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06/20/11
303 LESSON 20 06 2011 DHAMMA KAKKA PPAVATTANA SUTTA INTRODUCTION TO THE FOUNDATION OF THE KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Necessary orders issued for disposal of several problems raised by farmers during Kisan Panchayat regarding fertilizer, seeds, electricity, irrigation, wheat purchase etc.-State Government will not overlook the interests of farmers-Hon’ble Chief Minister reiterates demand of loan waiver to Bundelkhand farmers-Hon’ble C.M. writes letter to P.M.-Show of strength for Mayawati in Bhopal-Culprits are SP workers: U.P. government
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 7:14 am

303  LESSON 20  06 2011 DHAMMA KAKKA
PPAVATTANA SUTTA INTRODUCTION TO THE FOUNDATION OF THE KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS

FREE ONLINE
eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS
letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-Necessary orders issued for disposal of several problems raised by farmers during Kisan Panchayat regarding fertilizer, seeds, electricity, irrigation, wheat purchase etc.-State Government will not overlook the interests of farmers-Hon’ble Chief Minister reiterates demand of loan waiver to Bundelkhand farmers-Hon’ble C.M. writes letter to P.M
-Show of strength for Mayawati in Bhopa-Culprits are SP workers: U.P. government


Hon’ble Chief
Minister, Uttar Pradesh

Ms. Mayawati Ji

Led Government’s
four-year term

Has been very
promising

And the best in the
sphere of

“Law & Order and
Crime Control”

Besides

“Development and Public
Welfare”

Important and Historic Steps
pertaining to Development and Public Welfare

·        
Hon’ble
Ms. Mayawati Ji-led government formed on 13 May, 2007 in Uttar

Pradesh, after its four-year term, has kindled a new ray of
“bright” future

Among the general public in the State, especially the SC/STs,
backwards,

religious minorities and upper-caste poor in respect of law and
order and

crime control together with development and public welfare
activities.

·        
This
very government, by pursuing the path shown by great saints, gurus

and seers born in backward classes, especially 

Mahtma Jotiba

Phule, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj, Shri Narayana Guru, Baba Saheb

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar and Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji in development

and public welfare activities with government following the
policy of

“Sarvajan Hitay – Sarvajan Sukhay”.

·        
Besides,
to honour these backward-born great “Saints, Gurus and Seers”,

Various magnificent spots, memorials, museums, parks, etc have
been

Constructed in the state, on which the total budgeted government
amount

Spent is even less than 1%; the remaining funds having spent on
law

And order, crime control, development and public welfare
activities.

·        
In the
last four years, the central government did not release on time its

Share payable to the state totalling Rs. 21,385 crore. If this
amount had

Been paid by the centre in time, achievements of the state
government

Could have been far far better.

·        
Not
only this, the
 “special
economic package’ 
of Rs.
80,000 crore

Sought from the central government for the total development of
the state,

Especially Bundelkhand and Poorvanchal in view of the poor and
pitiable

Economic conditions inherited from the previous governments, no
money

Was received from the central government at all.

·        
Thereafter,
under government’s new development strategy several

Major projects /schemes on the PPP-model, like the Ganga Express-way,

Yamuna Express-way and Upper Ganga canal were prepared to spur

Development in the state in which no central investments were
involved

Except a departmental ‘no objection ‘ from them; the centre,
however, did

Not cooperate even in this matter.

·        
And
yet, with
 “ correct
mobilization of resources and improved financial

Management” the
state government generated an atmosphere of

·        
Development,
notable achievements of which are enumerated below.

NOTE-1-Since the formation, in 1995 of the first government of
Hon’ble Chief

Minister Ms. Mayawati Ji in Uttar Pradesh, its priority has been the
total

Development of the poor and the backward SC/ST, other backward
classes,

Religious minorities and disables persons-who had remained neglected
for

Centuries and during earlier governments. By separately creating
Uttar

Pradesh Welfare Department and other ministries, there has been

Considerable improvements in their condition at every level and
every sphere.

1.    This government in the last four years has
undertaken several activities at

a total cost of Rs. 37,000 crore (Rs. 36,795 crore), outlay of
21.21

and 100% expenditure on the development of “SC/ST” under special

component plan which are chiefly – increase in the rate of post
matric for

(Scheduled Castes), eligibility level of income increased from
1lakh to

Rs.2 lakh,, scholarships fora all students (girls and boys) from
class 1 to 8,

establishment of ‘bhagidari bhavan’ at Lucknow and Agra,
including

Training institutes at Aligarh and Rae Bareli to coach SC/ST
youth for

recruitment to high-level services like I.A.S and P.C.S;
recruitment in

Government posts through a drive to clear the backlog; for the
first time

Reservation in contracts upto Rs.25 lakh for SC/ST, so far,
contracts worth

Rs.1,623 crore allotted; about 4 lakh S/C families allotted more

Than 3,500 hectares of land.; 16 Mahamaya Polytechnics for
Information

Technology set up for these categories of students;
regularisation of

Landless SC/ST people in possession of gram sabah land
upto13May,

2007;  formal right of
possession letters (pattas) awarded to 9,431

Persons; about 3000 genuine lease-holders benefited by removing
illegal

Usurpers from their land; creation of employment totalling 5,945
lakh man-

Days for men and 2,089 lakh for women belonging to SC/ST classes

Created in rural areas; about 8 lakh S/C families benefited by
writing-off

Debts amounting to Rs.120.28 crore of Uttar Pradesh SC/ST

Development Corporation; electrification on large-scale of SC/ST
bustees

/majras and appointment of 23% from these classes only of SOs in
police

Stations; provision of reservation also in state
government-aided priveta

Enterprises; allotment of more than 4,000 fair price shops;
together with

The establishment of a Rs.100 crore “leather park and shoe mandi”: in

Agra, exemption from VAT of Agra Footwear Industry.

2.    “Other Backward Classes” – in the last four years 2 lakh landless
people

allotted lease of about 50,000 hectares of agricultural land;
effective

implementation of 27% reservation for OBSc in the allotment of
fair price

shops in the urban and rural areas under the public distribution
system;

computerisation of the entire procedure of scholarship unders
the

backward classes Welfare department; more than 50 lakh students
(girls

and boys) benefites by scholarships under the scheme of aid to
the poor

families of backward classes on account of marriage and illness
about

Rs.50 crore spent every year; apart from increasing the “creamy layer”

annual income limit of these classes from Rs.3 lakh Rs.5lakh,
about

Rs.250 crore spent to reimburse the admission fees of students
studying

in post matric classes

3.    In the matter of Religious Minorities especially the Muslim
community,

mention may be made of the establishment of Manyawar Shri
Kanshiram

Ji Urdu, Arabic-Persian University; inclusion of 10 new
Arabic-Persian

Madrasas in the grant-in-aid list; as much as 486.73 crore
approx, on

account of scholarships to 1,28,35,824 minority students (girls
and boys);

elegibilty income limit for scholarships increased to Rs.1 lakh
in respect of

minority students; grant of Rs. 3,745 lakh for the marriage of
37,445

daughters from minority BPL families; reimbursement of fees
amounting

to Rs.2,049 lakh of 49,166 post matric students; construction of
well-

equipped “Haj
Houses”
 at
Ghaziabad and Lucknow for the convenience of

the Hajis; “direct Haj
flight” from Varanasi to Jeddah
;
abolition of the

pre-condition of police verification in the appointment of “Mutawallis”;

arrangement of advance coaching to prepare for competitive
recruitment

examinations; the amount of grant for Uttar Pradesh Urdu Academy
more

than doubled to Rs.3 crore; establishment of 58 government secondary

schools in
minority-dominated areas of 22 selected districts as well as

formation of a commission to provide the atatus of minority
institution to

‘taleemi idaar’ (educational institutions) besides, the
distribution of

Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji Handloom Weavers awards.

4.    “Disabled” – establishment of ‘Uttar Pradeesh Dr. Shakuntala Misra

Rehabilation University’ at a cost of Rs.400 crore to provide quality

education to the differently-abled students; with 1% reservation
for the

visually impaired and 2% other disabled, so far, 677 and
1320fair shops

allotted, respectively; disabled pension rate increased to
Rs.300 per

month from Rs.150- the total number of disabled pensioners
during

2009-10 increased to 708077.

5.    Several welfare schemes implemented for
Sarv-Samaj
 
“women” also,

notable being amendment of the zamindari kanoon to ensure
equitable

share of women in patriarchal landed property; the amount of
dole for

destitute women increased to Rs.300 per month from Rs.150 apart
from

construction of shelter homes etc for them in Mathurs and
Vrindavan;

“alertness and sensitivity” on the part of government has resulted in

Considerable “decline” of criminal cases against “women”.

NOTE-II- In addition, many significant and historic steps wre taken
for the

Uplift of the poor and the helpless belonging to sarv-samaj besides,

Farmers, labourers, lawyers, employees, traders and people engaged
in

Other professions, with all government departments also contributing
to the

Development of the people of the state viz.:

1.    Uttar Pradesh Mukhyamantri Mahamaya Gharib
Arthik Madad
 Yojna
benefits about 31 lakh families in Uttar Pradeshwhich have not been able to
avail of the benefits of the BPL list or antyodaya, by providing an assistance
of Rs.400 per month.

2.    Savitribai Phule Shiksha Madad Yojna benefitted a total of 6,86,953 girl
students, so far, with Rs.15,000 and a bicycle given to class 10 students and
an additional assistance of Rs.10,000 on promotion to class 12.

3.    Mahamaya Gharib Balika Ashirwad Yojna provides for Rs.1lakh to be given to the
girl child immediately on birth, which has benefitted about 3,25,000 girl
children.

4.    Dr. Ambedkar Gram Sabha Samagra Vikas Yojna benefitted abount 5,598 gram
sabhas.

5.    Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji Sheri Gharib Awas
Yojna
 provides for free
housing facilities, benefiting about 1lakh families.

6.    Sarvjan Hitay Gharib Awas (Slum Area) Maliqana
Haq Yojna

benefited about 7,232 families.

7.    BPL card-holders of Sarv-samaj and
beneficiaries of Mahamaya Gharib Arthik Madad Yojna
 being provided free of charge legal aid
by government lawyers to plead their cases in courts.

8.    Under Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji Sheri SC/ST Bssti Samagra Vikas Yojna, 250 bustees selected for development.

9.    Lease-hold of 55,000 hectares of
agricultural land for about 2.5 lakh poor and unemployed landless people.

10.  About “3.5 lakh families” allotted
residential plots measuring 3,500 hectares.

11.  Allotment of 30,000 hectares of land to
about 36,000 agriculturists.

12.  16,000 sites allotted to 19,000 people
engaged in the pottery craft.

13.  Allotment of 12,000 hectares of land for
free plantation to 42,000 farmers.

14.  Insurance provided to 18,67,835 heads of
families under the General Public Insurance Scheme.

15.  Under the enforced Uttar Oradesh Janhit Guarantee Quanoon 13 essential services relating to
revenue, urban development, medical and food and supply guaranteed within a
specified time limit.

16.  Brilliant BPL students (girls and boys) of
the newly established Gautam Buddha University belonging to sarv-samaj sent to
Europe for higher studies on state expenses.

17.  The maximum sickness allowance increased
from Rs.2,000 to 5,000 in the case of S/S and those eligible from the general
category.

18.  The amount of grant-in-aid doubled in the
event of marriage/sickness in Bundelkhand.

19.  As many as 897 child development projects
onder operation.

20.  Daily wages of “labourers/wage earners” of unorganised sector increased to Rs.100
from Rs.58.

21.  More than 18 lakh government employees in
the state provided benefit of the sixth pay commission, causing an additional
financial burden of Rs.21,000 crore.

22.  As many as 35,000 daily wage employees,
appointed till 29 June, 1991 regularised.

23.  Generation of 10,586 lakh man days in the
rural areas at a cost of Rs. 16,995 crore.

24.  Self-employment made available to 13.58
lakh families with a grant of Rs.800 crore.

25.  Recruitment of 1.9 lakh ‘safai-workers
(Aroghya Rakshaks)” in the state in one go besides, 88,000 primary school
teachers, 5,000 Urdu teachers and massive recruitment in other departments
together with employment opportunities provided to
 “lakhs” of people in non-governmental sectors as well.

26.  Infrastructural Development: construction of 165 Km long, 6-lane
Yamuna express-way at a cost of Rs. 9,935 crore between Noida and Agra.

27.  Rs.30,000
crore –construction project of 1,047 Km long, 8-lane entry controlled
express-way from Greater Noida to Ballia.

28.  Costing Rs. 8,911 crore, 148-km long
Sanauta-Purkazi Express-way project along the upper Ganga canal bank.

29.  In the Taj city, Agra, construction of a
20.5 km long 6-lane ring road at a cost of Rs.1,100 crore.

30.  Delhi-Noida-Greater Noida Metro Rail Link,
first phase, from Delhi to Noida completed.

31.  PPP process activated to establish ab
international airport at Kushinagar for the development of Buddhist circuit.

32.  Energy development; with an amount of Rs. 28,796 crore
incurred by the government led by the Hon’ble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati Ji, a
new trust” born among the general public to meet
its electricity needs, during its four-year term,; the government seriously
engaged at the ground level about its promise to offer 24-hourelectricity by
2014, Begining of about 30,000 MW new projects. Investment of Rs. 1,20,000
crore. In the field of transmission, thye largest ever investment of Rs.10,000
crore through PPP in the country.

33.  Road construction – construction/reconstruction of more than
50,000 km long roads with an expenditure of about Rs.9000 crore.

34.  About 13,000 km long CC roads and KC
drains constructed in 5,480 gram sabhas/villages at a cost of Rs. 3,569 crore.

35.  Construction of 319 bridges at a cost of
Rs.1,369 crore as well as 16 over-bridges, entailinf an expenditure of Rs.363
crore.

36.  Irrigation – Strengthening of irrigation works/activities at a cost of
Rs.22,097 crore.

37.  Additional irrigation capacity of about 1.5
lakh hectares generated with the construction of 2,975 tube wells.

38.  Tail-feeding of more than 9,000 canals ensured.

39.  Irrigation arrangement of 32 lakh hectares
of land
.

40.  Agriculture and Allied services – about Rs. 19,50 crore spent in the last
four years.

41.  Drive to bouble the income of the farmers.

42.  Weather-based crop insurance scheme
started.

43.  Rain water storage project in Bundelkhand.

44.  Unprecedented increase in sugarcane price
(SAP).

45.  Uttar Pradesh tops the country in milk
production.

46.  Dr.Ambedkar Agricultural Improvement
Scheme of feeder separation for uninterrupted power supply to farmers.

47.  Establishment of new agricultural
university in Banda.

48.  Education and Sports Development – about 65,000 crore (Rs.64,997 Crore) were
spent on account of education in the last four years.

49.  As many as 12,160 new senior primary
schools and 4,654 new primary schools established

50.  13 private universities established.

51.  Manyawar Shri Kanshiram Ji Research Chair
established in 6 universities.

52.  As many as 41 new government
polytechnics
  set up.

53.  In Gautambuddha Nagar, a second technical
university established under the name of Mahamaya Technical University.

54.  Commencement of ‘Manyawar Shri Kanshiram
Ji Kala Samman Puraskar’ and Sant Ravidas Kala Samman Puraskar’.

55.  Medical and Health services – About 22,000 crore (Rs 22,190 crore) spent
in the last four years.

56.  Decision to operate medical colleges in
Kannauj, Jalaun and Saharanpur districts as wellas a para-medical college in
Jhansi.

57.  Decision to open state of the art super
specialty 500-bed hospital with participation of private sector, costing around
140-150 crore each in Lucknow, Agra, Jalaun, Bijnur, Azamgarh, Ambedkar Nagar.
And Saharanpur.

58.  For the first time in the country a
separate unani directorate established by
  Uttar Pradesh.

59.  Urban Development – About Rs.13,156 crore spent on account of
housing and urban development as wellas Rs. 4,090 crore spent on hygene and
cleanliness schemes.

60.  Projects worth about Rs.8,000 crore
completed in Kanpur, Lucknow, Agra, Varanasi, Meerut, Allahabad and Mathura on
development of urban infrastructural facilities and providing housing to the
poor besides, fulfilling their basic needs.

61.  Provision of about Rs.1,000 crore for
drinking water projects in 7 metropolitan towns. Completion of projects of
Rs.400 crore in other 37 towns and plying of 1,310 modern buses started.

62.  Implementation of solid waste management
schemes in 26 cities.

In additionto the above, the government has, through other
departments , taken several important and notable decisions, a detailed account
of which is given in a government published listing its achievements of four
years.

In order to see for herself the ground reality of the activities
stated in the booklet, the Hon’ble Chief Minister, Ms Mayawati Ji, from 1st
February, 2011 to 2nd
 March 2011 i.e., for full one month, made
surprise inspections to take stock of law and order situation and creime
control in all the 72 districts, together with development and public welfare
activities, with strict action taken against authorities, if anything wanting
was detected. Necessary directions and guidance for improvement were also
given.

In a nutshell, the four years of the Uttar Pradesh Chief
Minister Hon’ble Ms Mayawati Ji led government has been
 “ highly promising and the best” in the area of “development and public welfare”.

Every policy of Uttar Pradesh
Govt. is based on
 ‘Sarvajan
Hitay – Sarvajan Sukhay’

Important and Historic Initiative for Law
& Order and Crime Control

1.    Since the formation of the present
government in Uttar Pradesh, on 13 May, 2007 till date, an Unprecedented
environment of “peace and order and communal harmony, free from injustice,
crime and fear” has been created by giving “top priority” to “law-order and
crime control” for which several important decisions had to be taken with iron
resolve at the different levels e.g:

2.    Rigorous and effective action taken
against more than 1 lakh known notorious criminals/Mafiosi.

3.    1.707 notorious criminals detained under
the most stringent “National Security Act (NSA)”.

4.    Strict action taken under th “Gangster
Act” against about 40,000 professional offenders.

5.    A total of 8.013 notorious delequents,
carrying reward on their heads, were arrested, including those “carrying on the
head a reward” upto Rs.5 lakh.

6.    Another 374 notorious criminals carrying
reward, between Rs.50,000 – Rs. 5,00,000 were “killed” by the police in self
defence.

7.    Also, thousands of anti-social elements/goondas
and white-collar criminals were sent to their right place i.e. behind the bars
in the “jail”.

8.    For the first in the state, action was
also taken against “ influencial people and those occupying high positions”
found guilty of breaching the law, establishing the motto “all wequal before
the law” under which several ministers, ex-ministers, MPs and legislators were
proceeded against leagally with due strictness.

9.    “Historic action” continues, without let
or hinderance, against arrant criminals and Mafiosi to “confisticat their
ill-gotten wealth” in order to break the economic backbone. Property worth more
than Rs. 443 crore forfeited so far.

10.  Elimination of fierce dacoits – synonymous
of terror, Rs. 5 lakh rewardee bandit chief Shivakumar alias Dadua, Ambika
Patel i.e. Thokia, Mussafir Yadav, carrying a reward of Rs.2lakh from Bihar
atate and Santosh alias Kittu Gupta with a reward of Rs. 1.5 lakh besides,
several other offenders carrying rewards between Rs. 1 lakh and Rs. 50,000 were
killed by police in encounters inself-defence.

11.  In the terrorist attack on CRPF group
centre at Rampur by 4 terrorists of HUJI – Harqat UI Jehad Al Islami as wellas
an active member of Khalistan Zindabad Force (KZF) together with ISI agents
were also apprehended.

12.  Noor Baksh, a shooter belonging to the
gang of international criminal, Dawood Ibrahim was shot daed while trying to
escape from police custody.

13.  To secure justice to prosecuted people
under the previous government, 10,000 cases filed through a “special campaign”
and action taken against 31,136 persons. “Legal” action also initiated against
those trying to register “fake” reports.

14.  The area of ‘jungle raj’, goonda tax,
‘mafia rule’ and ‘anarchy’ inherited in legacy, ends, entirely due to the
“missionary and struggling” efforts of Hon’ble Chief Ninister Ms. Mayawati JI.
People, coming out of the suffocating “jungle raj”, breathing in, today, the
wiff of fresh air of the “rule of law by law”.

15.  The result of such strict action was that
an environment of “ communal harmony” continued to exist and no untoward
incident occurred in the whole of the state, in light of the court decision on
the very sensitive Ram Janmbhoomi/Babri Masjid “case”. The peaceful conditions
prevailed in Uttar Pradesh, there was calm and quiet in other states of the
country as well.

16.  So also Common Wealth Games 2010,
three-tier panchayat elections, Mahakumbh fair, Haridwar-2010, Allahabad Magh
Mela-2011 passed off peacefully. Lok Sabha-2009 general elections were also
conducted without violence, with peace and impartiality.

17.  In order to ensure “justice” to the
general public and create “trust” towards the law and order system in them,
strict instructions issued to record the First Information Report (FIR) in the
thanas from victimized persons without the slightest difficulties.

18.  Instructions to all district, division and
tehsil level authorities to be available to the people, as a must in their
offices from 10 to 12 in thye morning.

19.  Observance of “thana divwas” on every 1st
and 3rd
 Saturdsy of the month with the object of taking effective
action against victimization of poor people of the sarv-samaj.

20.  As a result of these special efforts made
by the government, remarkable “decline“ in the rate of all kinds of crime
against “SC/ST” in the state. Eqally notable has been the percentage of
disposal of crime enquiries which stands at 92.

21.  Appointment of a special public
prosecutor” for prosecution of cases under the SC/ST Prevention of Atrocities
Act.

22.  “Considerable reduction” in incidence of
all crimes against “women” in the state.

23.  The percentage of action was 94.1, last
year against those accused of crime against “women” and 91.9 of cases disposed
of, which is a “record” in itself. Consequently, the rate of crime against
women in Uttar Pradesh is much less than even the national average.

24.  The effort to secure “justice” in every
matter and at every level
  to every
segment of the society and the sarv-samaj, the poor people, farmers, labourers,
businessmen, lawyers, service-class and non-service-class people as also students
in accordance with the policy of “Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhay”.

25.  Together with the arrest of more than two
dozen hard core naxalites, a strategy of
 
“tatal development (samagra vikas)” in identified areas adopted in order
to deal with the “naxal” problem so that a feeling of trust towards the
administration in kindled in the public psyche in the affected areas and they
do not go astray. Efforts to provide the various basic amenities under Dr.
Ambedkar gram sabha yojns to the 423 naxal affected villages.

26.  Many important and historic decisions
taken to establish “rule of the law by law” in the state
  in order to “modernize and strengthen to make
the police administration alert and vigilant”.

27.  More than double the increase in police
budget with about Rs. 7,740 crore sanctioned. For the first time in Uttar
Pradesh a service manual for different sections of the police force
promulgated.

28.  Formation of “Uttar Pradesh Police
Recruitment Board” for transparency in view of complaints of corruption in
police recruitment.

29.  In a “historic” decision about 2.04 lakh
new posts for policemen created, in one stroke. Already 35,000 constables
selected in a transparent procedure – a step which has been praised at the
national also.

30.  Constitution of two new zones Viz.
“Poorvanchal and western Uttar Pradesh” to further strengthen the “Special Task
Force (STF)”.

31.  “National Capital Police Zone” formed for
effective control over law and order and crime control in western Uttar
Pradesh.

32.  Establishment of “women police stations
(mahila Thana)” in all districts together with “mahila helpline”, “family
planning Centre” and “mahila sahayta prakoshtha” at the state level.

33.  “Anti-Terrorist Squad (ATS)” set up in
November, 2007 itself.

34.  “SIT” constituted to investigate serious
economic offences.

35.  For proper security and up keep of the
newly constructed sites/memorials
  etc
formation of “Uttar Pradesh Police Special Zone Security Battalian” under which
1,233 new posts created.

36.  “state level committee constituted” inder
the chairmanship of Director General, police to prevent circulation of
“counterfeit / fake currency notes”.

37.  Sevearl proposals for necessary
cooperation pending with the centre about inclusion of naxal-affected districts
into “focus” districts under the “integrated development plan” for development
of the local surroundings and modernization of the police.

Apart from these, many more important steps were taken, a
detailed account of which is given in a booklet published by the government,
highlighting its achievements during the last four years.

In brief, to get the correct feel of ground realities, the
Hon’ble Chief minisre Ms. Mayawati Ji herself made surprise inspections of
“Law-order and crime control:, for one full month i.e. from 1 February – 2
March, 2011, visiting police stations in all the 72 districts in the state,
taking strong action against authorities found wanting in performance and
issuing guidelines for improvement.

Every policy of Uttar
Pradesh Govt. is based on
 ‘Sarvajan Hitay – Sarvajan Sukhay’

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department,
U.P.

 



Dhajagga Sutta: The Top of the Standard
translated from the Pali by
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
Alternate translation: Piyadassi

On one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. There he addressed the monks, “Monks!”

“Yes, lord,” the monks responded to him.

The Blessed One said, “Monks, once the devas & asuras were arrayed for battle. Then Sakka,
the chief of the devas, addressed the devas of the Thirty-three: ‘If,
dear sirs, when the devas have gone into battle, there should arise
fear, terror, or horripilation, then on that occasion you should catch
sight of the top of my standard. For when you have caught sight of the
top of my standard, whatever fear, terror, or horripilation there is
will be abandoned.

“‘If you can’t catch sight of the top of my standard, then you should catch sight of the top of the deva-king Pajapati’s
standard. For when you have caught sight of the top of the deva-king
Pajapati’s standard, whatever fear, terror, or horripilation there is
will be abandoned.

“‘If
you can’t catch sight of the top of the deva-king Pajapati’s standard,
then you should catch sight of the top of the deva-king Varuna’s
standard. For when For when you have caught sight of the top of the
deva-king Varuna’s standard, whatever fear, terror, or horripilation
there is will be abandoned.

“‘If
you can’t catch sight of the top of the deva-king Varuna’s standard,
then you should catch sight of the top of the deva-king Isana’s
standard. For when you have caught sight of the top of the deva-king
Isana’s standard, whatever fear, terror, or horripilation there is will
be abandoned.’

“But,
monks, when the top of the deva-chief Sakka’s standard is caught sight
of, or when the top of the deva-king Pajapati’s standard is caught sight
of, or when the top of the deva-king Varuna’s standard is caught sight
of, or when the top of the deva-king Isana’s standard is caught sight
of, whatever fear, terror, or horripilation there is may be abandoned or
maynot be abandoned.
Why is that? Because Sakka the chief of the devas is not devoid of
passion, not devoid of aversion, not devoid of delusion. He feels fear,
feels terror, feels dread. He runs away.

But I
tell you this: If — when you have gone into the wilderness, to the
shade of a tree, or to an empty building — there should arise fear,
terror, or horripilation, then on that occasion you should recollect me:
‘Indeed, the Blessed One is worthy & rightly self-awakened,
consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard
to the world, unexcelled as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed,
the Teacher of divine & human beings, awakened, blessed.’ For when
you have recollected me, whatever fear, terror, or horripilation there
is will be abandoned.

If you can’t
recollect me, then you should recollect the Dhamma: ‘The Dhamma is
well-expounded by the Blessed One, to be seen here & now, timeless,
inviting verification, pertinent, to be realized by the wise for
themselves.’ For when you have recollected the Dhamma, whatever fear,
terror, or horripilation there is will be abandoned.

If you can’t
recollect the Dhamma, then you should recollect the Sangha: ‘The Sangha
of the Blessed One’s disciples who have practiced well… who have
practiced straight-forwardly… who have practiced methodically… who
have practiced masterfully — in other words, the four types of noble
disciples when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as individual types [1] 
they are the Sangha of the Blessed One’s disciples: worthy of gifts,
worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of respect, the
unexcelled field of merit for the world.’ For when you have recollected
the Sangha, whatever fear, terror, or horripilation where is will be
abandoned. Why is that? Because the Tathagata — worthy & rightly
self-awakened — is devoid of passion, devoid of aversion, devoid of
delusion. He feels no fear, feels no terror, feels no dread. He doesn’t
run away.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Having said that, the One-well-gone, the Teacher, further said this:

DHAMMA-KAKKA-PPAVATTANA SUTTA

INTRODUCTION

TO THE

FOUNDATION OF THE
KINGDOM OF RIGHTEOUSNESS.

THIS
translation is made from a transcript of the text as found in the very beautiful
Ceylon MS. on silver plates, now in the British Museum[1]. The letters, which
are perfectly formed, are cut into the silver; and the MS. has this
peculiarity, that every sentence is repeated with a slight change in the
collocation of the words. Thus the first sentence is given as follows:–

Evam
me sutam. Ekam samayam Bhagavâ Bârânasiyam
viharati Isipatane Migadâye. Me evam sutam. Ekam samayam
Bhagavâ Bârânasiyam Isipatane Migadâye viharati.

As this
repetition is merely carried out for the further security of the text it has
not been followed in the translation.

This text
belongs to the Anguttara Nikâya. M. Léon Feer has lithographed the Samyutta
treatment in his ‘Textes tirés du Kandjour[2],’ together with the text of the
corresponding passage in the Lalita Vistara, and the Tibetan translation from
that poem. The Sanskrit text, so far as it runs parallel with our Sutta, will
also be found in Rajendra Lal Mitra’s edition of the Lalita Vistara (p. 540 and
foll.) and the Tibetan text, with a French translation, in M. Foucaux’s ‘rGya
Cher Rol Pa.’ Dr. Oldenberg has just published the Vinaya treatment contained
in the Mahâ Vagga I, 6. It is the same word for word as our Sutta (except § 1,
which is of course not found there). The Samyutta expands the idea of the
portion numbered below §§ 9-20, having also similar paragraphs in reference to
the bhikkhus themselves. The

[1. MS. Egerton, 794; bought from a bookseller named Rodel in
1839

2. Livraison, No. X.]

p. 140

Lalita
Vistara differs a good deal in minor details, but is substantially the same as
regards the Noble Truths, and the eight divisions of the Noble Path.

A
translation of this Sutta, found among Mr. Gogerly’s papers after his death,
was published in the journal of the Ceylon Asiatic Society for 1865: and the
journal Asiatique for 1870 contained a translation and full analysis by M. Léon
Feer.

————————

It would
be difficult to estimate too highly the historical value of this Sutta. There
can be no reasonable doubt that the very ancient tradition accepted by all
Buddhists as to the substance of the discourse is correct, and that we really
have in it a summary of the words in which the great Indian thinker and
reformer for the first time successfully promulgated his new ideas. And it
presents to us in a few short and pithy sentences the very essence of that
remarkable system which has had so profound an influence on the religious
history of so large a portion of the human race.

The name
given to it by the early Buddhists–the setting in motion onwards of the royal
chariot-wheel of the supreme dominion of the Dhamma–means, as I have shown
elsewhere[1], not ‘the turning of the wheel of the law,’ as it has been usually
rendered; but ‘the inauguration, or foundation, of the Kingdom of
Righteousness.’

Is it
possible that the praying wheels of Thibet have led to the misapprehension and
mistranslation now so common? But who would explain a passage in the New
Testament by a superstition current, say, in Spain in the twelfth century? And
so when Mr. Da Cuñha thinks that the Dhamma is symbolised by the wheel, because
‘Gotama ignored the beginning, and was uncertain as to the end[2],’ he seems to
me to be following a vicious method of interpreting such figures of speech. It
cannot be disputed that the term ‘wheel’ might have implied such an idea as he
puts into it. But if we want to know what it did imply, we must be guided
wholly by the previous use of the word at the

[1. ‘Buddhism,’ p. 45.

2. ‘Memoir on the Tooth Relic,’ &c., p. 15.]

p. 141

time when
it was first used in a figurative sense: and that previous use allows only of
the interpretation given above. Perhaps, however, Mr. Da Cuñha is only copying
(not very exactly) Mr. Alabaster, who has said, ‘Buddha, as I have tried to
show in other parts of this book, did not attempt to teach the beginning of
existence, but assumed it as a rolling circle of causes or effects. This was
his circle or wheel of the law[1].’

Mr.
Alabaster therefore calls his very useful book on Siamese Buddhism, ‘The Wheel
of the Law;’–an expression which he on the first page of his preface takes to
be about equivalent to Buddhism. But his theory of the meaning of the term
seems to be based upon a misunderstanding of a passage in the Siamese ‘Life of
Buddha,’ which he there translates. At page 78 he renders his text, ‘The Holy
Wheel which the Law taught is plenteous in twelve ways,’ and he explains this
on p. 169 as referring to the twelve Nidânas, the chain of causes and effects.
But the passage in the Siamese text is evidently a reminiscence of the
‘twelvefold manner’ spoken of in the same connection in our Sutta (§ 21), and
does not refer to the Nidânas at all.

A better
comment on the word is the legend of the Treasure of the Wheel, which will be
found below in the ‘Book of the Great King of Glory[2],’ a passage which shows
that this figure belonged to that circle of poetical imagery which the early
Buddhists so often borrowed from the previous poets of Vedic literature to aid
them in their attempts to describe the most important events in the life of
their revered Teacher. And, like the day of Pentecost by the early Christians,
this Inauguration of the Kingdom of Righteousness was rightly regarded by them
as a turning-point in the history of their faith. We find this even in the
closing sections of our Sutta; and in later times the poets of every Buddhist
clime have vied one with another in endeavouring to express their sense of the
importance of the occasion.

‘The
evening was like a lovely maiden; the stars

[1. ‘Wheel of the Law,’ p. 288.

2. Chap. I, §§ 10-20.]

p. 142

were the
pearls upon her neck; the dark clouds her braided hair; the deepening space her
flowing robe. As a crown she had the heavens where the angels dwell; these
three worlds were as her body; her eyes were the white lotus flowers which open
to the rising moon; and her voice was as it were the humming of the bees. To do
homage to the Buddha, and to hear the first preaching of his word, this lovely
maiden came.’ The angels (devas) throng to hear the discourse until the heavens
are empty; and the sound of their approach is like the rain of a storm; all the
worlds in which there are sentient beings are made void of life, so that the
congregation assembled was in number infinite, but at the sound of the blast of
the glorious trumpet of Sakka, the king of the gods, they became still as a
waveless sea. And then each of the countless listeners thought that the sage
was looking towards himself, and was speaking to him in his own tongue, though
the language used was Mâgadhi!

It is
most curious that this last figure should be so closely analogous to the
language used with respect to the corresponding event in the history of the
Christian church: and I do not know the exact source from which Hardy (Manual
of Buddhism, p. 186) derives it. But I think it is highly improbable that there
is any borrowing on the one side or on the other.

It cannot
be denied that there is a real beauty of an Oriental kind in the various
expressions which the Buddhists use; and that there was real ground for the
enthusiasm which gave them birth. Never in the history of the world had a
scheme of salvation been put forth so simple in its nature, so free from any
superhuman agency, so independent of, so even antagonistic to the belief in a
soul, the belief in God, and the hope for a future life. And we must not allow
our estimate of the importance of the event to be influenced by our
disagreement from the opinions put forth. Whether these be right or wrong, it
was a turning-point in the religious history of man when a reformer, full of
the most earnest moral purpose, and trained in all the intellectual culture

p. 143

of his
time, put forth deliberately, and with a knowledge of the opposing views, the
doctrine of a salvation to be found here, in this life, in an inward change of
heart, to be brought about by perseverance in a mere system of self-culture and
of self-control.

————————

That
system, it will be seen, is called the Noble Path, and is divided into eight
sections or divisions, each of which commences with the word sammâ–a word for
which we have no real equivalent in English, though it has been rendered by
such terms as ‘right,’ ‘perfect,’ and ‘correct.’ Our word ‘right,’ in some of its
uses, would be a sufficiently adequate translation, but it is based on a
different derivation, and connotes a set of ideas not alluded to by sammâ. If
used as an adjective this word–signifying literally ‘going with’–means either
‘general, common,’ or ‘corresponding, mutual,’ and as an adverb, ‘commonly,
usually, normally,’ or ‘fittingly, properly, correctly;’ and hence, in a
secondary sense, and with allusion to both these ideas, ’round, fit, and
perfect, normal and complete.’ When used to characterise such widely different
things as language, livelihood, and belief, the meaning of the term is by no
means difficult to grasp; but it is difficult, if not impossible, to find any
single English word which in each case would convey its full force without importing
also some extraneous idea. From a desire to follow closely the Pâli form of
expression I had first in my manual of ‘Buddhism’ adopted the one word ‘right’
throughout the translation of the text; and I have kept to this below, though I
feel that that word quite fails to give the force of the preposition sam
({Greek sun-}, con-), which is the essential part of the Pâli sammâ. But I
think the meaning of the Buddhist ideal, of the summary which is the most
essential doctrine, the very pith of Buddhism, would be better brought out by a
diversified rendering in the way I afterwards attempted in an article in the
Fortnightly Review (No. CLVI); or, as above (p. 107), with the authorised
interpretation appended. It would then run

p. 144

1. Right Views; free from superstition or delusion.

2. Right Aims; high, and worthy of the intelligent,
earnest man.

3. Right Speech; kindly, open, truthful.

4. Right Conduct; peaceful, honest, pure.

5. Right Livelihood; bringing hurt or danger to no living
thing.

6. Right Effort; in self-training, and in self-control.

7. Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind.

8. Right Contemplation; earnest thought on the deep
mysteries of life.

It is
interesting to notice that Gogerly, who first rendered sammâ throughout by
correct[1], afterwards adopted the other method[2]; and as these eight
divisions of the perfect life are of such vital importance for a correct
understanding of what Buddhism really was, I here add in parallel columns his
two versions of the terms used:–


1.
Correct views (of truth).

Correct
doctrines.

2.
Correct thoughts.

A clear
perception (of their nature).

3.
Correct words.

Inflexible
veracity.

4.
Correct conduct.

Purity
of conduct.

5.
Correct (mode of obtaining a) livelihood.

A
sinless occupation.

6.
Correct efforts.

Perseverance
in duty.

7.
Correct meditation.

Holy
meditation.

8.
Correct tranquillity.

Mental
tranquillity.

 

The
varying expressions in these two lists are intended in all cases, (except
perhaps the second,) to convey the same idea. The second division (sammâ-sankappo)
is not really open to any doubt. Sankappo is will, volition,
determination, desire; that exertion of the will in the various affairs of life
which results from the feeling that a certain result will be desirable. The
only variation in the meaning is that sometimes more stress is laid upon the
implied exertion of the will, sometimes more stress upon the implied desire

[1. Journal of the Ceylon Asiatic Society, 1845.

2. Ibid. 1865.]

p. 145

which
calls it into action. ‘Motive’ would be somewhat too impersonal, ‘volition’ too
metaphysical a rendering; ‘aims’ or ‘aspirations’ seems to me to best express
the sense intended in this passage.

In No. 7
(sammâ-sati) sati is literally ‘memory,’ but is used with reference to the
constantly repeated phrase ‘mindful and thoughtful’ (sato sampagâno);
and means that activity of mind and constant presence of mind which is one of
the duties most frequently inculcated on the good Buddhist. Gogerly’s rendering
of the term should have been reserved for the last division (sammâ-samâdhi),
that prolonged meditation on the deep mysteries of life, which is stated in the
Great Decease[1] to be the necessary complement and accessory to intelligence and
goodness. Reason and works are good in themselves, but they require to be made
perfect by that samâdhi which in Buddhism corresponds to faith in Christianity.

————————

This
Buddhist ideal of the perfect life has an analogy most instructive from a
historical point of view with the ideals of the last pagan thinkers in Europe
before the rise of Christianity, and of the modern exponents of what has been
called fervent atheism. When after many centuries of thought a pantheistic or
monotheistic unity has been evolved out of the chaos of polytheism,–which is
itself a modified animism or animistic polydæmonism,–there has always arisen
at last a school to whom theological discussions have lost their interest, and
who have sought for a new solution of the questions to which the theologies
have given inconsistent answers, in a new system in which man was to work out
here, on earth, his own salvation. It is their place in the progress of thought
that helps us to understand how it is that there is so much in common between
the Agnostic philosopher of India, the Stoics of Greece and Rome, and some of
the newest schools in France, in Germany, and among ourselves.

[1. Chap . I, § 12, and often afterwards.]

THE
FOUNDATION

OF THE

KINGDOM
OF RIGHTEOUSNESS.

DHAMMA-KAKKA-PPAVATTANA-SUTTA.

Reverence
to the Blessed One, the Holy One, the Fully-Enlightened One.

1. Thus
have I heard. The Blessed One was once staying at Benares, at the hermitage
called Migadâya. And there the Blessed One addressed the company of the five
Bhikkhus[1], and said:

2. ‘There
are two extremes, O Bhikkhus, which the man who has given up the world[2] ought
not to follow–the habitual practice, on the one hand of those things whose
attraction depends upon the passions, and especially of sensuality–a low and
pagan[3] way (of seeking satisfaction) unworthy, unprofitable, and fit only for
the worldly-minded–

[1. These are the five mendicants who had waited on the Bodisat
during his austerities, as described in ‘Buddhist Birth Stories,’ pp. 88, 89.
Their names are given on p. 113 of that book; see below, the note on § 32.

2. Pabbagito, one who has gone forth, who has renounced
worldly things, a ‘religious.’

3. Gamma, a word of the same derivation as, and corresponding
meaning to, our word ‘pagan.’]

p. 147

and the
habitual practice, on the other hand, of asceticism (or self-mortification),
which is painful, unworthy, and unprofitable.

3. ‘There
is a middle path, O Bhikkhus, avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the
Tathâgata[1]–a path which opens the eyes, and bestows understanding, which
leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvâna!

4. ‘What
is that middle path, O Bhikkhus, avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the
Tathâgata–that path which opens the eyes, and bestows understanding, which
‘leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvâna?
Verily! it is this noble eightfold path that is to say

‘Right views;
Right aspirations;
Right speech;
Right conduct;
Right livelihood;
Right effort;
Right mindfulness;
and Right contemplation.

‘This, O
Bhikkhus, is that middle path, avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the
Tathâgata–that path which opens the eyes, and bestows understanding,

[1. The Tathâgata is an epithet of a Buddha. It is interpreted
by Buddhaghosa, in the Samangala Vilâsinî, to mean that he came to earth for
the same purposes, after having passed through the same training in former
births, as all the supposed former Buddhas; and that, when he had so come, all
his actions corresponded with theirs.

‘Avoiding these two extremes’ should perhaps be referred to the
Tathâgata, but I prefer the above rendering.]

p. 148

which
leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvâna!

————————

5.
‘Now[1] this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning suffering.

‘Birth is
attended with pain[2], decay is painful, disease is painful, death is painful. Union
with the unpleasant is painful, painful is separation from the pleasant; and
any craving that is unsatisfied, that too is painful. In brief, the five
aggregates which spring from attachment (the conditions of individuality and
their cause)[3] are painful.

‘This
then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning suffering.

6. ‘Now
this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the origin of suffering.

‘Verily,
it is that thirst (or craving), causing the renewal of existence, accompanied
by sensual delight, seeking satisfaction now here, now there–that is to say,
the craving for the gratification of the passions, or the craving for (a
future) life, or the craving for success (in this present life)[4].

[1. On the following ‘four truths’ compare Dhammapada, verse
191, and Mahâ-parinibbâna Sutta II, 2, 3, and IV, 7, 8.

2. Or ‘is painful.’

3. Pañk‘ upâdânakkhandhâ. On the Khandhâ, or the material
and mental aggregates which go to make up an individual, see my ‘Buddhism,’
Chap. III. Upâdâna, or ‘grasping’ is their source, and the uprooting of this
upâdâna from the mind is Arahatship.

One might express the central thought of this First Noble Truth.
in the language of the nineteenth century by saying that pain results from
existence as an individual. It is the struggle to maintain one’s individuality
which produces pain–a most pregnant and far-reaching suggestion. See for a
fuller exposition the Fortnightly Review for December, 1879.

4. ‘The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of
life’ {footnote p. 149} correspond very exactly to the first and third of these
three tanhâs. ‘The lust of the flesh, the lust of life, and the pride of
life,’ or ‘the lust of the flesh, the lust of life, and the love of this
present world,’ would be not inadequate renderings of all three.

The last two are in Pâli bhava-tanhâ and vibhava-tanhâ,
on which Childers, on the authority of Vigesinha, says: ‘The former
applies to the sassata-ditthi, and means a desire for an eternity of
existence; the latter applies to the ukkheda-ditthi, and means a
desire for annihilation in the very first (the present) form of existence.’
Sassata-ditthi may be called the ‘everlasting life heresy,’ and ukkheda-ditthi
the ‘let-us-eat-and-drink-for-to-morrow-we-die heresy.’ These two heresies,
thus implicitly condemned, have very close analogies to theism and materialism.

Spence Hardy says (’Manual of Buddhism,’ p. 496): ‘Bhawa-tan
signifies the pertinacious love of existence induced by the supposition that
transmigratory existence is not only eternal, but felicitous and desirable.
Wibhawa-tanhâ is the love of the present life, under the notion that
existence will cease therewith, and that there is to be no future state.’

Vibhava in Sanskrit means, 1. development; 2. might, majesty, prosperity;
and 3. property: but the technical Buddhist sense, as will be seen from the
above, is something more than this.]

p. 149

‘This
then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the origin of suffering.

7. Now
this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the destruction of suffering.

‘Verily,
it is the destruction, in which no passion remains, of this very thirst; the
laying aside of, the getting rid of, the being free from, the harbouring no
longer of this thirst.

‘This
then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the destruction of suffering.

8. ‘Now
this, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the way[1] which leads to the
destruction of sorrow. Verily! it is this noble eightfold path[2]; that is to
say:

[1. Patipadâ.

2. Ariyo atangiko Maggo.]

p. 150

Right views;
Right aspirations;
Right speech;
Right conduct;
Right livelihood;
Right effort;
Right mindfulness;
and Right contemplation.

This
then, O Bhikkhus, is the noble truth concerning the destruction of sorrow.

————————

9. ‘That
this was the noble truth concerning sorrow, was not, O Bhikkhus, among the
doctrines handed down, but there arose within me the eye (to perceive it),
there arose the knowledge (of its nature), there arose the understanding (of
its cause), there arose the wisdom (to guide in the path of tranquillity),
there arose the light (to dispel darkness from it)[1].

10. ‘And
again, O Bhikkhus, that I should comprehend that this was the noble truth
concerning sorrow, though it was not among the doctrines banded down, there
arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the
understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

11. ‘And
again, O Bhikkhus, that I had comprehended that this was the noble truth concerning
sorrow, though it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within
me the eye, there

[1. The words in parentheses have been added by Gogerly,
doubtless from some comment not accessible to me; and I have included them
also, but in parentheses, as they seem to complete the ideas actually involved
in the text.]

p. 151

arose the
knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose
the light.

12. ‘That
this was the noble truth concerning the origin of sorrow, though it was not
among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye; but there arose
within me the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom,
there arose the light.

13. ‘And
again, O Bhikkhus, that I should put away the origin of sorrow, though the
noble truth concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose
within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding,
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

14. ‘And
again, O Bhikkhus, that I had fully put away the origin of sorrow, though the
noble truth concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose
within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding,
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

15. ‘That
this, O Bhikkhus, was the noble truth concerning the destruction of sorrow,
though it was not among the doctrines handed down; but there arose within me
the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose
the wisdom, there arose the light.

16. ‘And
again, O Bhikkhus, that I should fully realise the destruction of sorrow,
though the noble truth concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down,
there arose within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the
understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

17. ‘And
again, O Bhikkhus, that I had fully realised the destruction of sorrow, though
the noble

p. 152

truth
concerning it was not among the doctrines handed down, there arose within me
the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose
the wisdom, there arose the light.

18. ‘That
this was the noble truth concerning the way which leads to the destruction of
sorrow, was not, O Bhikkhus, among the doctrines handed down; but there arose
within me the eye, there arose the knowledge, there arose the understanding,
there arose the wisdom, there arose the light.

19. ‘And
again, O Bhikkhus, that I should become versed in the way which leads to the
destruction of sorrow, though the noble truth concerning it was not among the
doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the
knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose
the light.

20. ‘And
again, O Bhikkhus, that I had become versed in the way which leads to the
destruction of sorrow, though the noble truth concerning it was not among the
doctrines handed down, there arose within me the eye, there arose the
knowledge, there arose the understanding, there arose the wisdom, there arose
the light.

————————

21. ‘So
long, O Bhikkhus, as my knowledge and insight were not quite clear, regarding
each of these four noble truths in this triple order, in this twelvefold
manner–so long was I uncertain whether I had attained to the full insight of
that wisdom which is unsurpassed in the heavens or on earth, among the whole
race of Samanas and Brâhmans, or of gods or men.

22. ‘But
as soon, O Bhikkhus, as my knowledge

p. 153

and
insight were quite clear regarding each of these four noble truths, in this
triple order, in this twelvefold manner–then did I become certain that I had
attained to the full insight of that wisdom which is unsurpassed in the heavens
or on earth, among the whole race of Samanas and Brâhmans, or of gods or
men.

23. ‘And
now this knowledge and this insight has arisen within me. Immovable is the
emancipation of my heart. This is my last existence. There will now be no
rebirth for me!’

————————

24. Thus
spake the Blessed One. The company of the five Bhikkhus, glad at heart, exalted
the words of the Blessed One. And when the discourse had been uttered, there
arose within the venerable Kondañña the eye of truth, spotless, and
without a stain, (and he saw that) whatsoever has an origin, in that is also
inherent the necessity of coming to an end[1].

————————

25. And
when the royal chariot wheel of the truth had thus been set rolling onwards by
the Blessed One, the gods of the earth gave forth a shout, saying:

‘In
Benâres, at the hermitage of the Migadâya, the supreme wheel of the empire of
Truth has been set rolling by the Blessed One–that wheel which not by any Samana
or Brâhman, not by any god,

[1. It is the perception of this fact which is the Dhammakakkhu,
the Eye of Truth, or the Eye for Qualities as it might be rendered with
reference to the meaning of Dhamma in the words that follow.

They are in Pâli yam kiñki samudaya-dhammam, sabbam
tam nirodha-dhammam, literally, ‘whatever has the quality of
beginning, that has the quality of ceasing.’]

p. 154

not by
any Brahma or Mâra, not by any one in the universe, can ever be turned back!’

26. And
when they heard the shout of the gods of the earth, the attendant gods of the
four great kings[1] (the guardian angels of the four quarters of the globe)
gave forth a shout, saying:

‘In
Benâres, at the hermitage of the Migadâya, the supreme wheel of the empire of
Truth has been set rolling by the Blessed One–that wheel which not by any Samana
or Brâhman, not by any god, not by any Brahma or Mâra, not by any one in the
universe, can ever be turned back!’

27. [And
thus as the gods in each of the heavens heard the shout of the inhabitants of
the heaven beneath, they took up the cry until the gods in the highest heaven
of heavens] gave forth the shout, saying:

‘In
Benâres, at the hermitage of the Migadâya, the supreme wheel of the empire of
Truth has been set rolling by the Blessed One–that wheel which not by any Samana
or Brâhman, not by any god, not by any Brahma or Mâra, not by any one in the
universe, can ever be turned back[2]!’

[1. Their names are given in the Mahâ Samaya Sutta in Grimblot’s
‘Sept Suttas Palis.’

2. The text repeats § 26 for each of the heavens; and the gods
thus enumerated are as follows, beginning with Bhummâ Devâ in § 25:

 1. Bhummâ Devâ.
 2. Katumahârâgika Devâ.
 3. Yâmâ Devâ.
 4. Tusitâ Devâ.
 5. Nimmânaratî Devâ.
 6. Paranimmitavasavattî Devâ.
 7. Brahmakâyikâ Devâ.

See the Mahâ Samaya Sutta in Grimblot’s ‘Sept Suttas Palis,’ and
{footnote p. 155} compare Professor Max Müller’s note in ‘Buddhaghosha’s
Parables,’ p. xxxiii, and Hardy in the ‘Manual of Buddhism,’ p. 25.]

p. 155

28. And
thus, in an instant, a second, a moment, the sound went up even to the world of
Brahmâ: and this great ten-thousand-world-system quaked and trembled and was
shaken violently, and an immeasurable bright light appeared in the universe,
beyond even the power of the gods!

29. Then
did the Blessed One give utterance to this exclamation of joy: ‘Kondañña
hath realised it. ‘Kondañña hath realised it!’ And so the venerable
‘Kondañña acquired the name of Aññâta-Kondañña (’the
‘Kondañña who realised’)’.

————————

End of the Dhamma-kakka-ppavattana-sutta.

[1. The Mahâ Vagga completes the narrative as follows: ‘And then
the venerable Aññâta-Kondañña having seen the truth, having
arrived at the truth, having known the truth, having penetrated the truth,
having past beyond doubt, having laid aside uncertainty, having attained to
confidence, and being dependent on no one beside himself for knowledge of the
religion of the teacher, spake thus to the Blessed One:

‘”May I become, O my Lord, a novice under the Blessed One,
may I receive full ordination!”

‘”Welcome, O brother!” said the Blessed One, “the
truth has been well laid down. Practice holiness to the complete suppression of
sorrow!”

‘And that was the ordination of the Venerable One.’

The other four, Vappa, Bhaddiya, Mahânâma, and Assagi,
were converted on the following days, according to the ‘Buddhist Birth
Stories,’ p. 113.

It is there also said that ‘myriads of the angels (devas) had
been converted simultaneously with Kondanya.’]


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