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March 2017
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2163 Sat 11 Mar 2017 LESSON COMMIT NO EVIL ; BUT DO GOOD AND LET THY HEART BE PURE. THAT IS THE GIST OF BUDDHAHOOD, THE LORE THAT WILL ENDURE. Dr Subramanian Swamy exposes fault in Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) (हिंदी)
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:59 am
2163 Sat 11 Mar 2017 LESSON

Dr Subramanian Swamy exposes fault in Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) (हिंदी)

UP Election Results 2017: Mayawati No 3, Alleges Rigging.

the BJP headed for a landslide victory in Uttar Pradesh, former Chief
Minister Mayawati blamed it on large scale rigging and threatened to
complain to the Election Commission and go to court and hold an
agitation till the matter was remedied.

and Amit Shah, if they are really honest, they should get this election
countermanded and revert to the system of ballot papers,”Ms Mayawati
said. “This issue is so major now that to be silent about it is to
strangle democracy.”

don’t believe in EVMs, said Ms Mayawati, who has a huge voter base
among the state’s SC/STs. “Muslims want to know… they say ‘We haven’t
voted for the BJP, so where is the question of non-BJP voters being
transferred to them,” said Mayawati, who had fielded a large number of
Muslim candidates.

BJP has murdered democracy,” she added. In Punjab — where the BJP is
trailing Congress - “they would also have done the same thing but they
got scared”. “If the Election Commission doesn’t listen, I will go to
court, do ‘andolan’ (agitation),” she added.

the BJP of rigging even the recently completed civic elections in
Maharashtra, she said “Complaints of faulty EVMs had come through there
as well”. While the BJP had not won an outright victory in the Mumbai
civic elections, under the aggressive leadership of Chief Minister
Devendra Fadnavis, it had closed the gap with four-time winner Shiv
Sena, coming to the position of a close second.

A storm of complaints across Maharashtra raise serious doubts about how fool-proof EVMs really are.

Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) and Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopath chief are all CHOR GURU & CHANDAL SHISYA.

Mayawati’s BSP won 80% seats in the recently concluded UP Panchayat
elections. Now after the dreaded DEMONetisation of Murderer of
democratic institutions (Modi), BSP would have won all the seats to
comeback in the state and to implement Sarvajan Hitay Saravjan Sukhay
i.e., for welfare, happiness and peace for all societies.But only in 20
constituencies the EVMs were replaced in UP Assembly election.

She has got full support of Sarvajan Samaj including SC/STs/OBCs/Minorities and the Upper castes.

Because Modi distorted the EVM in 2014 Lok Sabha elections he gobbled the Master Key.

Since Mayawati gave the best governance as CM of UP, she became
eligible to be the next PM. This was not tolerated by the congress. So they tampered the EVMs in favour of SP in 2012.

Now the whole world is aware of the fact that the EVMs could be tampered , distorted and rigged.

Yadav, stirred a controversy of electoral vote. “Ballot paper ke bare
mein samjhane ki zarurat hai…i.e., there must be an awakening on the use
of Ballot paper instead of EVMs until they are entire replaced.…/need-constitutional-amendment-m…/

have reached a stage where people are demanding hundred per cent
deployment of paper audit trail machine. Our plan is that by 2019, the
whole country will be covered by paper audit trail machines. The budget
for this has been committed now,” Zaidi said while addressing an
international seminar today.

Commission, with certain additional resources, can undertake the
exercise of (holding) simultaneous elections in future. But there are
two pre-conditions. “One, there should be an amendment in the
Constitution through a process of political consensus and we will need
some additional resources in terms of EVMs (electronic voting machines),
etc,” Zaidi said.…/2019-general-elections-have-pap…

2019 general elections to have paper-trail EVMs

Instead of waiting till 2019 the CEC must conduct elections with paper ballots system.

It has been proved any doubt that the EVMs could be tampered.…/up-panchayat-polls-bsp-back-to-…/
the 2014 Lok Sabha elections Ms Mayawati’s BSP lost all the seats in UP
because of these EVMs. But after some months BSP won with thumping
majority with paper ballot system.…/judgments/announcement.php…
the Ex CJI sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by
that the EVMs will be replaced in a phased manner as suggested by the
ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores involved in the
entire replacement of the EVMs. Only in 8 out of 543 seats were replaced
in 2014 Lok Sabha elections which helped the Murderer of democratic
institutions (Modi) to gobble the Master Key.

After that all state elections are using the very same EVMs that helped the BJP or Congress and their allies getting selected.

In UP elections only in 20 constituencies the EVMs are being replaced.

The CJI and CEC must order for paper ballot system till entire EVMs
were replaced. And also order for dissolving the Central and state
governments selected by these EVMs and go for fresh elections with paper ballot system.

The next general elections are due in 2019.

The paper audit trail machine or Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail
(VVPAT) was first introduced by the Commission in 2013 in order to
enhance transparency in the polls process and increase electorate’s
confidence that their vote goes without error to their desired

the vote is polled, the VVPAT linked EVM immediately takes a printout
and it is preserved for later use to tally in case there is a dispute in
the final result.

who was speaking on the topic ‘Leveraging Technology for Transparent
and Credible Elections’, stressed that secrecy of voters will be
zealously preserved.

For e-postal ballot, Zaidi said a “safe technology” has been developed and it is being “validated and tested currently….”

Zaidi said the EC has always marched along with technology despite
coming its way like “controversies and opposition raised by political
parties and activists” while introducing EVMs as replacement of the
paper ballot system.

said despite these results, the EVMs “continued to be attacked by
activists in various media and judicial fora on account of alleged lack
of transparency”.

“According to these activists, a voter does not get any physical
evidence whether his voting has gone to the intended candidate.

This in turn has led to introduction of paper audit trail machines after an order of Supreme Court in 2013,” he said.

The CEC said VVPAT machines hence acted to resolve the queries and clarifications sought by people in this regard.

added that “not a single” dispute has been reported from the country
vis-a-vis VVPAT usage in polls and the EC has deployed more than 20,000
such paper audit trail machines till now.

While moving forward in this direction, the CEC said the most important thing to be kept in mind was the security of the data.

the BJP was in opposition even the RSS favoured Paper Ballots but after
it came to power they prefer EVMs and gave tickets to RSS cadres in
support of its hindutva rashtra.

Jiyadha Psychopaths continue to harass the voters because they are not
bothered about their votes as long as the EVMs are there to select them.

also the Congress, SP, BJP and all their allies are vultures of a
feather that flock together feeding on the bodies of Sarvajan Samaj

BJP is using Religion for votes without any action being taken. RSS a
political party says reservation should be removed which is against our
Modern Constitution. Again no action is being taken. EVMs were tampered
in favour of Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)…/number7.5/no-evoting-germany

Digital Civil Rights in Europe

No e-voting in Germany

Electronic voting

This article is also available in:
Deutsch: Keine E-Wahlen in Deutschland

Macedonian: Нема е-гласање во Германија

The German Federal Constitutional Court decided on 3 March 2009 that
electronic voting used for the last 10 years, including for the 2005 general
elections, was unconstitutional and therefore not to be used for the next
elections in September 2009.

The court ruled that the use of the electronic machines contradicts the
public nature of elections and the equipment used in 2005 had some
shortcomings. However, as there has been no evidence of errors in the
past, the results of the previous elections remain valid.

The use of e-voting was challenged by political scientist Joachim Wiesner
and his son, physicist Ulrich Wiesner who complained that the system was not
transparent because the voter could not check what actually happened to his
vote, being actually asked to blindly trust the technology. The voting
machines which are manufactured by the Dutch firm Nedap, do not print out
receipts. In the plaintiffs’ opinion, the results could be manipulated.

A petition signed by over 45 000 people in 2005, trying to ban e-voting, had
been rejected by the German Government. Now, the court ruled that the
Federal Voting Machines Ordinance having introduced e-voting was
unconstitutional because it did not “ensure that only such voting machines
are permitted and used which meet the constitutional requirements of the
principle of the public nature of elections.”

Also the court considered that, differently from the traditional voting
system where manipulations and frauds are much more difficult involving a
high degree of effort and a high risk of detection, “programming errors in
the software or deliberate electoral fraud committed by manipulating the
software of electronic voting machines can be recognised only with
difficulty.” Also, in the court’s opinion, the electors should be able to
verify how their vote is recorded without having to possess detailed
computer knowledge. “If the election result is determined through
computer-controlled processing of the votes stored in an electronic memory,
it is not sufficient if merely the result of the calculation process carried
out in the voting machine can be taken note of by means of a summarising
printout or an electronic display.”

A campaign against electronic voting has been initiated by EDRi member Chaos
Computer Club together with the Dutch foundation Wij vertrouwen
stemcomputers niet (We don’t trust voting computers) because of the risk of
electronic errors and the potential for abuse.

After a group of hackers had succeeded in tampering with similar machines in
the Netherlands in 2006, the Dutch Government imposed a moratorium on the
use of electronic voting machines and Ireland also has banned electronic

German Court Rules E-Voting Unconstitutional (3.03.2009),,4069101,00.html

Federal Constitutional Court - Press release on Use of voting computers in
2005 Bundestag election unconstitutional (3.03.2009)…/p…/bvg09-019en.html

Voting machines unconstitutional in Germany (3.03.2009)

EDRi-gram: Electronic voting machines eliminated in the Netherlands

‹ IRMA tries to block websitesupEP wants a better balance between Internet security and privacy rights ›

Since Congress started distorting EVM in its favour and

then SP to defeat BSP, It has to be watched as to whose benefit

distorting, rigging and tampering will take place. Now the whole world

is aware of the fact that the EVM could be distorted.

खबरदार चुनाव जीतने के लिए भाजपा EVM से छेड़छाड़ कर सकती है | BJP may distort EMV to win election

1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally

retarded, terrorist, horrorist cannibal chitpawan brahmin of Rakshasa

Swayam Sevaks (RSS) Jagaran had projected 300 seats for Bahuth Jiyadha

Psychopaths (BJP) and was booked for action.

When the BJP was in opposition the RSS favoured paper
ballots. Now since BJP is in power the want these EVMs to keep tampering
in their favour.…/A…/India/20100828/1575461.html

RSS favours paper ballots, EVMs subjected to public scrutinyNew Delhi | Saturday, Aug 28 2010 IST

the controversy regarding the reliablity of Electronic Voting Machines
(EVMs) which have been questioned by political parties, the RSS today
asked the Election Commission (EC) to revert back to tried and tested
paper ballots and subject EVMs to public scrutiny whether these gadgets
are tamper proof. In an editorial titled ‘Can we trust our EVMs?’, The
Organiser, the RSS mouthpiece, noted it was a fact that till date an
absolutely tamper-proof machine had not been invented and credibility of
any system depends on ‘transparency, verifiability and trustworthiness’
than on blind and atavistic faith in its infallibility. The issue is
not a ‘private affair’ and it involves the future of India. Even if the
EVMs were genuine, there was no reason for the EC to be touchy about it,
the paper commented. The Government and the EC can’t impose EVMs as a
fait accompli on Indian democracy as the only option before the voter.
There were flaws like booth capturing, rigging, bogus voting, tampering
and ballot paper snatching in the ballot paper system of polling leading
the country to switch over to the EVMs and all these problems were
relevant in EVMs too. Rigging was possible even at the counting stage.
What made the ballot papers voter-friendly was that all aberrations were
taking place before the public eye and hence open for corrections
whereas the manipulations in the EVMs is entirely in the hands of powers
that be and the political appointees manning the sytem, the paper
commented. The EVM has only one advantage — ’speed’ but that advantage
has been undermined by the staggered polls at times spread over three to
four months. ‘’This has already killed the fun of the election
process,’’ the paper noted. Of the dozen General Elections held in the
country, only two were through the EVMs and instead of rationally
addressing the doubts aired by reputed institutions and experts the
Government has resorted to silence its critics by ‘intimidation and
arrests on false charges’, the paper observed, recalling the arrest of
Hyederabad-based technocrat Hari Prasad by the Mumbai Police. Prasad’s
research has proved that the EVMs were ‘vulnerable to fraud’. The
authorities want to send a message that anybody who challenges the EC
runs the risk of persecution and harassment, the RSS observed. Most
countries around the world looked at the EVMs with suspicion and
countries like the Netherlands, Italy, Germany and Ireland had all
reverted back to paper ballots shunning EVMs because they were ‘easy to
falsify, risked eavesdropping and lacked transparency’. Democracy is too
precious to be handed over to whims or an opaque establishment and
network of unsafe gizmos. ‘’For the health of Indian democracy it is
better to return to tried and tested methods or else elections in future
can turn out to be a farce,’’ the editorial said.– (UNI) — 28DI28.xml

Now will the BJP  Say ‘Take A Chill Pill’ with its lawmaker Babul Supriyo allege the RSS. that
it has become “inconsequential” and for whose farewell it is ? Smriti
Irani, too, can take a swipe at RSS, saying it was a case of “sour
grapes” when BJP was in opposition.

Now the CEC and CJI must order for dissolution of Central and State
selected by these EVMs and go for fresh polls with paper ballots till
the entire EVMs are replaced as we have reached a stage where people are
demanding hundred per cent deployment of paper audit trail machine. And
asthe plan is that by 2019, the whole country will be covered by paper
audit trail machines. The budget for this has been committed now as said
by Zaidi.

11th March 2017, Saturday

9.30 AM - 5.00 PM

Venue - Mahabodhi Community Hall,

Maha Bodhi society, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru


Inaugurated by

Ven.Kassapa Mahathera, President, Maha Bodhi Society
Key Note Address

Ven. Bhikkhu Ananda
, Gen. Secretary, Maha Bodhi Society
Kannada Session - 10.00 am  to 12.30 pm


Prof. Shubhachandra
(Retd. Prof. Department of Jainology, Mysore University)
Topic: Dhammapada and Jainology
Shri. Sharath Chandra Swamiji
(Asst. Prof. & Co-ordinator, Research & Academics, Bengaluru)
Topic: Dhammapada and Sanatanadharma
Dr. Ranga Reddy Kodirampura
(HOD. PG Departmentof kannada, MES College, Bengaluru)
Topic: Dhammapada and Vachanagalu
(Ex.Director Mysuru rangayana & Ex.Chairman Kannada Nataka Academy)
English Session - 2.00 pm to 4.00 pm
(Retd.IAS & Research Scholor -Tumkur University)
Topic: Dhammapada and its Historical background
Shri. N.M.Dhoke
(Director (R.S.E) Bangalore Metro rail Corporation Ltd. Bengaluru)
Topic: Dhammapada, Buddha’s path to Awakenment
Dr.J. Sreenivasa Murthy
(Director, Mahabodhi Research Center, Bengaluru)
Topic: Dhammapada and mind
Dr.Mudnakudu Chinnaswamy
(Poet Rtd,. Chief Accounts Officer-cum-Financial Advisor, BMTC Central offices, Bengaluru)

Traditional Offerings of Attaparikkhara to 12 Samaneras who will receive
Bhikkhu ordination by Upasakas and Upasikas at 6pm in the vihara

5.30 PM
Maharani College Auditorium, Gandhinagar, Bengaluru
In association with Kannada & Cultural Department, Govt. of Karnataka

Sep 26, 2009

Medicine in Buddhist and Jaina Traditions

By Pankaj Goyal
Lok Vigyan Kendra
Almora 263601 India

It is
believed that Lord Buddha showed the path of liberation from disease
and death and due to this reason he is also known as the great physician
(Mahabhisak). He propounded the four noble truths that are nothing but
medical logic. These four noble truths include disease, its cause,
treatment and its ways and are collectively known as Aryasatyacatustaya.
Diagnosis of disease and charitable distribution of medicines among the
sick people were the regular programmes of the Buddhist sanghas.
Buddhist monks and nuns also implemented the same in Buddha-viharas.
Emperor Asoka who adopted the Buddha religion after the Kalinga war not
only established many hospitals and dispensaries for the treatment of
the sick but also ordered planting of medicinal plants at different

P.V.Sharma, the well known historian of Indian medicinal
sciences, summarises the medical practices prevalent among the
Buddhists and the Jainas. We give a summary of his essay here.

Medicine in Buddhist Tradition
oldest source of literature that gives a glimpse of Indian medicine in
the Buddhist tradition is the Tripitaka. Tripitaka mentions tikiccha in
place of Ayurveda and disease is mentioned as gilana instead of atura as
in medical text. This book also gives some references that suggest that
tikiccha was one of the most important subjects of learning in

P.V.Sharma says that there are five well-known
bhutas, but the Buddhist texts mention only four of them, excepting
akasa. Cullavagga has got enough material that gives a good view of
daily life of monks and nuns, health and hygiene and the arrangements in
the viharas. In the viharas, there were systematic arrangements for
the maintenance of privies and bathrooms. Personal cleaning as well as
cleaning of the surroundings was strictly observed. A special care was
also taken for water. A number of diseases are mentioned in Tripitaka
texts while kustha, ganda, kilasa, sosa and apasmara are said to be the
five prevalent abadhas.

Mahavagga (MV) gives valuable
information regarding diseases and their treatment in the book (vi) on
medicaments. This book provides us very useful information particularly
on the treatment of diseases. Some of the treatments contained in this
book are described here in brief. To treat headache the drug was
administered through nose and oil was also applied on the head. In the
case of jaundice, Haritaki impregnated with cow’s urine was prescribed.
In the case of snakebite, four types of filth - dung, urine, ashes and
clay were prescribed. For eye-disease, eye ointments and collyriums were
also mentioned. Similarly a lot of other treatments are described in
that book.

Drugs have been classified in the beginning of MV
(VI). Here fat of animal is first described, and then the vegetable
drugs are mentioned in the given groups:

Leaves- patola, tulasi etc.
Fruits- vidanga, pippali etc.
Niryasa- hingu, sarjarasa etc.

the end an inorganic substance salt is also mentioned. A large number
of medicinal plants are also referred but in different contexts.

(viii.1.1-29) contains a detailed account of the renowned scholar
Jivaka and his amazing medical and surgical cures. He performed a large
number of miraculous cures. He was born of Salavati, a courtesan of
Vaisali. He learnt this medicinal science from Atreya at Taksasila.
Atreya was himself a renowned scholar of medicine during the Buddhist
period. Later, he became a physician in the court of Bimbisara.

– Dhammapada mentions freedom from disease as the highest gain. It
advises to avoid two extremes - ayoga and atiyoga and to adopt the
middle path. In Dhammapada, the word ‘atura’ has been used for diseased;
although in the Buddhist texts word ‘gilana’ is used.

Avadana is the other name of Apadana. There are many texts on this topic
of which avadanasataka and divyavadana are more popular.

is an interesting text dated about 100 CE. According to this text,
cloth, food, beddings, appliances for diagnosis and treatment of the
sick were offered to Lord Buddha. Several types of diseases, their
symptoms and methods of their treatment are also described in it. The
case of pregnancy in terms of drugs, diet and behaviour is described in a
systematic manner. A pregnant woman was advised to avoid all the six
tastes and any kind of unpleasant sound. Once, while operating a women’s
abdomen to deliver the foetus, Jivaka advised the lady to take five
parts of a plant as a drug.

Different types of houses for
different seasons (winter, summer and rainy season) are mentioned in
Divyavadana. Application of gosirsa candana is suggested in case of
fever with burning sensation. Sammohini and sanjivani osadhi are also
referred to in this text. The Jyotiskavadana text gives references about

In Sardulakarnavadana, plants are referred to in a
classified way and divided in to seven different groups such as
phalguvrksa, sthalaja vrksa, ksiravrksa, phalabhaisajya vrska, sthalaja
puspavrksa and jalaja puspa. Herbs growing in the villages as well as in
the hills are also mentioned. Some diseases like Apasmara, kilasa and
kustha are also described. At the end there is also a topic based on
dreams. According to this text, constellations (Naksatras) also play a
role and it is said that the collection as well as the administration of
drugs should be started in Satabhisa.

Kunalavadana contains an
interesting anecdote about a disease of King Asoka and its treatment
with onion by his wife. Initially, his wife experimentally observed the
effects of onion on intestinal worms.

Milindapanha is one of the
non-canonical Pali texts. It originated in northwest India by about
beginning of the Christian era. It holds some precious knowledge about
Buddhist traditions. This text is in the form of dialogues between
Nagasena and king Milinda. This text also holds some significant
information about the Buddhist tradition. According to this text,
medicine was one of the most important subjects of teaching during the
Buddhist times. There is also a reference that king Milinda himself
learned cikitsa along with other eighteen subjects. Treatment of wounds
with paste, application of oil and dressing is preferred for better and
early healing of the wounds. In the case of poisoning, a mixture of
ghee, butter, oil, honey and jaggery is suggested. A very interesting
connection of urine with reproduction is shown in a story where a fakir
or ascetic was born by intake of urine of an ascetic or fakir.
According to Nagasena the disease is caused by eight factors – vata,
pitta, slesma, sannipata, seasonal imbalance, irregular diet, improper
treatment and past deeds. Nagasena further narrates the aggravation of
vata, pitta and slesma in ten, three and three ways respectively.
According to him vata is aggravated by cold, heat, hunger, thirst,
overeating, sedentary habit, anxiety, exertion, treatment and past
deeds, while pitta and kapha are aggravated by cold, heat and irregular

Saddharmapundarika is a work that belongs to first century
CE. It is one of the most sacred Mahayana texts. This text mentions that
followers of the Buddhist tradition established many viharas that were
well equipped with food, drinks, appliances for diagnosis and treatment
of the sick and other comforts. One of the chief characteristics of
these viharas was that these were attached with a flower garden and
park. According to this text diseases were classified into four types-
vatika, paittika, slaismika and sannipatika. Along with the
classification of diseases a large number of diseases are also mentioned
such as kustha, kilasa etc. Deformity in the various body parts and
different types of continuous and intermittent fevers are mentioned too.
Plants are classified into four types – trna, gulma, osadhi and
vanaspati. The parts of the plant are mentioned as nala, sakha, patra,
puspa and phala. Drugs were taken in various forms such as juice, paste,
decoction, infusion, after combining with other drugs, by injecting
through needle or cauterization or mixing with food.

texts contain some valuable information about the Buddhist tradition.
Lalitavistara is one of the important texts that deal with the advent of
Lord Buddha and his teachings. Lord Buddha is mentioned in this text by
several names such as the king of physicians, best among physicians,
the great surgeon etc. Several types of diseases are also mentioned

According to Suvarnaprabhasasutra, two factors play a
vital role in the longevity of life – avoiding exertion and proper
nutrition. Here, four dhatus (bhutas) are mentioned out of which two are
said as moving upwards and the other two going downwards and thus they
neutralize each other. The most interesting and important medical
document in Suvarnaprabhsasutra is chapter 17. In this chapter, a great
and well-informed man in all the branches of Ayurveda taught Astanga
Ayurveda to his son and the discussion between them exposed some very
interesting and valuable information about medicine. Four different
seasons (rainy season, autumn, winter, and summer) and four different
types of disorders (vatika, paittka, sannipatika and kaphaja) are
mentioned that occur in these four seasons respectively. The
pacification of these disorders is also given in the text.

poetic works of Asvagohsa (2nd Cent.CE), Buddhacarita and Saundarananda,
also contain some valuable information related to Buddhist medicine

The following authors representing the Buddhist tradition are significant in the field of Ayurveda:

Vagabhata composed the Astangasangraha and the Astangahrdaya. These
books not only contain the Samhitas of Caraka and Susruta but also
include many Vidyas and mantras as well as a large number of medical
formulae prevalent in the Buddhist tradition.

Ravigupta, a Buddhist scholar, composed the Siddhasara that also
contained a nighantu at the end. The date of Ravigupta is fixed as 650
CE, viz. after Vagbhata and before Madhava. The Siddhasara contains 31
chapters and the Siddhasara-nighantu as appendix. First four chapters of
this book are based on Tantra, dravyagana, annapanavidhi and arista,
while chapters 5 to 25 deal with individual diseases. Further chapters
are based on Varna, Salakya, Visa, Rasayana- Vajikarana, Kumaratantra,
Pancakarma and Kalpa.

Nagarjuna- A large number of works was
produced by Nagarjuna in different periods. Yogasataka is such a work by
Nagarjuna that represents work of this tradition. Apart from Yogasataka
following works of Nagarjuna are incorporated into the Tibetan Tanjur:
(a) Avabhesajakalpa
(b) Arya raja name vatika
(c) Arya mulakosamahausadhavali

Candranandana- The following works of Candranandana are incorporated in the Tibetan Tanjur:
(a) Vaidya-Astangahrdayavrtti
(b) Vaidya-Astangahrdayavrttau bhesajanama-paryayanama
(c) Padarthacandrika…… Astangahrdaya-vivrti

Educational Centres
was a popular subject of teaching in the curricula of the Viharas and
mahaviharas as Buddhists treat it as an important tool for missionary
service to humanity and animals. Medicine was an important and
compulsory subject in all the universities. The University of Taksasila
was famous for this subject where Atreya was a renowned teacher. Jivaka
was a famous student of this university, who got proficiency in medicine
as well as surgery. The Nalanda University had also medicine as one of
the compulsory subjects of teaching. Medicine was also taught in
Vikramasila University. Tantras as well as Rasasastra also flourished
there in theory and practice.

Royal Patronage
During the
periods of Kings Asoka, Kaniska and Sri Harsa, the Buddhist tradition
flourished side by side with the Vedic traditions. These kings
established many viharas in various parts of the country as well as far
off places. As a result of this Buddhism spread to other Asian countries
along with which Indian medicine also reached out there. Some valuable
accounts given by Chinese travellers like Fahian, Huan Chwang and Itsing
give a detailed view of Buddhist tradition in those periods.

Medicine in Jaina Tradition
Jainas had a well established tradition of medicine that was known as
pranavaya. It dealt with mental disciplines, dietetics and drugs and
covered all the eight angas of Ayurveda. It was the science of vitality
maintaining the health of body and mind. It mainly dealt with mental
disciplines, dietectics and drugs and covered all the 8 angas of
Ayurveda. The Jaina saints looked after their health and their sickness
themselves. In the field of medicine the Jainas were very strict and had
forbidden alcohol, honey and meat and as a result the Jaina physicians
had to adjust the formulations accordingly. The Jaina physicians used
plants and minerals mainly as a source of drugs. These physicians were
very practical and believed in curing the diseases with tried and tested
medicines rather than going into beliefs and fundamental doctrines.

Medicine in Jaina Tradition
to Acarangasutra, the nature of plants and animals is similar. Both
plants as well as animals are born, grow old, have animation, fall sick,
require food, decay and die. It mentions that the animate beings are
produced as follows:

From eggs (as birds etc.)
From a foetus (as elephant etc.)
From a foetus with an enveloping membrane (as cow etc.)
From fluids (as worms etc.)
From sweat (as bugs etc.)
By coagulation (as ants etc.)
From sprouts (as butterflies etc.)
By regeneration (as man etc.)

list including mango, grapes, ginger, mustard stalks, asvattha,
kadamba, coconut, kaseru, lotus, sugarcane, bilva and garlic etc. is
described. Cleanliness of body, speech and mind was greatly preferred
and special care was taken of it. This also gives an idea about the
behaviour of the Jainas towards cleanliness. At certain places some
methods of treatment are mentioned. Surgical operation with sharp
instrument, treatment by charms (pure and impure) and drugs were
prevalent. There are sixteen diseases enumerated at one place:

1. Boils
2. Leprosy
3. Consumption
4. Epilepsy
5. Blindness
6. Stiffness
7. Lameness
8. Hump-backedness
9. Abdominal enlargement
10. Dumbness
11. Swelling
12. Anaemia
13. Trembling
14. Crippledness
15. Elephantiasis
16. Diabetes

Sutra accepted sickness as one of the troubles. An account of eye
disease and fever is mentioned, but in the form of a story. Different
methods of treatment like spells, roots, emetics, purgatives,
fumigation, anointing of the eye are mentioned in detail. Plants are
classified as vrksa, gaccha, gulma, lata, valli and trna and various
plants related to this classification are described. Use of inorganic
substances such as metals, except mercury, stones, mica, and sulphur are
mentioned. Similarly, animals also held a position in this text along
with their classification.

Sustrakrtanga is another text in
which certain body parts, substances used in cosmetics and some domestic
devices are specified. Seeds are described as of four different types –
those generated at the top of a plant, at its root, at its knot, and at
its stem. Different parts of plant like bulb, stem, root, branches,
twigs, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds are mentioned.

is the only authoritative text available on the pranavaya tradition of
medicine. It was composed by Ugradityacarya who was contemporary of
Amoghavarsa I, the Rastrakuta king (815-877 CE) and disciple of
Srinandi. He has mentioned the authors in different branches of Ayurveda
as follows:
Pujyapada – Salakya
Patraswami – Salya
Siddhasena – Visa and graham (bhuta)
Dasarathaguru – Kayacikitsa
Meghanada – Balaroga
Simhanada – Rasayana – Vajikarana
Samantabhadra – All the eight branches (Astanga)

text includes 20 chapters. The first three chapters are based on the
basic concepts, while the fourth and the fifth deal with food and drink
including anupana. The sixth chapter includes the topics related to
personal hygiene. The seventh chapter is based on groundwork related to
medicines, arrangements in the hospital and patient’s examination.
Kayacikitsa begins from the eighth chapter. The eighth, ninth and the
tenth chapters cover topics associated with vataroga, pittaroga and
kapharoga. The chapter based on pittaroga includes raktapitta, pradara,
visarpa, vatarakta, jvara and atisara. Chapters 11th, 12th and 13th deal
with great diseases (mahamayas) and the 14th chapter deals with
upadamsa, slipada and ksudraroga. Chapter 15th is based on salakya and
16th to 18th are again based on Kayacikitsa. Visaroga is described in
the 20th chapter and 21st chapter covers some general things about
medicine. Chapter 21st is based on the application of ksara, agni, and
jalauka, while chapters 22-23 deal with pancakarma. Mercury and its
processing are described in detail in the 24th chapter. The last chapter
is based on Kalpas. According to the author, there is no penance
greater than cikitsa. He says, “Cikitsa is for destroying sins and
promoting virtues”.

Medicine proved as an
effectual tool in the expansion of Buddhism. There are certain examples
where people adopted Buddhism only for being treated by renowned
physicians like Jivaka. In Buddhist Viharas medicine was one of the most
important programmes in their daily activities. Indian medicine
travelled far and wide and spread to other countries along with
Buddhism. A feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow as well as great service
towards the sick was a unique feature of Buddhism and because of this
reason the sick had a feeling of great respect for Lord Buddha. Like
Buddhism, the Jaina tradition contributed a lot in the field of health
and medicine. There is a huge amount of Jaina literature from which we
can get quite a vast material related to medicine. It was the common
belief of the Jainas that diseases resulted from sinful acts. They were
passive recipients of medical treatment rather than active promoters of
the same like Buddhists. However, the basic foundation of the Jaina
tradition is the same as of the Buddhist medicine.

1992. Medicine in Buddhist and Jaina traditions. In History of Medicine
in India. P.V.Sharma (Ed). New Delhi: INSA. Pp. 117-135.

Difference between Hindu-dharma and Sanatana-dharma

Today Hinduism is a political force, synonymous with national identity of India.

Sanatana-dharma is the oldest religion
in the world. It is based upon the collection of spiritual laws
discovered by Rishis thousands of years ago. It prescribes certain
duties that a human being must perform to achieve fulfilment of life.
Sanatana-dharma is pre-historic and absolute in nature. On the other
hand the term Hindu or Hindu dharma is a term given by Persians only a
few centuries ago, to mean the people living beside the river Sindhu.
With the beginning of the 19th century Hindu came to be understood as a
collective term to describe the religion practiced by Indians as well as
the people of India.

Dharma: Dharma as
generally understood, refers to a structured religion or religious
duties as mandatory in the scriptures of established monotheistic
religions like Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, or Judaism. But in the
context of Hinduism or Hindu-dharma, it has a different connotation. The
term Dharma can be traced to Sanskrit Dhri-dhatoo which literally means
to sustain or hold or which is integral to something, as described by
AC Bhaktivadanta Sri Sri Prabhupada. Thus dharma of sugar
is to sweeten, dharma of fire is to create heat and burn or dharma of
river is to flow or that of air is to blow. As such a human being’s
dharma consists of certain duties which make his/her life fruitful. Thus
dharma is the unchangeable nature of human beings irrespective of any
religious affiliation.

Thousands of years before the term Hindu or Hinduism came into
existence, the term ‘Sanatana-dharma’ finds reference in Veda the oldest
literature in the world. The duties as mentioned above can be
classified into Sanatana-dharma and Varnashrama-dharma.
Varnashrama-dharma identifies the economic and social duties of human
beings. Sanatana-dharma consists of duties which are typically spiritual
in nature. It refers to atman or spirit and thus cannot vary from
person to person. Sanatana-dharma is very difficult to define
objectively. However the emphasis is on eternal or intrinsic inclination
of human beings which is to do service as desired by God and without
expecting anything in return. This, according to Rishis is universal and
beyond life and death and has nothing to do with one’s belier system.
It prescribes the eternal duties that human beings should follow
irrespective of birth root. These duties are honesty, purity,
non-violence, self-restraint etc.

Hindu-dharma: The term
Hindu does not find mention in ancient literatures like Vedas and
Puranas. It has been coined by Persians to mean people living beside the
river Sindhu. Basically Hindu means the people living in a particular
geographical territory, i.e. Indians living beside Sindhu river. Before
Persians gave Indians the name Hindu, the geographical territory was
known as Aryavarata. When Greek conqueror Alexander the great invaded
this part of the world, Greeks used the term Indu instead of Hindu to
denote people living in this territory. This ‘Indu’ later became India
and the people came to be known as Indian.

During the period when Muslim rulers ruled India, they levied jazia, a discriminatory tax
upon all non-Muslims, thus bracketing all non-Muslims living in India
as a distinct religious and cultural denomination called Hindu. Later
during 19th century ‘Hindu’ became to be recognised as Hindu religion
engulfing the people of India and the Sanatana-dharma. Even today, in
many countries Muslims and Christians from India are termed as
Hindu-Muslims and Hindu-Christians respectively.

The root of Hindu-dharma is found in
Vedas and Puranas. These books are collection of spiritual laws,
discovered by Rishis. These laws are absolute and govern the spiritual
world. With passage of time it became a complex tradition encompassing a
number of inter-related faiths and practices with common
characteristics. The underlying theme of Hindu-dharma is that a human
being’s life both present and future is guided by the action or Karma
one undertakes. Hindu-dharma is a mystical religion that teaches the
practitioners to experience the truth within by way of Karma (action),
Bhakti(devotion), and Gyana (wisdom), and feel oneness with God in

Hindu-dharma as commonly known is a
synthesis of a number of beliefs and traditions, like Vaishnava, Shaiba,
Shakta, Shikhism, Jainism etc. Hindu-dharma as practiced today by
nearly 1.15 billion people spread over Indian subcontinent, and many
parts of Asia consists of certain rituals, festivals, and strict
customs. It is the third largest religion in the world after
Christianity and Buddhism. Today Hinduism is a political force, synonymous with national identity of India.

Raghuram Kasyap Challapalli


others have rightly pointed out, Sanatana Dharma is a way of life, but
Hinduism is not. Hinduism is a religion and in every religion you need
to accept the existence of a God and follow his teachings. Though many
people argue other wise, this is the truth.  One cannot be an atheist
and say that he is a Hindu. On the other hand, one can be an atheist and
simultaneously be a follower of Sanatana Dharma because it allows you
to question anything in search of knowledge. All the upanishads were
born this way.

In addition to the geographical
term given to the people of Bharat by foreigners and invaders, I also
feel that this term Hindu was used instrumentally to refrain people from
questioning their own practices, thereby giving rise to blind faith and
a number of superstitions, which did not exist in ancient times. This
blind faith further lead people to disown their own traditional
practices and was used for cultural invasion of  Bharat.

to Sanatana Dharma, a nastik is not a person who does not believe in
God, but one, who does not practice/respect the Vedas and the lifestyle
prescribed in them. So one can be an atheist and a follower of Sanatana
Dharma as long as he respects the belief of others. There is always a
chance for proving his point through debate and the others would also
respect the winner. This is how Shankaracharya was able to unite all the
broken fragments of Sanatana Dharma (there were over 600 sects during
his time), by debate.

For Hinduism, we cannot
find any such authentic references, even for the point that Hinduism
follows the Vedas. I don’t say that Hinduism doesn’t follow the Vedic
practices, but why ? We cannot answer that question as a Hindu.

for the Charvaka philosophy you’ve asked for, I think it is like modern
day science but with the rules of nomadic people without any
civilization, ethics and morals. Since the Charvaka philosophy does not
believe in any ethics or morals, I personally believe that this does not
form any part of Sanatana Dharma or Hinduism. Just because something is
written in Sanskrit doesn’t mean that it has to be an authentic
scripture of Hinduism/Sanatana Dharma.

Sanatana Dharma and Buddhism

The original and pure teachings of the Buddha have been altered in
contemporary Buddhism. The only place to now find those pure teachings
of the Buddha is in the path of Sanatana Dharma - which is the path that
the Buddha himself followed for the entirety of his life.

This video is an interview with Sri Dharma Pravartaka Acharya on Hindu
Radio that took place in early 2012. It is the first authoritative and
philosophically accurate explanation of the true nature and meaning of
the Buddha and Buddhism from the Vedic perspective ever recorded.

Please subscribe and share.

For more information on the teachings of Sri Acharyaji, visit our

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published on 02 May 2016
Gautama Buddha in Padmasana (Francis Chung)

Tipitaka (Sansktrit: Tripitaka), the Buddhist canon, consists of three pitaka (Tri means three and Pitaka refers to boxes), namely Vinaya or Monastic regimen, Sutta (Sanskrit: Sutra) or Discourses and Abhidhamma (Sanskrit: Abhidharma) or Abstract doctrine. Dhammapada (Sanskrit: Dharmapada) belongs to Khuddaka nikaya (Minor collection), which itself is a part of the Sutta pitaka. The name is a combination of two words Dharma and Pada. Dharma can be roughly translated into religious virtue and Pada into stanzas or steps.

Teachings of Buddha

Dhammapada is a collection of 423 verses as uttered by
Gautama Buddha himself to his disciples. An anthology of moral precepts
and maxims, it is divided into 26 chapters under such headers as Thought, Flowers, Old Age, Self, Happiness, Pleasure, Anger, Thirst, Brahmana
and others. Though seemingly separated across so many chapters a
fundamental thread runs through all the verses, which becomes
perceptible on reading the text.

The teachings of Buddha focus on the way, the magga (Sankskrit: marga)
or path, that delivers a person from a life that is inescapably
connected with desires, infatuation, sorrows, hate and an endless cycle
of Becoming. “He whose appetites are stilled, who is not absorbed in
enjoyment, who has perceived void and unconditioned freedom (Nirvâna),”
continues Buddha, “his path is difficult to understand, like that of
birds in the air” (No 93, Chapter VII). There is nirvana (moksha for Hindu, fana for Sufi mystic), here and now, not in a supposed afterlife.

The teachings of Buddha focus on the way, the magga or
path, that delivers a person from a life that is inescapably connected
with desires, infatuation, sorrows, hate and an endless cycle of

As because the ills that trouble of our lives stem from avidya
(ignorance), all efforts of Buddhist doctrine are therefore directed to
illumine that darkness, to carry us towards the highest summit of
wisdom, unmoving, un-originated, uncontaminated. Verily he says, “Him I
call indeed a Brâhmana who has traversed this miry road; the impassable
world and its vanity, who has gone through, and reached the other shore,
is thoughtful, guileless, free from doubts, free from attachment, and
content” (No 414, Chapter XXVI). 

The verses continue to enjoy such superlative popularity among
people, both followers of the way and others, because they present
axioms in a very plain language, easily accessible and relatable to all
irrespective of “aristocracy of birth and intellect” (Coomaraswamy 1967,
249). In fact, to further ease the process of understanding,
Buddhaghosa included a parable for nearly every verse, possibly uttered
by Buddha, in his monumental work of Atthakatha.

The word ‘Brahmana’ in the preceding passage should not be confused
with its homonymic counterpart, which denotes a caste. Its etymological
meaning, i.e. a person who has realised Brahma,
should be remembered to understand the whole of the last chapter of
this book. The following verse from the same chapter should make it
clear: “A man does not become a Brahmana by his platted hair, by his
family or by birth; in whom there is truth and righteousness, he is
blessed, he is a Brahmana” (No 393, Chapter XXVI). 

Also, nirvana should not be considered equivalent to an
ethical state just because the means to it are ethical, even if partly.
The numerous exhortations of Gautama Buddha in Dhammapada if
not properly considered may lead to this erroneous conclusion. In one of
the verses, he succinctly reveals the nature of this unfettered bliss,
“Him I call indeed a Brahmana who in this world is above good and evil,
above the bondage of both, free from grief, from sin, and from
impurity” (No 412, Chapter XXVI).


There is a general disagreement as to when it was reduced to a
written format in Pali language. It can, however, be dated back to at
least the 1st century BCE. While writing
his commentary on Dhammapada, Buddhaghosa (a Buddhist scholar from 5th
century CE) asserted that the Pali text before him was consolidated in
the First Council itself held after Parinirvana of Buddha. His
commentary known as Atthakatha (Sanskrit: Arthakatha) was written in
Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. While any debate in assigning a date to this
manuscript may hold archaeological interest, the teachings of this
sacred collection of verses are definitely independent of both time and

Illustrated Buddhist Manuscript Cover

Translations of this book in various Asian languages are in existence
from at least early 3rd century CE when it was translated to Chinese
as Shamana (Sanskrit: Shramana) by Wei Chi Lan and
other Buddhist ascetics. Many such extant copies in vernacular languages
abound in South, South-east Asian countries, not to mention Tibet. 

First Latin translation by Dr Fausböll appeared in 1855, subsequent
to which other prominent editions were published by D J Gogerly, Max
Müller etc. While it is nevertheless difficult to convey exactly the
beauty and affection of the original stanzas in translation, all such
initiatives have only contributed to make Dhammapada widely
available among curious readers and scholars alike. In conclusion,
nothing could be more apt than recalling the words of Gautama Buddha to
his disciple Ananda, “… be ye lamps unto yourselves. Be ye a refuge to
yourselves. Betake yourselves to no external refuge. Hold fast to the
truth as a lamp. Hold fast as a refuge to the truth. Look not for refuge
beside yourselves…” (Rhys Davids, Vol II, 108).

The Dhammapada for Awakening: A Commentary on Buddha’s Practical Wisdom

Learn how you can effectively lead a spiritual life in the modern world.

Dhammapada for Awakening brings a refreshing and timely perspective to
ancient wisdom and showing seekers of inner peace practical ways to
improve their inner lives today.

It explores the Buddha’s answers
to the urgent questions, such as “How can I find find lasting peace,
happiness and fulfillment that seems so elusive?” and “What can I do to
avoid many of the miseries big and small that afflict all of us?”.

on the proven wisdom of different ancient traditions, and the
contemporary masters of spiritual life, as well as his own studies and
first-hand knowledge of the mystical traditions of East and West, Abbot
George illumines the practical wisdom of Buddha in the Dhammapada, and
more importantly, and make that makes that teaching relevant to present
day spiritual seekers.

The Dhammapada is the first collection of
Gautama Buddha’s practical teachings for those seeking Nirvana, compiled
only three months after his passing away by his enlightened disciples,
who named it Dhammapada: The Way of Dharma. It is a distillation of
forty-five years of the Buddha’s teaching.

Abbot George says of
the Dhammapada, “Over and over in the teachings of Buddha we find that
he is giving us only that which can be applied in our daily lives in
order to fit ourselves for freedom from all that binds us.”

In The Dhammapada for Awakening you will learn:
• An esoteric understanding of the mind and how to deal with it.

How we create our destinies by our thoughts and actions, and how we can
use that knowledge to shape a better present and future for ourselves.
• What are the obstacles to reaching our full potential, and how we can avoid them.

a person is Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, simply spiritual, or merely
discontent with the status quo of their lives, the universal spiritual
principles in The Dhammapada for Awakening will prove helpful in
empowering seekers to tread the path to Freedom, that they may become

Here is what Anna Hourihan, author, editor, and publisher at Vedanta Shores Press says:

this compelling book, Abbot George Burke brings his considerable
knowledge and background in Christian teachings and the Vedic tradition
of India to convey a practical understanding of the teachings of the
Buddha. …This is a book you’ll want to take your time to read and keep
as reference to reread. Highly recommended for earnest spiritual
aspirants, especially those who may need a prod to keep them moving

Published: Abbot George Burke (Swami Nirmalananda Giri) on Dec 12, 2014

The mind is very difficult to perceive. It is extremely subtle and wanders at will.
Let the wise man guard it. A guarded mind brings happiness.

Related Story:-

      The Story of a Certain Disgruntled Monk

While residing at the Jetavana Monastery, the Buddha spoke
this verse, with reference to a young disgruntled monk who
was the son of a banker.
      While the Buddha was in residence at Sàvatthi, a certain
banker’s son approached an elder who resorted to his house
for alms and said to him, “Venerable, I desire to obtain release
from suffering. Tell me some way by which I can obtain
release from suffering.” The elder replied, “Peace be unto you,
brother. If you desire release from suffering, give alms-food,
give fortnightly food, give lodging during the season of the
rains, give bowls and robes and the other requisites. Divide
your possessions into three parts: with one portion carry on
your business; with another portion support son and wife;
dispense the third portion in alms in the religion of the
      “Very well, Venerable,” said the banker’s son, and did all
in the prescribed order. Having done it, he returned to the
elder and asked him, “Venerable, is there anything else I
ought to do?” “Brother, take upon yourself the three refuges
and the five precepts.” The banker’s son did so, and then
asked whether there was anything else he ought to do. “Yes,”
replied the elder, “Take upon yourself the ten precepts.” “Very
well, Venerable,” said the banker’s son, and took upon himself
the ten precepts. Because the banker’s son had in this manner
performed works of merit, one after another, he came to be
called Anupubba. Again he asked the elder, “Venerable, is
there anything else I ought to do?” The elder replied, “Yes,
become a monk.” The banker’s son immediately retired from
the world and became a monk.
        Now he had a teacher who was versed in the Abhidhamma
and a preceptor who was versed in the Vinaya. After
he had made a full profession, whenever he approached his
teacher, the latter repeated questions found in the Abhid-
hamma, “In the religion of the Buddha it is lawful to do this,
it is unlawful to do that.” And whenever he approached his
preceptor, the latter repeated questions found in the Vinaya,
“In the Religion of the Buddha it is lawful to do this, it is
unlawful to do that; this is proper, this is improper.” After a
time he thought to himself, “Oh what a wearisome task this
is! I became a monk in order to obtain release from suffering,
but here there is not even room for me to stretch out my hands.
It is possible, however, to obtain release from suffering, even
if one lives the householder’s. I should become a householder
once more.”
        The Buddha said, “Monk, are you discontented?” “Yes,
Venerable, I became a monk in order to obtain release from
suffering. But here there is not even room for me to stretch
my hands. It is possible for me to obtain release from suffering
as a householder.” The Buddha said, “Monk, if you can
guard one thing, it will not be necessary for you to guard
the rest.” “What is that, Venerable?” “Can you guard your
thoughts?” “I can, Venerable.” “Then guard your thoughts

14. The Enlightened One
15. Happiness
16. Affections
17. Anger
18. Impurities
19. The Righteous
20. The Path
21. Miscellaneous
22.  Woeful State
23. The Elephant
24. Craving
25. The Bhikku
26. The Brahmin
Stories were taken from:-  Treasury of Truth    Illustrated Dhammapada   By   Ven. Weragoda Sarada Maha Thero   

With best wishes,
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