then all experiences
of this world will loose their lure & grow cold; then indeed such Noble
One is calmly aware of exactly this .…


                                                                                                
,-



Source:

Samyutta Nikaya; Mahavagga,
Breathing in-&-out section.
 


Notes & Comments:



1: ‘Mental construction’:
Perception & feeling are mental constructs based on sense input. The object
‘elephant’ is not inside the head while seeing it. A mentally constructed
‘image’ of an elephant is seen. ‘Feeling Nice’ is not a characteristic
of object ‘food’. It is an ‘assigned’ quality, ‘constructed & put on’ by
mind when hungry. Not when stuffed!

 
2: ‘Relinquishing the
mind into freedom’ from the hindrances of: Sensual urge by paying attention
to the disgusting aspects of all phenomena. Ill will by paying attention
to the release of mind by universal friendliness. Lethargy & Laziness by
paying attention to the qualities: initiative, launching effort & endurance.
Restlessness & Regret by paying attention to the stilled calm of Body &
the quiet serenity of Mind. Uncertainty & Doubt by paying attention to
what is advantageous & not, to what is blamable & not, to what is ordinary
or exceptional and to what is one the bright side or on the dark side.

 
3: ‘Considering impermanence’
is avoiding the false perception of static permanence: ‘This Exist’.


All phenomena (except Nibbana!) is momentary, relentlessly & inevitably
coming & going with a frequency so fast that it is as difficult to perceive
as the single picture frames in a rolling film or updating TV screen. Absolutely
Everything, except Nibbana!, is transitory, passing, temporary, ephemeral,
evanescent,  transient, provisional, transitory, fleeting, momentary
& gone almost before it came into being. Trying to cling to it, to make
it remain, to make it stay is impossible and therefore quite painful! Like
holding on to a wheel that rolls! Perceiving impermanence make one naturally
let it go…

 
4: Asavas = mental fermentations
(assumptions, conjectures, concoctions, conceptions & other fictitious,
artificial & mentally created relations inherent with sensuality, becoming
& ignorance.)



III: The One Condition.

This One Thing

This Unique

IN & OUT BREATHING



‘How, friends, is this one condition, this single thing:
Awareness of in & out breathing,

trained and made much of, so to be of great fruit, of immense
advantage ?

 
Friends, in this teaching, a Noble Friend goes to a forest,
root of tree or lonely place, sits down with crossed legs & spine erect
& straight.

 
First Tetrad (1-4):
Setting awareness up front0 , he breathes
in aware of just that inhalation, he breathes out aware of just that exhalation,
As he draws in a long breath he knows; ‘I inhale a long breath’. As he
breathes out a long breath he knows;

‘I exhale a long breath’. As he draws in a short breath
he knows;

‘I inhale a short breath’. As he breathes out a short breath
he knows; ‘I exhale a short breath’. Resolute he repeats for himself:


Feeling the air diffuse through whole body, sensing whole
body1,I will inhale.

Feeling the air diffuse through whole body, discerning
the whole body, I will exhale.

Calming the construction of this compounded body, I will
inhale. Calming the construction of this compounded body, I will exhale.
2



Second
Tetrad (5-8):

Feeling great joy I will inhale.  (piti)  Feeling
great joy I will exhale.

Feeling the pleasure of calm happiness I will inhale. Feeling
calm happiness I will exhale. (sukha)

Discerning the process of mental construction, I will inhale.
Experiencing the process of thought construction I will exhale. Calming
the process of mental construction, I will inhale.  Relaxing the
process of mental construction, I will exhale.

 

Third Tetrad
(9-12):

Noting the current state of mind I will inhale. Perceiving
the current mentality of mind I will exhale. 3 Gladdening
mind with a satisfaction I will inhale.  Pleasing mind with contentment
I will exhale. 4 Focusing mind to composed concentration
I will inhale.  Centering mind into collected absorption I will exhale.
5 Freeing mind into release, letting mind go, I will
inhale. Freeing mind into the discharge of relief, liberating mind, I
will exhale. 6

 

Fourth
Tetrad (12-16):

Reflecting on impermanence, I will inhale. (Anicca-anupassana)
. Perceiving the momentary rise & fall, I will inhale.
7 Reflecting on the fading of all passions, I will inhale.  (viraga-anupassana)
Reflecting on the fading of all obsessions, I will exhale.
8  Reflecting on ending, disappearance, I will
inhale.  (nirodha-anupassana). Reflecting on ending, on stopping,
I will exhale. 9 Reflecting on letting go of, leaving
behind, I will inhale.  Reflecting on letting go of, leaving behind,
I will exhale. (patinisagga-anupassana) 10


 
Exactly so trained & trained again & again, friends, is
this one condition,

awareness of in & out breathing, of great fruit, of immense
advantage! 

 
,-
 
Extracted from Samyutta Nikaya V: Mahavagga,

Section on in & out breathing, anapanasati.

____________________________________________________________________________



Notes & comments.

[0] Feeling passing air ’soft-cotton-wool’
touches on nose, inside nostrils or around mouth.

[1] He ’sense’ entire body, top to toe,
in one same frame of moment.


[2] Ad modum 4 elements: all visualized
as internally in all cells.

I: Solid
earth element (extension, extensiveness)

Stop making covalent bonds, as ants stop building hill.
Make the ’stick’ of any covalent bond collapse. Make any extended solidity
in all cells of body collapse, as an iceberg suddenly collapses into small
pieces of ice falling into the sea.

II: Water
element (cohesion, cohesiveness)   

Dampen out any fluid movement, as the great sea-waves run
out. Cut any force holding fluid together in body as water molecules depart
& evaporate into the air from a boiling pot. Let all molecules of body
freely evaporate into the air.

III: Fire
element (heat, transforming thermal vibration)

Let the ‘fire’ of sugar metabolism in cells die out. 
Cool it with ice and quench any even smoke. Let it grow utterly cold not
radiating any heat nor light.
IV: Wind
element (diffusion, mobility, flux, convection)

Put a brake on any matter movement in body. Any flux is
halted & stopped.


Any minute molecular vibration is as frozen.
Note that the breath diminish significantly. Calm of body
is instantly established.

  [3]  If wanting something;
present mentality = desire or derivative

         If resisting
‘against’ something = aversion or derivative

         If confused
& in doubt about; present mentality = ignorance

  [4]  Remembrance of the Buddha’s
smile and supreme qualities is OK. Recollection the sublime

         exactitude
of the Dhamma is also good, but also whatever makes you feel good & glad.

  [5]  Hold mind firm & steady
as bird in fist. Hauling it back whenever it strays into distraction.

  [6]  As bird fly from hand
when fist is opened. Set free from defilements, chains & bondage.

  [7]  All compounded things
vanish. A painful fact. Cause of Dukkha.

  [8]  Detachment is like the
fading of colors on cloth in sun.

       First one loves it
(object of passion, mental or physical)

       then one like it,
then one thinks it is nice

       then one thinks it
is OK, then one thinks it is nothing special

       then one starts to
be bored with it, then one is really tired of it

       then one is disgusted
by it, then dispassioned, disillusioned,

       disenchanted one is
freed from mental bondage to it.

[9]  Eventually it will all stop
anyway. Make it end. Clip the chain to the ring in your nose.

[10] Renunciation, withdrawal, letting
go & thereby entering the element of Nibbana

As it was ‘a loan - not mine’ something borrowed from nature,
one can throw it back to nature.

As one spits out the stone of a fruit. Or as one leaves
excrement in toilet. Or as a thief delivers back what he will never steal
again. The word used ‘patinisagga’ designates both letting go & entering.

 
Yeah! Works for all, all way up.  This is the very
tool used by Sakyamuni Buddha himself used

at the night of Awakening. 





 



IV: The Tathagata’s way of life!!!

 

After the Blessed one had spent 
3 months of the rainy season alone, in  solitude, only seeing the
one who brought his meal, he told the convened assembly of bhikkhus:
 
‘Bhikkhus, if recluses who hold to other views should question you: “Friends,
in what way of life does Gotama the recluse generally spend the rainy
season ?” thus questioned you should answer these recluses holding other
views: “Friends, The Blessed One generally spend his time during the
rainy season in intent concentration on in&out breathing….” Now, bhikkhus,
within this Dhamma, within this Norm, within this Standard, within this
Code, within this Teaching:
 
 Setting awareness up front, when I inhale a short breath, I am aware of just
that,
 When I exhale a short breath, I am aware of just that,

 … (repeat all 4 tetrads by heart internally here)

 … (then you will remember on the pillow too!)
 … (so recollecting you can focus on the job itself.)
 …
 Reflecting on letting go of all, leaving all behind, I will exhale.
 
 Bhikkhus, he who would rightly use the words: ‘The Noble way life, Best way
of life, The Tathagata’s Way of life’  would rightly do so when
speaking of Anapanasati, the name of this intent concentrated awareness
of in&out breathing, which you should all learn, come to know & directly
experience for yourself:
 
This is The Noble Way of life, The Best way of life, The Tathagata’s
Way of life!
 
As for those who are learners (sekha), who have not yet won their goal,
who dwell aspiring for the unsurpassed security from bondage, for these
this intent concentrated awareness of in&out breathing, if cultivated
& made much of, conduce to elimination of the Asavas.
 
Moreover, bhikkhus, for those who are Arahats, in who the asavas are 
destroyed, who have fulfilled the Noble life, done the job, lifted the
burden, won their highest good, worn out the chains of becoming, who
by perfected knowledge have been utterly freed - for such also! this
intent focused  awareness of in&out breathing, if cultivated & made
much of, leads to both their pleasant living here & now and to aware
composure even in this very life.
 
Therefore & certainly, bhikkhus, he who would rightly use the words:
‘The Noble way life, Best way of life, The Tathagata’s Way of life’  
would rightly do so when speaking of Anapanasati, the designation of
intent concentrated awareness of in&out breathing to be learned, to be
known, to be experienced & to be personally witnessed each by yourself:
 
 The Noble way life, Best way of life, The Tathagata’s Way of life!’

 Samyutta Nikaya V, Mahavagga,
 Section on Awareness by in&out breathing.
 



 
 
 






 




4: The four Satipatthanas.  
    


The four frames of Reference.


The four foundations of Awareness.


The four establishments of Mindfulness.

 


Sources:
I:   
The Maha-Satipatthana Suttanta; Digha Nikaya 22.

II:    In Solitude.
Anurudda; The Friend, reflects. Samyutta Nikaya V Mahavagga.

III:  Anurudda
– The Master of Mindfulness. From same source.

IV:   
Ekayana Magga = THE ONLY DIRECT WAY! From same source.


V:     
Absolute Awareness. From The Path of Discrimination - Patisambhidamagga.

Originally spoken by Venerable Sariputta. The General of the Dhamma.
Treatise on the Four Foundations of Awareness.

 
___________________________________________________________________________________
 


Digha Nikaya 22



Maha-Satipatthana Sutta



The 4 Great Frames of Reference

For free distribution only,
as a gift of Dhamma

 

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in the
Kuru country.  Now there is a town of the Kurus called Kammasadhamma.
There the Blessed One addressed the Bhikkhus, “Bhikkhus.”

 
“Venerable Sir. ” the Bhikkhus replied.

 
Then the Blessed One spoke this:

“There is this one & only direct path for the purification of beings,
for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of
pain & distress,
for the attainment of the right method, for
gaining the right path & for the realization of Unbinding ,
which also is called:     The Four Frames of Reference,

The Four Foundations
of Awareness.          

The Four Establishments
of Mindfulness.

 What four?

 
There is the event where a Bhikkhu remains focused on the
body just as a frame , enthusiastic, alert, & aware, thereby eliminating
any hunger & agony arising relating to the world.
He remains focused on the
Feeling just as a feeling, enthusiastic,
alert & aware, thereby eliminating any desire & trouble originating
in the world.
He remains focused on the mind just as a set
of changing moods, enthusiastic,
alert & aware, thereby eliminating any craving & aversion arising towards
the world.
He remains focused on the Mental State just as a mental state,
enthusiastic, alert, & aware, thereby eliminating any mental attraction
& repulsion from the world.



Body contemplation: Kayanupassana:

And how does a Bhikkhu remain focused on the body just as a frame?

 
[1: Mindfulness by Breathing: Anapanasati]

For that purpose the Bhikkhu , having gone into the nature, to the shade
of a tree, or to an empty building , sits down folding his legs crosswise,
holding his body erect and focusing mindfulness around the mouth.1
Always aware, he breathes in; continuously mindful he breathes out.

 
Inhaling long, he notes that he is inhaling long; or exhaling long, he
notes that he is exhaling long.
Inhaling short, he discerns that he is inhaling short; exhaling short,
he observes the short exhalation.

He trains himself to inhale experiencing to the entire body and to exhale
perceiving to the entire body.
He trains himself to inhale calming bodily construction and to exhale
calming bodily construction.
Just as a skilled turner or his apprentice, when making a long turn,
knows that he is making a long turn, or when making a short turn recognizes
that he is making a short turn; in the same way the Bhikkhu, when inhaling
long, notes that he is inhaling long & when exhaling short, then he notes
that he is exhaling short… He trains himself to inhale while calming
bodily construction, and to breathe out while stilling bodily construction. 
(See note 2 & note 4.)
In this way he remains focused internally on the body as just an assemblage,
or externally on the body as just a form, or both internally & externally2
on the body in & of itself. Or he pays attention to the origination of
the phenomenon of the body, to the passing away of the body phenomenon,
or to both arising & vanishing of the body formation3.
Or his is just aware that ‘There is this body’ to the extent of recognition
& remembrance. And so do he remain independent, unsustained by & unattached
to anything in the world. This is how a Bhikkhu remains focused on the
body just as a frame, just as a form, just as a clustered assemblage.
(Impersonal, not-me-nor-I-nor-self, impermanent & painful.)
 [2: Clear Comprehension of current posture: Sampajanna]

Furthermore, when walking, then the Bhikkhu notes that he is walking.
When standing, then he discerns that he is standing. When sitting, then
he recognizes that he is sitting. When lying down, he remarks that he
is lying down. Or however his body is disposed, that is how he knows
it to be.

In this way he remains focused internally on the body in & of itself,
or focused externally…

Unsustaining & unclinging to anything in the world. This is also how
a Bhikkhu remains focused on the body just as a frame. (A primitive
robot, a selfless machine
)
 
[3: Clear Comprehension of current action. Know what you Do!]
Moreover, when going forward & returning, he makes himself fully alert
& aware;

when looking toward & looking away… when bending & extending his limbs…
when carrying his outer cloak, his robe & his bowl… when eating, drinking,
chewing, & savoring…
when urinating & defecating…when walking, standing, sitting, falling
asleep, waking up, talking,
& remaining silent, whatever he does, he makes himself fully alert &
aware.

In this way he remains focused internally on the body just as a
frame,
or focused externally… unsupported & unclinging to anything in the
world. This is how a Bhikkhu remains focused on the body just as a
frame.
(A risky thing prone to pain, sickness, ageing, decay & death!)
[4: The disgusting (asubha)  organs of the Body.]

Additionally… just as if a sack with openings at both ends were full
of various kinds of grain , wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame
seeds, husked rice , and a man with good eyesight, pouring it out, were
to examine the contents noting; ‘This is wheat. This is rice. These are
mung beans. These are kidney beans. These are sesame seeds. This is husked
rice,’ in the same way, friends, a Bhikkhu reviews this very body from
the scalp of the head on downwards, from the soles of the feet upwards,
covered by skin and full of various kinds of disgusting & dirty things:
‘In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh,
tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,
large intestines, small intestines, slime, feces, bile, lymph, pus, blood,
sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, spit, snot, fluid in the joints, urine.’ 
(an unstable  sack of skin, organs, bones & filth)
In this way he remains focused internally on the
body just as a frame,
or focused externally… unsustained by & unattached to anything in the
world. This is also how a Bhikkhu remains focused on the body just as
a frame.
 
[5: Analysis into the 4 Great Elements.]

Additionally… just as a skilled butcher or his pupil, having killed
a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it up into pieces, the Bhikkhu
contemplates this very body , however it stands, however it is disposed
– it is composed of elements: ‘In this body there is the solid earth
element (extension), the liquid fluid element (cohesion), the fire element
(heat), & the wind element (motility of diffusion).’
In this way he remains focused internally on the
body just as a frame,
or focused externally… unsustained by & unattached to anything in the
world. This is also how a Bhikkhu remains focused
on the body
just as a frame. (Just four forces: stiffening, joining, 
transforming & one conferring  motion.
)

 
[6: Corpse contemplation]

Moreover, as if he were to see a corpse thrown away in a cemetery
,
one day, two days, and three days dead , swollen, purple, & rotting,
he imagines exactly the same to happen to this very body,
‘This body, too: Such is its nature; such is its future, such its inevitable
destiny… ‘
Or again, as if he were to see a corpse cast
away in a cemetery, picked
at by crows, vultures, & hawks, by dogs, hyenas, &
various other creatures…
a skeleton smeared with flesh & blood, connected with
tendons… a fleshless
skeleton smeared with blood, connected with tendons… a
skeleton without
flesh or blood yet still connected with sinews… bones
detached from
their tendons, scattered in all directions here a hand bone,
there a foot bone, here a shin bone, there a thigh bone,
here a hip bone, there a spinal vertebrae, here a rib, there a
chest
bone, here a shoulder bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw,
there a tooth,
here a skull… the bones whitened, somewhat like the color
of shells…
piled up, more than a year old… & finally decomposed
into a powder:
He imagines the same will happen to this very body;
‘This body, too: Such is its nature, such will it become, it is not free
from that destiny!’ (Quite realistic)
 
In this way he remains focused internally on the
body just as a frame, 
or externally on the body just as a frame, or focused both internally
(from inside) & externally (from outside) on the
body just as a frame.
Or he remains focused on the origination of the phenomenon of the body,
on the vanishing of the phenomenon of the body, or on the phenomenon
of passing the body. Or he is just aware of that fact: ‘There is phenomena
body’ to the extent of understanding & remembrance. And thus does he
remain independent, unsustained by & unattached to anything in the world.
This is also how a Bhikkhu remains focused on the body just as a
frame.
 

Consideration of Feeling: Vedananupassana

And how does a Bhikkhu remain focused on
feeling just as a response? For
that purpose a Bhikkhu,
when feeling a painful feeling, then he notes that is feeling a painful
feeling.
When feeling a pleasant feeling, then he that he is feeling a pleasant
feeling.
When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he discerns that
he is feeling a neutral feeling.

When feeling a painful feeling of the body, of this life, of this world,
a painful secular feeling, them he notes that he is feeling a painful
feeling of the body, of this life, of this world, a painful secular feeling.
When feeling a painful feeling of not of the body, not of this life,
not of this world, a painful religious feeling, he notes too that he
is feeling a painful feeling not of the body, not of this life, not of
this world.
When feeling a pleasant feeling from the body, of this life, of this
world, a pleasant secular feeling, then he notes that he is feeling a
pleasant feeling from the body, of this world, a pleasant worldly feeling.
When feeling a pleasant feeling not of the body, not of this life, not
of this world, a pleasant holy feeling, he recognizes that he is feeling
a pleasant feeling not of the body, not of this life, not of this world,
a pleasant sacred feeling. (Example: The Ease of Peace!)
When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the body, of this
life, of this world, a neutral secular feeling, he discerns that he is
feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the body, of this life,
of this world, an indifferent secular feeling
When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the body,
not of this life, not of this world, a neutral holy feeling, he notes
that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the
body, not of this life, not of this world, a sacred neutral feeling.
(Example: The Calm of Peace)

In this way he remains focused internally on feeling (own feeling
just as feeling, or on feeling externally (the feeling of others)
just as feeling, or both internally & externally on feelings just as
feelings. Or he remains focused on the origination of phenomenon of feeling,
on the vanishing of the feeling phenomenon, or on the arising & passing
away of the occurrence of feeling.4 Or he
is remaining aware of that ‘There are feelings’ to the extent of comprehension
& remembrance. And in this way he remains independent, unsustained by
& unattached to anything in this world. This is how a Bhikkhu remains
focused on feeling just as a response. (Not hunting objects which sensation
gives rise to pleasant feeling
.)
 


Reflections on the Moods of Mind: 
Cittanupassana

And how does a Bhikkhu remain focused on the
mind as just moods?For this purpose the Bhikkhu, when the mind is attracted, recognizes
that the mind is attracted.

When the mind is without this desire, he distinguishes that the mind
is without such craving.

When the mind is aversive, he recognizes that the mind is in anger. When
the mind is without such hate, he discerns that now the mind is without
this mental repulsion.

When the mind is confused he recognizes that the mind is so deluded.
When the mind is without this delusion & doubt, he detects that now is
the mind unconfused & thus without this uncertainty.

When the mind is restricted, he recognizes that the mind is contracted.
(In the prison of sloth)
When the mind is scattered, he recognizes that the mind is distracted.
(In slavery of restlessness & regrets)
When the mind is enlarged, he recognizes that the mind is enlarged. (Aloof,
serene, absorbed, refined
)
When the mind is not enlarged, he recognizes that the mind is not enlarged.

When the mind can be improved on, he recognizes that the mind can be
enhanced.
When the mind is unsurpassable, he recognizes that the mind is supreme
& incomparable.
When the mind is concentrated, he recognizes that the mind is concentrated.
When the mind is not concentrated, he recognizes that the mind is not
concentrated.
When the mind is released, he recognizes that the mind is released, liberated
& set free.
When the mind is not released, he recognizes that the mind is not released
liberated & set free.5
 
In this way he remains focused internally on the mind (own mind)
just as a mind, or externally on the mind  (others mind)
just as a mind, or both internally & external on the mind just as
a set of changing moods.Or he remains focused on the arising of the phenomenon of mind, on the
passing away of the phenomenon of mind, or on the phenomenon of passing
(arising & ceasing) of minds. Or he is just aware of the fact
that ‘There is a mind’ to the extent of understanding & remembrance.
And thus he remains independent, unsustained & unattached to anything
in this world. (Including mind & moods)
This is how a Bhikkhu remains focused on the mind just as a set of
changing moods. (Just
like various TV stations Zip zap!
)  

 

Mental States, Objects & Qualities: Dhammanupassana

And how does a Bhikkhu remain focused on phenomena just as mental
states?
 
[1; The five hindrances: Nivarana]
For this purpose the Bhikkhu remains focused on
phenomena just as mental states regarding the five hindrances. And how does a Bhikkhu remain
focused on the five hindrances as just mental states?
 
Sensual –Desire (Kama-chanda):
Here, when there is sensual desire present within, the Bhikkhu detects
that sensual desire is present. Or, there being no sensual desire present
within, he detects that no sensual desire is present within me.
He observes the arising of unarisen sensual desire. And he observes the
removal of arisen sensual desire. (By reflection on the disgusting
aspects
of the desire-inducing object. The intestines of
a potential partner, the fatness of overeating, the lung-cancer of the
cigarette, the obsession of money & power.
)
And he discerns how there is no further arising in the future of sensual
desire that has been cut down.
 
Ill-Will (Vyapada):
When ill will is present within, the Bhikkhu then perceives that ill
will is present within him.
When no ill will present within, he detects that no ill will is present
within him. He observes the arising of ill will. And he observes how
there is the elimination of arisen ill will once. (Universal Friendliness!)
And he comprehends how there cannot be any future arising of irreversibly
uprooted ill will.
 
Lethargy & Laziness (Thina-Middha):
When lethargy & laziness is present within, the Bhikkhu detects: Lethargy
& laziness is present now.
When lethargy & laziness is not present, then the Bhikkhu notes: Lethargy
& laziness is not present.
He observes the arising of lethargy & laziness, and he observes arisen
lethargy & laziness is eliminated. (By noting the sloth caused by
overeating & by systematic & frequent reflection on the mental qualities
of Initiative, Launching & Endurance)
And he realizes how there is
no future arising of lethargy & laziness that has been utterly removed.
 
Restlessness & Regret (Uddacca-Kukkucca):
When restlessness & regret is present within, the Bhikkhu detects the
present restlessness & regret.

When no restlessness & regret is present, the Bhikkhu senses that no
restlessness & regret is present.
He observes the arising of restlessness & regret & he observes how arisen
restlessness & regret is removed. (By noting the non-calm mind & by
reflecting frequently on the twofold tranquility of mind & body
.)
And he apprehends how there cannot be any future arising of entirely
eradicated restlessness & regret.
 
Uncertainty & Doubt  (Vicikiccha):
When there is uncertainty present within the Bhikkhu detects that ‘Uncertainty
is present within me.’
When no uncertainty is present within, he detects that: ‘ No uncertainty
is present within me.’
He observes the cause arising of unarisen uncertainty & he observes how
there is the removal of arisen uncertainty. (By neglecting unsolvable
questions giving rise to doubt & by instead only consider what is advantageous
& detrimental, blamable & unblamable, ordinary & excellent & what is
on the bright side & what is on the dark side. So do the doubt & confusion
evaporate.
) And he discerns how there cannot be any future arising
of uncertainty that has been thus all eliminated & cleared.
 
In this way he remains focused internally on (own) mental states
as mental states, or externally on (others) mental states as mental
states, or both internally  & externally on mental states as mental
states.
Or he remains focused on the arising of the phenomenon of mental states,
on the passing away of the phenomenon of mental states, or on the passing
(ceaseless arising & ceasing) of the phenomenon of mental states. Or
he is just aware of that  ‘There are mental states’ to the extent
of understanding & remembrance. And thus do he remain independent, unsustained
by & unattached to anything in the world. This is how a Bhikkhu remains
focused on the mental states of the five hindrances.
 
[2: The Five Clusters: Khandhas]
Furthermore, the Bhikkhu remains focused on mental states as mental states
in relation to the five Clusters of clinging. (Form/body, feeling,
perception, construction & consciousness
) And how does he remain
focused on phenomena just as mental states in relation to the five
Clusters of clinging?
 
Here the Bhikkhu determines:
Such is form, so is the cause of origin of form & so is the vanishing
of form…
Such is feeling, so is the cause of origin of feeling & so is the vanishing
of feeling…

Such is perception, so is the cause of origin of perception & so is the
vanishing of perception… 

Such is construction, so is the cause of origin of construction & so
is the vanishing of construction…

Such is consciousness, so is the cause of origin, so is the vanishing
of consciousness.’

 
In this way he remains focused internally on (own)
phenomena just as mental states, or focused externally on (others)
phenomena just as mental states. Unsustained by & unattached to anything
in the world. This is how a Bhikkhu remains focused on phenomena just
as mental states in relation to the five Clusters of clinging.
 
[3: The Six internal Sense
bases & their external Objects]

For this purpose the Bhikkhu considers the eye, he considers forms &
he realizes the addiction that arises dependent on both. He understands
what causes arising of an unarisen sense addiction to seeing forms. He
comprehends how there is the elimination of such an arisen addiction.
And he comes to know how there cannot be any future arising of such sense
obsession once it has been completely uprooted.

Exactly so too do he considers the ear, he considers sounds & he realizes
the addiction that arises dependent on both. He understands what causes
arising of an unarisen sense addiction to hearing sounds. He comprehends
how there is the elimination of such an arisen addiction. And he comes
to know how there cannot be any future arising of such sense obsession
once it has been completely uprooted.

Exactly so too do he considers the nose, he considers smell & he realizes
the addiction that arises dependent on both. He understands what causes
arising of an unarisen sense addiction the sniffing scents. He comprehends
how there is the elimination of such an arisen addiction. And he comes
to know how there cannot be any future arising of such sense obsession
once it has been completely uprooted.

Exactly so too do he considers the tongue, he considers taste & he realizes
the addiction that arises dependent on both.  He understands what
causes arising of an unarisen sense addiction to savoring flavors. He
comprehends how there is the elimination of such an arisen addiction.
And he comes to know how there cannot be any future arising of such sense
obsession once it has been completely uprooted.
Exactly so too do he reflect on the body, he reflect on touch & he realizes
the addiction that arises dependent on both. He understands what causes
arising of an unarisen sense addiction to touching tangible objects.
He comprehends how there is the elimination of such an arisen addiction.
And he comes to know how there cannot be any future arising of such sense
obsession once it has been completely uprooted.

Exactly so too do he reflect on the mind, he reflect on the mental objects
of ideas, thoughts, moods ao. mental states & he realizes the addiction
that arises dependent on both. He understands what causes arising of
an unarisen sense addiction to enjoying various mental states. He comprehends
how there is the elimination of such an arisen addiction. And he comes
to know how there cannot be any future arising of such sense obsession
once it has been completely uprooted.

In this way he remains focused internally on the phenomena just
as mental states, or focused externally… unsustained by & unattached to
anything in the world. This is how a Bhikkhu remains focused on
phenomena just as mental states in relation to the sixfold internal & external
sense media.
 
[4: The Seven Factors of
Awakening]

Moreover, the Bhikkhu remains focused on
phenomena just as mental states in relation to the Seven Factors of Awakening. And how does he
remain focused on phenomena just as mental states in relation to
the Seven Factors of Awakening?
When the Mindfulness factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes:
‘The Mindfulness factor of awakening is present within me now.’ When
no Mindfulness factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes:
‘Mindfulness factor of awakening is not present within me now.’ He also
knows the cause arising of not yet arisen Mindfulness factor of awakening.
And he comprehends how the development of the already arisen Mindfulness
factor of awakening is completed into fulfilled culmination.

 
When the investigation factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes:
‘The Investigation factor of awakening is present within me now.’ When
no investigation factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes:
‘The Investigation factor of awakening is not present within me now.’
He also realizes the cause arising of not yet arisen investigation factor
of awakening. And he comprehends how the development of the already arisen
Investigation factor of awakening is completed into fulfilled culmination.

 
When the energy of enthusiasm factor of awakening is present within,
he recognizes: ‘The Energy of enthusiasm factor of awakening is present
within me now.’ When no Energy of enthusiasm factor of awakening is present
within, he recognizes: ‘The Energy of enthusiasm factor of awakening
is not present within me now.’ He also realizes the cause arising of
not yet arisen Energy of enthusiasm factor of awakening. And he comprehends
how the development of the already arisen Energy of enthusiasm factor
of awakening is completed into fulfilled culmination.
 

When the Rapture of joy factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes:
‘The Rapture of joy factor of awakening is present within me now.’ When
no Rapture of joy factor of awakening present within, he recognizes:
‘The Rapture of joy factor of awakening is not present within me now.’
He also realizes the cause arising of not yet arisen Rapture of joy factor
of awakening. And he comprehends how the development of the already arisen
Rapture of joy factor of awakening is completed into fulfilled culmination.

 
When the Tranquility factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes:
‘The Tranquility factor of awakening is present within me now.’ When
no Tranquility factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes:
‘The Tranquility factor of awakening is not present within me now.’ He
also realizes the cause of arising of not yet arisen Tranquility factor
of awakening. And he comprehends how the development of the already arisen
Tranquility factor of awakening is completed into fulfilled culmination.

 
When the Concentration factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes:
‘The Concentration factor of awakening is present within me now.’ When
no Concentration factor of awakening present within, he recognizes: ‘The
Concentration factor of awakening is not present within me now.’

He also realizes the cause of arising of not yet arisen Concentration
factor of awakening. And he comprehends how the development of the already
arisen Concentration factor of awakening is completed into fulfilled
culmination.

 
When the Equanimity factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes:
‘The Equanimity factor of awakening is present within me now.’ When no
Equanimity factor of awakening is present within, he recognizes: ‘The
Equanimity factor of awakening is not present within me now.’ He also
realizes the cause of arising of not yet arisen Equanimity factor of
awakening. And he comprehends how the development of the already arisen
Equanimity factor of awakening is completed into fulfilled culmination. 
In this way he remains focused internally on phenomena just as mental
states, or externally… unsustained by & unattached to anything in the
world. This is how a Bhikkhu remains focused on phenomena just as
mental states in relation to the Seven Factors of Awakening.
 
[5: The Four Noble Truths]

Finally, the Bhikkhu remains focused on phenomena just as
mental states in relation to the Four Noble Truths. And how does he remain focused
on phenomena just as mental states in relation to the Four Noble
Truths? There is the case where he recognizes, as it is actually present,
that

Such is Suffering…
Such is the Origin of Suffering…
Such is the end of Suffering…
Such is the way leading to
the ending of Suffering.

 
Now what is the Noble Truth of Suffering?
Birth is
Suffering, aging is Suffering & death is Miserable; sorrow, lamentation,
pain, distress, & despair are Miserable;
association with the disliked is Suffering; separation from what one like
is Suffering; getting what is not wanted is Suffering. In short, the five Clusters
of clinging are Suffering.
 
And what is
birth? Whatever birth, delivery, descent, coming-to-be,
appearance, emergence of the Clusters, & acquisition of the senses &
abilities of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that
is called birth.

And what is aging? Whatever aging, decay, wasting, graying, wrinkling,
decline of vitality, weakening of the abilities of the various beings
in this or that group of beings, that is called aging.
And what is
death? Whatever deceasing, passing away, breaking
up, disappearance, dying, death, completion of time, breaking up of the
Clusters, the casting off of the body, the loss of form, the interruption
in the life force of the various beings in this or that group of beings,
that is called death.

And what is sorrow? Whatever sorrow, depression, grief, sadness,
inward suppression of anyone suffering from adversity, touched by a distressing
thing, that is called sorrow.

And what is lamentation? Whatever crying, grieving, lamenting,
weeping, wailing, lamentation of anyone suffering from adversity, touched
by a agonizing thing, that is called lamentation.

And what is pain? Whatever is experienced as bodily pain, bodily
distress, ache or discomfort born of bodily contact, that is called pain.

And what is distress? Whatever is experienced as mental pain,
mental misery, grief or anxiety born of mental contact, that is called
distress.

And what is despair? Whatever despair, hopelessness, sadness &
desperation of anyone suffering from disaster, touched by a depressing
thing, that is called despair.

And what is the misery of association with the disliked?
When disgusting, displeasing, disagreeable & unattractive sights, sounds,
smells, flavors, or tactile sensations occur to one; or one has connection,
contact, relationship & interaction with those who wish one ill, who
wish for one’s harm, who wish for one’s discomfort, who wish one no security
from the yoke. This is called the misery of association with the disliked.

And what is the misery of separation from what one like? There
is the case where desirable, pleasing, agreeable & attractive sights,
sounds, smells, flavors, or tactile sensations do not occur to one; or
one has no connection, no contact, no relationship & no interaction with
those who wish one well, who wish for one’s advantage, who wish for one’s
comfort, who wish one security from the yoke, nor with one’s mother,
father, brother, sister, friends, companions, or relatives. This is called
the misery of separation from the liked.
And what is the misery of
getting what one does not want? In beings
subject to birth, the wish arises, ‘Oh may we not be reborn again.’ But
this is not be achieved by wishing. This is the disappointment of getting
what one does not want. In beings prone to aging… illness… death…
sorrow,
 lamentation, pain, distress, & despair, the wish arises; ‘Oh may we not experience
any aging… illness… death… sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress,
& despair & may aging… illness…death… sorrow, lamentation, pain,
distress, & despair not come to us…’ But this is not be achieved by wishing.
This is the misery of getting what one not wants.

And what are the five Clusters of clinging that, in short, is
Suffering?
Form is a cluster of clinging., feeling is a cluster of clinging, perception
is a cluster of clinging, construction is a cluster of clinging, consciousness
is a cluster of clinging: These are called the five Clusters of clinging
that, in short, is Suffering. This is called the Noble Truth of
Suffering!

 
And what is the Noble Truth of the Origin of
Suffering?

The craving that results in further becoming, joined with
passion & enjoyment, delighting now here & now there ie:
1: Craving for Sensuality.

2: Craving for Becoming,
3: Craving for non-Becoming.
6
 
And where does this craving arise, when arising ? And where, when remaining,
does it reside?
Where whatever is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world:
That is where this craving arises, when arising. That is where, when
remaining, it resides.

 
And what is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world?
The sight of the eye is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in
the world. That is where this craving arises, when arising. That is where,
when remaining, it resides. The hearing of the ear is appealing, attractive,
alluring & tempting in the world…The smelling of the nose is appealing,
attractive, alluring & tempting in the world…
The tasting of the tongue is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting
in the world…The touch of the body is appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world…The thought of the mind is appealing, attractive,
alluring & tempting in the world…That is where this craving arises,
when arising.

That is where this craving resides, when remaining..

Forms are appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world …
Sounds are appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world …Smells
are appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world …Tastes
are appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world …Tactile
sensations are appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world
…Ideas & mental states are appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting
in the world … That is where this craving arises, when arising. That
is where this craving resides, when remaining.. …

Eye-consciousness is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the
world … Ear-consciousness is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting
in the world …Nose-consciousness is appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world … Tongue-consciousness is appealing, attractive,
alluring & tempting in the world … Body-consciousness is appealing,
attractive, alluring & tempting in the world …
Mental-consciousness is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in
the world… That is where this craving arises, when arising. That is
where, when remaining, it resides. …

Eye-contact is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world
… Ear-contact is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the
world … Nose-contact is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting
in the world … Tongue-contact is appealing, attractive, alluring &
tempting in the world …
Body-contact is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world
… Mind-contact is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the
world …  That is where this craving arises, when arising.
That is where this craving resides, when remaining.. …

Feeling born of eye-contact is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting
in the world …Feeling born of ear-contact is appealing, attractive,
alluring & tempting in the world … Feeling born of nose-contact is
appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world … Feeling born
of tongue-contact is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the
world… Feeling born of body-contact is appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world… Feeling born of mental-contact is appealing,
attractive, alluring & tempting in the world… That is where this craving
arises, when arising. That is where this craving resides, when enduring…

Perception of forms is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in
the world …Perception of sounds is appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world … Perception of smells is appealing, attractive,
alluring & tempting in the world … Perception of tastes is appealing,
attractive, alluring & tempting in the world … Perception of tactile
sensations is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world

Perception of ideas & mental states are appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world …  That is where this craving arises,
when arising. That is where this craving resides, when lasting …

Intention for forms is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in
the world …Intention for sounds is appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world …  Intention for smells is appealing,
attractive, alluring & tempting in the world … Intention for tastes
is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world … Intention
for tactile sensations is endearing & alluring in the world … Intention
for ideas & mental states are appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting
in the world … That is where this craving arises, when arising. That
is where this craving resides, when remaining.. …

Craving for forms is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the
world … Craving for sounds is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting
in the world … Craving for smells is appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world … Craving for tastes is appealing, attractive,
alluring & tempting in the world … Craving for tactile sensations is
appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world …
Craving for ideas & mental states are appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world …

That is where this craving arises, when arising. That is where this craving
resides when remaining …

Thought directed at forms is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting
in the world …Thought directed at sounds is appealing, attractive,
alluring & tempting in the world …Thought directed at smells is appealing,
attractive, alluring & tempting in the world … Thought directed at
tastes is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world …
Thought directed at tactile sensations is appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world …Thought directed at ideas & mental states
are appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world … That
is where this craving arises, when arising. That is where this craving
resides, when lasting. …

Thought sustained at forms is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting
in the world …Thought sustained at sounds is appealing, attractive,
alluring & tempting in the world …Thought sustained at smells is appealing,
attractive, alluring & tempting in the world …Thought sustained at
tastes is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world ..
Thought sustained at tactile sensations is appealing, attractive, alluring
& tempting in the world …Thought sustained at ideas is appealing, attractive,
alluring & tempting in the world. That is where this craving arises,
when arising. That is where this craving resides, when lasting.

This is called the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering!
 
And what is the Noble Truth of the End of
Suffering?
The remainderless rejection, relinquishment, fading, termination & final
release from that very craving.

And where, when being cut, is this craving left? And where, does it cease
when ceasing?
Whatever is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world:
[best right at the contact]
that is where, when being cut, this craving is eliminated. That is where
it ceases, when ceasing.

And what is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in the world?
The sight of the eye is appealing, attractive, alluring & tempting in
the world.
The hearing of the ear is …
The ideas of the mind is …
That is where, when being cut, this craving is eliminated.
That is where this craving ceases, when ceasing.

 
[right at contact between object, sense organ and sense consciousness]
That is where, when being cut, this craving is left behind. That is where,
when ceasing, it ceases.]
 
Also at: The ear… The nose;  The tongue;  The body; 
The mind; 

Also at: Forms;  Sounds;  Smells;  Tastes;  Tactile
sensations;  Ideas; 

Also at: Eye-consciousness;  Ear-consciousness;  Nose-consciousness; 
Tongue-consciousness;  Body-consciousness;  Intellect-consciousness; 

Also at: Eye-contact;  Ear-contact;  Nose-contact;  Tongue-contact; 
Body-contact;  Intellect-contact; 

Also at: Feeling born of eye-contact;  Feeling born of ear-contact; 
Feeling born of nose-contact;  Feeling born of tongue-contact; 
Feeling born of body-contact;  Feeling born of intellect-contact; 

Also at: Perception of forms;  Perception of sounds;  Perception
of smells;  Perception of tastes;  Perception of tactile sensations; 
Perception of ideas; 

Also at: Intention for forms;  Intention for sounds;  Intention
for smells;  Intention for tastes;  Intention for tactile sensations; 
Intention for ideas; 

Also at: Craving for forms;  Craving for sounds;  Craving for
smells;  Craving for tastes;  Craving for tactile sensations; 
Craving for ideas; 

Also at: Thought directed at forms;  Thought directed at sounds; 
Thought directed at smells;  Thought directed at tastes;  Thought
directed at tactile sensations;  Thought directed at ideas; 

Also at: Thought sustained at forms… Thought sustained at sounds…
Thought sustained at smells… Thought sustained at tastes… Thought
sustained at tactile sensations… Thought sustained at ideas is appealing,
attractive & tempting in the world. That is where, when being cut off
& terminated, this craving is eliminated. That is where this craving
ceases, when ceasing.

This is called the Noble Truth of the End of Suffering!

 
And what is the Noble Truth of the Way to the End of
Suffering?
Just this very Noble Eightfold Way: Right view, right intention, right
speech, right action,
right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness & right concentration.

 
And what is right view? Knowledge about
Suffering, knowledge about the Origin
of Suffering, knowledge about the End of Suffering, knowledge about the Way
leading to the End of Suffering:
This is called right View.

And what is right intention? The intent to withdraw from sensual pleasures,
the intent to eliminate ill will, the intent to reach harmlessness:

This is called right Intention.
And what is right speech? Avoiding lying, Avoiding divisive speech, Avoiding
abusive speech & Avoiding idle chatter:

This is called right Speech.
And what is right action? Avoiding killing, Avoiding stealing & Avoiding
sensual abuse.

This is called right Action.
And what is right livelihood? When a disciple of the Noble Ones, having
left wrong livelihood7, keeps his life going
with right livelihood:

This is called right Livelihood.
And what is right effort? When a Bhikkhu generates desire, undertakes
initiative, launches into action, maintains persistence, upholds & exerts
effort for the purpose of the prevention of detrimental states that has
not yet arisen. …
for the purpose of the removal of detrimental states that already has
arisen…
for the purpose of the arising of advantageous states that has not yet
arisen…

& for the maintenance, stabilization, increase, refinement, development,
& culmination of advantageous states that already has arisen:
This is called right Effort.
And what is right mindfulness?
When the Bhikkhu remains focused on the body just as the body [a painful
frame of form]
enthusiastic, alert, & aware, thereby eliminating greed & distress
related to the world.
When the Bhikkhu remains focused on
feeling just as a response… [a transient
response]
When the Bhikkhu remains focused on mind just as
moods… [a transient mood]When the Bhikkhu remains focused on the mental objects just as mental states.
[internal constructions]
enthusiastic, alert, & aware, thereby eliminating any greed & distress
related to the world.
That is called right Mindfulness.

And what is right concentration?
When the Bhikkhu , quite withdrawn from sensuality, secluded from detrimental
states, enters & remains in the first jhana: joy & pleasure born from
withdrawal joined by directed & sustained thought. With the stilling
of directed & sustained thought, he enters & remains in the second jhana:
joy & pleasure born of concentration, merging of awareness devoid of
directed & sustained thought , internal silence. With the fading of
joy he remains in equanimity, aware & alert, experiencing pleasure in
the body. So he enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble
Ones declare: ‘In Aware Equanimity one abides in pleasure.’ With the
removal of pleasure & pain , as with the earlier elimination of joy
& sorrow , he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of Awareness
by Equanimity experiencing neither pleasure nor pain.
This is called right Concentration.

 
This is called the Noble Truth of the Way leading to the End of
Suffering.

 
In this way he remains focused internally on
phenomena just as mental states, or externally on phenomena just as
mental states, or both
internally & externally on phenomena just as mental states. Or he
remains focused on arising of the phenomenon of mental states, on passing
away of the phenomenon of mental states or on the phenomenon of ceaseless
passing of mental states. Or he is just aware of that ‘There are mental
states’ to the extent of understanding & remembrance. And thus he remains
independent, unsustained by & detached from anything in the world.
This is how a Bhikkhu remains focused on phenomena just as mental
states in relation to the Four Noble Truths…
 
Conclusion:
Now, if anyone would develop these four frames of reference, these four
foundations of awareness, these four establishments of mindfulness in
this way for seven years, one of two fruits can be expected for him:
either Awakening right here & now, or , if there be any remnant of clinging
left – the state of a Non-returner.  Let alone seven years. If anyone
would develop these four frames of reference, these four foundations
of awareness, these four establishments of mindfulness in this way for
six years… five… four… three… two years… one year… seven
months… six months… five… four… three… two months… one month…
half a month, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either Awakening
right here & now, or , if there be any remnant of clinging left – the
state of a Non-returner. Let alone half a month.  If anyone would
develop these four frames of reference, these four foundations of awareness,
these four establishments of mindfulness in this way for seven days,
one of two fruits can be expected for him: either Awakening right here
& now, or , if there be any remnant of clinging left – the state of
a Non-returner. 
 
This is the only direct path8
for the purification
of beings,
for the overcoming of sorrow & sadness,
for the disappearance of pain & misery,
for the gaining of the right method,

& for the realization of Nibbana:
in other words;

the four frames of reference,

the four foundations of awareness,

the four establishments of mindfulness.’
Thus was it said & therefore was it spoken.’

 
That is what the Blessed One said …
Inspired, aroused & gratified, the Bhikkhus delighted in the Blessed
One’s words.

_____________________________________________________________________________
 
Adapted from appreciated translation of Thanissaro Bhikkhu:
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/digha/dn22.html
Compared to Bhikkhu Ñānamoli and Maurice Walshe:
The excellent new Majjhima Nikaya & Digha Nikaya translations from Wisdom
Publications.

Notes & comments: 
1: ‘parimukham  satim  upatthapetva
=

Literally:
“to attend to awareness around the mouth”

2: ‘internally’ means ‘own body’ or& ‘seen from inside’.
‘Externally’ the opposite of those.
3: Phenomena ‘body’ arises due to the causes & conditions:
Ignorance (of the inherent pain of the

    body), Mother, father, food, craving (for form of body), kamma
(previous action resultant in rebirth).

    Phenomena ‘body’ ceases due to cessation of food, craving, kamma
& ignorance.
4: Phenomena feeling arise due to contact by one of the
six sense doors. It is conditioned by craving
(for [only pleasant!] feeling), kamma (action towards the felt) & ignorance
(of that feeling implies pain!)

5:
When the mind is set free from the hindrances of sensual
desire, ill-will, lethargy & laziness, restlessness & regret, uncertainty
& doubt.

6: ‘Craving for sensuality’ means desire, urge & wanting
of seeing various pleasant sights, hearing various pleasant sounds, smelling
various pleasant smells, tasting various pleasant savors, feeling various
pleasant touches & thinking various pleasant ideas & enjoying various
pleasant mental states.

‘Craving for becoming’ comes on all timescales: “Oohh may this or that
situation come into being in the future”; Examples: “May I be rich, forever
young, healthy & powerful. May all what I do not like in the present
moment disappear. May all my wishes come to fulfillment. May my rebirth
be as Brahma” 
‘Craving for non-becoming’ comes on likewise all timescales: “Oohh may
this unpleasant situation not come into being. May it not rain on me;
May I not become wet & cold; May I not become sick; May I not become
Dead… May I not become reborn according to my deeds…” All craving is
so wishing it to be different than it actually is creating a push, a pull, a drive, a potential, a pressure, and a strained stress
in the mind taking it away from balanced resting peace. This strain
is experienced as frustration.  Therefore we search &
act to minimize it be seeking pleasure, thereby creating more urging
pain. On & on this vicious cycle revolves.

7: ‘Wrong livelihood’ for the lay is: Living by trading
in living beings, dead beings (meat), poison, weapons & alcohol or drugs
causing carelessness. ‘Wrong livelihood’ for the bhikkhu is not strictly
living according to the 227 rules & spirit of the Vinaya (6 first vols.
of the Tipitaka)
8: ‘Ekayano Maggo’. The direct Way in the sense that
it is unidirectional. It goes only One Way. And in this regard it is
the Only Way that includes this unique feature of singularity.
One always makes progress upwards to higher & more refined states of
mind. This is thus a characteristic only of the Gradual Way of the Buddha
that it guarantees that you do not fall back into lower states.

This no other system assures. This is quite important, as many other
techniques exist for gaining enhancement of the mental abilities. These
however may enable one to carry out ‘terrible bad’ actions with one’s
newly immaturely acquired powers. The ‘sending down of the 7 plaques’
of the Christian God is the example par excellence in this regard for
which this divine being later will suffer the consequences of for quite
a while … 

There are many  other ‘great spiritual’ examples too of ‘Express
up – Express down’ methods which do not fulfill their inherent claim
of escaping Samsara … Sadly, observation time of the results of these
methods have so far been too short to fully comprehending that tragic
fact.


 

 





II: Aware a la Anurudda tool


In Solitude:

 

‘Thus have I heard: On a certain occasion the Venerable Anurudda was
staying near Savatthi, at Jeta grove in Anathapindikas Park. Now when
the Venerable Anurudda was meditating in solitude this train of thought
occurred to him:
Whosoever neglect the Four Foundations of Awareness, they also neglect
the Noble Eightfold Way that lead to the elimination of all pain & misery.
Whosoever develop the Four Foundations of Awareness, they also develop
the Noble Eightfold Way that lead to the elimination of all pain & misery.

Now when the Venerable Maha-Moggallana, reading with his mind this train
of thought, right then & exactly as it occurred to Venerable Anurudda
– then as a strong man might bend or stretch his arm, even so did he
instantly appear before the Venerable Anurudda and said this to him:
‘Friend Anurudda, to what extent are the Four Foundations of Awareness
developed?’
The Venerable Anurudda then replied this:
 
Friend, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the rise of his own body, the
rise of things in the body, thus the rise of his form. He too dwells
contemplating the disappearance of the body, the disappearance of things
in the body, thus the disappearance of the form. [1]
By being such keen, cool, controlled and aware of the plain facts, he
subdues any lust and aversion arising from existence as body, as
form
in the world.
He dwells contemplating the rise of others body, the rise of things
in others body, thus the rise of others form. He too dwells contemplating
the disappearance of others body, the disappearance of things in others
body, thus the disappearance of others form. [2]
By being such keen, cool, controlled and aware of the plain facts, he
subdues any lust and aversion arising from others body form in the world.
 He dwells contemplating the rise of phenomena having external form, the rise
of things in external form, thus the rise of external form. He too dwells
contemplating the disappearance of external form, the disappearance
of things in external form, thus the disappearance of external forms.
[3] By being such keen, cool, controlled and aware
of the plain facts, he subdues any lust and aversion arising from the
external forms in the world.
Then he dwells contemplating the rise of phenomena related to own and
other form. He dwells contemplating the disappearance of phenomena related
to own and other form. He dwells contemplating both the rise and fall
of phenomena related to own and other forms.  By being such keen,
cool, controlled and aware of the plain facts, he subdues any lust and
aversion arising from the world of form.
If he now desires let me experience some disgust in what is not a disgusting
(form) at all, he does so.
If he desires, let me not experience any disgust in what is really a
disgusting (form), he does so.

If he desires, let me experience some disgust both in what is disgusting
& not disgusting, he does so.
If he desires, let me not experience any disgust both in what is disgusting
& not disgusting, he does so.
If he now desires, avoiding both disgust & attraction may I be unaffected
(by body & external form) & may I thereby dwell indifferent, at ease,
aware, in equanimity & self-possessed, he does so.
 
Friend, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the rise of the feeling, whether
this is pleasant, painful or neither pleasant nor painful, the cause
of the feeling, thus the contact, whether the object that conditions
the feeling is internal or external. He too dwells contemplating the
disappearance of the feeling, the disappearance of the cause of the
feeling, thus the disappearance of the contact, whether the conditioning
cause of the feeling is internal or external. [4]
By being such keen, cool, controlled and aware of the plain facts, he
subdues any lust and aversion arising from feeling the world.
He dwells contemplating the rise of feeling of others, the cause of
others feeling, thus the contact conditioning others feeling. He too
dwells contemplating the disappearance of others feeling, the disappearance
of the cause of others feeling, thus the disappearance of the contact
conditioning others feeling. [5] By being such keen,
cool, controlled and aware of the plain facts, he subdues any lust and
aversion arising from others feeling of the world.
Then he dwells contemplating the rise of phenomena related to own and
others feeling. He dwells contemplating the disappearance of phenomena
related to own and others feeling. He dwells contemplating both the
rise and fall of phenomena related to own and others feelings. 
By being such keen, cool, controlled and aware of the plain facts, he
subdues any lust and aversion arising from the felt world.
If he wishes, let me experience some disgust in what is not a displeasing
(feeling) at all, he does so.
If he wishes, let me not experience any repulsion in what is really
a painful (feeling), he does so.

If he wishes, let me experience some disgust both in what is disgusting
& not disgusting, he does so.
If he wishes, let me not experience any disgust both in what is disgusting
& not disgusting, he does so.
If he wishes, avoiding both disgust & attraction may I be unaffected
(by own & others feeling), & may I thereby dwell indifferent, at ease,
aware, in equanimity & self-possessed, he does so.
 
Friend, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the rise of own mentality, own
mood of mind whether this is rooted in greed, anger or doubt. He too
dwells contemplating the disappearance of the mentality of mind. [6]
By being such keen, cool, controlled and aware of the plain facts, he
subdues any lust and aversion arising from the world of moods.
He dwells contemplating the rise of mind mentality of other beings.
He too dwells contemplating the disappearance of others mood of mind.
[7] By being such keen, cool, controlled and aware
of the plain facts, he subdues any lust and aversion arising from world
of the mentality of others mind.
Then he dwells contemplating the rise of phenomena related to own and
others mentality of mind.
He dwells contemplating the disappearance of phenomena related to own
and others mentality of mind. He dwells contemplating both the rise
and fall of phenomena related to own and others mentality of mind. 
By being such keen, cool, controlled and aware of the plain facts, he
subdues any lust and aversion arising from any phenomena related to
moods, mental states & mentality.
If he desires, let me experience some disgust in what is not a disagreeable
(mood), he does so.
If he desires, let me not experience any disgust in what is really a
disagreeable (mood), he does so.

If he desires, let me experience some disgust both in what is disgusting
& is not disgusting, he does so.
If he desires, let me not experience any disgust both in what is disgusting
& not disgusting, he does so.
If he desires, avoiding both disgust & attraction may I be unaffected
(by own & others mood), may I thereby dwell indifferent, at ease, aware,
in equanimity & self-possessed, he does so.
 
 
Friend, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the rise of own momentary mental
states, whether these are good, bad, both or neutral. He too dwells
contemplating the disappearance of the  momentary mental state.
[8] By being such keen, cool, controlled and aware
of the plain facts, he subdues any lust and aversion arising from momentary
mental states of the world.
He dwells contemplating the rise of momentary mental states of other
beings. He too dwells contemplating the disappearance of others passing
mental states. [9]By being such keen, cool, controlled
and aware of the plain facts, he subdues any lust and aversion arising
from others momentary mental states in the world.
Then he dwells contemplating the rise of phenomena related to own 
and others temporary mental state. He dwells contemplating the disappearance
of phenomena related to own and others transient
mental states. He dwells contemplating both the rise and fall of phenomena
related to own and others transitory mental states. By being such keen,
cool, controlled and aware of the plain facts, he subdues any lust and
aversion arising from the world of mental states.
If he desires, let me experience some disgust in what is not a repulsive
(mental state) at all, he does so.
If he desires, let me not experience any disgust in what is really a
repulsive (mental state), he does so.

If he desires, let me experience some disgust both in what is disgusting
& is not disgusting, he does so.
If he desires, let me not experience any disgust in what both is disgusting
& not disgusting, he does so.
If he desires, avoiding both disgust & attraction may I be unaffected
(by all momentary mental states),
 may I thereby dwell indifferent, at ease, aware, in equanimity & self-possessed,
he does so!
 
 Thus far, friend & to this extent are the Four Foundations of Awareness undertaken
& developed.’

Reference: Samyutta Nikaya V - Mahavagga - Anurudda Section.
 
Comments:

The title ‘In Solitude’ refers to the fact that the Four Foundations
of Awareness can only be continually

‘once and for all’ established when is alone, withdrawn, secluded & aloof! 
After that, then one do not fall back to old bad habits of distraction

[1] Desire and dissatisfaction in relation to own body
and form is here eliminated. Being ‘body-maniac’ is gone. Fear of leaving
body, dying, having other or no form here evaporates. Thus fearless.
[2] Desire and dissatisfaction regarding others body
and external form is here eliminated. 

Being ’sex-maniac’ is gone. Fear of not being able to enjoy (or be horrified
with) others body form

here evaporates.
[3] Desire and dissatisfaction regarding various forms
in the world (objects as cars, houses, toys,
clothes, etc. whatever ‘thing’ is here eliminated. Being ‘thing-maniac’
is gone. The foolishness of the

obsession by empty status symbols here becomes utterly apparent. Fear
of not being able to possess &

enjoy Things of the world here evaporates. Why is that so? Because one
realize & is assured that these form phenomena are impermanent, vanishing
by nature & that they therefore are frustrating if clinged to. Their
transient nature do that one cannot regard them as ‘neither me nor mine
nor self or part of self’ anyhow. This causes dispassion to arise. Dispassioned
one is freed from dominance of body & form. Not slave of mere form. Neither
own nor external …

[4] The wishes: ‘I want, crave and accept only pleasant
feeling. I cannot accept and crave to be free from all painful feeling’
are quite impossible and therefore lead to the frustration of running
like maniacs after pleasant feeling and being unable to endure even minor
painful feeling. Thus are we reduced to mere blind slaves of feeling.
The mistake regarding neutral feeling is this: ‘If contact with object
gives rise to neither pleasant nor painful feeling I can safely ignore
it.’ Fatally wrong! Unnoticed this causes ignorance of not knowing the
object! Pleasant feeling therefore causes greed to arise. Painful feeling
causes aversion to arise. Neutral feeling causes ignorance to arise.
Everything thereby converges on, is related to & conditioned by feeling!
The unseen dominator of behavior.
[5] Feeling that pleasure or that pain, they act thus.
Driven by such feeling. This is often the key to understanding of both
others and self. Wishing: ‘May others (e.g. my child) have only have
pleasant and no painful feelings whether caused by contact with me or
externals’ is likewise impossible and naive & quite unrealistic! Here
attachment to ‘please others’ and be ‘popular and liked’ for whatever
price is born. Similarly inability to accept own or others necessary
and inevitable pain is born. If one can accept only ‘birthday-cake-feeling’
as mental food one develops into a poor spoiled being that is heading
for the major mental pain of unexpected disappointment & discontent.
Seeing feeling as it really is: - transient, miserable & not-me-nor-mine
- one has cut a heavy anchor chain.
Why is that so? Because one realize & is assured that these feeling phenomena
are impermanent, vanishing by nature, quite fast actually & therefore
that they are frustrating if clinged to. Their transient nature do that
one cannot regard them as ‘neither me nor mine nor self or part of self’
anyhow. This causes dispassion with feeling (even pleasant feeling) to
arise. Dispassioned one is freed from dominance of the phenomena of feeling.
Not anymore slave of feeling -  Neither ‘own-internal’ nor ‘others-external’.
Aaahhhh what a bliss that is. Let is come, let it go, who cares?

Pleasant feeling is pleasing when it arises but displeasing when it goes!
Painful feeling is displeasing when it arises but pleasing when it goes!
Neutral feeling is pleasing if one is aware of it but displeasing if
one is unaware of it!

The proximate cause of feeling is Contact by one of the six sense doors.
This contact is conditioned by
Ignorance (of the ultimate dissatisfactoriness of every feeling), by
Kamma (action seeking feeling or resultant in feeling) & by Craving for
the quality of Feeling. When these are eliminated the ‘noise’ of phenomena
feeling disappears for never to arise again. So is the Nibbanic peace
attained.

[6+7] Train by observing: Is own or others current
mentality now rooted in greed, anger, ignorance or not? And what is the
cause of the arising of that? And what is the cause of the end of that?
Is own or others current mind mentality now dominated by : A Scattered
or non-distracted mind? An Advanced or coarse mind? A Surpassable or
unsurpassable mind? A Concentrated or unconcentrated mind? A Released
or unreleased mind? Check it out! Continually! Note how quickly moods
change.  Then one learns and establishes awareness of moods. Not
if not …. Seeing mentality as it really is, one has cut a another heavy
chain. Why is that so ? Because one realize & is assured that these mental
phenomena of mind are impermanent, vanishing by nature, ever shifting,
therefore they are now & finally frustrating if clinged to. No mentality
is ‘me-or-mine-nor-self-or-part-of-self’. It is just a transient, ‘remote
& alien’
mental phenomena arising & ceasing from its own causes. This notion causes
dispassion with moods to arise. So dispassioned one is freed from dominance
of mind, moods and ao. derived mentalities. Own as other … No panic
when the joy fades nor when the melancholy arises. It will change anyway.
[8+9] Here follows the mental states which classically
are systematically considered: 5-5-6-7-4!!!
The 5 hindrances:
Is there 1;sensual desire, 2;ill will, 3;lazy sloth, 4;restlessness &
regret or 5; doubt & uncertainty in me or the other being now?
The 5 Clusters (khandhas) we cling to:
1: Whether me or external; any form is composed of elements,  such
is the arising & fading of form.
2: Such are feeling, by contact arises & ceases feeling whether pleasant,
painful or neutral.

3: Such are perceptions, by contact at one of the six sense doors arises
& ceases of perceptions.

4: Such are constructions, by contact arises & ceases constructions both
mental, verbal & bodily.

5: Such is consciousness, by the combination of name&form arises & ceases
consciousness

The 6 senses &  their objects :  

Such is the eye & the sights & the attachment arised there from.
Such is the ear & the sounds & the attachment arised there from.
Such is the tongue & the tastes & the attachment arised there from.
Such is the nose & the smells & the attachment arised there from.
Such is the body & the touches & the attachment arised there from.
Such is the mind & the ideas & the attachment arised there from.
The 7 links to awakening:
1: Awareness – Is saving when turned ON! Catastrophic if OFF. This is
the Way to turn it ON!
2: Curiosity – Investigation leads to certainty, to being assured, to
discovery, to knowledge!
3: Energy in exertion of enthusiastic effort result in whatever one wishes
to appear, to be effected.
4: Rapture of ecstatic joy makes one intent by directing mind towards
this pleasant mental state.
5: Tranquility – the calm stillness of body and mind is exceedingly peaceful
& leads to happiness.
6: Concentration – The 8 Janice mental absorptions are higher joy, exquisite
pleasure & non-distraction.
7: Equanimity. Stilled massive mental Balance. Perfect Noble Indifference
enabling unbiased reflection.
The 4 Noble Truths:
This & such is
Suffering, (Has to be Understood &  Comprehended, which
is both shocking & freeing!)
This & such is the Arising Cause of all
Suffering, (This Craving has to
be left, cut off & all eliminated)
This & such is the Cause Ending all
Suffering, (Ending craving & misery
has to be make happen & real.)
This & such is the Way to the Elimination of all
Suffering. (This Way, Method
has to be fully Developed.)
Again just remember: 5-5-6-7-4 an go therefrom asking. What are five?
and so forth.
Seeing mental states as they really are, one has cut yet another quite
a subtle heavy chain. Why is that so? Because one realize & is assured
that these mental states are impermanent & vanishing by nature, always
shifting and drifting, therefore they are now & finally frustrating if
clinged to. Any mental state is neither-me-nor-mine-nor-self-or-part-thereof
anyway. Just another impersonal fleeting phenomena.
Just another wave, bubble, smoke or passing noise. This causes dispassion
towards mental states to arise.  Dispassioned one is freed from
dominance of mental states.
Friends; there is this One and only  Single Way for the Purification
of all & any Being. Be Aware.
Here is the treasure to be found & here is the great pitfall. Here the
Heroes arise & here the fools fall.


 



III: Master Anurudda on the effects of Established Awareness:

 

‘Saketa was the occasion …The Venerable Sariputta said this to Venerable
Anurudda:
Friend Anurudda, by cultivating and making much of which conditions
have you developed such mighty magic power and majesty ?
 
Venerable Anurudda (The cousin of the Buddha) replied:
Friend, it is by cultivating and making much of the Four Arisings of
Awareness that I have done so.
What four? Herein friend,
I dwell contemplating
body as frame … & the rise and fall of body
… both own and other …
internal and external … past,
present & future
I dwell contemplating feeling as response … & the rise and fall of
feeling … both own and other …
internal and external …
past, present & future
I dwell contemplating mind as mood … & the rise and fall of mood
… both own and other …
internal and external … past,
present & future
I dwell contemplating phenomena as mental states … & rise and
fall of mental states …

both own and other … internal and external … past, present
& future
 
Moreover, friend it is by cultivating and making much of these Four
Arisings of Mindfulness that I have come to directly experience the
vastness of the thousand fold world-systems. (Galaxies!)
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these Four Foundations of Awareness that the painful feelings that
come upon my body make no contact on my mind!
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I enjoy the divers forms of
magic powers: From being one I become many…
Having been one I become
many; having been many I become one. I appear. I vanish. I go unhindered
through walls, stockade & mountains as if through space. I dive in
& out of the earth as if it were water. I walk on water without sinking
as if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged I fly through the air
like a winged bird. With my hand I touch & strike even the sun & moon,
so mighty & powerful. I exercise influence with my body even as far
as the Brahma worlds.

Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I hear with divine hearing
purified and supra-human the sound of both man and deva, whether far
or near.
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I know the minds of other
beings; the lustful as lustful, the aversive as aversive…

The liberated as liberated.
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I know the causes of origin
of any given event and what is not the cause of this event.
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I know as they really are
the cause and conditions of any given action, whether done in the past,
future or present time.
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I know, as it really is, the
gradual and final result of any given practice.
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I know, as they really are,
the diverse characters of whatever being.
 Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I know, as they really are,
the real nature of the minds other beings and persons.

Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I know, as they really are,
the corruption, purification and gaining of attainment of any trance,
release and absorption into the concentration of the Jhanas.
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I can remember my past lives,
as they really were: One, two … hundred thousand births in all their
minute detail, sequence, history and peculiarity.
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I know and see with divine
supra-human sight, as they really are, the going and coming of beings
according to their merits, the death & reappearance of beings according
to the moral quality of their actions.
Moreover, friend it is because of having cultivated and made much of
these four foundations of Awareness that I know, as they really are,
in this very life, by own unaided ability, the destruction of the Asavas
– the mental fermentations - & I abide in the release and insight that
is freed from these fermentations.’
 

Reference: Samyutta Nikaya V Mahavagga, Section
on Anurudda.
 
The Master of Mindfulness.



 


 


Borobodur. Indonesia.







IV Ekayana Magga: The Only direct unidirectional Way
to mental pureness:


The Four Foundations of Awareness …!!!

Thus have I heard: On a certain occasion,
the Blessed One was staying at Vasali in Ambapali’s grove.
There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus saying: ‘Bhikkhus.’ ‘Lord,’ replied
those bhikkhus the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One said:
 
This, bhikkhus, is the ONLY WAY that leads;

to the purification of beings,
to the utter passing beyond any sorrow and misery,
to the elimination of any pain, grief and lamentation,
to the winning of The Method,
to the experience of Nibbana,
to See, to Learn, to Know and to Master:
The Four Foundations of Awareness ….
 
What are the four ?
In this a Noble One:
Abides contemplating any Body as just a body - a mere transient physical
form -
thereby keeping any lust and rejection  arised towards the world
under Control.

Stirred, Composed and Alert.
Abides regarding any Feeling as just a feeling - a mere momentary
mental phenomena -
thereby keeping any passion and aversion arised from this world under
Control.

Eager, Calm and Awake.
Abides knowing any Mind as just a mind - a mere changing mental formation

thereby restraining any craving and repulsion arised from this world.

Keen, Balanced and Attentive.
Abides seeing any apparent Reality as a mental state - a mere passing
conditioned phenomena -
thereby keeping any desire and resistance arised towards this world
under Control.

Aloof Above, at Ease and Aware.
 
This, bhikkhus, is the one and only Way that leads;

to the purification of beings,
to the utter passing beyond any sorrow and misery,
to the elimination of any pain, grief and lamentation,
to the winning of The Method,
to the realization of Nibbana:
 
 The Four Foundations of Awareness …!!!

 Samyutta Nikaya - Kindred Sayings on the

 Four Foundations of Awareness.
 PTS 1997 SN V, Mahavagga, pp119-20.   

 
 _______________________________________________________________________________________



V: Venerable Sariputta on the Four Foundations of Awareness:

 

‘Bhikkhus, Friends, there are these Four Foundations of Awareness:
What four? Regarding this, bhikkhus:
 
A friend dwells contemplating Body as mere body, just a form, being
alert, settled and aware, thereby  putting away any desire and
aversion towards the world.
A friend dwells contemplating Feeling as mere feeling, just a response, 
being alert, settled and aware, thereby putting away any desire and
aversion towards the world.
A friend dwells contemplating Mind as mere mentality, just a skewed
tendency, being alert, settled and aware, thereby putting away any
desire and aversion towards the world.
A friend dwells contemplating Mental States as just a momentary reality
being  alert, settled and aware, thereby putting away any desire
and aversion towards the world.
These are the Four Foundations of Awareness.
 
How does such friend dwell contemplating the Body as a body ? Here
someone contemplates the solid earth body - extensiveness
1
as impermanent, not as permanent; 
as painful, not as pleasant; as not-self, not as self; by doing that;
such friend becomes disgusted, does not delight; such one causes greed
to fade, do not inflame it; such one causes elimination, not arising;
such one let go, does not gling to any form. When such friend contemplates
body as impermanent the false perception of permanence of any form
is eliminated. When such friend contemplates as painful the false
perception of pleasure in any form is eliminated. When such friend
contemplates body as not-self the false perception of self of any
form is eliminated. When such friend becomes disgusted, delight is
eliminated. When such friend’s greed fades away, craving is eliminated.
When such friend terminates and eliminates, arising and becoming is
eliminated. When such friend let go, relinquishes, the panic of clinging
is eliminated.
Such friend contemplates body in these seven aspects. The body is
the founding object but not the awareness. The Awareness is both the
Establishing of a Foundation and the focused Attention.
By using that awareness and that understanding such one contemplates
that body exactly as it really is.
This is what is called: The Establishing a Foundation of Awareness
by seeing the body as a mere form.
 

The Development:
There are four kinds of gradual development of this:
Development in the sense of non-excess of other ideas produced
therein.
Development in the sense of single one pointed function – this same
single line of thoughts.

Development in the sense of effectiveness of the applied Energy.
Development in the sense of repetition.
Likewise – even & exactly so - the Noble Friend contemplates:
- all fluid in body - cohesiveness 2
- all heating/metabolism in body - transformation 
3

- all air/gas/space in body - mobility
4
- the head hair , the body hair,
the outer skin, the inner skin, the muscles, the organs,  the
blood,
- the sinews, the bones & the bone marrow.
Such Noble Friend causes development of these ideas. 

Development in the sense of non-excess of other ideas produced therein.
Development in the sense of single one pointed function – this same
single line of thoughts.

Development in the sense of effectiveness of the applied Energy.
Development in the sense of repetition.
That is how a Noble Friend dwell contemplating the Body as a body. 
                


How does such
friend dwell contemplating the Feeling as a feeling?

Here someone contemplates Pleasant Feeling as impermanent,
not as permanent; as painful, not as pleasant; as not-self, not as
self; such friend becomes disgusted, does not delight,such one causes
greed to fade, do not inflame it; such one causes elimination, not
arising;  such one let go, does not cling to any feeling. When
such friend contemplates any feeling as impermanent the false perception
of permanence of any feeling is eliminated. When such friend contemplates
any feeling as painful the false perception of pleasure in any feeling
is eliminated. When such friend contemplates as not-self the false
perception of self in any feeling is eliminated. When such friend
becomes disgusted, delight is eliminated. When such friend’s greed
fades away, craving is eliminated. When such friend terminates and
eliminates, arising and becoming is eliminated. When such friend let
go, relinquishes, any panic of clinging to feeling is eliminated. Such friend contemplates feeling in these
seven aspects. The feeling is the founding object but not the awareness.
Awareness is both the Establishing of a foundation and the focused
continual Attention.
By using that awareness and that understanding
such one contemplates feeling exactly as it really is.This is what is called:  The Establishing
a Foundation of Awareness by seeing feeling as mere feeling.

Further Development:
Development in the sense of non-excess
of other ideas produced therein.

Development in the sense of single one
pointed function – this same single line of thoughts.

Development in the sense of
effectiveness
of the applied Energy.

Development in the sense of repetition.
Likewise – even & exactly so - the Noble
Friend contemplates:

- Painful Feeling

- Neither-pleasant-nor-painful Feeling

Such Noble Friend causes development
of these ideas. 

Development in the sense of non-excess
of other ideas produced therein.

Development in the sense of single one
pointed function – this same single line of thoughts.

Development in the sense of
effectiveness
of the applied Energy.

Development in the sense of repetition.
That is how a Noble Friend dwell contemplating
Feeling as feeling.
 
                           

How does such
friend dwell contemplating the Mind as a set of ever changing
moods?
Here someone contemplates the Greedy,
Craving, Urging or Passionate Mind

as impermanent, not as permanent; as
painful, not as pleasant; as not-self, not as self;

such friend becomes disgusted, does not
delight;

such one causes greed to fade, do not
inflame it;

such one causes elimination, not arising;
such one let go, does not gling to any
mentality, to any mood.

When such friend contemplates as impermanent,
the false perception of permanence of any mentality is eliminated.
When such friend contemplates as painful the false perception of pleasure
in any mentality is eliminated. When such friend contemplates as not-self
the false perception of self of any mentality is eliminated. When
such friend becomes disgusted, delight is eliminated. When such friend’s
greed fades away, craving is eliminated. When such friend eliminates,
arising and becoming is eliminated. When such friend let go, relinquishes,
the panic of clinging is eliminated.

Such friend contemplates mentality of
mind in these seven aspects.

The mind is the founding object but not
the awareness. Awareness is both the Establishing of a foundation
and the focused continual Attention. By using that awareness and that
understanding such one contemplates that mind exactly as it really
is. This is what is called: The Establishing a Foundation of Awareness
by seeing the mind as a merely the mentality of moods.
 
Development:
Development in the sense of non-excess
of other ideas produced therein.

Development in the sense of single one
pointed function – this same single line of thoughts.

Development in the sense of
effectiveness
of the applied Energy.

Development in the sense of repetition.
Likewise – even & exactly so – do the
Noble Friend contemplate:

  - the Ungreedy, Uncraving, the
Unurging, Unsearching Mind.

 - the Hating, Angry, Irritated,
in Opposition, the Stubborn Mind.

 - the Unhating, Unangered, Freed,
the Generous Open Mind.

 - the Confused, Deluded, Uncertain
&  Doubtful Mind.

 - the UnConfused, Undeluded, Ascertained
& Assured Mind.

 - the Cramped, Locked & Stucked
Mind.

 - the Distracted, Splintered &
Scattered Mind.

 - the Enlarged, Developed, Refined
& Exalted Mind.

 - the Unenlarged, Undeveloped,
Unrefined & Unexalted Mind.

 - the Surpassable Mind.

 - the Unsurpassable Mind.

 - the Concentrated Mind.
 - the Unconcentrated Mind.
 - the Liberated & Released Mind.
 - the Unliberated & unreleased
Mind.

 - the Eye Consciousness - the Mentality
that see

 - the Ear Consciousness  -
the Mentality that hear

 - the Nose Consciousness - the
Mentality that smell

 - the Tongue Consciousness - the
Mentality that taste

 - the Body Consciousness - the
Mentality that touch

 - the Mind Consciousness - the
Mentality that think

 
Such Noble Friend causes development
of these ideas. 

Development in the sense of non-excess
of other ideas produced therein.

Development in the sense of single one
pointed function – this same single line of thoughts.

Development in the sense of
effectiveness
of the applied Energy.

Development in the sense of repetition.
That is how a Noble Friend dwell contemplating
the Mind as a mere momentary mental mood.

How does such friend dwell contemplating
the experienced reality as a mere momentary Mental State?Here someone contemplates all other ideas,
all mental states, excluding any connected with body or form, excluding
any connected with feeling, excluding any connected with mentality 
as impermanent, not as permanent;  as painful, not as pleasant;
as not-self, not as self;  such friend becomes disgusted, does
not delight; such one causes greed to fade, do not inflame it; such
one causes elimination, not arising; such one let go, does not gling
to any mental reality - any mental state.

When such friend contemplates as impermanent
the false perception of permanence of any mental reality is eliminated.
When such friend contemplates as painful the false perception of pleasure
in any mental reality is eliminated. When such friend contemplates
as not-self the false perception of self in any mental reality is
eliminated. When such friend becomes disgusted, delight is eliminated.
When such friend’s greed fades away, craving is eliminated. When such
friend ends and eliminates, arising and becoming is eliminated. When
such friend let go, relinquishes, the panic of clinging is eliminated.
Such friend contemplates mental realities
in these seven aspects. The mental reality is the founding object
but not the awareness. Awareness is both the Establishing of a foundation
and the focused continual Attention. By using that awareness and that
understanding such one contemplates these mental states, these mental
realities exactly as they really are. This is what is called: 
The Establishing a Foundation of Awareness by seeing the perceived
reality  as a merely momentary mental states.

 

Development:

There are four kinds of development:
Development in the sense of non-excess
of other ideas produced therein.

Development in the sense of single one
pointed function – this same single line of thoughts.

Development in the sense of
effectiveness
of the applied Energy.

Development in the sense of repetition. 
That is how a Noble Friend dwell contemplating
the Reality as a just Momentary Mental States.

Adapted from the Path of Discrimination
- Patisambhidamagga. Originally spoken by most Venerable Sariputta
as: The Treatise on the Four Foundations of Awareness.

Published by the Pali text Society:
http://www.palitext.com/

‘The Path of Discrimination’ 1997; translated
by most Venerable Bhikkhu

Ñānamoli.
 
Comments:
It bears the marks of Ven. Sariputta:
stringent consistency and exhaustiveness.

 

1:

Solid earth body - extensiveness. All in body that is
solid, makes solid.

Bones, teeth, minerals, salts, metals,
that which becomes ash when body is burned.

all fastness of organs. May resemble at
Buddhas time what is currently  designated

in chemistry: ‘The Covalent Bond’. In
pali: Pathavi Dhatu.


2:

 All fluid in body – the cohesiveness of blood,
lymph, cell fluid, brain fluid, saliva, snot, tears, slime, urine,
sweat, bile, intestine fluid, oil of the joints. All that holds together
in body. May resemble at Buddhas time what is currently  designated
in chemistry: ‘The Ionic Bond’ or ‘salt bridge’ or ‘electrostatic bond’.

In pali:
Apo Dhatu
.
3:
All heating/metabolism in body - transformation. All that is burned,
metabolized in body.

May resemble at Buddhas time what is currently
designated: ‘thermal vibration’ or ‘Brownian movements’. In pali:
Tejo Dhatu
.


4:

All air/gas/space in body - mobility All oxygen, nitrogen & CO2 diffusing
in and out of every cell.

The ability of the molecules of matter
to move in motion, to diffuse out, to traverse barriers. In pali: Vayo Dhatu.
All 4 elements are present in all matter
yet to a different degree.

 





Itivuttaka - Spoken By The Buddha


The Possessed of Morality Sutta 104

This, unquestionably - so has there been
heard by me - was so stated by the Lord,

was so declared by the Arahant:

“Those, Bhikkhus, friends, who are possessed
of Morality, who are possessed of Concentration,

who are possessed of Insight, who are
possessed of Liberation, who are possessed of Knowledge and Vision
of Liberation, who are exhorters, informers, and instructors
those who fully show things, those who
make others take things up,

those who make others rightly keen, those
who make others rightly bristle, with excitement

those who communicate, sufficiently and
properly - the True Dhamma -

Friends, I say that even seeing these
Bhikkhus is of great service;

Friends, I say that even hearing about
these Bhikkhus is of great service;

Friends, I say that even approaching
these Bhikkhus is of great service;

Friends, I say that even sitting round
paying homage to these Bhikkhus is of great service;

Friends, I say that even recollecting
these Bhikkhus is of great service;

Friends, I say that even going forth
in emulation of these Bhikkhus is of great service …
What is the Root Cause for this?
For the one who pursues, resorts to,
sits round paying homage & listens to Bhikkhus of such a kind:
the quality that is Morality, yet incomplete,
reaches the completion of its being brought into being;
the quality that is Concentration, yet
incomplete, reaches the completion of its being brought into being;
the quality that is Insight, yet incomplete,
reaches the completion of its being brought into being;
the quality that is Release, yet incomplete,
reaches the completion of its being brought into being;
the quality that is Knowledge and Vision
of Liberation , yet incomplete, reaches the completion of its being
brought into being! And it is therefore these Bhikkhus, friends,
who being of such a unique kind,

 are called ‘Teachers’,  are
called ‘Caravan Leaders’

 are called ‘Conflict-Abandoners’, 
are called ‘Thrusters aside of the Gloom’

 are called ‘Light-Makers’, are
called ‘Glow-Makers’

 are called ‘Lamp-Makers’, are called
‘Torch-Bearers’

 are called ‘Radiance-Makers’, are
called ‘Noble’

 are called ‘Those with Vision’.”

So did the Lord formulate this matter
& it was in connection therewith, that the following was spoken:
“This is the occasion causing jubilation
for those who understand, that is to say seeing those by whom the
knowledge is direct, assured, certain, those Noble who live in accordance
with the Dhamma. These who highlight the True Dhamma, cause it to
shine, these steadfast ones who are radiance-makers, lights-makers,
those with vision, conflict-resolvers. Upon hearing the Teaching from
these, the Wise Ones, clearly, having rightly known, having directly
known, birth’s destruction, come not to becoming ever again…”

The lord, too, stated this matter,

so has there been heard by me.

Itivutaka: The Section Dealing With Quadruple Items.
Excellence of Translation Peter Masefield.
The Pali Text Society. 2000

http://www.palitext.com/

 




 
Compiled 16/11 2002, Comments, Corrections
& Critique are quite welcome.

Mildly Revised 18/10-2005. Reformatted
14/6-2007 + 15/12-2009

 
May you enjoy this precious training &
the corresponding mental progress.


Bhikkhu Samāhita
Cypress Hermitage,
Gangamulla, Bambarella
Tawalatenna 20838
SRI LANKA

email: what.buddha.said@gmail.com
www:
http://What-Buddha-Said.net




Updated:
20 July 2012 
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/Manual/Meditation.Manual.htm

Note the flower in his hand.

The next Buddha Metteyya: The Friendly One!
More on this last perfectly self-enlightened one in this universe: Metteyya!
The Coming Buddha: Ariya Metteyya. Sayagyi U Chit Tin: BPS Wheel 381/383
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/library/Metteyya/arimet00.htm
http://what-buddha-said.net/library/Wheels/wh381.pdf

        
He says: You can come as you like, but you pay as you go!

On how to meet Buddha Metteyya in the future:
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/drops/IV/How-2-Meet_Buddha_Metteyya.htm

On such Full-Moon Uposatha Poya Observance days:
Any Lay Buddhist simply joins the Three Refuges and undertakes the
Five Precepts like this: Newly bathed, shaved, white-clothed, with clean
bare feet, one kneels at a shrine with a Buddha-statue, and bows first
three times, so that feet, hands, elbows, knees & head touch the floor.
Then, with joined palms at the heart, one recites these memorized lines
in a loud, calm and steady voice:

As long as this life lasts:
I hereby take refuge in the Buddha.  
I hereby take refuge in the Dhamma.
I hereby take refuge in the Sangha.
I hereby seek shelter in the Buddha for the 2nd time.
I hereby seek shelter in the Dhamma for the 2nd time.
I hereby seek shelter in the Sangha for the 2nd time.
I hereby request protection from the Buddha for the 3rd time.
I hereby request protection from the Dhamma for the 3rd time.
I hereby request protection from the Sangha for the 3rd time.

I will hereby respect these Three Jewels the rest of my life!

I accept to respect and undertake these 5 training rules: 
I hereby accept the training rule of avoiding all Killing.
I hereby accept the training rule of avoiding all Stealing.
I hereby accept the training rule of avoiding all Sexual Abuse.
I hereby accept the training rule of avoiding all Dishonesty.
I hereby accept the training rule of avoiding all Alcohol & Drugs.

As long as this life lasts, I am thus protected by these 5 precepts…

Then, one keeps and protects these sacred vows better than one’s own
eyes and children!, since they protect you & all other beings much better
than any army! They are the highest offer one can give in & to this world!
So is the start towards Nibbāna: the Deathless Element! This is the Noble
Way to Peace, to Freedom, to Ease, to Happiness, initiated by Morality,
developed further by Dhamma-Study & fulfilled by training of Meditation

Today indeed is Pooya or Uposatha or observance day, where any lay
Buddhist normally keeps even the Eight Precepts from sunrise until the
next dawn… If any wish an official recognition by the Bhikkhu-Sangha,
they may simply forward the lines starting with “I hereby …” signed with
name, date, town & country to me or join here.  A public list of this new
quite rapidly growing global Saddhamma-Sangha is set up here!

The True Noble Community of Buddha’s Disciples: Saddhamma Sangha:      
http://What-Buddha-Said.net/sangha/Saddhamma_Sangha.htm

Can quite advantageously be Joined Here:

http://What-Buddha-Said.net/sangha/Sangha_Entry.htm

May your journey hereby be light, swift and sweet. Never give up !!

Bhikkhu Samahita: what.buddha.said@gmail.com
For Details on The Origin of Uposatha Observance Days:     
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/uposatha.html

Il Poya: The coming Buddha Metteyya!

Have a nice & noble day!

signature.picBowing_Bhikkhu 
Friendship is the Greatest!
Bhikkhu Samāhita _/\_ ]
http://What-Buddha-Said.net


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May all beings become thus Happy!
Friendship is the GREATEST!
 
Have a Nice Noble Day!
 
Bhikkhu Samahita


A devotee of the Chinese Bang
Neow Shrine with two guns pierced through his cheeks takes a part in
procession during the annual vegetarian festival in Phuket October 20,
2012. The festival, featuring face-piercing, spirit mediums, and strict
vegetarianism celebrates the local Chinese community’s belief that
abstinence from meat and various stimulants during the ninth lunar month
of the Chinese calendar will help them obtain good health and peace of
mind. REUTERS/Damir Sagolj

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