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LESSON 2892 Sun 3 Feb 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness from Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
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 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Please Visit: http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA 6 Indriyabhāvanā Sutta 141. pavāraṇāṭhapanaṁ (Mv.IV.16.1) The Cancellation of the Invitation [BMC] ஸமுட்டா²னஸீஸஸங்கே²போ
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LESSON 2892 Sun 3 Feb 2019

Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness from


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ESSENCE OF TIPITAKA 6
Indriyabhāvanā Sutta


141. pavāraṇāṭhapanaṁ (Mv.IV.16.1)

The Cancellation of the Invitation [BMC]

ஸமுட்டா²னஸீஸஸங்கே²போ

This
discourse was given to the Venerable Ānanda by the Buddha showing the
difference between the control of senses practised by an arahat and that
practised by one still under training. The Buddha explained that
feelings of liking, disliking or of indifference that arise from
conditioned phenomena could be soon eliminated by the practice of
Vipassana meditation.

6. SAṂYUTTA NIKĀYA
This collection of
discourses in the Suttanta Piṭaka known as Saṃyutta Nikāya has 7762
suttas of varied length, generally short, arranged in a special order
according to subject matter into five major divisions: (1) Sagāthā Vagga
(2) Nidāna Vagga (3) Khandha Vagga (4) Saḷāyatana Vagga and (5) Mahā
Vagga. Each major vagga is divided into fifty-six groups known as
saṃyuttas-related subjects grouped together. The saṃyuttas are named
after the subjects they deal with, for example, Bojjhaṅga Saṃyutta on
the seven factors of enlightenment, or after some principal
personalities such as the Venerable Sāriputta, King Pasenadi of Kosala,
or Sakka. Kosala Saṃyutta is a group of discourses concerning King
Pasenadi of Kosala, and Devatā Saṃyutta deals with devas like Sakka,
Indra, Brahmā, etc. Each saṃyutta is further divided into sections which
are made up of individual suttas. Thus the well-known
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta is the first discourse (sutta) in the second
section of Sacca Saṃyutta which comes under the Mahāvagga division of
Saṃyutta Nikāya. In the following excerpts from Saṃyutta Nikāya, only a
few suttas representing each major division are given.

1 Sagāthā Vagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi
This
major division of Sagāthā Vagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi contains eleven saṃyuttas
with discourses grouped according to characters appearing in them: the
king of devas, the devas, the Brahmā, māra, King of Kosala, bhikkhus and
bhikkhunis. The name of the vagga, Sagāthā is derived from the fact
that various personalities appearing in the discourses conducted their
dialogues or interviews with the Buddha mostly in verse.

Devatā Saṃyutta

On
the request of a Brahmā, the Buddha explains in the Oghataraṇa Sutta of
this saṃyutta that he crossed over the flood of sensuous desire, of
existence, of wrong views and of ignorance neither by remaining
inactive, nor by making strenuous efforts. By remaining inactive he
would have been sucked into the whirlpool; by making frantic efforts he
would have been swept away in the current of the flood. He followed a
middle course.

The Buddha also teaches in other suttas of this
saṃyutta that all beings are entangled in the mesh of attachments
brought about by six internal sense bases and six external sense
objects. The way to escape from these entanglements is to become
established in sīla, to develop concentration meditation and insight
meditation in order to be fully accomplished in the higher knowledge of
liberation.

Until one becomes fully developed in the knowledge of
the path, taṇhā can still give rise to rebirth. This fact is borne out
by the story of a deva named Samaṇa, given in Accharā Sutta. A certain
young man having faith in the teaching of the Buddha gets himself
admitted into the order. Then taking a meditation subject of his choice,
he repairs to a solitary abode in the forest and devotes himself
incessantly to the practice of meditation.

His efforts at
meditation are very strenuous. Thus striving day and night and getting
enervated by lack of sufficient food, he is suddenly seized with a
paralytic stroke which causes him instant death. Although he has put in a
great deal of effort in the practice of meditation, he passes away
without even attaining the stage of sotāpanna, the stream-winner.

Because
of taṇhā which he has not yet eradicated, he has to go through the
round of existences again; but in the consequence of the merit he has
acquired in the practice of meditation, a magnificent celestial palace
awaits him in the celestial abode of the Tāvatiṃsa.

By
spontaneous manifestation he appears as if just awakened from sleep at
the entrance of the palace, a celestial being resplendent in full
celestial attire. He does not realize that he has taken a new existence
in a new world. He thinks he is still a bhikkhu of the human world. The
celestial maidens who are awaiting his arrival bring a body-length
mirror and place it in front of the deva. On seeing his reflection in
the mirror, he finally realizes that he has left the bhikkhus existence
and has arisen in the celestial realm.

The Samaṇa Deva is greatly
perturbed then. He reflects that he has taken up meditation not to be
reborn in the celestial land but to attain the goal of arahatta
fruition. So without entering the palatial building, he repairs hastily
to the presence of the Buddha. He asks of the Buddha how to avoid and
proceed past the Mohana garden, the Tāvatiṃsa celestial abode, full of
celestial maidens who to him appear as demons. The Buddha advises him
that the straight path for a quick escape is the Noble Path of Eight
Constituents using the two-wheeler Vipassana carriage, fitted with the
two wheels of physical exertion and mental exertion. While the Buddha is
teaching Dhamma in three verses, Samaṇa Deva is able to develop quickly
successive Vipassana ñāṇas step by step until he attains the first path
and fruition.

Devaputta Saṃyutta

In Rohitassa Sutta of
this saṃyutta Rohitassa Deva comes to the Buddha with another problem.
He tells the Buddha he was in a former existence a hermit endowed with
supernormal psychic power which enabled him to traverse throughout the
universe with immense speed. He had travelled with that speed for over
one hundred years to reach the end of the world but he did not succeed.
He wants to know whether it would be possible to know or see or reach
the end of the world where there is no birth nor death to be known or
seen or reached by travelling there. Yet he does not say there is an end
of suffering without reaching nibbāna. It is in the fathom long body of
oneself with its perception and its mind that the Buddha describes the
world, the origin of the world, the cessation of the world, and the way
leading to the cessation of the world. The Buddha’s way leading to the
cessation of the world is the Noble Path of Eight Constituents.

Kosala Saṃyutta

In
this saṃyutta are interesting suttas which describe the frequent
meetings of the Buddha with King Pasenadi of Kosala. The King has heard
of the fame of the Buddha from his queen Mallikā but has not yet met
him. But when at last he meets the Buddha as described in the Dahara
Sutta, he puts a direct question whether the Venerable Gotama claims to
have attained the supreme enlightenment. He says that there are other
religious teachers such as Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Nigaṇṭha
Nāṭaputta, Sañjaya, Pakudha and Ajita, with their own order, with their
own followers, who are much older than the Buddha and are generally
regarded to be arahats. Even these teachers do not make claim to supreme
enlightenment.

The Buddha replies that if it can be rightly said
of anyone to have attained supreme enlightenment, then it is only of
himself that it can be rightly said. The Buddha adds that there are four
things that should not be looked down and despised because they are
young. They are a young prince, a serpent, a fire and a bhikkhu. A young
prince of noble parentage should not be despised. He might one day
become a powerful ruler and wreak royal vengeance. A writhing snake
moves very fast; it might attack and bite a heedless man. A small fire
when heedlessly ignored might grow in intensity and cause untold damage.
A man treating a virtuous bhikkhu with contempt might bring upon
himself unwholesome results such as dwindling prosperity and lack of
offspring to inherit from him.

Dutiya Aputtaka Sutta describes
another occasion when King Pasenadi calls on the Buddha after he has
just taken over an immense accumulation of wealth belonging to a
multi-millionaire who has died recently. The dead man has left behind
treasure worth over one hundred lakhs which, in the absence of any heirs
to claim, becomes the king’s property. The king reports that the dead
millionaire was a great miser, a niggardly person, begrudging even to
himself the luxury of comfortable living. He wore only very rough,
thread-bare clothes, eating poor, coarse food and travelled about in an
old, roofless rickety carriage.

The Buddha confirms that what the
king says about the millionaire is quite true and tells the king the
reason for the millionaire’s miserliness. In one of his past existences,
he met a paccekabuddha going around for alms-food. He gave permission
to his family to offer food to the paccekabuddha and went out to attend
some business. On his way back, he met the paccekabuddha whom he asked
whether he had been given any alms-food by his family, and looked into
the bowl. On seeing the delicious food in the bowl, an unwholesome
thought suddenly arose in his mind that it would have been more
profitable to feed his servants with such food than to give it away to a
paccekabuddha.

For his good deed of allowing his family to make
the offering to the paccekabuddha he was reborn in the deva world seven
times and became a millionaire seven times in the human world. But as a
result of the ill thought he had entertained in that previous existence
he never had the inclination to lead a luxurious life enjoying fine
clothes, good food, and riding in comfortable carriages.

The
millionaire has now exhausted the good as well as the bad effects of his
thoughts and actions with regard to the offering of food to the
paccekabuddha. But unfortunately he has to face the consequences of a
more serious evil deed, that of causing the death of his own nephew in a
past existence.

The Buddha tells the king that he is therefore
reborn, after his death in the human world, in the state of the most
intense suffering, Mahāroruva.

Brāhmaṇa Saṃyutta

Many
brahmins of the Bhāradvāja clan became devoted disciples of the Buddha,
ultimately attaining arahatship. At first, all of them were quite
unfriendly, if not openly hostile. Bhāradvāja Gotta, mentioned in the
Dhanañjāni Sutta, was such a brahmin. Although his wife Dhanañjāni was a
disciple of the Buddha, very much devoted to his teaching, Bhāradvāja
Gotta and his brahmin teachers showed great contempt for the Buddha and
his teachings.

On one occasion, when Bhāradvāja was giving a
feast to his brahmin teachers, his wife in the course of waiting upon
these brahmins slipped accidentally and as she tried to regain her
balance, blurted out three times in excitement the formula of adoration
to the Buddha: “Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa.” Upon
hearing the word “Buddha”, the brahmin teachers rose up from their seats
and ran away helter-skelter in all directions just like a flock of
crows in whose midst a stone has been thrown.

Telling his wife in
a fury that he would defeat the Buddha in a contest of doctrines,
Bhāradvāja goes to see the Buddha. The interview ends up with Bhāradvāja
asking the Buddha’s permission to enter his order. He finally attains
arahatship.

Akkosa Sutta mentions Bhāradvāja Gotta’s younger
brother Akkosaka Bhāradvāja, who on hearing that his elder brother has
joined the Buddha’s order, was highly exasperated. Raging with fury, he
stormed into the presence of the Buddha whom he reviled and reproached
in the most vulgar, offensive language.

Very calmly and with
great compassion the Buddha asked the young Bhāradvāja if he has ever
given gifts to his friends and relatives. When the young Bhāradvāja
replies that he indeed has made offers of gifts to his friends and
relatives, the Buddha asked him, “What happens to the gifts if your
friends and relatives do not accept them?”

“Well then they remain with me as my own property,” replies Bhāradvāja.

Then
the Buddha says, “You have heaped abusive language on us who have not
uttered a single word of abuse to you; you have been very offensive and
quarrelsome with us who do not offend you nor quarrel with you. Young
Bhāradvāja, we do not accept your words of abuse, your offensive
quarrelsome language. They remain with you as your own property.”

Taken
by surprise by this unexpected reaction, Bhāradvāja is frightened with
the thought that this might be a recluse’s method of casting a spell on
him by way of retaliation. He asks the Buddha if he is angry with him
for his rude behaviour. The Buddha states that he has long left anger
behind. Being free from all mental defilements how could he take offence
with him! To meet anger with anger is to sink lower than the original
reviler. He is the conqueror who wins a hard won battle by not
retaliating anger with anger.

At the end of the discourse,
Akkosaka Bhāradvāja, the younger brother, also left homelife to join the
Buddha’s order. In time, he too became accomplished in higher knowledge
and attained arahatship.

In Kasī Bhāradvāja Sutta is an account of the Buddha’s encounter with the brahmin Kasī Bhāradvāja who was a rich landowner.

It
was sowing time and the Kasī Bhāradvāja was preparing to start
ploughing operations with five hundred ploughs. It was made an
auspicious occasion with the distribution of food and with festivities.
The Buddha went to where food was being distributed and stood at one
side. Kasī Bhāradvāja, seeing him waiting for food, said to him, “I
plough, samaṇa, and I sow. Having ploughed and sown, I eat. You too,
samaṇa, should plough and sow; having ploughed and sown, you shall eat.”

The Buddha replies, “I too plough, brahmin, and I sow, and having ploughed and sown, I eat.”

“We
see no yoke or plough or pole or oxen of yours. Yet you claim to be a
ploughman. How do you explain yourself?” asked the brahmin.

“The
faith which I have had since the time of Sumedha, the hermit, is the
seed. It will grow to bear the fruit of nibbāna. The sīla with which I
keep control of my sense doors is the rain. The two kinds of knowledge,
the mundane and supramundane, I possess are my plough and yoke. Sense of
shame for doing evil and fear of evil deeds are the pole and the handle
of the plough. My energy is the ox, and my concentration is the rope
with which I put the ox to the yoke. My mindfulness is the ploughshare
and the goad. Guarded in my speech and modest in the use of food, these
self-restraints serve as a fence around my field of Dhamma. With my
harnessed ox as my energy, I have ploughed on never turning back until
the seed produces the fruit of nibbāna, the deathless. Having done such
ploughing, I eat now what I have sown and I am free from every kind of
suffering.”

Kasī Bhāradvāja was so delighted and impressed with
the Buddha’s words, that he requests to be regarded as a disciple of the
Buddha from that day until the end of his life.

In
Gahatthavandana Sutta the Buddha explains that the brahmins well versed
in the Vedas as well as kings ruling over human dominions and devas of
Cātumahārājika and Tāvatiṃsa realm bow in homage to the Sakka, the king
of the devas. The Sakka himself shows respect and makes obeisance not
only to the samaṇas who have lived their holy life without any breach of
moral conduct for many years but also to the lay disciples of the
Buddha who are well established in their faith and who have done
meritorious deeds of giving charity, observing the five, the eight or
the ten precepts, and dutifully maintaining their families.

2 Nidāna Vagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi
This
second major division of Nidāna Vagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi contains ten
saṃyuttas, all dealing with fundamental aspects of the doctrine. The
discourses are chiefly concerned with the principles of conditionality
and interdependence, explained in the detailed formula which is called
Paṭiccasamuppāda (Conditioned Genesis or Dependent Origination),
consisting of twelve factors.

Various aspects of
Paṭiccasamuppāda, together with expositions on doctrinal matters
concerning practice of the holy life form the main theme of the early
suttas in these saṃyuttas.

Nidāna Saṃyutta

In
Paṭiccasamuppāda Sutta, the first sutta of this saṃyutta, the Law of
Dependent Origination outlined in the form of a formula is briefly
explained by the Buddha to five hundred bhikkhus who are perceived by
the Buddha to be sufficiently developed and ripe for the attainment of
arahatship. In the Vibhaṅga Sutta, the second sutta of the saṃyutta, the
Law of Dependent Origination is further explained in fuller details to
the other bhikkhus.

In Pañcaverabhaya Sutta, the Buddha lays down
the criteria by which the status of attainment of a noble bhikkhu may
be judged. If a bhikkhu is freed of the five dangers arising from five
evil deeds, namely, killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, telling lies
and taking intoxicating liquor and drugs; if he is established in the
four accomplishments of a sotāpanna, namely, firm faith and confidence
in the virtues and attributes of the Buddha, of the Dhamma and of the
Sangha, and perfect purity in sīla; and if he possesses comprehensive
analytical knowledge of the Law of Dependent Origination, he is assured
of a happy future with no danger of arising in states of woe and misery
and is certain of further advancement in the holy life.

In
Puttamaṃsūpama Sutta, it is explained that four nutriments (āhāra), are
“conditions” necessary for the existence and continuity of beings: (i)
ordinary material food (kabalīkārāhārakārāhāra); (ii) contact of sense
organs (phassa); (iii) consciousness (viññāṇa); and (iv) mental
volitional or will (manosañcetanā).

This sutta is addressed
especially to young bhikkhus recently admitted into the order. They are
enjoined to take their meals with due reflection on the loathsome nature
of food so as not to be overcome by greed and attachment for it. A
bhikkhu should take meals not with a view to enjoy it or relish it,
thereby augmenting craving, but just to sustain himself in order that
the holy life may be lived. A particularly illuminating parable is used
here by the Buddha: a man and his wife set out on a very long journey
accompanied by their beloved son. Half-way on their journey they ran
short of food. With no means of fresh supply, they plodded on with
starvation staring in their face. The little son soon succumbed to
hunger and died. The man and his wife decided to save their lives by
eating the flesh of their dead son. They ate with no relish nor
enjoyment but only to sustain themselves for the rest of the journey.

Other
apt parables are given by the Buddha for the understanding of the
remaining three nutriments. When one understands the real nature of the
nutriments on which life depends, one understands the craving (taṇhā),
responsible for all suffering. Thereby the way is open to the supreme
liberation, arahatship.

Susima Paribbajaka Sutta gives an account
of the wandering ascetic Susima who is one of those who join the
Buddha’s order with ulterior motives. After the rains residence many
bhikkhus come to pay their respects to the Buddha to whom they would
report their attainment of arahatship. When he learns from these arahats
that they possess no supernormal powers such as the divine power of
vision, divine power of hearing, or knowing other people’s mind, he is
very disappointed. He has come into the order just to acquire powers
with which to win fame and gain for himself.

He approaches the
Buddha and inquires how the bhikkhus could claim arahatship when they
possess no supernormal powers. The Buddha explains to him that their
liberation is through pure insight knowledge not associated with jhāna
accomplishments. Through Vipassana meditation only they have seen the
real nature of nāma and rūpa (realities of nature-dhammaṭṭhiti) followed
by realization of nibbāna through magga ñāṇa.

The Buddha takes
him through the same course of meditation, testing by means of questions
his understanding of the five khandhas, their nature of anicca, dukkha,
anattā, finally establishing him in the insight that none of the these
khandhas is to be regarded as “This is mine; this is I; this is my
self”. At the end of the discourse he gains full understanding of the
Dhamma with the attainment of arahatship. When he realizes the state of
arahatship himself without coming into the possession of the supernormal
powers, he confesses to the Buddha the ulterior motive with which he
had joined the order, and begs to be pardoned for such evil intentions.

Dhātu Saṃyutta

The
natural law of affinity is pointed out by the Buddha in the Caṅkama
Sutta of the saṃyutta while he is staying at the Gijjhakūṭa Hill near
Rājagaha. He draws the attention of the bhikkhus to the scene outside,
where his senior disciples are taking a stroll attended upon by their
own group of followers. He says, “Bhikkhus, those many bhikkhus under
the leadership of the Venerable Sāriputta are all wise being endowed
with much deep knowledge of the Dhamma. Those surrounding the Venerable
Mahā Moggallāna are well accomplished in supernormal powers. The
Venerable Mahākassapa and his followers are strict observers of dhutaṅga
austerity practices. The bhikkhus led by the Venerable Anuruddha are
fully endowed with the divine power of vision. The Venerable Puṇṇa and
his disciples are adepts at teaching Dhamma. The Venerable Upāli with
his followers are experts in Vinaya rules of discipline and the bhikkhus
under Ānanda’s guidance are noted for their knowledge in many fields.
Devadatta and his many followers are distinguished by their evil ways,
thoughts and desires. Bhikkhus, in this way are the beings grouped
together in accordance with their natural bents and tendencies. The law
of affinity works in such a way that kindred spirits flock together;
those of evil disposition in one group, those of wholesome inclinations
in another. This law of affinity has held true in the past, as it is
true now and will be true in the future.”

Anamatagga Saṃyutta

In
the various suttas of this saṃyutta, the Buddha teaches that the cycle
of existence, the saṃsāra, represents the continuous arising and passing
away of khandhas, āyatanas and dhātus. This incessant process of
evolution and dissolution of dhātus (the fundamental elements of matter
and mind) and khandhas (compounded of the dhātus) is endless. Blinded by
avijjā (ignorance), and by nīvaraṇas (hindrances), and fettered by
taṇhā (craving), beings have been passing from one existence to another
around and around the cycle of saṃsāra, for immeasurable periods of
time. To bring home this fact of immensity of suffering undergone by
beings, the Buddha has given many similes in this saṃyutta, most
illustrative of which are those of the four oceans and the Vepulla
Mountain given in the Assu Sutta. The tears shed through the ages by
each being on account of suffering due to disease, death, separation
from the loved ones, association with the unloved ones, would fill the
four oceans to the brim. The bones left behind by a being after death in
each existence, if collected together at a certain place would be as
high as the Vepulla Mountain which lies north of the Gijjhakūṭa Hill.

The
only way to escape from this round of endless suffering is to perceive
the real nature of the khandhas by means of Vipassana meditation until
one becomes disenchanted with them; and thus by abandoning craving for,
and attachment to them one attains liberation through the realization of
nibbāna.

The Buddha teaches in other suttas that one should in
the meanwhile develop loving-kindness towards all sentient beings with
the realization that, during the immeasurably long passage through the
saṃsāra, there is no being who has not been one’s mother, father,
sister, brother or one’s son or daughter, relative or friend.

Kassapa Saṃyutta

In
the Candūpama Sutta of this saṃyutta the Buddha lays down codes of
conduct for bhikkhus, giving the example of the moon. Just as the moon
sheds its light equally on every object or person, so also a bhikkhu
should equally treat everyone, young or old or of middle age, showing
favouritism to none nor hostility to any. He must deal with them with
due regard, humility and meekness. Mindfulness should be ever present in
his relations with all classes of people. For example, when a certain
person tries to obtain his drinking water from an old well or from a
riverbank of loose sand or from down a precipice, he approaches the
source of water with great care, controlling his movements and actions.
Much in the same way should a bhikkhu conduct himself with great
mindfulness in his dealings with all classes of people.

In
teaching the Dhamma to lay disciples, if his motive is to win gain and
fame for himself, then his teaching should be regarded as impure. The
Dhamma should always be taught out of compassion and with pure thought
so that the Dhamma which is excellent in the beginning, excellent in the
middle and excellent in the end, namely, the Dhamma on sīla, samādhi,
and paññā, can be heard, understood and practised by the listener.

In
the Saddhammappatirūpaka Sutta, the Buddha outlines the conditions
under which the teaching would decline or under which it would prosper.
The Buddha gives the discourse in answer to a question asked by the
Venerable Mahākassapa as to why it is that in former days when there
were only a few disciplinary rules promulgated by the Buddha, there were
a large number of arahats; and now that the disciplinary rules have
multiplied, only a few attain arahatship.

The Buddha explains
that the number of disciplinary rules increases in proportion to the
deterioration in the moral state of beings. So long as no spurious and
false teachings appear in the three branches of the teaching (pariyatti,
theoretical learning; paṭipatti, practice; paṭivedha, fruits of the
practice), so long will the teaching remain genuine, pure and
untarnished. But when spurious and false teaching appears, this teaching
with its three branches will decline gradually until it vanishes
altogether, much in the same way as the genuine gold disappears when
imitation gold is introduced to take its place.

The Buddha
concludes: “And Kassapa, just as iron is destroyed by rust, it is the
members of the order who are corrupt, immoral, who cannot hope to attain
higher knowledge, who will bring about the downfall of the teaching.”

In
the last few suttas of Nidāna Vagga are discourses that describe the
fearful destiny of corrupt bhikkhus and bhikkhunis and those lay people
who have done evil deeds in previous lives. The Venerable Mahā Mogallāna
sees them suffering intensely in the Peta world and describes their
conditions vividly. The Buddha confirms what the Venerable Moggallāna
has recounted.

3 Khandha Vagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi
The main theme of
most suttas in this division is, as the name implies, khandhas, the
five aggregates that constitute what is regarded as a being. Each of the
components of these aggregates, namely, matter, sensation, perception,
mental concomitants and consciousness is shown to be a bundle of dukkha
(suffering). Made up of thirteen saṃyuttas, Khandha Vagga forms an
important collection of doctrinal discussions on such topics such as
atta, anattā, eternity and annihilation.

The Nakulapitā Sutta
gives an account of the advice given to Nakulapitā, an ageing disciple
of the Buddha. He asks for advice from the Buddha on how to conduct and
keep himself free from the pains of old age and disease. The Buddha
explains that rūpakkhandha, the material body being a bundle of dukkha,
is subjected constantly to the pains of old age and disease; but the
mental complex could be kept free of agony and pain by keeping it
undefiled with impurities. A more detailed exposition of this brief
explanation of the Buddha is given to Nakulapitā by the Venerable
Sāriputta. The uninterested common worldling clings to the five
aggregates through craving and conceit, and holds the wrong view that
each of the aggregates (rūpa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhāra and viññāṇa) is
self, atta. Even as he clings to the five aggregates as atta these
aggregates manifest their own oppressive characters by inflicting pain
of old age, pain of disease, pain of defilements (kilesa). Because of
these oppressive pains the uninstructed common worldling is subjected to
sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair. But when the worldling
becomes instructed and has become accomplished in the thirty-seven
factors of enlightenment, he does not cling to the five aggregates
through craving, conceit or holding wrong views of self. Then even
though the five aggregates manifest their own characteristics of being
oppressive, he is no longer subjected to mental afflictions of sorrow,
lamentations, pain, grief and despair.

In the Bhāra Sutta, the
five groups of grasping (pañcupādānakkhandha) are designated as a
burden, a heavy load. It is craving for sense objects, craving for
existence, craving for non-existence which is responsible for this heavy
burden being borne along. Realization of the Noble Truth of cessation,
nibbāna, is where the craving is completely eradicated, where this heavy
load is finally discarded.

The Yamaka Sutta explains that the
five aggregates are of an impermanent nature; they should be looked upon
as one’s enemies. Understanding their real nature of anicca, anattā and
dukkha, the twenty kinds of wrong views of self should be discarded so
that one may not be set upon by these enemies.

The Vakkali Sutta
gives an account of the Buddha’s visit to the ailing Bhikkhu Vakkali
upon his request. The great compassion of the Buddha becomes manifest in
this account. When Vakkali informs the Buddha that for a long time he
has been longing to set his eyes upon the Buddha, the Buddha gently
reproaches him: “Vakkali, what is there in seeing the decomposing body
of mine? It is enough to see the Dhamma. He who has seen the Dhamma has
seen me. The body of mine is like all else always rotting away, falling
into decay.” The Buddha teaches him the Dhamma on the impermanence of
all things, their unsatisfactoriness and insubstantiality and finally
shows him the way to liberation.

Of the five aggregates, the
Buddha says it is better for a person to mistake his physical body as
atta (self), rather than mind or consciousness, because the physical
body appears more solid and substantial than thought or mind which
constantly changes faster than the physical body.

The Khemaka
Sutta records an illuminating conversation between a bhikkhu named
Khemaka and a group of bhikkhus who want to verify the stage of his
attainments. When the bhikkhus ask him if he sees self or anything
pertaining to self in the five aggregates, Khemaka replies, “No.” But
when the bhikkhus suggest that, if so, he must be an arahat free from
all defilements, Khemaka replies that though he does not find self or
anything pertaining to self in the five khandhas, he is not an arahat
free of taints. He still has a vague feeling “I am” although he does not
clearly see “This is I” with respect to matter, sensation, perception,
mental formations or consciousness.

His vague feeling is likened
to the smell of a flower: it is neither the smell of the petals, nor of
the colour, nor of the pollen, but the smell of the flower. He then goes
on to explain that even if a person retains the feeling “I am” at the
early stages of realization, as he progresses further and attains to
higher stages, this feeling of “I am” disappears altogether, just as the
smell of soap lingers in a freshly washed cloth and disappears after a
time when it is kept in a box.

In the Puppha Sutta, the Buddha
declares that he is not quarrelling or arguing with the world; it is
only the world with its devas, māras, kings and people that is disputing
with him. To proclaim the truth is not engaging in disputes. He speaks
only what wise men hold to be true. Wise men say that there is no
corporeality, sensation, perception, mental formations or consciousness
which is stable, permanent, enduring. He says the same. Wise men say
that there is only corporeality, sensation, perception, mental
formations or consciousness which is unstable, impermanent, unenduring.
He also says so.

“In this changing world, there are only things
which are subject to constant change and decay. Perceiving their real
nature, I declare that the world is compounded of things subjected to
decay and decomposition, namely, the aggregates of matter, sensations,
perceptions, mental formations and consciousness, which are incessantly
rising and passing away. There is nothing else besides these perishing
aggregates. Bhikkhus, I teach this Dhamma in a brief manner. I also
teach this Dhamma more comprehensively and completely. But if the
uninstructed common worldling remains unperceiving and unknowing in
spite of very enlightening discourses, how can I help? Various kinds of
lotus grow in the water, develop in water, rise above water, and remain
there unpolluted by water; so also I was born in this world, I grew up
in this world, I developed in this world and rose high above it without
being attached to it, without being affected by it.”

In the
Pheṇapiṇḍūpama Sutta, the aggregate of rūpa is likened to froth; it is
unstable, impermanent, constantly rising, and vanishing. It is therefore
not self. The aggregate of vedanā is likened to an air bubble. The
various sensations are just like bubbles, disappearing fast,
impermanent, untrustworthy of the nature of anicca, dukkha and anattā.
Sense perception which apprehends whatever is seen, heard, smelt,
tasted, touched or known, is likened to a mirage. What is considered by a
samaṇa as a being, a man, a woman or self is an optical illusion like a
mirage. In reality it is merely a phenomenon of incessant arising and
vanishing. Saṅkhāras, volitional activities, are likened to plantain
trunks. A plantain trunk is made up of layers of fibrous material with
no substantial, solid inner core. Saṅkhāras are like the plantain trunk
void of inner substance. Consciousness is like a conjuror’s trick. It
arises and vanishes instantly. Consciousness arises not as one wishes,
but as conditioned by its own cause and circumstances.

4 Saḷāyatana Vagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi
This
division is made up of ten saṃyuttas or groups. It deals mainly with
the six sense organs or bases of contact named internal sense bases
(eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind); six corresponding sense
objects, known as external sense bases (visible form, sound, odour,
taste, tangible things and mind-objects); and consciousness that arises
in relation to each pair of these internal and external sense bases.
There are expositions on the impermanent nature of these sense bases and
how relinquishing of attachment to them results in liberation. The
second saṃyutta, known as the Vedanā Saṃyutta, focuses on the sensation
arising from the coming together of the sense bases and conciousness.
Sensation is shown to be of three kinds: pleasant, unpleasant and
indifferent. None of these is permanent and each one of these is the
cause of craving which in turn is the root of all suffering. Concise but
illuminating expositions on nibbāna are found in many suttas. So also
are there practical guides of Vipassana meditation.

In the very
first two suttas, the Buddha explains that the six internal sense bases
and six external sense bases have the nature of impermanence. Being
impermanent, they are really suffering and not self. “Bhikkhus,
realizing their true nature, you should not regard these twelve sense
bases as ‘This is mine’, ‘This is I’, ‘This is my self’. Contemplate on
them steadfastly, constantly, until Vipassana insight into their real
nature arises.” The Buddha continues to explain that insight into the
true nature of the twelve āyatanas will develop dispassion and
disenchantment for them. Being disenchanted with them, there is no
craving, clinging, thereby achieving the path and fruition.

In
the famous Āditta Sutta, the fire sermon, delivered at Gayāsisa to one
thousand ascetics formerly devoted to fire-worship but recently
converted and admitted into the order as bhikkhus, the Buddha explains
that each of the six sense bases and the six sense objects is burning
with the fire of lust, with the fire of hate, with the fire of
ignorance. Each is burning with the fire of birth, ageing and death;
with the fire of sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair. Six
forms of consciousness arising in relation to the six sense bases are
also burning. The six contacts and the six sensations resulting from
them are also burning.

The Buddha explains further that when a
bhikkhu who has practised the Dhamma develops Vipassana insight and
perceives that each of the bases is burning, he becomes disenchanted
with it. Then craving fades away. With the fading of craving he is
liberated. And when liberated there is knowledge that he is liberated.
At the end of the discourse, one thousand former worshippers of fire
attain arahatship.

In the Paṭhama Migajāla Sutta, the Buddha’s
definition of a bhikkhu who lives in solitude is very edifying. When a
bhikkhu unmindfully takes delight in the six sense objects, regards them
wrongly as “This is mine”, “This is I”, “This is my self”, craving for
them arises in him and he becomes attached to fetters. Such a bhikkhu in
whom craving has arisen is regarded as one living with a companion,
even if he lives alone deep in a forest away from towns and villages.
When, however, he mindfully perceives the true nature of the six sense
bases and objects, he does not wrongly hold on to them as “This is
mine”, “This is I”, “This is my self” and craving for them does not
arise in him. Such a bhikkhu in whom craving has not arisen is said to
be living in solitude without any companion even if he lives in the
midst of people, in towns or villages.

The Puṇṇa Sutta gives an
account of a bhikkhu by the name Puṇṇa who asks for instruction from the
Buddha on a suitable subject on which he can meditate in solitude. The
Buddha advises him to contemplate on the true nature of the six sense
bases and objects. When he perceives their true nature, no craving for
them will arise in him. Eradication of craving will result in liberation
and attainment of arahatship. After receiving the instruction, the
bhikkhu informs the Buddha of his intention to reside in a very distant
and remote land. The Buddha tells him that it is a wild country
inhabited by savage tribes, and asks him how he intends to cope with the
dangers and hazards that would face him. The answer given the bhikkhu
provides a model lesson in fortitude and endurance.

The bhikkhu
says, if he were menaced with invectives and curses or attacked
physically, or if he had stones thrown at him or if he were hit with
sticks or cut with swords, or pierced with spear, he would bear them
with endurance with no malice against the savage tribes. Even if his
head were to be chopped off he would feel he was luckier than those
noble ones who had to commit suicide to be released from the suffering
of the khandhas.

The Buddha remarks, “Well said, bhikkhu, well
said. I believe you are qualified to lead a solitary life in that wild
country. You will overcome all difficulties.”

As presaged by the
Buddha, the bhikkhu is able to overcome all hostilities and difficulties
in his new residence, and to convert five hundred men and five hundred
women so that they come to take refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the
Sangha. And during the very first vassa residence, practising the
meditation as instructed by the Buddha, the Bhikkhu Puṇṇa attains
arahatship, fully accomplished in the three vijjās.

In the
Bhāradvāja Sutta, an interesting interview between King Udena and the
Venerable Piṇḍola Bhāradvāja is described. King Udena approaches the
Venerable Piṇḍola Bhāradvāja while he is meditating at the foot of a
tree in the king’s park. The king remarks that many young men have
abandoned sensual pleasures and lead the holy life. They maintain the
holy practice throughout their life. The king enquires, “What is the
means by which they maintain the purity of their holy life?” The bhikkhu
replies that they keep to the pure life by training themselves as
instructed by the Buddha to regard a woman of their mother’s age as
their mother, a woman of their sister’s age as their sister, and a girl
of their daughter’s age as their daughter.

The king is not
satisfied with the answer. He argues that even if a bhikkhu trains
himself in the said manner, it is no guarantee for the non-arising of
impure thoughts in him in connection with a female person. The Venerable
Piṇḍola Bhāradvāja explains further they practise meditation on the
foulness of a body by contemplating on the thirty-two constituent parts
of the body. The king is still not convinced. He maintains that for
older bhikkhus with more mature experience, who are well established in
mindfulness and concentration, contemplation on the thirty-two
constituent parts of the body might prove to be salutary; but this type
of meditation for younger bhikkhus might have an adverse effect exciting
lust and passion instead of aversion for the human body. Only when the
Venerable Piṇḍola Bhāradvāja tells him the bhikkhus practise restraint
of the six faculties keeping a close watch on the doors of the six
senses that the king agrees that purity of the holy life is possible
under such circumstances.

In the Paṭhama Dārukkhandhopama Sutta,
the discourse given by the Buddha on the bank of the River Ganges at
Kosambī, the Buddha uses the simile of a log floating down the river. He
says that if the log does not get stranded on either of the two banks,
nor sinks in the middle of the river, nor gets salvaged and deposited on
the bank by some one, nor is retrieved by men or devas, nor sucked in
by a whirlpool, and if it does not get decomposed on the way, it will be
carried by the current until its destination, the ocean, is reached.

In
this simile, the near bank means the six internal sense bases, the far
bank represents the six external sense objects, sinking in the mid-river
means getting immersed in sensuous desires; being salvaged and
deposited on a bank means being hindered by one’s own conceit; being
retrieved by men means doing some services or running errands for men;
being retrieved by devas means practising the holy life with the deva
realm as one’s objective; being sucked into a whirlpool means wallowing
in sensual pleasures; getting decomposed on the way means becoming
corrupt, immoral, heedless of the disciplinary rules. If a bhikkhu
manages to steer himself clear of all these obstacles, he will be
carried along by the current of Right View until he reaches his
destination, nibbāna.

In the Chappāṇakopama Sutta, the Buddha
teaches that a bhikkhu practising the holy life must exercise control of
his sense faculties. The six sense faculties may be likened to six
animals, namely, a snake, a crocodile, a giant bird, a dog, a jackal and
a monkey. Suppose each animal is bound by a rope and the ropes are tied
together into a single knot. When they are left in this state, each
animal will try to get to its own habitat-the snake to its underground
hole, the crocodile to the river, etc. In this way they will pull and
struggle against one another until they become exhausted and are dragged
along by the strongest of them. The mind of a bhikkhu with unrestrained
sense faculties will be impelled by the senses towards corresponding
sense objects.

But suppose each animal is bound by a separate
rope which is fastened to a pole firmly planted in the ground. Each
animal will make furious attempts to return to its home and becoming
exhausted will finally stand, sit, curl or lie down quietly near the
post. Similarly by practising contemplation of the body (kāyagatāsati),
the sense faculties are placed well under control. Mindfulness of the
body serves as the firm post to which each of the faculties is tied
down.

In the section focusing on sensation (Vedanā Saṃyutta) the
Buddha describes the three types of sensation, pleasant, unpleasant and
neutral. In the Samādhi Sutta he states that a disciple of the Buddha
who is concentrated (samāhito), aware (sato) and maintaining thorough
understanding of impermanence (sampajāno) knows with wisdom the
sensations, their arising, their cessation and the path leading to their
end. Having reached the end of sensations such a meditator is said to
be free from craving, fully liberated.

In the Pahāna Sutta he
makes clear that pleasant sensation gives the meditator the opportunity
to eliminate the underlying condition of craving (rāgānusayo pahātabbo).
In the same way, unpleasant sensation and neutral sensation allow the
eradication of the deep conditioning of aversion (paṭighānusayo
pahātabbo) and ignorance (avijjānusayo pahātabbo) respectively. One who
eradicates these underlying conditionings is called one who is totally
free of underlying conditioning, who has seen the truth, who has cut off
all craving and aversion, who has broken all bondages, who has fully
realized the illusory nature of the ego, who has made an end of
suffering.

The sutta emphasizes that those who relish pleasant
sensations, who reel in unpleasant ones or take pleasure even in the
tranquil neutral sensations are not liberated from their misery. The
condition for achieving full liberation is defined as: striving
ardently, not missing the thorough understanding of impermanence even
for a moment (ātāpī, sampajaññaṃ na riñcati). A meditator who achieves
this state is said to be a wise person who knows the totality of the
sensations.

In several suttas in this section the Buddha makes it
clear that vedanā (the sensation he is refering to here) is bodily
sensation. In the Paṭhama Ākāsa Sutta he compares the various winds that
arise in the sky to the different kinds of sensations that arise in the
body.

In the Paṭhama Gelañña Sutta, given at Vesāli on the
occasion of a visit to the sick room, he exhorts the bhikkhus to remain
constantly aware of impermanence and to let the time come. This, he
says, is his dispensation. He goes on to explain that one must
understand that when a pleasant, unpleasant or neutral sensation has
arisen it is based on something: it is based on this very body. Thus the
meditator dwells observing the impermanent nature of the sensations in
the body.

This section on vedanā is full of practical advice and inspiration for serious meditators.

In
a later saṃyutta, Dukkarapañhā Sutta states that in the teaching of the
Buddha, it is difficult first to become a member of the order as a
novice and as a bhikkhu. Secondly, it is difficult to be happy and
comfortable in the order with its disciplinary rules. Thirdly, even if
one stays the course and remains in the order, it is difficult for one
to practise concentration meditation and Vipassana meditation to attain
higher stages of knowledge. Then fully endowed with supporting pāramīs
(perfections), a bhikkhu who gets instruction in the morning and starts
practising meditation in the morning may be fully liberated by the
evening; if he gets instruction in the evening and starts practising
meditation in the evening he may be fully liberated by the morning.

A
wealthy householder by the name of Citta figures quite prominently in
some of the suttas of this division. In Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta Sutta,
Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta finds himself unable to accept the view expressed by
the Buddha that there is jhāna and samādhi free from vitakka and vicāra.
He discusses this problem with Citta, the wealthy householder, who is
an ariya disciple of the Buddha. Citta tells him: “I believe there is
jhāna and samādhi free from vitakka and vicāra, not because of my faith
in the Buddha but because of my own achievement and realization.” Citta
explains that he has personally experienced jhāna samādhi unaccompanied
by vitakka and vicāra and has no need to rely on others for believing
this.

The same Citta used to have in his younger days a close
friend who later became the naked ascetic Kassapa. Each has gone his own
separate way and the two friends meet again only after thirty years.
Citta asks his friend whether by living the ascetic life he has gained
anything more than what could be achieved by the wholesome Dhamma of
ordinary people. The ascetic Kassapa admits that he has nothing to show
besides his nakedness, his shaven head and the accumulation of dust on
his body.

When asked in return what he himself has gained by
being a disciple of the Buddha and following the path as instructed by
his teacher, Citta informs him that he has become fully accomplished in
the four jhānas, and having removed the five fetters, is now an anāgāmi
(a non-returner). The naked ascetic, impressed by his achievements,
tells Citta that he wants to be a disciple of the Buddha. Citta
introduces him to the leading bhikkhus and helps him to get admission
into the order. With the guidance of the theras and encouragement of his
friend Citta, the ex-ascetic Kassapa puts in such an effort in the
practice of meditation that in no time he gains the supreme goal of
arahatship.

In the Saṅkhadhama Sutta, the Buddha points out the
wrong views held by Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta on kamma and its resultant
effects. According to the village headman Asibandhakaputta, his teacher
Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta teaches that every one who commits evil deeds of
killing, lying, etc., is definitely bound to be reborn in states of woe.
Whatever action is performed in a greater frequency, that action tends
to determine the destiny of a being. The Buddha points out the fallacy
in the two statements, one contradicting the other. An individual does
not often commit the evil deed, for instance, of killing. Other actions
besides killing are performed by him in a more frequent manner; hence,
according to Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta, he will not be destined to states of
woe for his evil act of killing.

Then the Buddha explains that
only very heinous acts such as killing of one’s own parents, creating a
schism in the Sangha, etc., bring the dire resultant effect of certain
destiny in the states of woe. Other misdeeds, physical, vocal or mental,
cannot be regarded as leading with certainty to unhappy destinations.
Instead of just feeling remorseful and penitent over one’s particular
evil deed, one should recognize it to be evil, and resolve not to repeat
a similar unwholesome action, and follow it with the practice of
concentration and Vipassana meditation.

Thus abandoning all evil
deeds and doing only wholesome deeds together with the development of
brahmavihāra bhāvanā until accomplished in jhāna, one can escape from
the unhappy consequences of one’s evil actions and look forward to a
better future. This Saṅkhadhama Sutta establishes the fact that as in
matter of practice so also in the matters of views, the Buddha takes the
middle path.

In the Bhadraka Sutta, the Buddha explains the
origin of suffering by giving illuminating examples. The village headman
Bhadraka wants to know the cause of suffering that afflicts mankind. In
reply, the Buddha asks him to think of his son and imagine that his son
is meeting with unexpected misfortunes, or getting arrested by the
king’s order or facing a severe punishment. Bhadraka imagines as he is
told and finds that such thoughts give rise to sorrow, lamentation,
pain, distress, grief and despair in him. When he imagines a stranger to
be placed in a similar situation, facing similar predicament, he finds
that he is not troubled at all with any mental agony. He explains to the
Buddha that the difference in his mental reaction to the two situations
lies in the fact that he loves his son with a parent’s love and is very
fond of his son, whereas he has no such feeling towards the stranger.

Next
the Buddha asks him if any love, passion or desire arises in him before
he meets or sees or hears about the woman who has become his wife.
Bhadraka replies that only when he meets, sees and hears about her that
does he develop passion and attachment towards his wife. When the Buddha
asks him further whether he will suffer from sorrow, lamentation, pain,
distress, grief, despair, if anything untoward happens to his wife, he
confesses that he will suffer more than these agonies; he might even
lose his life through intense suffering.

The Buddha points out
then that the root cause of suffering in the world is craving, greed,
passion and desire that engulf mankind. It has been so in the past, as
it is now , and so it will be in the future.

5 Mahā Vagga Saṃyutta Pāḷi
The
last vagga of Saṃyutta Nikāya is made up of twelve saṃyuttas, the list
of which gives a clear indication of the subjects dealt with in this
division: Magga Saṃyutta, Bojjhaṅga Saṃyutta, Satipaṭṭhāna Saṃyutta,
Indriya Saṃyutta, Sammappadhāna Saṃyutta, Bala Saṃyutta, Iddhipāda
Saṃyutta, Anuruddha Saṃyutta, Jhāna Saṃyutta, Ānāpāna Saṃyutta,
Sotāpatti Saṃyutta and Sacca Saṃyutta. The main doctrines which from the
fundamental basis of the Buddha’s teaching are reviewed in these
saṃyuttas, covering both the theoretical and practical aspects. In the
concluding suttas of the vagga, the ultimate goal of the holy life:
arahatta phala, nibbāna, the end of all suffering, is constantly kept in
full view together with a detailed description of the way of achieving
it, namely, the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Path of Eight
Constituents.

In the opening suttas it is pointed out how
friendship with the good and association with the virtuous is of immense
help for the attainment of the path and perfection. It is one of the
supporting factors conducive to the welfare of a bhikkhu. Not having a
virtuous friend and good adviser is a great handicap for him in his
endeavours to attain the path.

In the Kuṇḍaliya Sutta, the
wandering ascetic Kuṇḍaliya asks the Buddha what his objective is in
practising the holy life. When the Buddha replies that he lives the holy
life to enjoy the fruits of the path and the bliss of liberation by
knowledge, the ascetic wants to know how to achieve these results. The
Buddha advises him to cultivate and frequently practise restraint of the
five senses. This will establish the threefold good conduct in deed,
word and thought. When the threefold good conduct is cultivated and
frequently practised, the four foundations of mindfulness will be
established. When the four foundations of mindfulness are well
established, the seven factors of enlightenment will be developed. When
the seven factors of enlightenment are developed and frequently applied,
the fruits of the path and liberation by knowledge will be achieved.

In
the Udāyī Sutta, there is an account of Udāyī who gives confirmation of
such achievements through personal experience. He tells how he comes to
know about the five khandhas from the discourses, how he practises
contemplation on the arising and ceasing of the khandhas, thereby
developing udayabbaya ñāṇa which, through frequent cultivation, matures
into magga insight. Progressing still further by developing and applying
frequently the seven factors of enlightenment he ultimately attains
arahatship. In many suttas are recorded the personal experiences of
bhikkhus and lay disciples who on being afflicted with serious illness
are advised to cultivate and practise the seven factors of
enlightenment. They recount how they are relieved, not only of pains of
sickness but also of suffering that arises from craving.

In
Sakuṇagghi Sutta, the bhikkhus are exhorted by the Buddha to keep within
the confines of their own ground, i.e., the four foundations of
mindfulness, namely: contemplation of body, sensation, mind and
mind-objects. They can roam freely in the safe resort guarded by these
outposts of the four foundations, unharmed by lust, hate and ignorance.
Once they stray outside their own ground, they expose themselves to the
allurements of the sensuous world. The parable of the falcon and the
skylark illustrates this point. A fierce falcon suddenly seizes hold of a
tiny skylark which is feeding in an open field. Clutched in the claws
of its captor, the unfortunate young bird bemoans its foolishness in
venturing outside of its own ground to fall victim to the raiding
falcon. “If only I had stayed on my own ground inherited from my
parents, I could easily have beaten off this attack by the falcon.”
Bemused by this challenging soliloquy, the falcon asks the skylark where
that ground would be that it has inherited from its parents. The
skylark replies, “The interspaces between clods of earth in the ploughed
fields are my ground inherited from my parents.” “All right, tiny tot, I
shall release you now. See if you can escape my clutches even on your
own ground.”

Then standing on a spot where three big clods of
earth meet, the skylark derisively invites the falcon, “Come and get me,
you big brute.” Burning with fury, the falcon sweeps down with fierce
speed to grab the mocking little bird in its claws. The skylark quickly
disappears into the interspaces of the earth clods, but the big falcon,
unable to arrest its own speed, smashes into the hard protruding clods
to meet its painful death.

In Bhikkhunupassaya Sutta, the Buddha
explains for Ānanda’s benefit two methods of meditation. When
established in the four foundations of mindfulness, a bhikkhu will
experience a beneficial result gradually increasing. But should his mind
be distracted by external things during the contemplation on body,
sensation, mind or mind-object, the bhikkhu should direct his mind to
some confidence-inspiring object, such as recollection of the virtues of
the Buddha. By doing so, he experiences joy, rapture, tranquillity and
happiness, which is conducive to concentration. He can then revert back
to the original object of meditation. When his mind is not distracted by
external things, no need arises for him to direct his mind to any
confidence-inspiring object. The Buddha concluded his exhortation thus:
“Here are trees and secluded places, Ānanda. Practise meditation Ānanda.
Be not neglectful lest you regret it afterwards.”

As set out in
the Ciraṭṭhiti Sutta, the Venerable Ānanda takes this injunction to
heart and regards the practice of the four methods of steadfast
mindfulness as of supreme importance. When a bhikkhu by the name of
Badda asks the Venerable Ānanda, after the death of the Buddha, what
will bring about the disappearance of the Buddha’s teaching, the
Venerable Ānanda replies, “So long as the practice of the four methods
of steadfast mindfulness is not neglected, so long will the teaching
prosper; but when the practice of the four methods of steadfast
mindfulness declines, the teaching will gradually disappear.”

Anapanassati
meditation, one of the methods of body contemplation, consists in
watching closely one’s in-breath and out-breath and is rated highly as
being very beneficial. In the Mahā Kappina Sutta, the bhikkhus inform
the Buddha, “We notice, Venerable Sir, that Bhikkhu Mahā Kappina is
always calm and collected, never excited, whether he is in company or
alone in the forest.” “It is so, bhikkhus. One who practises
Anapanassati meditation with mindfulness and full comprehension remains
calm in body and collected in mind, unruffled, unexcited.”

The
Icchānaṅgala Sutta describes how the Buddha himself once stayed for the
rains-residence of three months in Icchānaṅgala forest grove in solitude
practising Anapanassati meditation most of the time. Anapanassati
meditation is known as the abode of the enlightened ones, the abode of
the noble ones.

When fully accomplished in the cultivation of the
seven factors of enlightenment, through practice of body contemplation
or Anapanassati meditation, one becomes firmly established in unshakable
confidence in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. The moral conduct
of such a person, through observance of precepts, is also without
blemish. He has reached, in his spiritual development, the stage of the
stream-winner (sotāpatti magga), by virtue of which he will never be
reborn in states of woe and misery. His path only leads upwards, towards
the three higher stages of accomplishment. He has only to plod on
steadfastly without looking backwards.

This is explained in the
Paṭhama Mahānāma Sutta, by the simile of an earthen pot filled partly
with gravel and stones and partly with fat and butter. By throwing this
pot into water and smashing it with a stick, it will be seen that gravel
and stones quickly sink to the bottom while fat and butter rise to the
surface of the water. Likewise, when a person who has established
himself in the five wholesome dhammas of faith, conduct, learning,
charity and insight dies his body remains to get decomposed but his
extremely purified mental continuum continues in higher states of
existence as birth-linking consciousness, paṭisandhi citta.

In the concluding suttas are expositions on the middle path, the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Path of Eight Constituents.

The Buddha’s first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, appears in the last saṃyutta, namely, Sacca Saṃyutta.

The
Buddha did not make his claim to supremely perfect enlightenment until
he had acquired full understanding of the Four Noble Truths. “As long, O
bhikkhus, as my knowledge of reality and insight regarding the Four
Noble Truths in three aspects and twelve ways was not fully clear to me,
so long did I not admit to the world with its devas, māras and Brahmās,
to the mass of beings with its recluses, brahmins, kings and people
that I had understood, attained and realized rightly by myself the
incomparable, the most excellent perfect enlightenment”.

The Buddha concluded his first sermon with the words “This is my last existence. Now there is no more rebirth for me.”

7. AṄGUTTARA NIKĀYA
This
Collection of Discourses, Aṅguttara Nikāya, containing 9557 short
suttas is divided into eleven divisions known as nipātas. Each nipāta is
divided again into groups called vaggas which usually contain ten
suttas. The discourses are arranged in progressive numerical order, each
nipāta containing suttas with items of Dhamma, beginning with one item
and moving up by units of one until there are eleven items of Dhamma in
each sutta of the last nipāta. Hence the name Aṅguttara meaning
“increasing by one item”. The first nipāta, Ekaka Nipāta, provides in
each sutta single items of Dhamma called the Ones; the second nipāta,
Duka Nipāta, contains in each sutta two items of Dhamma called the Twos,
the last nipāta, Ekādasaka Nipāta, is made up of suttas with eleven
items of Dhamma in each, called the Elevens.

Aṅguttara Nikāya
constitutes an important source book on Buddhist psychology and ethics,
which provides an enumerated summary of all the essential features
concerning the theory and practice of the Dhamma. A unique chapter
entitled Etadagga Vagga of Ekaka Nipāta enumerates the names of the
foremost disciples amongst the bhikkhus, bhikkhunis, upāsakas, upāsikās,
who had achieved pre-eminence in one sphere of attainment or
meritorious activity, e.g., the Venerable Sāriputta in intuitive wisdom
and knowledge (paññā); the Venerable Mahā Moggallāna in supernormal
powers (iddhi); Bhikkhunī Khemā in paññā; Bhikkhuni Uppalavanna in
iddhi; the Upāsaka Anāthapiṇḍika and the Upāsikā Visākhā in alms-giving
(dāna) and so on.

1 Ekaka Nipāta Pāḷi
This group contains
single items of Dhamma which form the subject matter of discourses given
by the Buddha at Sāvatthi to the numerous bhikkhus residing there. But
some of the suttas were given by the Venerable Sāriputta or the
Venerable Ānanda.

(a) There is no one sight, sound, smell, taste
and touch other than that of a woman which can so captivate and distract
the mind of a man; conversely there is no one sight, sound, smell,
taste and touch other than that of a man which can so captivate and
distract the mind of a woman. (paras 1 to 10)

(b) There is no
other single thing that brings about so much disadvantage and
unhappiness as an undeveloped and uncultivated mind. A developed and
cultivated mind brings about benefit and happiness. (paras 28 to 31)

(c)
No other single thing changes so quickly as the mind. The mind is
intrinsically pure and bright; it is defiled by greed, hatred and
ignorance. (paras 48, 49)

(d) If a bhikkhu practises the
meditation of loving-kindness, develops it even for the short duration
of a fingersnap, he is regarded as following the advice of the Buddha,
acting according to his instructions. Such a bhikkhu deserves to eat the
alms-food offered by the people. (paras 53, 54)

(e) There is
only one person whose appearance in the world brings welfare and
happiness to the many, brings benefit, welfare and happiness to devas
and men. It is a tathāgata, a fully enlightened Buddha.

It is impossible for two enlightened Buddhas to appear simultaneously in the same world system. (paras 170 to 174)

(f)
It is impossible for a person possessed of right views, i.e. a
sotāpanna, to regard any conditioned formation as permanent, happiness,
self (nicca, sukha, atta). It is possible only for an uninstructed
worldling to regard anything as permanent, happiness, self. (paras 268
to 270)

(g) If one thing is developed and frequently practised,
the body is calmed, the mind is calmed, discursive thinking is stilled,
ignorance is shed, knowledge arises, delusion of self is eliminated,
evil tendencies are eradicated, the fetters are removed. That one thing
is the mindful contemplation of the body. (paras 571 to 576) 



141. pavāraṇāṭhapanaṁ (Mv.IV.16.1)

The Cancellation of the Invitation [BMC]

[245] tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyā bhikkhū sāpattikā pavārenti.

Now on that occasion some Group-of-six monks, having offenses, invited.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

na bhikkhave sāpattikena pavāretabbaṁ yo pavāreyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Monks, one who has an offense should not invite. Whoever should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

anujānāmi bhikkhave yo sāpattiko pavāreti tassa okāsaṁ kārāpetvā āpattiyā codetunti.

“I allow when one with an offense is inviting that, having gotten him to give leave, one charge him with the offense.”

(Mv.IV.16.2) tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyā bhikkhū okāsaṁ kārāpiyamānā na icchanti okāsaṁ kātuṁ.

Now on that occasion some Group-of-six monks, being asked to give leave, didn’t want to give leave.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave okāsaṁ akarontassa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapetuṁ

“I allow, when one does not give leave, that the Invitation be canceled. [BMC]

evañca pana bhikkhave ṭhapetabbā

“And, monks, it should be canceled like this:

tadahupavāraṇāya cātuddase vā paṇṇarase vā tasmiṁ puggale sammukhībhūte saṅghamajjhe udāharitabbaṁ

“On the day of the Invitation—the fourteenth or the
fifteenth—face-to-face with the individual, in the midst of the Saṅgha,
it should be announced,

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho itthannāmo puggalo sāpattiko pavāreti tassa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemi na tasmiṁ sammukhībhūte pavāretabbanti.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. An
individual named such-and-such is inviting with an offense. I cancel his
Invitation. One should not invite when face-to-face with him.’

ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇāti.

“His Invitation is canceled.”

(Mv.IV.16.3) tena kho
pana samayena chabbaggiyā bhikkhū puramhākaṁ pesalā bhikkhū pavāraṇaṁ
ṭhapentīti paṭikacceva suddhānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ anāpattikānaṁ avatthusmiṁ
akāraṇe pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapenti pavāritānampi pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapenti.

Now on that occasion some Group-of-six monks,
(thinking,) “Before, the well-behaved monks canceled our
Invitations”—without grounds, without reason—canceled the Invitation of
pure monks without offenses as a precaution. [Mv.II.16.3]

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

na bhikkhave suddhānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ anāpattikānaṁ avatthusmiṁ akāraṇe pavāraṇā ṭhapetabbā yo ṭhapeyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Monks, one should not—without grounds, without
reason—cancel the Invitation of pure monks without offenses. Whoever
should cancel it: an offense of wrong doing.

na ca bhikkhave pavāritānampi pavāraṇā ṭhapetabbā yo ṭhapeyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“And one should not cancel the Invitation of those
who have already made an Invitation. Whoever should cancel it: an
offense of wrong doing.

(Mv.IV.16.4) [246] evaṁ kho bhikkhave ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā evaṁ aṭṭhapitā.

“Monks, the Invitation is (properly) canceled like this; and not (properly) canceled like this:

kathañca bhikkhave aṭṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“And how, monks, is the Invitation not (properly) canceled?

tevācikāya ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya bhāsitāya lapitāya pariyositāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti aṭṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā

“Monks, if one cancels (another’s) Invitation when
the Invitation by three statements has been spoken, uttered, and
concluded, then the Invitation is not canceled.

dvevācikāya ce bhikkhave ekavācikāya ce
bhikkhave samānavassikāya ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya bhāsitāya lapitāya
pariyositāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti aṭṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if one cancels (another’s) Invitation when
the Invitation by two statements … by one statement … by equal Rains has
been spoken, uttered, and concluded, then the Invitation is not
canceled.

evaṁ kho bhikkhave aṭṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“In this way, monks, the Invitation is not (properly) canceled.

(Mv.IV.16.5) kathañca bhikkhave ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“And how, monks, is the Invitation (properly) canceled?

tevācikāya ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya bhāsitāya lapitāya apariyositāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if one cancels (another’s) Invitation when
the Invitation by three statements is being spoken, uttered, but has not
been concluded, then the Invitation is canceled.

dvevācikāya ce bhikkhave ekavācikāya ce
bhikkhave samānavassikāya ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya bhāsitāya lapitāya
apariyositāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if one cancels (another’s) Invitation when
the Invitation by two statements … by one statement … by equal Rains is
being spoken, uttered, but has not been concluded, then the Invitation
is canceled.

evaṁ kho bhikkhave ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“In this way, monks, the Invitation is (properly) canceled.

(Mv.IV.16.6) [247] idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya bhikkhu bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation. [BMC]

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho
āyasmā aparisuddhakāyasamācāro aparisuddhavacīsamācāro aparisuddhāajīvo
bālo abyatto na paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This
venerable one is impure in his bodily conduct, impure in his verbal
conduct, impure in his livelihood, inexperienced and incompetent. He is
unable, when being brought to account, to give an account (of what
happened),’

alaṁ bhikkhu mā bhaṇḍanaṁ mā kalahaṁ mā viggahaṁ mā vivādanti omadditvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“then, having blocked him, (saying,) ‘Enough, monk.
Don’t (cause) strife; don’t (cause) an uproar; don’t (cause) a clash;
don’t dispute,’ the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.7) idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya bhikkhu bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation.

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho
āyasmā parisuddhakāyasamācāro aparisuddhavacīsamācāro aparisuddhāajīvo
bālo abyatto na paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This
venerable one is pure in his bodily conduct, impure in his verbal
conduct, impure in his livelihood, inexperienced and incompetent. He is
unable, when being brought to account, to give an account,’

alaṁ bhikkhu mā bhaṇḍanaṁ mā kalahaṁ mā viggahaṁ mā vivādanti omadditvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“then, having blocked him, (saying,) ‘Enough, monk.
Don’t (cause) strife; don’t (cause) an uproar; don’t (cause) a clash;
don’t dispute,’ the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.8) idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya bhikkhu bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation.

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho
āyasmā parisuddhakāyasamācāro parisuddhavacīsamācāro aparisuddhāajīvo
bālo abyatto na paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This
venerable one is pure in his bodily conduct, pure in his verbal conduct,
impure in his livelihood, inexperienced and incompetent. He is unable,
when being brought to account, to give an account,’

alaṁ bhikkhu mā bhaṇḍanaṁ mā kalahaṁ mā viggahaṁ mā vivādanti omadditvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“then, having blocked him, (saying,) ‘Enough, monk.
Don’t (cause) strife; don’t (cause) an uproar; don’t (cause) a clash;
don’t dispute,’ the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.9) idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya [ME inserts: bhikkhu] bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation.

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho
āyasmā parisuddhakāyasamācāro parisuddhavacīsamācāro parisuddhāajīvo
bālo abyatto na paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This
venerable one is pure in his bodily conduct, pure in his verbal conduct,
pure in his livelihood, inexperienced and incompetent. He is unable,
when being brought to account, to give an account,’

alaṁ bhikkhu mā bhaṇḍanaṁ mā kalahaṁ mā viggahaṁ mā vivādanti omadditvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“then, having blocked him, (saying,) ‘Enough, monk.
Don’t (cause) strife; don’t (cause) an uproar; don’t (cause) a clash;
don’t dispute,’ the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.10) idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya bhikkhu bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation.

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho
āyasmā parisuddhakāyasamācāro parisuddhavacīsamācāro parisuddhāajīvo
paṇḍito byatto medhāvī paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This
venerable one is pure in his bodily conduct, pure in his verbal conduct,
pure in his livelihood, wise, experienced and competent. He is able,
when being brought to account, to give an account,’

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa
bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi kimhi naṁ ṭhapesi sīlavipattiyā ṭhapesi
ācāravipattiyā ṭhapesi diṭṭhivipattiyā ṭhapesīti.

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation
of this monk that you are canceling: Why are you canceling it? Are you
canceling it because of a defect in virtue, are you canceling it because
of a defect in conduct, (or) are you canceling it because of a defect
in view?’

(Mv.IV.16.11) so ce evaṁ vadeyya sīlavipattiyā ṭhapemi ācāravipattiyā ṭhapemi diṭṭhivipattiyā ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘I am canceling it because of a
defect in virtue … because of a defect in conduct … (or) because of a
defect in view,’

so evamassa vacanīyo jānāti panāyasmā sīlavipattiṁ jānāti ācāravipattiṁ jānāti diṭṭhivipattinti.

“then he should be asked, ‘But does the venerable
one know what a defect in virtue is, what a defect in conduct is, what a
defect in view is?’

so ce evaṁ vadeyya jānāmi kho ahaṁ āvuso sīlavipattiṁ jānāmi ācāravipattiṁ jānāmi diṭṭhivipattinti.

“If he should say, ‘Friends, I know what a defect in virtue is, what a defect in conduct is, what a defect in view is,’

so evamassa vacanīyo katamā panāvuso sīlavipatti katamā ācāravipatti katamā diṭṭhivipattīti.

“then he should be asked, “Then, friend, which is a defect in virtue, which is a defect in conduct, which is a defect in view?’

(Mv.IV.16.12) so ce
evaṁ vadeyya cattāri pārājikāni terasa saṅghādisesā ayaṁ sīlavipatti
thullaccayaṁ pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ dukkaṭaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ayaṁ
ācāravipatti micchādiṭṭhi antaggāhikā diṭṭhi ayaṁ diṭṭhivipattīti.

“If he should say, ‘The four pārājikas and the
thirteen saṅghādisesas: This is a defect in virtue. A thullaccaya, a
pācittiya, a pāṭidesanīya, a dukkaṭa, a dubbhāsita: This is a defect in
conduct. Wrong view and a view holding to an extreme: This is a defect
in view,’ [BMC]

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa
bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi diṭṭhena ṭhapesi sutena ṭhapesi parisaṅkāya
ṭhapesīti.

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation
of this bhikkhu that you are canceling, are you canceling it on the
basis of what was seen, are you canceling it on the basis of what was
heard, (or) are you canceling it on the basis of what is suspected?’

(Mv.IV.16.13) so ce evaṁ vadeyya diṭṭhena vā ṭhapemi sutena vā ṭhapemi parisaṅkāya vā ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘I am canceling it on the
grounds of what was seen’ or ‘I am canceling it on the grounds of what
was heard’ or ‘I am canceling it on the grounds of what is suspected,’

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa
bhikkhuno diṭṭhena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi kinte diṭṭhaṁ kinti te diṭṭhaṁ kadā
te diṭṭhaṁ kattha te diṭṭhaṁ pārājikaṁ ajjhāpajjanto diṭṭho
saṅghādisesaṁ ajjhāpajjanto diṭṭho thullaccayaṁ pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ
dukkaṭaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpajjanto diṭṭho kattha ca tvaṁ ahosi kattha
cāyaṁ bhikkhu ahosi kiñci tvaṁ karosi kiñcāyaṁ bhikkhu karotīti.

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation
of this bhikkhu that you are canceling on the grounds of what was seen:
What did you see? What exactly did you see? When did you see it? Where
did you see it? Was he seen committing a pārājika? Was he seen
committing a saṅghādisesa? Was he seen committing a thullaccaya, a
pācittiya, a pāṭidesanīya, a dukkaṭa, (or) a dubbhāsita? And where were
you? And where was this monk? And what were you doing? And what was this
monk doing?’

(Mv.IV.16.14) so ce evaṁ vadeyya na kho ahaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno diṭṭhena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemi apica sutena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘It’s not that I’m canceling the
invitation of this bhikkhu on the grounds of what was seen. It’s
actually on the grounds of what was heard that I’m canceling (his)
invitation,’

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa
bhikkhuno sutena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi kinte sutaṁ kinti te sutaṁ kadā te
sutaṁ kattha te sutaṁ pārājikaṁ ajjhāpannoti sutaṁ saṅghādisesaṁ
ajjhāpannoti sutaṁ thullaccayaṁ pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ dukkaṭaṁ
dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpannoti sutaṁ

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation
of this monk that you are canceling on the grounds of what was heard:
What did you hear? What exactly did you hear? When did you hear it?
Where did you hear it? Was he heard to have committed a pārājika? Was he
heard to have committed a saṅghādisesa? Was he heard to have committed a
thullaccaya, a pācittiya, a pāṭidesanīya, a dukkaṭa, (or) a dubbhāsita?

bhikkhussa sutaṁ bhikkhuniyā sutaṁ sikkhamānāya
sutaṁ sāmaṇerassa sutaṁ sāmaṇeriyā sutaṁ upāsakassa sutaṁ upāsikāya
sutaṁ rājūnaṁ sutaṁ rājamahāmattānaṁ sutaṁ titthiyānaṁ sutaṁ
titthiyasāvakānaṁ sutanti.

“‘Was this heard from a monk? Was this heard from a
bhikkhunī? … from one in training? … from a male novice? … from a
female novice? … from a male lay follower? … from a female lay follower?
… from kings? … from king’s ministers? … from the leaders of other
sects? … from the disciples of other sects?’

(Mv.IV.16.15) so ce evaṁ vadeyya na kho ahaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno sutena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemi apica parisaṅkāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘It’s not that I’m canceling the
invitation of this monk on the grounds of what was heard. It’s actually
on the grounds of what is suspected that I’m canceling (his)
invitation,’

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa
bhikkhuno parisaṅkāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi kiṁ parisaṅkasi kinti
parisaṅkasi kadā parisaṅkasi kattha parisaṅkasi pārājikaṁ ajjhāpannoti
parisaṅkasi saṅghādisesaṁ ajjhāpannoti parisaṅkasi thullaccayaṁ
pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ dukkaṭaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpannoti parisaṅkasi

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation
of this monk that you are canceling on the grounds of what is suspected:
What do you suspect? What exactly do you suspect? When do you suspect
(it happened)? Where do you suspect (it happened)? Do you suspect him to
have committed a pārājika? Do you suspect him to have committed a
saṅghādisesa? Do you suspect him to have committed a thullaccaya, a
pācittiya, a pāṭidesanīya, a dukkaṭa, (or) a dubbhāsita?

(Mv.IV.16.16)
bhikkhussa sutvā parisaṅkasi bhikkhuniyā sutvā parisaṅkasi sikkhamānāya
sutvā parisaṅkasi sāmaṇerassa sutvā parisaṅkasi sāmaṇeriyā sutvā
parisaṅkasi upāsakassa sutvā parisaṅkasi upāsikāya sutvā parisaṅkasi
rājūnaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasi rājamahāmattānaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasi titthiyānaṁ
sutvā parisaṅkasi titthiyasāvakānaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasīti.

“‘Do you suspect from having heard a monk? Do you
suspect from having heard a bhikkhunī? … one in training? … a male
novice? … a female novice? … a male lay follower? … a female lay
follower? … kings? … king’s ministers? … the leaders of other sects? …
the disciples of other sects?’

so ce evaṁ vadeyya na kho ahaṁ āvuso imassa
bhikkhuno parisaṅkāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemi apica ahampi na jānāmi kenapāhaṁ
imassa bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘It’s not that I’m canceling the
invitation of this bhikkhu on the grounds of what is suspected. In
fact, even I don’t know on what grounds I’m canceling the invitation of
this monk,”

so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu anuyogena viññūnaṁ sabrahmacārīnaṁ cittaṁ na ārādheti ananuvādo cudito bhikkhūti alaṁ vacanāya.

“then if the monk making the charge does not
satisfy the minds of his observant fellows in the holy life with his
account, it is enough to say that the monk who has been charged does not
stand accused.

so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu anuyogena viññūnaṁ sabrahmacārīnaṁ cittaṁ ārādheti sānuvādo cudito bhikkhūti alaṁ vacanāya.

“But if the monk making the charge does satisfy the
minds of his observant fellows in the holy life with his account, then
it is enough to say that the monk who has been charged stands accused.

(Mv.IV.16.17) so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu amūlakena pārājikena anuddhaṁsitaṁ paṭijānāti saṅghādisesaṁ āropetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk making the charge charges him with an
unfounded pārājika offense, then having initiated the procedure for a
saṅghadisesa, the Saṅgha should invite.

so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu amūlakena saṅghādisesena anuddhaṁsitaṁ paṭijānāti yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk making the charge charges him with an
unfounded saṅghadisesa offense, then, having dealt with him in
accordance with the rule (Pc 76), the Saṅgha should invite.

so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu amūlakena
thullaccayena pācittiyena pāṭidesanīyena dukkaṭena dubbhāsitena
anuddhaṁsitaṁ paṭijānāti yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk making the charge charges him with an
unfounded thullaccaya, pācittiya, pāṭidesanīya, dukkaṭa, (or) dubbhāsita
offense, then, having dealt with him in accordance with the rule (Pc 76), the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.18) so ce bhikkhave cudito bhikkhu pārājikaṁ ajjhāpannoti paṭijānāti nāsetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk who has been charged, having fallen
into a pārājika offense, admits it, then having expelled him, the Saṅgha
should invite.

so ce bhikkhave cudito bhikkhu saṅghādisesaṁ ajjhāpannoti paṭijānāti saṅghādisesaṁ āropetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk who has been charged, having fallen
into a saṅghadisesa offense, admits it, then having initiated the
procedure for a saṅghadisesa, the Saṅgha should invite.“If the monk who has been charged, having fallen
into a thullaccaya, pācittiya, pāṭidesanīya, dukkaṭa, (or) dubbhāsita
offense, admits it, then, having dealt with him in accordance with the
rule, the Saṅgha should invite.”

so ce bhikkhave cudito bhikkhu thullaccayaṁ
pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ dukkaṭaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpannoti paṭijānāti
yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.


https://www.tipitaka.org/taml/

ஸமுட்டா²னஸீஸஸங்கே²போ

ஸமுட்டா²னஸ்ஸுத்³தா³னங்

257.

அனிச்சா ஸப்³பே³ ஸங்கா²ரா, து³க்கா²னத்தா ச ஸங்க²தா;

நிப்³பா³னஞ்சேவ பஞ்ஞத்தி, அனத்தா இதி நிச்ச²யா.

பு³த்³த⁴சந்தே³ அனுப்பன்னே, பு³த்³தா⁴தி³ச்சே அனுக்³க³தே;

தேஸங் ஸபா⁴க³த⁴ம்மானங், நாமமத்தங் ந நாயதி.

து³க்கரங் விவித⁴ங் கத்வா, பூரயித்வான பாரமீ;

உப்பஜ்ஜந்தி மஹாவீரா, சக்கு²பூ⁴தா ஸப்³ரஹ்மகே.

தே தே³ஸயந்தி ஸத்³த⁴ம்மங், து³க்க²ஹானிங் ஸுகா²வஹங்;

அங்கீ³ரஸோ ஸக்யமுனி, ஸப்³ப³பூ⁴தானுகம்பகோ.

ஸப்³ப³ஸத்துத்தமோ ஸீஹோ, பிடகே தீணி தே³ஸயி;

ஸுத்தந்தமபி⁴த⁴ம்மஞ்ச, வினயஞ்ச மஹாகு³ணங்.

ஏவங் நீயதி ஸத்³த⁴ம்மோ, வினயோ யதி³ திட்ட²தி;

உப⁴தோ ச விப⁴ங்கா³னி, க²ந்த⁴கா யா ச மாதிகா.

மாலா ஸுத்தகு³ணேனேவ, பரிவாரேன க³ந்தி²தா;

தஸ்ஸேவ பரிவாரஸ்ஸ, ஸமுட்டா²னங் நியதோ கதங்.

ஸம்பே⁴த³ங் நிதா³னங் சஞ்ஞங், ஸுத்தே தி³ஸ்ஸந்தி உபரி;

தஸ்மா ஸிக்கே² பரிவாரங், த⁴ம்மகாமோ ஸுபேஸலோதி.

தேரஸஸமுட்டா²னங்

விப⁴ங்கே³ த்³வீஸு பஞ்ஞத்தங், உத்³தி³ஸந்தி உபோஸதே²;

பவக்கா²மி ஸமுட்டா²னங், யதா²ஞாயங் ஸுணாத² மே.

பாராஜிகங் யங் பட²மங், து³தியஞ்ச ததோ பரங்;

ஸஞ்சரித்தானுபா⁴ஸனஞ்ச, அதிரேகஞ்ச சீவரங்.

லோமானி பத³ஸோத⁴ம்மோ, பூ⁴தங் ஸங்விதா⁴னேன ச;

தெ²ய்யதே³ஸனசோரீ ச, அனநுஞ்ஞாதாய தேரஸ.

தேரஸேதே ஸமுட்டா²ன நயா, விஞ்ஞூஹி சிந்திதா.

ஏகேகஸ்மிங் ஸமுட்டா²னே, ஸதி³ஸா இத⁴ தி³ஸ்ஸரே.

1. பட²மபாராஜிகஸமுட்டா²னங்

258.

மேது²னங் ஸுக்கஸங்ஸக்³கோ³, அனியதா பட²மிகா;

புப்³பூ³பபரிபாசிதா, ரஹோ பி⁴க்கு²னியா ஸஹ.

ஸபோ⁴ஜனே ரஹோ த்³வே ச, அங்கு³லி உத³கே ஹஸங்;

பஹாரே உக்³கி³ரே சேவ, தேபஞ்ஞாஸா ச ஸேகி²யா.

அத⁴க்க²கா³மாவஸ்ஸுதா, தலமட்ட²ஞ்ச ஸுத்³தி⁴கா;

வஸ்ஸங்வுட்டா² ச ஓவாத³ங், நானுப³ந்தே⁴ பவத்தினிங்.

ச²ஸத்ததி இமே ஸிக்கா², காயமானஸிகா கதா;

ஸப்³பே³ ஏகஸமுட்டா²னா, பட²மங் பாராஜிகங் யதா².

பட²மபாராஜிகஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

2. து³தியபாராஜிகஸமுட்டா²னங்

259.

அதி³ன்னங் விக்³க³ஹுத்தரி, து³ட்டு²ல்லா அத்தகாமினங்;

அமூலா அஞ்ஞபா⁴கி³யா, அனியதா து³தியிகா.

அச்சி²ந்தே³ பரிணாமனே, முஸா ஓமஸபேஸுணா;

து³ட்டு²ல்லா பத²வீக²ணே, பூ⁴தங் அஞ்ஞாய உஜ்ஜா²பே.

நிக்கட்³ட⁴னங் ஸிஞ்சனஞ்ச, ஆமிஸஹேது பு⁴த்தாவீ;

ஏஹி அனாத³ரி பி⁴ங்ஸா, அபனிதே⁴ ச ஜீவிதங்.

ஜானங் ஸப்பாணகங் கம்மங், ஊனஸங்வாஸனாஸனா;

ஸஹத⁴ம்மிகவிலேகா², மோஹோ அமூலகேன ச.

குக்குச்சங் த⁴ம்மிகங் சீவரங், த³த்வா [குக்குச்சங் த⁴ம்மிகங் சீவரங் (ஸீ॰), குக்குச்சங் த⁴ம்மிகங் த³த்வா (ஸ்யா॰)] பரிணாமெய்ய புக்³க³லே;

கிங் தே அகாலங் அச்சி²ந்தே³, து³க்³க³ஹீ நிரயேன ச.

க³ணங் விப⁴ங்க³ங் து³ப்³ப³லங், கதி²னாபா²ஸுபஸ்ஸயங்;

அக்கோஸசண்டீ³ மச்ச²ரீ, க³ப்³பி⁴னீ ச பாயந்தியா.

த்³வேவஸ்ஸங் ஸிக்கா² ஸங்கே⁴ன, தயோ சேவ கி³ஹீக³தா;

குமாரிபூ⁴தா திஸ்ஸோ ச, ஊனத்³வாத³ஸஸம்மதா.

அலங் தாவ ஸோகாவாஸங், ச²ந்தா³ அனுவஸ்ஸா ச த்³வே;

ஸிக்கா²பதா³ ஸத்ததிமே, ஸமுட்டா²னா திகா கதா.

காயசித்தேன ந வாசா, வாசாசித்தங் ந காயிகங்;

தீஹி த்³வாரேஹி ஜாயந்தி, பாராஜிகங் து³தியங் யதா².

து³தியபாராஜிகஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

3. ஸஞ்சரித்தஸமுட்டா²னங்

260.

ஸஞ்சரீ குடி விஹாரோ, தோ⁴வனஞ்ச படிக்³க³ஹோ;

விஞ்ஞத்துத்தரி அபி⁴ஹட்டு²ங், உபி⁴ன்னங் தூ³தகேன ச.

கோஸியா ஸுத்³த⁴த்³வேபா⁴கா³, ச²ப்³ப³ஸ்ஸானி நிஸீத³னங்;

ரிஞ்சந்தி ரூபிகா சேவ, உபோ⁴ நானப்பகாரகா.

ஊனப³ந்த⁴னவஸ்ஸிகா, ஸுத்தங் விகப்பனேன ச;

த்³வாரதா³னஸிப்³பா³னி [த்³வாரதா³னஸிப்³பி³னீ (ஸீ॰ ஸ்யா॰)] ச, பூவபச்சயஜோதி ச.

ரதனங் ஸூசி மஞ்சோ ச, தூலங் நிஸீத³னகண்டு³ ச;

வஸ்ஸிகா ச ஸுக³தேன, விஞ்ஞத்தி அஞ்ஞங் சேதாபனா.

த்³வே ஸங்கி⁴கா மஹாஜனிகா, த்³வே புக்³க³லலஹுகா க³ரு;

த்³வே விகா⁴ஸா ஸாடிகா ச, ஸமணசீவரேன ச.

ஸமபஞ்ஞாஸிமே த⁴ம்மா, ச²ஹி டா²னேஹி ஜாயரே;

காயதோ ந வாசாசித்தா, வாசதோ ந காயமனா.

காயவாசா ந ச சித்தா [ந சித்ததோ (ஸீ॰ ஸ்யா॰)], காயசித்தா ந வாசிகா [ந வாசதோ (ஸீ॰ ஸ்யா॰)];

வாசாசித்தா ந காயேன, தீஹி த்³வாரேஹி [தீஹி டா²னேஹி (ஸ்யா॰)] ஜாயரே.

ச²ஸமுட்டா²னிகா ஏதே, ஸஞ்சரித்தேன ஸாதி³ஸா.

ஸஞ்சரித்தஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

4. ஸமனுபா⁴ஸனாஸமுட்டா²னங்

261.

பே⁴தா³னுவத்தது³ப்³ப³ச , தூ³ஸது³ட்டு²ல்லதி³ட்டி² ச;

ச²ந்த³ங் உஜ்ஜக்³கி⁴கா த்³வே ச, த்³வே ச ஸத்³தா³ ந ப்³யாஹரே.

ச²மா நீசாஸனே டா²னங், பச்ச²தோ உப்பதே²ன ச;

வஜ்ஜானுவத்திக³ஹணா, ஓஸாரே பச்சாசிக்க²னா.

கிஸ்மிங் ஸங்ஸட்டா² த்³வே வதி⁴, விஸிப்³பே³ து³க்கி²தாய ச;

புன ஸங்ஸட்டா² ந வூபஸமே, ஆராமஞ்ச பவாரணா.

அன்வத்³த⁴ங் [அன்வத்³த⁴மாஸங் (ஸீ॰ ஸ்யா॰)] ஸஹ ஜீவினிங், த்³வே சீவரங் அனுப³ந்த⁴னா;

ஸத்ததிங்ஸ இமே த⁴ம்மா, காயவாசாய சித்ததோ.

ஸப்³பே³ ஏகஸமுட்டா²னா, ஸமனுபா⁴ஸனா யதா².

ஸமனுபா⁴ஸனாஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

5. கதி²னஸமுட்டா²னங்

262.

உப்³ப⁴தங் கதி²னங் தீணி, பட²மங் பத்தபே⁴ஸஜ்ஜங்;

அச்சேகங் சாபி ஸாஸங்கங், பக்கமந்தேன வா து³வே.

உபஸ்ஸயங் பரம்பரா, அனதிரித்தங் நிமந்தனா;

விகப்பங் ரஞ்ஞோ விகாலே, வோஸாஸாரஞ்ஞகேன ச.

உஸ்ஸயாஸன்னிசயஞ்ச, புரே பச்சா² விகாலே ச;

பஞ்சாஹிகா ஸங்கமனீ, த்³வேபி ஆவஸதே²ன ச.

பஸாகே² ஆஸனே சேவ, திங்ஸ ஏகூனகா இமே;

காயவாசா ந ச சித்தா [ந சித்ததோ (ஸ்யா॰)], தீஹி த்³வாரேஹி ஜாயரே.

த்³விஸமுட்டா²னிகா ஸப்³பே³, கதி²னேன ஸஹாஸமா.

கதி²னஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

6. ஏளகலோமஸமுட்டா²னங்

263.

ஏளகலோமா த்³வே ஸெய்யா, ஆஹச்ச பிண்ட³போ⁴ஜனங்;

க³ணவிகாலஸன்னிதி⁴, த³ந்தபோனேன சேலகா.

உய்யுத்தங் ஸேனங் [உய்யுத்தங் வஸே (ஸ்யா॰)] உய்யோதி⁴, ஸுரா ஓரேன ந்ஹாயனா;

து³ப்³ப³ண்ணே த்³வே தே³ஸனிகா, லஸுணுபதிட்டே² நச்சனா.

ந்ஹானமத்த²ரணங் ஸெய்யா, அந்தோரட்டே² ததா² ப³ஹி;

அந்தோவஸ்ஸங் சித்தாகா³ரங், ஆஸந்தி³ ஸுத்தகந்தனா.

வெய்யாவச்சங் ஸஹத்தா² ச, அபி⁴க்கு²காவாஸேன ச;

ச²த்தங் யானஞ்ச ஸங்கா⁴ணிங், அலங்காரங் க³ந்த⁴வாஸிதங்.

பி⁴க்கு²னீ ஸிக்க²மானா ச, ஸாமணேரீ கி³ஹினியா;

அஸங்கச்சிகா ஆபத்தி, சத்தாரீஸா சதுத்தரி.

காயேன ந வாசாசித்தேன, காயசித்தேன ந வாசதோ;

த்³விஸமுட்டா²னிகா ஸப்³பே³, ஸமா ஏளகலோமிகாதி.

ஏளகலோமஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

7. பத³ஸோத⁴ம்மஸமுட்டா²னங்

264.

பத³ஞ்ஞத்ர அஸம்மதா, ததா² அத்த²ங்க³தேன ச;

திரச்சா²னவிஜ்ஜா த்³வே வுத்தா, அனோகாஸோ [அனோகாஸே (ஸீ॰ ஸ்யா॰)] ச புச்ச²னா.

ஸத்த ஸிக்கா²பதா³ ஏதே, வாசா ந காயசித்ததோ [காயசித்தகா (க॰)];

வாசாசித்தேன ஜாயந்தி, ந து காயேன ஜாயரே.

த்³விஸமுட்டா²னிகா ஸப்³பே³, பத³ஸோத⁴ம்மஸதி³ஸா.

பத³ஸோத⁴ம்மஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

8. அத்³தா⁴னஸமுட்டா²னங்

265.

அத்³தா⁴னநாவங் பணீதங், மாதுகா³மேன ஸங்ஹரே;

த⁴ஞ்ஞங் நிமந்திதா சேவ, அட்ட² ச பாடிதே³ஸனீ.

ஸிக்கா² பன்னரஸ ஏதே, காயா ந வாசா ந மனா;

காயவாசாஹி ஜாயந்தி, ந தே சித்தேன ஜாயரே.

காயசித்தேன ஜாயந்தி, ந தே ஜாயந்தி வாசதோ;

காயவாசாஹி சித்தேன, ஸமுட்டா²னா சதுப்³பி³தா⁴.

பஞ்ஞத்தா பு³த்³த⁴ஞாணேன, அத்³தா⁴னேன ஸஹா ஸமா [ஸமானயா (ஸ்யா॰)].

அத்³தா⁴னஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

9. தெ²ய்யஸத்த²ஸமுட்டா²னங்

266.

தெ²ய்யஸத்த²ங் உபஸ்ஸுதி, ஸூபவிஞ்ஞாபனேன ச;

ரத்திச²ன்னஞ்ச ஓகாஸங், ஏதே ப்³யூஹேன ஸத்தமா.

காயசித்தேன ஜாயந்தி, ந தே ஜாயந்தி வாசதோ;

தீஹி த்³வாரேஹி ஜாயந்தி, த்³விஸமுட்டா²னிகா இமே.

தெ²ய்யஸத்த²ஸமுட்டா²னா, தே³ஸிதாதி³ச்சப³ந்து⁴னா.

தெ²ய்யஸத்த²ஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

10. த⁴ம்மதே³ஸனாஸமுட்டா²னங்

267.

ச²த்தபாணிஸ்ஸ ஸத்³த⁴ம்மங், ந தே³ஸெந்தி ததா²க³தா;

ஏவமேவ [ததே²வ (ஸீ॰ ஸ்யா॰)] த³ண்ட³பாணிஸ்ஸ, ஸத்த²ஆவுத⁴பாணினங்.

பாது³குபாஹனா யானங், ஸெய்யபல்லத்தி²காய ச;

வேடி²தோகு³ண்டி²தோ சேவ, ஏகாத³ஸமனூனகா.

வாசாசித்தேன ஜாயந்தி, ந தே ஜாயந்தி காயதோ;

ஸப்³பே³ ஏகஸமுட்டா²னா, ஸமகா த⁴ம்மதே³ஸனே.

த⁴ம்மதே³ஸனாஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

11. பூ⁴தாரோசனஸமுட்டா²னங்

268.

பூ⁴தங் காயேன ஜாயதி, ந வாசா ந ச சித்ததோ;

வாசதோ ச ஸமுட்டா²தி, ந காயா ந ச சித்ததோ.

காயவாசாய ஜாயதி, ந து ஜாயதி சித்ததோ;

பூ⁴தாரோசனகா நாம, தீஹி டா²னேஹி ஜாயதி.

பூ⁴தாரோசனஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

12. சோரிவுட்டா²பனஸமுட்டா²னங்

269.

சோரீ வாசாய சித்தேன, ந தங் ஜாயதி காயதோ;

ஜாயதி தீஹி த்³வாரேஹி, சோரிவுட்டா²பனங் இத³ங்;

அகதங் த்³விஸமுட்டா²னங், த⁴ம்மராஜேன பா⁴ஸிதங் [ட²பிதங் (ஸ்யா॰)].

சோரிவுட்டா²பனஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

13. அனநுஞ்ஞாதஸமுட்டா²னங்

270.

அனநுஞ்ஞாதங் வாசாய, ந காயா ந ச சித்ததோ;

ஜாயதி காயவாசாய, ந தங் ஜாயதி சித்ததோ.

ஜாயதி வாசாசித்தேன, ந தங் ஜாயதி காயதோ;

ஜாயதி தீஹி த்³வாரேஹி, அகதங் சதுடா²னிகங்.

அனநுஞ்ஞாதஸமுட்டா²னங் நிட்டி²தங்.

ஸமுட்டா²னஞ்ஹி ஸங்கே²பங், த³ஸ தீணி ஸுதே³ஸிதங்;

அஸம்மோஹகரங் டா²னங், நெத்தித⁴ம்மானுலோமிகங்;

தா⁴ரயந்தோ இமங் விஞ்ஞூ, ஸமுட்டா²னே ந முய்ஹதீதி.

ஸமுட்டா²னஸீஸஸங்கே²போ நிட்டி²தோ.

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