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179 LESSON 25 02 2011 MahaRahulovada Sutta The Greater Exhortation to Rahula FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-Buddhist perception of Business Management in Relation to Public Policy and Development and Ecology and Environment-MBA Projects, Notes, Presentaions-Corporate Social Responsibility-Bahujan Samaj Party’s Dara Singh Chauhan is a member of JPC
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179 LESSON 25 02 2011 MahaRahulovada Sutta The Greater Exhortation to Rahula FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-Buddhist perception of Business Management in Relation to Public Policy and Development and Ecology and Environment-MBA Projects, Notes, Presentaions-Corporate Social Responsibility-Bahujan Samaj Party’s Dara Singh Chauhan is a member of JPC

179 LESSON 25 02 2011 MahaRahulovada Sutta The Greater Exhortation to Rahula FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss

through

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

http://www.orgsites.com/oh/awakenedone/

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

Course Programs:

LESSON 179

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.062.than.html

MN 62 

PTS: M i 420

Maha-Rahulovada Sutta: The Greater Exhortation to Rahula

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2006–2011

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Jeta’s Grove,Anathapindika’s Monastery. Then the Blessed One, early in the morning, put on his robes and, carrying his bowl and outer robe, went into Savatthi for alms. And Ven. Rahula, early in the morning, put on his robes and, carrying his bowl and outer robe, went into Savatthi for alms following right behind the Blessed One.[1] Then the Blessed One, looking back at Rahula, addressed him: “Rahula, any form whatsoever that is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or near: every form is to be seen as it actually is with right discernment as: ‘This is not mine. This is not myself. This is not what I am.’”

“Just form, O Blessed One? Just form, O One Well-gone?”

“Form, Rahula, & feeling & perception & fabrications & consciousness.”

Then the thought occurred to Ven. Rahula, “Who, having been exhorted face-to-face by the Blessed One, would go into the town for alms today?” So he turned back and sat down at the foot of a tree, folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect, & setting mindfulness to the fore.

Ven. Sariputta saw Ven. Rahula sitting at the foot of a tree, his legs folded crosswise, his body held erect, & with mindfulness set to the fore. On seeing him, he said to him, “Rahula, develop the meditation[2] of mindfulness of in-&-out breathing. The meditation of mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, when developed & pursued, is of great fruit, of great benefit.”

Then Ven. Rahula, emerging from his seclusion in the late afternoon, went to the Blessed One and, having bowed down, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to him, “How, lord, is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing to be developed & pursued so as to be of great fruit, of great benefit?”

“Rahula, {any form whatsoever that is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle; common or sublime; far or near: every form is to be seen as it actually is with right discernment as: ‘This is not mine. This is not my self. This is not what I am.’ There are these five properties, Rahula. Which five? The earth property, the water property, the fire property, the wind property, & the space property.

“And what is the earth property? The earth property can be either internal or external. What is the internal earth property?}[3] Anything internal, within oneself, that’s hard, solid, & sustained [by craving]: head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, membranes, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, contents of the stomach, faeces, or anything else internal, within oneself, that’s hard, solid, and sustained: This is called the internal earth property. Now both the internal earth property & the external earth property are simply earth property. And that should be seen as it actually is present with right discernment: ‘This is not mine, this is not me, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is present with right discernment, one becomes disenchanted with the earth property and makes the earth property fade from the mind.

“And what is the water property? The water property may be either internal or external. What is the internal water property? Anything internal, belonging to oneself, that’s water, watery, & sustained: bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, oil, saliva, mucus, oil-of-the-joints, urine, or anything else internal, within oneself, that’s water, watery, & sustained: This is called the internal water property. Now both the internal water property & the external water property are simply water property. And that should be seen as it actually is present with right discernment: ‘This is not mine, this is not me, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is present with right discernment, one becomes disenchanted with the water property and makes the water property fade from the mind.

“And what is the fire property? The fire property may be either internal or external. What is the internal fire property? Anything internal, belonging to oneself, that’s fire, fiery, & sustained: that by which [the body] is warmed, aged, & consumed with fever; and that by which what is eaten, drunk, chewed, & savoured gets properly digested; or anything else internal, within oneself, that’s fire, fiery, & sustained: This is called the internal fire property. Now both the internal fire property & the external fire property are simply fire property. And that should be seen as it actually is present with right discernment: ‘This is not mine, this is not me, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is present with right discernment, one becomes disenchanted with the fire property and makes the fire property fade from the mind.

“And what is the wind property? The wind property may be either internal or external. What is the internal wind property? Anything internal, belonging to oneself, that’s wind, windy, & sustained: up-going winds, down-going winds, winds in the stomach, winds in the intestines, winds that course through the body, in-and-out breathing, or anything else internal, within oneself, that’s wind, windy, & sustained: This is called the internal wind property. Now both the internal wind property & the external wind property are simply wind property. And that should be seen as it actually is present with right discernment: ‘This is not mine, this is not me, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is present with right discernment, one becomes disenchanted with the wind property and makes the wind property fade from the mind.

“And what is the space property? The space property may be either internal or external. What is the internal space property? Anything internal, belonging to oneself, that’s space, spatial, & sustained: the holes of the ears, the nostrils, the mouth, the [passage] whereby what is eaten, drunk, consumed, & tasted gets swallowed, and where it collects, and whereby it is excreted from below, or anything else internal, within oneself, that’s space, spatial, & sustained: This is called the internal space property. Now both the internal space property & the external space property are simply space property. And that should be seen as it actually is present with right discernment: ‘This is not mine, this is not me, this is not my self.’ When one sees it thus as it actually is present with right discernment, one becomes disenchanted with the space property and makes the space property fade from the mind.

“Rahula, develop the meditation in tune with earth. For when you are developing the meditation in tune with earth, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind. Just as when people throw what is clean or unclean on the earth — feces, urine, saliva, pus, or blood — the earth is not horrified, humiliated, or disgusted by it; in the same way, when you are developing the meditation in tune with earth, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind.

“Develop the meditation in tune with water. For when you are developing the meditation in tune with water, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind. Just as when people wash what is clean or unclean in water — feces, urine, saliva, pus, or blood — the water is not horrified, humiliated, or disgusted by it; in the same way, when you are developing the meditation in tune with water, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind.

“Develop the meditation in tune with fire. For when you are developing the meditation in tune with fire, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind. Just as when fire burns what is clean or unclean — feces, urine, saliva, pus, or blood — it is not horrified, humiliated, or disgusted by it; in the same way, when you are developing the meditation in tune with fire, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind.

“Develop the meditation in tune with wind. For when you are developing the meditation in tune with wind, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind. Just as when wind blows what is clean or unclean — feces, urine, saliva, pus, or blood — it is not horrified, humiliated, or disgusted by it; in the same way, when you are developing the meditation in tune with wind, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind.

“Develop the meditation in tune with space. For when you are developing the meditation in tune with space, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind. Just as space is not established anywhere, in the same way, when you are developing the meditation in tune with space, agreeable & disagreeable sensory impressions that have arisen will not stay in charge of your mind.

“Develop the meditation of good will. For when you are developing the meditation of good will, ill-will will be abandoned.

“Develop the meditation of compassion. For when you are developing the meditation of compassion, cruelty will be abandoned.

“Develop the meditation of appreciation. For when you are developing the meditation of appreciation, resentment will be abandoned.

“Develop the meditation of equanimity. For when you are developing the meditation of equanimity, irritation will be abandoned.

“Develop the meditation of the unattractive. For when you are developing the meditation of the unattractive, passion will be abandoned.

“Develop the meditation of the perception of inconstancy. For when you are developing the meditation of the perception of inconstancy, the conceit ‘I am’ will be abandoned.

“Develop the meditation of mindfulness of in-&-out breathing. Mindfulness of in-&-out breathing, when developed & pursued, is of great fruit, of great benefit.

“And how, Rahula, is mindfulness of in-&-out breathing developed & pursued so as to be of great fruit, of great benefit?

“There is the case where a monk, having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building, sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect, and setting mindfulness to the fore.[4] Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

“[1] Breathing in long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in long’; or breathing out long, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out long.’ [2] Or breathing in short, he discerns, ‘I am breathing in short’; or breathing out short, he discerns, ‘I am breathing out short.’ [3] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the entire body.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the entire body.’ [4] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in calming bodily fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming bodily fabrication.’

“[5] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to rapture.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to rapture.’ [6] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to pleasure.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to pleasure.’ [7] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to mental fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to mental fabrication.’ [8] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in calming mental fabrication.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out calming mental fabrication.’

“[9] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in sensitive to the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out sensitive to the mind.’ [10] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in satisfying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out satisfying the mind.’ [11] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in steadying the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out steadying the mind.’ [12] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in releasing the mind.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out releasing the mind.’

“[13] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on inconstancy.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on inconstancy.’ [14] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on dispassion.’[5] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on dispassion.’ [15] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on cessation.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on cessation.’ [16] He trains himself, ‘I will breathe in focusing on relinquishment.’ He trains himself, ‘I will breathe out focusing on relinquishment.’

“This, Rahula, is how mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued so as to be of great fruit, of great benefit.

“When mindfulness of in-&-out breathing is developed & pursued in this way, even one’s final in-breaths & out-breaths are known as they cease, not unknown.”[6]

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, Ven. Rahula delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Notes

1.

According to the Commentary, Ven. Rahula was 18 years old when this discourse took place.

2.

Bhavana.

3.

The preceding passage in braces is missing from the editions on which both The Middle Length Sayings and The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha are based.

4.

For notes on these sixteen steps, see MN 118.

5.

Literally, “fading.”

6.

I.e., one dies fully alert.

MN 62

 MN 147.

MN 28

 MN 61

 MN 140;

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!    DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

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Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

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Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

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Buddhist perception of humanity

Buddhism and Information Technology

Buddhist perception of Business Management in Relation to Public Policy and Development and Ecology and Environment,

http://allmbastuff.blogspot.com/2009/11/corporate-social-responsibility.html

MBA Projects, Notes, Presentaions

Corporate Social Responsibility

Society gets upset when the social cost of or for that matter any business exceeds the social benefit derived from the business. Over the years since the dawn of industrial revolution and particularly after the 1950s, the activities of the corporations have been increasingly affecting the society by way of environmental pollution which include air, water and sound, ozone depletion and overcrowding on account of unplanned industrialization society expect corporation to limit activities which produce harmful effects and correct the problem that are a result of their previous actions. Social reaction to mindless industrial activity gave rise to the concept of corporate social responsibility. Over the years, it has become obvious that the desire to make a fortune must be executed within the laws of the society. During the 1960s, social activists and environmental groups campaigned for a broader notion of corporate social responsibility. The clash between the economic operation of businesses and the changing social values brought questions of social responsibility to the fore-front. The economic performance of business and the social aspects of business behavior were found to be divergent. In order to enforce corporate social responsibility, in the United State government bodies such as the Protection Agency, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission were set-up. These bodies saw to it that national public policy recognized the environment, employees, and consumer to be significant and legitimate stakeholders of business. Corporate should help solve some of the social problem because businesses are influenced by the society through government policy and business thrive or starve along with the society.

DEFINITIONS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:
It refers to corporate actions that protect and improve the welfare of society along with the corporation’s own interests. According to Rogene Bucholz, “a private corporation has a social responsibility to society that goes beyond the production of goods and services at a profit and that a corporation has a broader constituency to serve than that of stockholders alone.”

SOCIAL AUDIT :–
A social audit identifies social issues in which a corporation should be involved, examine what an organization is actually doing with regard to social issues and determine the performance of the organization in the realisation of social work. Social audit is a statutory requirement in European countries like Germany, France, Spain & Norway. However, it is voluntary in the United States. The measurement of social performance of corporation was first attempted by Theodore Kreps. However, Clark Abt used the term ‘social audit’ for the first time in his work ‘Audit for Management’. Any project or programme implemented for generating social benefits can be subjected to social audit. The following social are the benefits of social audit:-

1. It helps to ascertain the usefulness of the corporation to the community with reference to community’s needs & requirements.
2. It helps to inform & convince opinion makers and influential institutions such as consumer forums, financial institutions, non-government organizations, and the government itself, about the social involvement of the corporation.
3. It helps to establish good corporate image and identify & generate goodwill for the corporation. 
4. It helps to make a cooperative study of the efficacy of social work with that of non-government organizations and social or extension work undertaken by the government, universities & colleges.
5. It has huge publicity value and implicit or qualitative benefits to the corporation.

Corporations should strive for higher levels of social responsibility and make their presence felt to all concerned at least in the area surrounding their locations. A code of social service ethics should be developed & implemented by all well-meaning corporations. Corporations should also have an interface with other socially involved institutions such as the NGO’s, universities, colleges & extension departments of the government and financial institutions. A helping hand by the corporates in the event of natural calamities like earthquakes & floods and in drought or drought like situations would only integrate corporations with the society in which it operates. On going corporate social work can be done in the areas of adult literacy, education, health care, wildlife & environmental conservation.

MANAGER’S ROLE IN SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: 
The manager is the primary link between the corporation and the society. Managerial decisions must reflect the values and expectations of all the stakeholders of the society. Managers must interact with a number of clients both within and without the corporation. Every client or group of people approaches a situation with different values, perceptions & expectation and hence managers must be flexible in their approach. The traditional role of the manager was limited to the internal organization of the corporation. Now with the widespread acceptance of the concept of corporate social responsibility, the role of the manager has increased in its scope and dimension. Now managers must ensure that the corporation works in harmony with the environment and with the society’s expectations. Managers must recognize the social and economic dimension of business operations. Managers must treat employees with respect and provide a better quality work of life. The manager must adopt a more participative approach with regard to employee needs. Managers are expert to set goals which are in harmony with the personal goals of the employees. Thus, participation of all concerned in pursuit of organizational goals in the new management credo and while this is being done each one of the employer is given the freedom to decide upon his way of achieving the organizational goals. Mangers are also expected to be effective in social relationships that are external to the organization. The managers are must be conversant with micro and macro sociological aspects of the society. In a micro-social system i.e. the organization, the manager deals with others from a position of authority while in the macro-social system which is external, the managers must learn to deal with equality. The managers must be equipped with problem solving abilities to be successful in the macro-social system.

ARGUEMENTS IN FAVOUR OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES :-

The arguments made to emphasize the social responsibility of business deals with the mutual benefits that both the society and the business enterprise are likely to enjoy as a result of involvement of businesses in social activities. There are implicit economic returns for explicit social responsiveness by the firms. The following five arguments in favour of social responsibility made to emphasize the social responsibility on business:-

1. An important argument is that businesses exist because they satisfy important needs of society and therefore businesses should change along with the changes in society. They should both cater to the needs of the society and also create new needs. Thus, while being responsive, businesses should also be pro-active. 

2. The second argument made to emphasize social responsibility is that if the results are beneficial to both the society and business, social responsiveness should be encouraged. On account of social responsiveness, businesses may benefit in terms of employer loyalty, improved QWL and increased public support for the operations.

3. Thirdly, Business can avoid additional government regulation, which curtails business freedom, adds economic cost and reduce flexibility in decision making.

4. Fourthly, a socially responsive business organization will have a good public image.

5. Lastly, it is the moral obligation of business to solve social problems and help both the society & the government.

Arguments against corporate social responsibility:-
The most important economic argument made against corporate social responsibility is that of the economic doctrine of profit maximization. When business maximizes profit by improving efficiency and reducing the cost, it is the society which benefits in the ultimate analysis. Thus, the society will benefit much more if business is left to do its own business. The topmost priority of business must be economic efficiency and mixing up the economic function with the social function will only reduce the economic efficiency of business for there is an opportunity cost involved in social involvement and the return on social involvement cannot be cardinally measured or explicitly accounted. Hence, economic criteria can only be the criteria to measure the success of business.

MILTON RRIEDMAN says, if business followed a socially responsive course, their actions would raise the price for customers or reduce the wages of employees and hence the only responsibility of business is to maximize profit. Business person should therefore concentrate on shareholders demands and expectation. According to Friedman, the four basic obligations of business to society are: 
(1) Obey the law,
 
(2) Provide goods and services,
 
(3) Employ resources efficiently and
 
(4) Pay resources owners fairly in accordance with the market.
 

Following Friedman’s argument, it can be concluded that the result of social involvement will be a net economic loss to the business. Another argument made against social responsibility is that as a result of social involvement, business will become weak and defunct. A more charitable view on corporate social responsibilities is that business could spend small amount of its resources in social obligations and that business cannot afford major commitments for social involvement unless the cost is born by another institutions. Excessive social involvement would increase the economics costs and reduce the competitiveness of business. Some thinkers vies that business is a powerful organization and social involvement of business will only enhance the power of business which is not a very desirable idea. Further, business people are found wanting in skills and perceptions to effectively deal with social issues.
Business has no direct responsibility to both employees and society and here there is no valid reason for social involvement of business. Business should therefore keep away from social involvement and pursue the sole goal of profit maximization until society develops rules that establish social accountability of business. Finally, it is argued that social involvement of business lacks support from all quarters of the society. Social involvement of business would encourage stockholders dissent and would adversely affect the pursuit of economic objectives.

Bahujan Samaj Party’s Dara Singh Chauhan is a member of JPC

The JPC will consist of 30 members out of which 15 will be from the UPA and 15 from the Opposition. The Committee will have 20 members from the Lok Sabha and 10 Rajya Sabha MPs.

List of JPC members: PC Chacko, Manish Tewari, Jai Prakash Agarwal, Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury, V Kishore Chandra Deo, Deependra Singh Hooda, Nirmal Khatri and Praban Singh Ghatowar (all Congress).

Jaswant Singh, Yashwant Sinha, Harin Pathak and Gopinath Munde (all BJP).

The other members are DMK’s TR Baalu, Kalyan Banerjee of Trinamool Congress, Janata Dal-United’s Sharad Yadav, Bahujan Samaj Party’s Dara Singh Chauhan, Samajwadi Party’s Akhilesh Yadav, Communist Party of India’s Gurudas Dasgupta, Biju Janata Dal’s Arjun Charan Sethi and AIADMK’s M Thambi Durai.

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