Kushinara Nibbana Bhumi Pagoda- Free Online Analytical Research and Practice University for “Discovery of Buddha the Awakened One with Awareness Universe” in 116 Classical Languages
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March 2021
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Buddhist Revival-PART IV-WISDOM IS POWER-EDUCATE(BUDDHA)! MEDITATE(DHAMMA)! ORGANISE(SANGHA)!-27-08-2010-LESSON – 12 -27810 Free Online e-Nālandā University-Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss-Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Buddhist Revival in Mongolia-A Buddhist Revival in 21st Century -Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India-MAHABODHI SOCIETY, BANGALORE-Lok Sabha adopts Nalanda University Bill-
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Buddhist Revival-PART IV





27810 Free Online e-Nālandā University

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss

Just Visit:








Using such an instrument

The Free e-Nālandā University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in






Buddha Taught his Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā University.

Main Course Programs:










































Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies


Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā University



A much more recent symbol is the Buddhist flag. It was in designed in 1880 by Colonel Henry Steele Olcott an American journalist. It was first hoisted in 1885 in Sri Lanka and is a symbol of faith and peace, and is now used throughout the world to represent the Buddhism. 
The five colours of the flag represent the colours of the aura that emanated from the body of the Buddha when he attained Awaken-ness

Buddhist Symbols

In the earliest centuries of Buddhism, statues of the Buddha were not used. Instead, Buddhist art consisted of images symbolizing the Buddha and his teachings, such as the lotus, the Wheel of the Law, the Bodhi tree and the Buddha’s footprints.

Eventually, the Buddha image became one of the most popular representations in Buddhism, but these early symbols remain important and are frequently used to this day. They are especially important in Theravada Buddhistcountries like Sri Lanka and Thailand.

As Buddhism spread, Buddhist symbolism was enriched by the cultures it came into contact with. This is especially true of Buddhism in Tibet, which has developed a rich symbolic tradition. The central symbols of Tibetan Buddhismare the Eight Auspicious Symbols, known in Sanskrit as Ashtamangala (ashta meaning eight and mangalameaning auspicious). The Eight Auspicious Symbols are printed on Tibetan prayer flags, incorporated into mandalas and thangkas, and used in other forms of ritual art. Another important symbol is the Wheel of Life, a symbolic representation of the universe as understood by Tibetan Buddhists.

Other important types of symbolism in Buddhism include colors, especially the five colors of white, yellow, red, blue and green, and symbolic hand gestures called mudras. The articles in this section explore these Buddhist symbols, providing information on their history, meaning and use in Buddhism today. (For an introduction and quick guide to Buddhist colors, see our Chart of Buddhist Color Symbolism.)

Abhaya MudraBhumisparsha MudraBuddha EyesBuddhapadaConch ShellBuddhist WheelDhammachakkaDharmachakra MudraDhammachakka Mudra

Abhaya MudraBhumisparsha MudraBuddha EyesBuddhapada

Dhyana MudraDhyana MudraEight Auspicious SymbolsEndless KnotEndless KnotGolden FishesGolden FishesLotusLotus

Om Mani Padme HumOm Mani Padme HumParasolParasolSwastikaTriratna symbolTiratnaVarada MudraVarada Mudra

Tibetan Wheel of LifeWheel of LifeZen circle symbolZen CircleBlueBlackGreenRed


Buddhist Revival in Mongolia

Faith is returning to Mongolia after decades of Soviet repression, and with it reconstructed monasteries

EG UUR, Mongolia – On the banks of the remote Uur River in northern Mongolia, the Dayan Derkh monastery stands as a testament to Mongolia’s religious revival.

<< The Dayan Derkh monastery. Photo by Ted Wood.

This was one of hundreds of Buddhist monasteries destroyed in the 1930s as the Soviet Union brought Mongolia under its control and effectively banned Buddhism here. For decades, Mongolians had to restrict their faith to secret meetings and their gers – the traditional Mongolian felt tent homes.

Since its return to democracy, Mongolia has rediscovered its strong religious heritage and its Buddhist followers are free to attend the scores of ancient monasteries that have been restored across this vast and nomadic nation.

The rebuilding of the Dayan Derkh monastery was completed in 2006. Since then, it has been looked after by a caretaker called Ragchaa, who grew up in the area and was 12 years old when the original monastery was destroyed in 1938.

“I used to come here and pray as a child,” Ragchaa, who like most Mongolians uses only one name, said as he unlocked the wooden door of the lodge-style monastery to let a visitor in. “I remember when the monks who worked here were rounded up and executed.”

Dressed in a deel, the traditional robe worn by Mongolian men and women, the old caretaker entered slowly, shuffling clockwise around the one-room hall, as is Mongolian custom upon entering any building.

Passing a faded calendar of the Dalai Lama hanging on the wall, Ragchaa stopped at the main altar to light a stick of incense, before solemnly clasping his hands together in front of a statue of Dayan Derkh, whom Ragchaa referred to as the monastery’s 13th-century patron saint. He turned to survey the hall. A dozen or so wooden benches stood scattered around; tapestries of religious figures hung from the ceiling.

“The original monastery was much bigger,” Ragchaa said. “But this is a beautiful place.”


The full truth about the persecution of Mongolia’s Buddhists will probably never be known, but mass graves uncovered in recent years illuminate the grim fate that befell thousands of monks in the Soviet-inspired purges, which lasted until the 1960s.

Norov, 83, who lives downstream from the Dayan Derkh monastery, recalled how her uncle, a monk, managed to flee from would-be killers on horseback. But he was never seen again, she said.

“People used to hide prayer wheels and religious texts in their homes and practice their faith in secret,” she said. “We don’t have to do that anymore.”

There are now 200 Buddhist monasteries in Mongolia, with several more under construction.

But the Dayan Derkh monastery is still not operating as planned. For one, there are no monks trained and ready to move in yet.


Hundreds of kilometers away, at the Gandantegchinleng monastery in Mongolia’s capital, Ulaanbaatar, young boys immersed themselves in Buddhist teachings, preparing for moves to monasteries across Mongolia. Among them were six young lamas-to-be being groomed to take over the Dayan Derkh monastery. The oldest, 26-year-old Tseren-ochir, studies at Gandantegchinleng’s associated University of Buddhism.

“I decided to become a lama in 1998, because I wanted to dedicate myself to help the local people and to dedicate myself to all the animals in the world,” Tseren-ochir, dressed in a red and yellow robe, said after a class of reciting ancient Tibetan prayers.

Another of the students bound for Dayan Derkh is Batkhuu, an orphan who said he was inspired to join the church by one of his father’s relatives.

“He was a lama,” said Batkhuu, 15. “I used to come to his house and pretend chanting, even though I didn’t really know how to do it.”

Lamaism, or Tibetan Buddhism, arrived in the 13th century, around the same time Genghis Kahn began his imperial conquests.

Centuries later, one of Mongolia’s leaders, Altan Khan, sanctioned the so-called Yellow Sect of Buddhism and authorized widespread construction of temples, shrines and monasteries. At one point, Mongolia claimed more than 700 temples and 7,000 shrines.

In the 1920s, Mongolia reportedly had 110,000 monks, including children – one-third of the male population. More than 90 percent of Mongols embraced the Lamaist faith, census statistics show. But the campaign of repression, initiated in 1936 by Mongolia’s Communist leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan at the behest of Joseph Stalin, led to the destruction of all the temples except a handful kept as museums and the execution of thousands of monks.

During the decades that followed, many Mongolians simply lost their religious traditions, said the deputy head of the Gandantegchinleng monastery, Vice Humble Lama Amgalan.

“People were taught that religion is bad, and because of that many Mongolians had little faith and in fact viewed religion with suspicion,” he said over milk tea and dried yoghurt in the prayer room of his apartment in Ulaanbaatar. “But the transmission of Buddhist knowledge is coming back. We now have a lot of young monks and lay people who are knowledgeable about our religion.”

There are now 3,000 students training to become monks in Mongolia.

Much of the financial support for the rebuilding of monasteries, meanwhile, has come from Taiwan and other Buddhist countries in Asia.

But the Dayan Derkh monastery was financed by the Tributary Fund, a not-for-profit organization in Montana that has sought to enlist Buddhist leaders in its effort to protect the taimen, the largest salmon in the world, which swims in the Uur River below the monastery. “The lamas bring an ancient cultural tie to nature protection that meets up with modern ecosystem concerns,” said David Gilroy, an American graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison who has spent years in Mongolia studying the taimen. He also has worked closely with religious leaders here. “They are trying to regain an active community after 80 years of enforced atheism, and in their effort to do that they can partner with international groups to reconstruct what was lost in the 1930s.”

The immediate future of the Dayan Derkh monastery, though, looks slightly less clear. A couple of months after Ragchaa brought his visitor into the reconstructed monastery, the 81-year-old caretaker died.

Gilroy recalled Ragchaa’s contribution to the conservation efforts in an e-mail sent shortly after the old caretaker’s death. “He was the elderly man that consulted on much of the building of the Dayan Derkh monastery and who, in many publications and press interviews, was quoted for his personal memories of the original monastery and the lamas living and teaching there. … I know I will miss his wry sense of humor, his great ‘big fish’ stories, and his rare lack of inhibition to speak honestly about what he thought – maybe something that comes with age.”



ULAANBAATAR, Mongolia: Buddhism was repressed in Mongolia for several decades under the Soviet-era where freedom of religion was severely curtailed. 

But the religion has witnessed a revival in recent years. 

In the Mongolian capital, Ulaanbaatar is one of the country’s most important Buddhist monasteries. 

It is known as Gandantegchinlen, which means “the great place of complete joy.” 

Built in 1838, it is now frequented by believers praying for good health, good luck, and even better business and marital prospects. 

Mongolia is home to the Tibetan brand of Buddhism, and Ganden is one of the few monasteries to have survived the country’s recent turbulent history. 

When the reign of the Manchus ended in 1911, Buddhism was a powerful religious and even economic and political force. 

But under Soviet domination, nearly all of the country’s monasteries were wiped out, their properties seized, and countless monks sent to labour camps in Siberia. 

In a land where Buddhism had often flourished, the religion came under severe persecution by the then Soviet Union from the 1930s through to the 1960s. 

Even though the true extent and magnitude of the horrors can never be known, historians have, in recent years, uncovered numerous graveyards in which Buddhist monks had earlier been purged and executed. 

The religion underwent a revival after the downfall of the Soviet Union, and many monasteries were either built or restored. 

In 1992, freedom of religion was guaranteed in the constitution, and people started flocking back to monasteries. 

One Mongolian said: “My grandfather and mother were devout Buddhists. When I was a child I would learn about Buddhism. So I believed in it since I was very young.” 

Another Mongolian said: “It’s a Mongolian tradition to pray to our Gods and ask them to make our lives prosperous and happy.” 

Gombusuren Dalantai, Ganden monastery senior monk, said: “Mongolia is one of the three main centres of Buddhism, the other two being India and Tibet. After 1990, believers began to donate money to rebuild the monasteries. We have some old monks who began teaching Buddhism to young people. There’s a lot of interest to revive Buddhism.” 

But reviving the religion hasn’t been easy, given that two generations had grown up with little knowledge of Buddhism. 

Most people have little understanding of the Buddhist rituals or their meanings, and well-educated Buddhist teachers are in short supply. 

Some even argue that Buddhism as practiced in Mongolia is not authentic. 

Gombusuren Dalantai added: “We send many young monks to India and Tibet and Sri Lanka. There they learn and spend four to seven years. Some of them stayed more than a decade. They come back to serve Ganden so how can they say it’s not authentic?” 

The revival of Buddhism should hardly come as a surprise, given the central role of the religion in Mongolian history and culture. 

Analysts even predict that the new dawn of Buddhism is likely to forge and mould a new culture and religious identity for the country. - CNA/de

A Buddhist Revival in 21st Century China

According to highly connected sources, the 76-year-old veteran communist is a frequent worshipper at Buddhist temples and shows a strong personal leaning towards the ancient religion, though it is unclear whether he would yet call himself a Buddhist.

This places Mr Jiang among a growing number of Chinese - some say 100million of the country’s 1.3billion people - who show some affiliation with Buddhism, a religion introduced from India nearly 2000 years ago. 

The signs are everywhere. Temples are being restored and reopened, and people come to burn incense and say prayers before Buddha images. More young people are shaving their heads and donning the yellow or grey robes of monks and nuns.

At the Badachu complex of temples near Beijing’s Western Hills, a woman prostrates herself before a pagoda housing a relic said to be a tooth of the original Buddha, Gautama or Sakyamuni, and circles the building with tears in her eyes. A former forestry professor from Harbin, she felt gripped by belief in 1994 and has since given up her academic career and her marriage in her effort to renounce worldly concerns.

“I haven’t yet succeeded, and I feel guilty about it,” she said. “So I am here to ask the Buddha to forgive me. If there are 10 degrees of Buddhist achievements, I think I am only at level two.”

Most followers do not go as far as forsaking worldly comforts. In Beijing’s “dirt market”, where small traders bring old and new artefacts for sale, small statues of the Buddha are among the most popular items - bought for use in home shrines by members of China’s new middle class with cash to spare and thoughts lifting above the struggle for a living.

The revival is being quietly encouraged by the authorities, at the same time as they crack down on religious or mystical trends seen as potentially subversive of their monopoly on power.

At a military-run hotel in Beijing, about 400 abbots, monks and lay Buddhists were meeting for an occasional national convention of the Buddhist Association of China, one of the five officially sanctioned organisations (including for Catholicism, other branches of Christianity, Islam and indigenous Daoism) through which Beijing permits and controls religious activity.

“The Government’s attitude towards Buddhism is more tolerant,” said the scholar. “This is partly because it is so closely incorporated into Chinese culture - in everything from architecture to language - it is inseparable.

People were coming to Buddhism for all kinds of reasons.

“Some have made lots of money, sometimes in nasty ways, since the reforms and they come to the temple for redemption,” the scholar said. “Some high-ranking officials feel insecure, and they want to seek a divine patron.”

The scholar was not sure whether Former President Jiang’s attendance at temples meant a philosophical commitment to the supreme “dharma”, the supreme spiritual law, or a change in life-long political practices. “A person’s life is multi-faceted,” he said.



Under the able guidance of Ven. Dr. D. Rewatha Thero, Present General Secretary of the Maha Bodhi Society of India, Buddhagaya centre is extending a commendable service to the Society and the Buddhist community around the globe.
Today the Centre is extending the following activities:-

  • Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Temple
  • A pilgrims guest house with all facilities
  • A small Shrine Room for pilgrims and Visitors.
  • Communication Facilities


Free Homeopathic Dispensary:
Founded by Lt. Ven. Bulath Singhala Pannarama Thero , the dispensary looks after the needs of the local and needy people by giving them free medicines and treatment. A team of dedicated doctors and staff help in maintaining the proper functioning of the Dispensary.

A free School for Children :
The Maha Bodhi Vidyapeeth is a free school which is dedicated in giving the gift of Knowledge to the needy and less fortunate children of the locality. It has a strength of about 450 students and is still growing in numbers. The Centre believes that the child who attaings education can an asset to the Society.

An Ambulance Service:
Started in 1997, the Ambulance service is serving the community by taking the sick peo;oe to hospitals at a minimum cost so that the service is inexpensive and easy to use by less fortunate ,ambulance service the Buddhagaya Centre of the Maha Bodhi Society of India is one of the first to reach the spot of any natural calamity of disaster.

Free Educational Sponsorship for the Handicap:
The Buddhagaya Centre also provides free sponsorship to the deserving candidates who are physically handicap children and is presently sponsoring few such deserving candidates.

  • A tiny canteen to serve the pilgrims residing in the guest house.
  • A Book Shop.
  • A Meditation Hall.
  • Monastic Training Centre for novices.


Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India


Entrance gate to the Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Statue of Anagarika Dharmapala founder of Mahabodhi Society


Statue of Anagarika Dharmapala founder of Mahabodhi Society


Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


May you all be happy with the blessing of Triple Gem, The Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.


Group of pilgrims taking picture behind Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Buddha first teachings in Sarnath


Buddha’s first Disciples


Golden Buddha statue at the altar, Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Golden Buddha statue at the altar, Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Pregnant Maya, Buddha’s mother mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Birth of Buddha in Lumbini, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Wiseman meeting newborn Buddha prophesying His future, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Fasting Buddha and Sujata offering a bowl with milk and rice,  mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Meditating Buddha under Bodhi tree in Bodhgaya with group of demons trying to disturb, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Group of disturbing demons, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Disturbing demon, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Buddha’s first teaching in Sarnath, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Buddha with disciples meeting with old king, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Buddhist monk collecting alms, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Buddha Parinibbana in Kushinara, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Buddha Parinibbana in Kushinara, mural painting at Mulagandha Kuti Vihar of Mahabodhi Society, Sarnath


Buddhist colorful prayer flag with Wheel of Dhamma


Buddhist swastika


Bell of Dhamma founded by Tarthang Rinpoche


Replica of Ashoka column


Maha Bodhi Society, Bangalore, is a charitable Organization established in 1956 by Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita with the main objective of reviving the compassionate teachings of the Buddha in the land of its origin, India and to put into practice the precious teachings of the Buddha through selfless service programs. 

Maha Bodhi society Bangalore is dedicated for the welfare and happiness of people irrespective of religion, race, color or sex. Since its very inception the Society has been actively engaged in rendering various spiritual and humanitarian services. Today, under the guidance and leadership of Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita, the Society has expanded its activities in different parts of India and abroad with the message of compassion. The society has established monasteries for monks and nuns, Hospitals, Meditation centers, educational institutions and published over a hundred Dhamma books benefiting thousands of people around the globe. 

The Maha Bodhi Society celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 2006 and in commemoration of 50th year of service, the Society has taken another leap by starting The Mahabodhi Academy for Pali & Buddhist Studies which will be upgraded as Lord Buddha University of Pali and Theravada Buddhism.

Mahabodhi Society is a charitable organization established in 1956 by Most Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita with sole objective of reviving the precious teachings of the Buddha in the land of its origin, India. Mahabodhi society Bangalore is dedicated for the welfare and happiness of people irrespective of religion, race, color or sex. Since its very inception the Society has been actively engaged in rendering various spiritual and humanitarian services. Today, with the able guidance and leadership of Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita, the Society has expanded its activities in different parts of India and Abroad with the message of compassion. The society has established monasteries for monks and nuns, Hospitals, Meditation centers, Educational institutions and published about a hundred Dhamma books benefiting thousands of people around the globe. 

The Mahabodhi Society celebrated its Golden Jubilee on 13th May, 2006 and in commemoration of 50th year of service, the Society has taken another leap by starting The Mahabodhi Academy for Pali & Buddhist Studies which will be upgraded as Mahabodhi Buddhist Open university. It is a distant education scheme conducting correspondence courses on Dhamma, the first of its kind in India.

Buddhism with its culture based on compassion and peace saw its golden era at the time of Emperor Ashoka. But by 12th Century A.D it began to decline and inimical forces actively worked for its disappearance. Many centuries later the Venerable Anagarika Dharmapala undertook the stupendous task of revival of Buddhism and Buddhist culture. 

In 1891 he initiated a movement for revival through the Maha Bodhi Society. With branches set up in many parts of the world, the Society continues its noble work “for the good of many, for the benefit of the many”. He was born in Colombo in 1864 and passed away in 1933. 

Then in 1956 Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita, a Buddhist monk with profound knowledge and experience about the teachings of the Buddha founded Maha Bodhi Society, Bangalore. This is the premier Buddhist Institution in the whole of South India. Seeing the urgent need for training good monks, he established the Mahabodhi Sangharama, which has trained many monks from all over the world, who are continuing their effort to serve the cause of Buddha Dhamma, particularly in the land of its origin, India.

50 long years have passed rendering manifold spiritual and humanitarian services both in India and abroad as well as giving dhamma discourses and conducting meditation courses, running educational institutions and medical centers, publishing books, monthly magazines etc

Address: 14 Kalidasa Road Gandhinagar, Bangalore Karnataka 560009 India 
Phone: 91-80-22250684 
Fax: 91-80-22264438 
EMail: info@mahabodhi.info 
Website: http://www.mahabodhi.info/

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Lok Sabha adopts Nalanda University BillNalanda University Bill 2010 approved by Cabinet

The Lok Sabha on Thursday adopted the Nalanda University Bill, 2010, which has already been approved by the Rajya Sabha, to set up a Rs.1,005-crore international university at Nalanda in Bihar, where a varsity for Buddhist learning existed over 800 years ago.

Replying to the debate, Minister of State for External Affairs Preneet Kaur said the Ministry had taken upon itself to establishing the university because it was an international effort by the East Asian Summit comprising 15 countries. The Union government would provide land for the university, which would be established through voluntary funding from the East Asian Summit members.

Singapore had announced funding of $ 4 million - $5 million for the Nalanda university’s library through private donations .

Ms. Kaur said the Bill provided only a framework and structure for the university and that further constitution of the institution and its rules and regulations would be done later. In the beginning, the university would have six schools for different studies, but the Board of governors had envisaged opening another school for information technology.

According to the Bill, the university aimed at contributing to the promotion of regional peace and vision by bringing together the future leaders of East Asia who by relating to their past could enhance their understanding of each other’s perspectives and share that understanding globally.

The Nalanda Mentor Group, chaired by Professor Amartya Sen, will draft the statutes for the university. It will have schools of Buddhist Studies;

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

 Languages and Literature;

 and Ecology and Environmental Studies.

 Till such time the varsity becomes sustainable on its own, it will function as a public-private partnership. The Bihar government has acquired 500 acres of land in Rajgir, near the original Nalanda University site

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