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LESSON 29 DHAMMA13 09 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
We are the same as plants, as trees, as other people, as the rain that falls. We consist of that which is around us, we are the same as everything.-Buddha Quote
EDUCATE (BUDDHA)! MEDITATE (DHAMMA)! ORGANISE (SANGHA)!
WISDOM IS POWER
Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss
Anyone Can Attain Ultimate Bliss Just Visit:
§ Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches
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The Dhamma, the truth taught by the Buddha, is uncovered gradually through sustained practice. The Buddha made clear many times that Awakening does not occur like a bolt out of the blue to the untrained and unprepared mind. Rather, it culminates a long journey of many stages:
Just as the ocean has a gradual shelf, a gradual slope, a gradual inclination, with a sudden drop-off only after a long stretch, in the same way this Doctrine and Discipline (dhamma-vinaya) has a gradual training, a gradual performance, a gradual progression, with a penetration to gnosis only after a long stretch.
— Ud 5.5
Monks, I do not say that the attainment of gnosis is all at once. Rather, the attainment of gnosis is after gradual training, gradual action, gradual practice. And how is there the attainment of gnosis after gradual training, gradual action, gradual practice? There is the case where, when conviction has arisen, one visits [a teacher]. Having visited, one grows close. Having grown close, one lends ear. Having lent ear, one hears the Dhamma. Having heard the Dhamma, one remembers it. Remembering, one penetrates the meaning of the teachings. Penetrating the meaning, one comes to an agreement through pondering the teachings. There being an agreement through pondering the teachings, desire arises. When desire has arisen, one is willing. When one is willing, one contemplates. Having contemplated, one makes an exertion. Having made an exertion, one realizes with the body the ultimate truth and, having penetrated it with discernment, sees it.
— MN 70
The Buddha’s teachings are infused with this notion of gradual development. His method of “gradual instruction” (anupubbi-katha), which appears in various forms in countless suttas, always follows the same arc: he guides newcomers from first principles through progressively more advanced teachings, all the way to the fulfillment of the Four Noble Truths and the full realization of nibbana:
Then the Blessed One, having encompassed the awareness of the entire assembly with his awareness, asked himself, “Now who here is capable of understanding the Dhamma?” He saw Suppabuddha the leper sitting in the assembly, and on seeing him the thought occurred to him, “This person here is capable of understanding the Dhamma.” So, aiming at Suppabuddha the leper, he gave a step-by-step talk, i.e., a talk on giving, a talk on virtue, a talk on heaven; he declared the drawbacks, degradation, & corruption of sensual passions, and the rewards of renunciation. Then when he saw that Suppabuddha the leper’s mind was ready, malleable, free from hindrances, elated, & bright, he then gave the Dhamma-talk peculiar to Awakened Ones, i.e., stress, origination, cessation, & path. And just as a clean cloth, free of stains, would properly absorb a dye, in the same way, as Suppabuddha the leper was sitting in that very seat, the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye arose within him, “Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation.”
— Ud 5.3
At each stage of this “gradual training” (anupubbi-sikkha), the practitioner discovers a new and important dimension of the law of cause-and-effect — kamma, the cornerstone of Right View. It is thus a very useful organizing framework with which to view the entirety of the Buddha’s teachings.
The gradual training begins with the practice of generosity, which helps begin the long process of weakening the unawakened practitioner’s habitual tendencies to cling — to views, to sensuality, and to unskillful modes of thought and behavior. This is followed by the development of virtue, the basic level of sense-restraint that helps the practitioner develop a healthy and trustworthy sense of self. The peace of mind born from this level of self-respect provides the foundation for all further progress along the path. The practitioner now understands that some kinds of happiness are deeper and more dependable than anything that sense-gratification can ever provide; the happiness born of generosity and virtue can even lead to rebirth in heaven — either literal or metaphorical. But eventually the practitioner begins to recognize the intrinsic drawbacks of even this kind of happiness: as good as rebirth in wholesome states may be, the happiness it brings is not a true and lasting one, for it relies on conditions over which he or she ultimately has no control. This marks a crucial turning point in the training, when the practitioner begins to grasp that true happiness will never be found in the realm of the physical and sensual world. The only possible route to an unconditioned happiness lies in renunciation, in turning away from the sensual realm, by trading the familiar, lower forms of happiness for something far more rewarding and noble. Now, at last, the practitioner is ripe to receive the teachings on the Four Noble Truths, which spell out the course of mental training required to realize the highest happiness: nibbana.
Many Westerners first encounter the Buddha’s teachings on meditation retreats, which typically begin with instructions in how to develop the skillful qualities of right mindfulnessand right concentration. It is worth noting that, as important as these qualities are, the Buddha placed them towards the very end of his gradual course of training. The meaning is clear: to reap the most benefit from meditation practice, to bring to full maturity all the qualities needed for Awakening, the fundamental groundwork must not be overlooked. There is no short-cutting this process.
Here is the Buddha’s six-stage gradual training in more detail:
1. Generosity (dana)
o Uposatha observance days (including this year’s calendar of Uposatha days)
o The Thirty-one Planes of Existence
5. Renunciation (nekkhamma)
6. The Four Noble Truths (cattari ariya saccani)
A. The Noble Truth of Dukkha (dukkha ariya sacca)
§ The round of rebirth (samsara)
B. The Noble Truth of the Cause of Dukkha (dukkha samudayo ariya sacca)
§ Craving (tanha)
§ Ignorance (avijja)
C. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha (dukkha nirodho ariya sacca)
D. The Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Dukkha (dukkha nirodha gamini patipada ariya sacca) — The Noble Eightfold Path. The Commentaries group the eight path factors into three divisions:
III. Discernment (pañña):
§ 1. Right View (samma-ditthi)
§ Intentional action (kamma)
§ Admirable friendship (kalyanamittata)
§ 2. Right Resolve (samma-sankappo)
I. Virtue (sila):
§ 3. Right Speech (samma-vaca)
§ 4. Right Action (samma-kammanto)
§ 5. Right Livelihood (samma-ajivo)
II. Concentration (samadhi):
§ 6. Right Effort (samma-vayamo)
§ 7. Right Mindfulness (samma-sati)
§ 8. Right Concentration (samma-samadhi)
Countless students over the centuries have invested their time and energy grappling with the question, “Is Enlightentment ’sudden’ or is it ‘gradual’?” These and other passages from the Canon make the Buddha’s own view on the matter quite clear: The mind develops gradually, until it is ripe to make that sudden leap to Awakening.
See also: Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
Ms.MayawatiJi Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh
Committed to the prosperity of the farmers
Hon’ble Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh
Ms. Mayawati Ji
Announces the most progressive
Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation
Deal ever for the farmers.
Epoch-making decisions in the best interest of the farmers.
After giving deep and sincere consideration to problems of farmers in regard to land acquisition and rehabilitation, and with the objective of fully protecting affected farmers’ future in case of acquisition of their land, Ms. Mayawati Ji, Honourable Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh, has announced the best rehabilitation policy in the country, under which the following additional facilities will be provided to farmers with immediate effect:-
· Payment of a lump-sump, which is at present Rs.1.85,000 equivalent to the daily agricultural wages over a period of five years, to each of the families of farmers being rendered landless because of land acquisition by the UP Government.< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />
· Under the new policy, each farmer whose land is to be acquired, shall receive ab annuity of Rs.20,000 per acre, for 33 years in addition to the compensation amount.
· Assured increase at the rate of Rs.60 per acre per annum on annuity of Rs.20,000 per acre per annum, payable every year in the month of July.
· In the case of a farmer unwilling the annuity, he/she shall be given a lump-sump Rehabilitation Grant at the rate of Rs.2,40,000 per acre.
· In the event of loand acquisition for a company, the farmer shall have the option of a share in the company equivalent to 25% of the lunp-sump rehabilitation grant payable to him.
· If land is being acquired under any ‘Land for Development scheme’, the affected farmers shall be allotted 7% of the acquired land for residential purposes. The issued plot shall have a minimum land area of 120 sq.meters and maximum area limit shall be set by related Authority.
· One member from each of the families to be rendered landless completely, due to land acquisition under the “land for development” project, will be provided with employment, consistent with his/her qualification, in the concessionaire company.
· Provision of 17.5% reservation in the allotment of plots, on the acquired land to the affected farmers, in the event of any land acquisition by the development authority for its housing schemes.
· Land acquisition shall be done under the “Karar Niyamavali”.
The Hon’ble Chief Minsiter is fully alive and sensitive to the problems of the farmers, whose well being has always been her top priority.
· Under the guidance of the Hon’ble Chief Minister, the state government has always been protective of the interests of the farmers and taken all possible measures to address their problems.
· The Hon’ble Chief Minister is clearly of the view that the development of the country is not possible without the prosperity of the farmers. With this end in view she has initiated many important and positive steps.
The new policy of land acquisition by Uttar Pradesh Government, conceived with regard to the good of farmers, is decidedly the best and the most forward looking in the country.
Undoubtedly, no other state in the country has got such a forward looking policy for the relief and rehabilitation of the families affected by the process of land acquisition, as has been done in the state of Uttar Pradesh under the dynamic leadership of Hon’ble Chief Minister of the state Ms.Mayawati Ji.
Every policy of the Uttar Pradesh Govt. is based on
‘Sarvajan Hitay & Sarvajan Sukhay’
UP police to take help of community policing post Ayodhya suit
The Uttar Pradesh police is banking on community policing to nip any possible communal flare up post September 24 Allahabad high court verdict on Ayodhya title suit.
“There is no Naxal activity in the state in the past five years due to success of community policing formula. For the first time, we are going to experiment it in the entire state by involving all the sections of the society to maintain law and order after high court verdict on Ayodhya title suit,” additional director general law and order Brij Lal told PTI.
During meetings to review security arrangements across the state by principal secretary home, director general of police and the ADG, officials in districts have been asked to bank on peoples’ support as police cannot reach “everywhere everytime”.
“There are government employees, teachers, retired persons in every area and with their support we can check occurrence of any anti-social activities,” the ADG said.
A communication diary has been prepared in every district having number of credible and responsible persons of the area, who can help police, he said.
The senior officers randomly make a call to these persons and remind them of their duty to help police and maintain communal harmony, he said, adding that the support they were getting was enthusiastic.
The diary also included name of local “dharm gurus” including maulanas and pujaris of temples and village heads to issue appeals to maintain peace and communal brotherhood, the ADG said, claiming that the idea would certainly click.
The civil security committees have also been constituted at all the village and mohalla level for keeping an eye on the situation and alert the force in case of any trouble, he added.
“Besides, we have also prepared a list of suspicious people, including those having criminal background, and put them on scanner. All of them are on our radar,” Brij Lal said.
Hindu-Muslim peace marches ahead of Ayodhya verdict
LUCKNOW: In a unique show of communal harmony, a large number of Muslims and Hindus have joined hands in Uttar Pradesh’s Bijnor district to take out peace marches ahead of the Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri Masjid title suit verdict Sep 24.
Under the banner of Sarvadharma Ekta Parishad, over 100 members from both the communities are carrying out peace marches in parts of the district.
“The main objective behind such marches is to give a social message of unity among the masses in view of the upcoming verdict in the Ayodhya case,” Mufti Shamoom Qasmi told IANS on telephone from Bijnor, some 300 km from Lucknow.
“The peace marchers intend to ease the tension related to the judgment which in any case should not affect Hindu-Muslim relations. Taking this into account, we are carrying out the marches and appealing to members of both the communities to maintain peace after the verdict,” he added.
People from all walks of life have come forward to join the parishad which has already organised two peace marches this week in Binjor.
“Teachers, journalists, businessmen, college students, house wives, retired government officials and people from other fields joined the marches,” said Naveen Kumar, a local journalist in Bijnor.
“Till now we have carried out peace marches at Shastri Chowk and Qasibaada area and would cover several other areas of the district in the coming days,” he added.
Members of the parishad believe that the peace marches would go a long way in fostering Hindu-Muslim relations.
“We definitely feel privileged after getting associated with such a noble mission. If residents of other districts in Uttar Pradesh too carry out such an exercise, the bonding between the two communities will grow stronger,” said Jai Narain Arun, a resident of Naangal area.
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