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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā

May 2019
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LESSON 2991 Wed 15 May 2019 Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness Tipitaka is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare, happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal MEDITATION PRACTICE in BUDDHA’S OWN WORDS Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta — Attendance on awareness — [ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ] from Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University
112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās through up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level Buddhasasana Buddha Sasana “In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character.” TIPITAKA BUDDHA SASANA KUSHINARA PARINIBBANA BHOOMI TBSKPB 668, 5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:, Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS) Model Question Paper 2018-19 Question 6. Write clearly an account on Sumedha’s thought concerning each Parami.
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LESSON 2991 Wed 15 May  2019

Tipitaka - DO GOOD BE MINDFUL is the Essence of the Words of the Awakened One with Awareness

is the Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) for welfare,
happiness and peace on the path of Eternal Bliss as Final Goal

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta
— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]


Analytic Insight Net -Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online Tipiṭaka Law Research & Practice University

Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka nīti Anvesanā ca

Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya anto 112 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhās


up a levelhttp://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level


Buddha Sasana

the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout, alone, battling for
light, a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to
mankind universal in character.”

5A Main Road, 8th Cross HAL III Stage Bengaluru - 560075 Karnataka
India Ph: 91 (080) 25203792 Email:,
Diploma in Theravada Buddhist Studies (DBS)
Model Question Paper

6. Write clearly an account on Sumedha’s thought concerning each Parami.

Parami: True Success

“Success,” as it is generally understood, is nothing more than
personal success in the present lifetime, things like fame, wealth, and
power. In the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism, “success” means benefiting
living beings, having successful cultivation, and becoming a Buddha or

Quite a number of people believe that for Buddhist monastics to
develop from ordinary people into sages they must cut themselves off
from their family and loved ones and hide away in some remote mountain
hermitage. Likewise, there is a saying in Buddhism that “All things are
empty,” though this concept of “emptiness” is often misunderstood to
mean that we should not want or pursue anything. This misapprehension
recasts the Buddhist teaching on “emptiness” into nothing but
meaningless talk about metaphysical ideas. But, according to Buddhism,
success comes as the fruition of karmic causes and conditions. These
instances of karmic fruition are also called paramitas.

Parami is an ancient Sanskirt word which means “to cross
over,” in that one crosses from the shore of suffering over to the other
shore of nirvana, while “ta” is an auxiliary particle
that indicates completion. When the Buddhist sutras were translated from
Sanskrit to Chinese, the choice was made to transliterate the term paramita,
rather than translating its meaning, and most English translations
follow in suit. This was done in order to preserve the concept as close
to the time of the Buddha’s transmission of the Dharma and not to limit
it by a particular translated term.

If we want to cross over affliction, trouble, and the cycle of birth
and death, and transform suffering into happiness, partiality into
universality, and affliction into enlightenment, we must rely upon the
six paramitas. Also known as the “six perfections,” the six paramitas are six methods that enable us to cross over and transcend. The six paramitas are giving, morality, patience, diligence, meditative concentration, and prajna. Each of the paramitas will be explained more fully later.

The four main teachings of the Diamond Sutra are to give
without notions, to liberate with no notion of self, to live without
abiding, and to cultivate without attainment; this way of practicing the
Dharma allows us to cross from this shore to the other shore and to
fulfill our paramitas. To put it more simply, one should use a spirit that transcends the world to do the work of the world.

Human life can be divided into four levels:

  1. Physical life
  2. Community life
  3. Transcendent life
  4. Unending life

“Physical life” refers to the physical body as given to us by our
parents. This human body is hard to come by, so we should take good care
of it. “Community life” means fulfilling one’s role within the larger
life of the group. “Transcendent life” means altruistically contributing
what you can for the sake of others, the larger community, and for all
living beings. “Unending life” refers to what Buddhism calls the “life
of wisdom.” Someone who lives this way is not worried about whether he
lives or dies, having transcended the suffering of life and the fear of
death. This is eternal life where one no longer wanders through the
cycle of birth and death.

Every human life has boundless potential. It is up to the mind of each individual to fulfill the value and success of life.

Reconsidering Value

In her later years, my mother was a patient at Whittier Hospital in
Los Angeles, U.S.A. On May 31, 1996, I received news in Taipei that my
mother’s illness had taken a turn for the worse, and I immediately
boarded a plane for Los Angeles. During the flight I kept reflecting on
the past. In my mind I could see my mother’s tender, smiling face as if
it were before my very eyes. My heart filled with all manner of
emotions, and I silently recited the name of Amitabha Buddha as a
blessing for my mother.

Upon arriving at Los Angeles International Airport, I raced over to
the hospital, but my mother had already passed on. All I could do was go
over to Rose Hills Memorial Park to pay my last respects.

The nursing staff that had been looking after her told me that she
was kind and frugal, and was plain and simple in her daily needs. She
rarely bothered others and was always thinking of other people. My
mother did not even want them to tell me about her worsening condition,
to spare me any alarm or worry. My mother always took everything upon
herself, and kept her feelings of care and loving concern inside. Twenty
minutes before she died, she still left instructions with Venerable Tzu
Chuang, the abbess of Hsi Lai Temple who was attending at her side:

Thank you for reciting the name of Amitabha Buddha on my
behalf. I am leaving now, so, please, under no circumstances are you to
let my son know, thus sparing him any distress. He should busy himself
with the problems of all sentient beings and not be troubled on my
account alone.

In the face of disciples and family members who had hurried to Los
Angeles from various places, I decided to follow my mother’s final
instructions by not disturbing the outside world and keeping everything
simple. In accordance with her wishes, no formal condolences, no
funerary contributions of money and no gifts or flowers were accepted. I
then dictated the following obituary notice to solemnly inform all
those concerned:

My mother, Mrs. Liu Yuying, peacefully passed away at
4:20 a.m. on the 30 of May, 1996, at Whittier Hospital in Los Angeles,
U.S.A, amid the sounds of chanting “Amitofo.” She was ninety-five years
old. Many of her children and grandchildren as well as my disciples were
by her side. Her body was then transferred to Rose Hills that same day.

Four days later, my mother was cremated at Rose Hills. Amid the
sounds of those assembled there chanting sutras and reciting Amitabha
Buddha’s name, I gently pressed the green switch to activate the
cremation process. At that time I composed the following poem in my

Between this mundane world and the Pure Land,

There remains the unchanging bond between mother and son;

For whether here on earth or there in heaven,

She remains forever my dear mother.

With a burst of fire,

A puff of wind,

And a flash of light,

I bid eternal farewell to my mother.

My mother was twenty-five when she gave birth to my body. Since then
seventy years had slipped away, and my mother has passed on. And so,
with a push of a button, the body of my mother was cremated. Our
physical bodies are like houses that we live in only for a short time.
Time passes and the house becomes leaky and in need of repair. This
temporary residence of ours will surely decay, and there will come a
time when we will be unable to live in it anymore.

Some twenty years earlier, my mother once came to stay for a while at
Fo Guang Shan, and on one occasion during a grand assembly of lay
disciples, I asked whether or not she was willing to meet with them and
say a few words. She agreed, but I was worried that my mother would be
intimidated by stage fright. But to my surprise, she faced the assembled
audience of more than twenty thousand and said with a calm assurance,
“Fo Guang Shan is indeed the Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss; a
heaven on earth. We should rely upon the venerable master to be our
guide in the hope that everyone will achieve enlightenment here at Fo
Guang Shan. Everyone has been so kind to me, but this old woman has
nothing to give to you in return. I can only offer my son as a gift to

Her words were met by thunderous applause from the audience. My
mother was illiterate and had never read any sacred literature, nor ever
prepared herself to speak in front of others. But she had experienced
the chaos of the late Qing dynasty, the Revolution of 1911, the
establishment of the Republic of China, the armed occupations of the
warlords, the Sino-Japanese War, the stand-off between the Nationalist
Party and the Chinese Communist Party, and the Great Cultural
Revolution, as well as the changes over time in relations between Taiwan
and Mainland China.

The turmoil of the times had kept her constantly on the move; she
lived through nearly one hundred years of epoch-making change. In her
life, she practiced the Dharma, but she was too busy to let the question
of whether or not she had a firm background in Buddhism bother her. She
had already transcended the scriptural understanding with all its
careful wording to bring fulfillment to her own life.

And yet, through the power of a vow, we have the power to return again to this human world.

Humanistic Buddhism

As Buddhists we acknowledge that the Dharma exists in the world, but what exactly is the Dharma as taught by the Buddha?

The word Buddha means “enlightened one,” for he is one who has
enlightened himself, enlightens others, and has completed his mission
of enlightening others. A Buddha is one who transcends the ignorance of
sentient beings. The quality of his enlightenment is unlike that of the sravaka or pratyekabuddha,
who pursue enlightenment for themselves alone. A Buddha has realized a
state of enlightenment that even a bodhisattva has yet to fully attain.

The founder of Buddhism was originally named Siddhartha, though he is
also called Sakyamuni Buddha, the World-honored One, the Tathagata, and
so on. He was born on the eighth day of the fourth month of the lunar
calendar in Lumbini Garden within the Indian state of Kapilavastu. His
father, King Suddhodana, was head of the Sakya clan. His mother, Queen
Maya, died seven days after his birth.

Sakyamuni Buddha was raised into adulthood by his maternal aunt, Lady
Mahaprajapati. As a prince, Siddhartha was a handsome and intelligent
young man, who was skilled in both the civil and military arts. From
boyhood, he was much beloved by the common people. His father put all
his effort into training him to become a wise ruler. When he was
seventeen, Siddhartha married the beautiful Yasodhara, and the following
year she bore him a son, Prince Rahula.

However, despite his life in the palace with all its comfort and
contentment, and the warm love and affection of his family, Siddhartha
felt a deep void in his heart. He was seeking something more from life
and needed a truer understanding of human existence. So at the age of
twenty-nine, he bid farewell to his family, gave up all his pleasures
and comforts, and left the palace to pursue his spiritual quest. At age
thirty-five, after six years of austere practice, he sat underneath the
bodhi tree, and attained enlightenment while looking up at a bright
star, and said, “Marvelous, marvelous! All sentient beings have the
Tathagata’s wisdom and virtue, but they fail to realize it because they
cling to deluded thoughts and attachments.”

The now enlightened Buddha shared his realization with others,
setting the wheel of Dharma turning, and established the monastic order.
He then taught the Dharma for the liberation of living beings for
forty-nine years, and entered nirvana while lying between two sala trees outside the city of Kusinara in the year 483 bce.

The Buddha was born in this human world, grew up and attained enlightenment in this human world; he passed into nirvana
in this human world, as well. Buddhism has always been concerned with
this human world. The Buddhist sutras which circulate today are a record
of the Buddha’s teachings to liberate living beings, gathered and
organized by his disciples after the Buddha’s final nirvana. From
the time of the Buddha, the Buddhist teachings are meant to
fundamentally address the issues of how we as human beings are to
conduct ourselves, how we are to act and think throughout the course of
our lives, as well as how we can gain liberation. The Dharma quite
naturally serves as a guide to how to live our daily lives. As Buddhism
enters the modern era, we as Buddhists must take an active role in the
world and be diligent.

There are some people who think the Dharma serves as an escape, that
one may “retreat into Buddhist practice,” as if Buddhism is some sort of
pessimistic escape or resignation that does not demand that we
accomplish anything. The Ekottara Agama states:

All the Buddhas and World-honored Ones come from the
human world; their realization is not something attained in the heavenly

Huineng, the Sixth Patriarch of the Chan School, also said in the Platform Sutra:

The Dharma is within the world, apart from this world there is no awakening. Seeking bodhi apart from the world is like looking for a rabbit’s horn.

If we seek enlightenment by rejecting the world, in doing so we throw
away our potential. This creates a sense of withdrawal and escape in
the mind, and then nothing whatsoever will succeed.

Buddhism is not a religion that belongs only to monastics, nor is it a
body of philosophical texts to be studied by scholars. Buddhism should
be something that benefits all people. Buddhism is not an abstract
theory; it is a religion that brings happiness and well-being into the
world. To learn Buddhism is to learn how to be happy, carefree,
liberated, and attain meditative bliss and Dharma joy. Joy and happiness
are the most precious things in life, and living a happy, blessed, and
carefree life is what Humanistic Buddhism promotes. Humanistic Buddhism
is the practical application of the Buddhist spirit in the world.

One day, the Buddha and his disciples entered the city of Sravasti to
gather alms, and it so happened that they encountered someone who bore a
grudge against the Buddha. This person started to malign, slander, and
shout in a loud voice as the Buddha walked along the street.

Seeing how the Buddha was being insulted in public, one of his
disciples said to the Buddha angrily, “The people here lack any speck of
goodness and do not know how to respect the Triple Gem. Lord Buddha, it
would be better if we left this place and went to a city with
kind-hearted people!”

The Buddha replied, “Suppose we do move to another place but the
people there still do not believe in the Dharma, what would you do

The disciple said, “We should move to yet another place!”

“When will we ever stop moving if we do so because of external
conditions? This is not the way to ultimately solve the problem! We can
resolve the root of the problem this way: If we are treated with scorn,
we must remain unperturbed and bring an end to slander through patience.
We must not stop guarding our speech and training our minds until we
are no longer treated with scorn.”

The Buddha continued, “An enlightened person remains calm and patient
like the earth. We should not allow our mission to be shaken by either
praise or blame. By contemplating the absence of an independent self, we
will observe how all phenomena are false fabrications. Then the
illusory distinctions of self and others, as well the so-called good and
bad of the world, will become nothing more than froth upon the water
that suddenly appears, and just as suddenly disappears. Can anything
remain constant and unchanging?”

Buddhism such as this is what allows people to experience well-being
and success. It is a religion for people, and one that is concerned with
the development of people. In Buddhism there is a teaching called the
“three Dharma seals,” which are three qualities that certify something
as an authentic teaching. They are all conditioned phenomena are
impermanent, all phenomena are without an independent self, and nirvana
is perfect tranquility. By viewing the world through the teaching on
impermanence, one can come to understand that all conditioned phenomena
are impermanent. Determination and diligence allows us to see that “all
phenomena are without an independent self.” In Buddhism there is a
saying that “there is nothing to attain,” and it is because of this
understanding that all the wonders of existence can arise out of true
emptiness. The last of the three Dharma seals, “nirvana is perfect tranquility” asserts that our potential for success is unlimited.

Wholesome Wealth

There are many people in this world who believe that one of the
standards for measuring success is making a lot of money. In terms of
material wealth, Buddhist monastics live a plain and simple life: they
live with three robes, a bowl, and few small items, such as sutras and a
Buddha statue. There is even a saying in Chinese that, “A monastic’s
rucksack weighs only two and a half pounds.” That being said, even a
skilled housewife cannot prepare a meal without rice, and a poor couple
will suffer hundreds of sorrows. A lay Buddhist must have some monetary
wealth, or else he will be unable to care for his parents and support
his family. Buddhist practice and acts of charity also require a certain
amount of money to support them, let alone the riches required to
engage in various social development programs. Therefore, Humanistic
Buddhism does not disdain money, for wealth that is acquired through
pure and wholesome means can serve as supporting resources.

However, we must also understand that worldly success arises from a
combination of causes and conditions. Consider the example of a single
individual. The process that takes this person from birth as a crying
baby to maturity as an adult is supported by many causes and conditions,
such as the safeguarding by parents, instruction of teachers and
elders, as well as the various trades and professions that supply
clothing, food, housing, transportation and so on. We go to school, find
our place in society, start a family, and begin our careers; and we all
hope we will be successful in these. But success is not building
castles in the sky, nor is it possible to achieve it without hard work.
Having the right conditions in place to support us is to our advantage,
but even then depending upon others too much cannot lead to success

People are often greedy. If they have even a bit of money, they think
of depositing it in the bank where it will accumulate interest. But in
that case, such money cannot be used to launch new enterprises. We bring
no money with us when we are born, and take none of it with us when we
die, and during our lives it is always taken away by fire, flood,
thieves, corrupt officials, and wayward children.1
We can only appreciate the value of money if we do not feel attached to
it, but rather allow our wealth to circulate and accomplish good
things. There is a Buddhist saying that captures this sentiment well:

What comes from all directions

Supports undertakings in all directions;

The generosity of thousands of people

Creates connections for thousands of people.

In this way worldly money can serve both worldly causes, as well as those that transcend this world.

There are some people who have a fixed view that spiritual practice
does not need money and cannot involve money, and expect spiritual
seekers to live in poverty. But poverty cannot guarantee a higher level
of practice. These attitudes come from a fixed sense of self which is
attached to appearing impoverished, that it is the only way to be a
practitioner. This is a question of reality. If you have nothing, how
then can you give something? To liberate living beings and practice
giving, we need the qualities of physical strength, practical talent,
ability, and commitment. Why must monetary wealth be singled out for
disdain and rejection? To varying levels, lacking mental or material
resources will limit our ability to give and liberate others.

The question that is truly worthy of our concern is how to best
utilize the pure, wholesome, and noble wealth that is donated to benefit
living beings. We should not fall into the view that only poverty can
show that one is well cultivated. For a modernized Buddhism, Buddhists
should engage in enterprise so long as such activities are beneficial to
the economy of the country and the lives of its people. This then is
the true meaning of the Buddhists teachings on “non-abiding” and

Oneness and Coexistence

There is a story recounted in the Samyukta Agama about two
monastics who argue about who is better at chanting. One day the
Buddha’s great disciple Mahakasyapa reported to the Buddha, “Lord
Buddha, there are two monks who are both unyielding in nature; one is
Ananda’s disciple Nantu and the other is Maudgalyayana’s disciple Abifu.
The two of them argue with each other from time to time over who is the
best at chanting, and tomorrow they are going to decide once and for
all who can chant the most sutras and teach the Dharma the best!”

The Buddha sent someone to summon Nantu and Abifu. He then asked
them, “Have you heard my teaching on how to determine the winner and the
loser when two people are arguing with one another?”

“We have never heard of such a teaching concerning winning or losing.”

“The real winner is someone who puts a stop to the confusion caused
by greed, anger, and ignorance; diligently practices the threefold
training of morality, meditative concentration, and wisdom; and can
destroy the thieves of the six sense organs. One who can truly
contemplate how the five aggregates of form, feeling, perceptions,
mental formation, and consciousness are as insubstantial as a plantain
trunk; and can make the Noble Eightfold Path their guide can realize the
bliss and tranquility of great nirvana. You may be able to
recite hundreds of thousands of verses from memory, but if you do not
understand their meaning, then how does that benefit your liberation?”

The Buddha wants us to cultivate right concentration, part of the
Noble Eightfold Path, and stay away from any conflict between ourselves
and others. The Diamond Sutra emphasizes how one should not abide
in anything. In terms of human commercial enterprises, one must not
become attached to a single fixed market. Do not cling to old markets
and old industries, but have the courage instead to open up alternative
avenues, seek out alternative markets, and set up new creative teams. By
implementing strategies like “value reassessment,” “collective
creation,” and “systematic leadership,” one can develop brand new
enterprises and live a life as vast as endless space.

Value Reassessment

In the Diamond Sutra, the Buddha instructs living beings to
not cling to the notion of self, the notion of others, the notion of
sentient beings, or the notion of longevity, nor to allow the
discriminating mind to hinder our practice. If organizations and
commercial enterprises are able to align themselves closely with human
nature, be attentive to the needs of the larger community, and offer
more varied opportunities, then they can create new value.

In the past, hearing Buddhist teachings required a visit to a temple,
but since such temples were located in remote locations with poor
transportation, people often hesitated to go. Even the infrastructure of
the temples failed to meet the needs of those who came to hear the
teachings. Having done their best to visit once or twice, some beginning
Buddhists would give up on their good intention of listening to the

The Lotus Sutra states:

In whatever land where this sutra is received and upheld,
read and recited, explained and copied, and cultivated and practiced as
taught; whether in a place where a volume of scripture is kept, or in a
grove, or in a forest, or under a tree, or in a monastery, or in a
layman’s house, or in a temple hall, or in a mountain valley, or upon an
open plain; in all of these places one should erect a memorial stupa
and make offerings. Why is that? One must know that these places are

The Vimalakirti Sutra also states:

The upright mind is a temple, the profound mind is a temple, the mind aspiring to bodhi is a temple, generosity is a temple, the three kinds of supernatural knowledge2 are a temple, the knowledge of all phenomena within a single thought is a temple.

That is to say, everywhere in the world can be a place for us to
learn the Dharma and attain enlightenment. In order to spread the Dharma
throughout the world, it should go into homes, schools, factories,
farms, workplaces, and military bases. By upholding the principles of
harmonizing the traditional and the modern, by sharing ownership between
monastics and laypeople, by equally emphasizing both practice and
understanding, and by integrating literature and art with Buddhism, we
will continue to promote Humanistic Buddhism.

Fo Guang Shan and its branch temples all include facilities like
auditoriums, conference rooms, classrooms, lounge areas, reception
areas, and libraries, along with the gradual addition of the Fo Guang
Yuan art galleries, Water Drop teahouses, and so on. Such an approach
allows devotees to come to the temple not only to worship the Buddha,
but also to receive the Dharma instruction that is offered in
auditoriums, conference rooms, and classrooms. In this way Fo Guang Shan
endeavors to combine the worldly with that which transcends the world,
and integrate society with the mountain monastery, so that monastics and
laypeople can practice anytime and anywhere.

With its transcendent spirit and worldly practicality, Buddhism
liberates living beings by bestowing upon them the Buddha’s wisdom and
compassion. The enterprises of the world with their profit motive must
also adapt to changes in external conditions from time to time, so that
they can provide the products and services that are aligned with the
people’s demands in a planned, organized, and efficient manner. That too
is using a spirit that transcends the world to do the work of the

Collective Creation

Organizations and enterprises must create new value, but this is
impossible to accomplish by relying solely on one individual to take
charge of everything and make all the decisions. What is needed is for
everyone to pull together their creative ideas and the will for
collective success.

In its early days, Fo Guang Shan had absolutely nothing. We had
neither modern equipment nor today’s popular management theory, but what
we did have was group planning and effort, and the tacit understanding
we all shared about collective creation. In 1967, the construction of
the temple began, and I brought along the first generation of my
disciples—Hsin Ping, Hsin Ting, Tzu Chuang, Tzu Hui, and Tzu Jung—and
together we began to toil and work. We cleared away each tree and moved
every rock. We drafted the general layout for the temple’s structure in
the Lichee Garden, and came up with our teaching guidelines in the old
Huiming Hall.

At each stage in going from nothing to something, there were perhaps
personal differences over understanding, conceptualization, and
judgment, but once an issue affected the general direction of Fo Guang
Shan, or what was needed to bring success to Buddhism, everyone promptly
came together. There was never any conflict sparked by personal or
selfish motives, for we shared a common determination to overcome any
difficulties and help each other work towards the same goal. This was
the spirit behind the founding of Fo Guang Shan.

“Collective creation” does not mean many people supporting the
dictatorship of one individual; rather, it means that each individual
within the collective participates equally, so we can broadly solicit
views and opinions from all corners. From Fo Guang Shan’s founding to
the present day, nearly every single issue has been decided
democratically. At all of our meetings at every level of the
organization, everyone has an equal opportunity to speak and exercise
their right to vote, regardless of their degree of seniority or the
duties they undertake. At the meetings I chair personally, anybody who
is so inclined is free to sit in and listen at any time. Not only does
this style reduce many of the barriers to getting things done, it also
ensures that members of Fo Guang Shan who attend these meetings can
learn the art of communication. Everyone has an opportunity to grow from
such experiences.

When I think of Fo Guang Shan’s initial building phase, images of how
all of us worked together from morning to night, shouldering loads of
bricks, sand, rock, and cement with sweat streaming down our backs flash
in my mind. After the hired workers had finished their day’s work and
gone home, Fo Guang Shan’s disciples would continue working. In
addition, there are no words to describe the assistance we received from
all of the laypeople who wished to support the Dharma. This is why I
often say, “the success of Fo Guang Shan belongs to everyone.” Fo Guang
Shan is not for any individual. Rather, it belongs to its more than
thirteen hundred monastic disciples, the millions of lay followers
around the world, its many benefactors, as well as people from all walks
of life. Fo Guang Shan was not something that was completed in a day or
a certain period of time; it succeeded, bit by bit, through the
continuous effort due to oneness and coexistence.

Systematic Leadership

Even during the Buddha’s time the monastic community had a well-developed organizational system. The Buddha set up the posadha system, in which monastics met regularly to reflect upon their religious lives and confess their faults, and the karman
system for conducting meetings and adopting resolutions. In these
systems we can see a set of legal procedures that are even more complete
in their details than those of many modern countries. The Buddha’s
management style reflects a deep understanding of human nature and his
system of rules and regulations are skillfully adaptive. The Buddha’s
monastic community could be ranked among the best of the many successful
enterprises we have today.

Never in my life have I worried about my future, and I have not set
my mind on any particular achievement. Things just fell into place
naturally. The year I turned fifty-eight, I relinquished my position as
abbot of Fo Guang Shan, but even then I was merely stepping down in
accordance with the system. I then left Fo Guang Shan and went directly
to Beihai Temple. I wanted to let my successor get on with the job,
which is why I did not want to linger at Fo Guang Shan. In Buddhism
there is a saying that one should “rely on the Dharma rather than an
individual”; organizations and enterprises, likewise, need clearly
defined and implementable system as they pursue success.

The Buddha’s Light International Association, a Buddhist organization
founded to encourage the participation of lay Buddhists, has a
membership now in the millions, while the entire Fo Guang Shan
organization operates harmoniously. We have furthered the work of
spreading the Dharma to all parts of the world, and each of our
successes has been achieved by operating within our system. In this way
the Dharma has been able to break through the barriers of race,
language, and culture, and we have been able to use Buddhist chanting,
calligraphy, writing, publishing, and visual and performing arts to
spread Humanistic Buddhism to every corner of the world.

The success of Fo Guang Buddhists can be seen as an example of
“cultivation without attainment”: in Fo Guang Shan, we have a policy
that glory belongs to the Buddha, and the success belongs to the
community. In this instance these achievements “belong” in the sense
that each person contributes their cultivation without expecting to gain
anything in return. In this way, Fo Guang Buddhists are one with all
living beings, and can coexist together in harmony.

Building One Brick at a Time

In Chinese there is an old saying: “When the eggs are not ready to
hatch, do not crack the shell; when the rice is not fully cooked, do not
lift the lid.” Trying to break open the eggs when they are not ready to
hatch will bring an untimely death to these small creatures, and trying
to lift the lid of the pot before the rice is fully cooked will make it
hard for the rice to be cooked tender.

There is no free lunch in this world. If you want to get something
you must give something. I would suggest that, when a person is young,
he or she should fear neither hardship, nor being at a disadvantage. One
should harden oneself with real experience with no expectation of
compensation. One should increase one’s own knowledge and experience, no
matter if that be through reading books, starting a major undertaking,
or engaging in some sort of work. Do not be eager for success: success
that comes too easily can lead to pride and disdain for others, and with
such irresolute aspirations, one will quickly fail and be laid low. A
lofty tower is built from the ground up: no real success in this world
is achieved all at once. Success does not happen by mere chance, nor is
it a product of instant results. Rather, it is solidly built one brick
at a time. Great minds often develop gradually. Likewise, there is a
saying in Taiwan that goes: “a big rooster takes its time crowing.”

Quick success is not really all that good. Take trees for example:
those that mature in a year are only good for firewood, while those that
mature in three to five years can be made into tables and chairs. Only
trees that take decades and decades to mature can be made into pillars
and beams. That is why we should “cultivate without attainment,” and
free ourselves of that win or lose mentality that leads to hasty work.
We must gradually cultivate and refine ourselves, and wait until the
conditions are right. As it is said, the journey of a thousand miles
begins with the first step; so never get ahead of yourself nor delude
yourself with the idea that chanting Amitabha Buddha’s name for two days
will give you a diamond-like mind capable of overcoming evil.

After Hongren, the Fifth Patriarch of the Chan School, gave the
monastic robe and alms bowl to Huineng, signifying that he was now the
Sixth Patriarch, he escorted Huineng to a riverbank and said to him:

Henceforth, you shall spread the Dharma far and wide. You
should depart now and quickly travel south. Do not start teaching too
quickly because it is difficult to spread the Dharma.

The Fifth Patriarch was telling Huineng not to be too eager to spread
the Dharma publicly. It is important to wait for the right opportunity.
This was why Huineng lived in seclusion among a band of hunters, eating
some vegetables that he added to their pot of meat, as he bided his
time. A favorable opportunity is when all the conditions are right. Any
matter can easily succeed, if it happens at just the right moment when
the causes and conditions are in place.

The Ten Directions and Three Time Periods

People often ask me, “The Fo Guang Shan monastic order is large and
its activities are on an immense scale, how do you manage it all? How do
you keep everyone focused, harmonious, and without contention?”

I always like to reply by sharing an old Buddhist expression:
“Pervade across the ten directions and extend down through the three
time periods.”3

The expression “Pervade across the ten directions and extend down
through the three times periods” describes our own intrinsic Buddha
nature. The size of everything in the world is limited, the only things
large enough to “pervade across the ten directions” are prajna,
our intrinsic nature, and the Dharmakaya. Such things are so large that
nothing is outside them and so small that nothing more can be contained
within; for they pervade everyplace and exist everywhere. In terms of
time, although our physical bodies are born and die and our lives come
to an end, our intrinsic Buddha wisdom can transcend the temporal
limitations of past, present, and future. It neither arises nor ceases
and does not come or go, which is why it “extends down through the three
time periods.”

The year I stepped down as abbot of Fo Guang Shan my successor,
Venerable Hsin Ping, would come and ask me the same question whenever
any major event was about to take place at the monastery. He would ask,
“How should we handle it this year?”

I would always answer, “Look to what was done before.”

Referencing earlier precedents means striving for consistency with
the monastery’s guiding principles, yet as times change, all things
should also undergo some reform and innovation. This is why I said to
look to what was done before, not to follow what was done before.

To build people’s faith in the Dharma I have gone from riding a
bicycle down to the village in my early years to taking automobiles.
Because of this modernized society, instead of walking, I can now fly to
and fro through the sky. I deeply appreciate how these modern forms of
transportation offer many conveniences for teaching the Dharma. However,
an appropriate respect for tradition can allow people to see the true
meaning of Buddhism. For example, beginning in 1988 and continuing every
other year afterwards, Fo Guang Shan has an alms procession, in which
monastics collect donations with their bowls as in the time of the
Buddha. Not only does this activity serve to bring the light of the
Buddha’s compassion to every corner of Taiwan and give Buddhists an
opportunity to make offerings and generate merit, it is a good
experience for the monastics as well. In 1988 I launched a series of
events across Taiwan entitled “Returning to the Buddha’s Time,”
featuring ceremonies, performances, and a Dharma talk. The events used
modern audio-visual multimedia to enable the audience of tens of
thousands to travel back in time and return to the sacred site of
Vulture Peak where the Buddha was teaching twenty-five hundred years ago
and share in the Dharma joy of Buddhist chanting.

The policy of referring to past precedents is a manifestation of
“extending down through the three time periods.” Whenever some
improvement is introduced, it goes through a process of discussion and
coordination and then later becomes widely known to everyone. Meetings
are an indispensable part of this process. There are times when students
ask to attend our meetings, and I do not refuse them.

In the past I served on the monastery staff, and while taking care of
guests I developed a keen awareness as to how all things are connected.
Each moment can be considered as a point that leads to some other
point, together these points make a line, and by observing many of these
lines, one comes to an understanding of the whole. By seeing some
individual matter as part of the whole, then one can tweak its temporal
and spatial qualities in just the right way so that nothing will be left

Buddha nature permeates everywhere, “pervading across the ten
directions and extending down through the three time periods.” Because
of this, in terms of our essence, both the Buddha and I possess the same
Buddha nature. Therefore, I need not submit to force, nor become
beguiled by wealth and honor. I am one with all living beings. Sometimes
I may sit upon a high throne and expound the sublime truths of the
Buddha, while at other times I can toil and work for the benefit of
living beings and contribute through my sacrifice. I can be great or be
small, I can come first or come last, I can do with or do without, I can
handle happiness or suffering, I can expand or contract, and I can bear
being full or being hungry. I was not born with the ability to do
everything, but I am always willing to try.

It is because of the maxim “pervade across the ten directions and
extend down through the three time periods” that we must throw open the
universal gate. There can be no racial barriers or special treatment. We
must be able to lead people from all walks of life, regardless of their
religious and social backgrounds, into sharing equally in the benefits
of the Dharma. This will enable all living beings from different regions
of the world and different stations in life to benefit from the
Dharma’s various positive connections, and bestow them upon society.

Buddhist Success: Paramita

As mentioned previously, paramita is a Sanskrit word that means “success,” “crossing from this shore to the other shore,” and “the perfect tranquility of nirvana.

We know that we must go from this shore of delusion and cross to the
other shore of enlightenment, but can we do this just by thinking about
it from time to time?

The Diamond Sutra says we should “Give rise to a mind that does not abide in anything.
In this instance, “abide” means to be attached to something,
particularly attached to an independent self. When we become too focused
on this sense of an independent self we become attached to the
perceived value of this “self,” and thus cling to certain ideas and
never let them go. When we worry too much about the gains and losses of
this “self” our feelings become deluded by love, hate, sadness, and
happiness. Having a mind that does not abide in anything calls upon us
to live in the world according to the selflessness of prajna, for this is the only way to reach the state of nirvana. Nirvana is:

  • Complete tranquility
  • The highest bliss
  • Everlasting happiness
  • Complete merit and wisdom
  • Total freedom from desire
  • The ultimate state of liberation
  • True reality

Success in Buddhism is transcending this shore with its affliction,
delusion, and suffering, and crossing to the other shore of purity and
tranquility, where no afflictions appear and all suffering has ended.
The specific practice to accomplish this is a group of virtues called
the “six paramitas” or “six perfections.” The six paramitas are:

  1. Giving (dana-paramita)Giving is to take what one has or knows
    and give it to others. Besides the giving of wealth and property, this
    also includes giving the Dharma and confidence or fearlessness to
    others. The paramita of giving can help to eliminate the defilement of greed.
  2. Morality (sila-paramita)The basis of Buddhist morality is the
    five precepts, but it is not enough to think that the five precepts are
    just about not doing this or not doing that. The five precepts should
    be viewed in positive terms, for that is the path to happiness. For
    example, one should go beyond the first precept “not to kill” and in
    addition actively protect life. One can go beyond “not stealing” and
    practice giving. One can go beyond “not committing sexual misconduct”
    and be respectful. One can go beyond “not lying” and give praise. Going
    beyond not killing to protect life leads to a long life; going beyond
    not stealing to practice giving brings riches; going beyond not
    committing sexual misconduct to being respectful leads to a pleasant
    family life; and going beyond not lying to giving praise means that one
    will have a good reputation.
  3. Patience (ksanti-paramita)In Buddhism there are three kinds
    of patience: the patience for life, the patience for phenomena, and the
    patience for non-arising phenomena.4 A bodhisattva is one who patiently endures all the humiliations of life, as well as cold, heat, hunger, thirst, and so on. The paramita of patience can help to eliminate the defilement of anger.
  4. Diligence (virya-paramita)The paramita of diligence
    includes physical diligence and mental diligence. Mental diligence means
    earnestly practicing wholesome teachings while taking care to eliminate
    the roots of unwholesomeness. The paramita of diligence is the antidote for laziness and idleness.
  5. Meditative Concentration (dhyana-paramita)The paramita
    of meditative concentration comes from making one’s mind free of
    distractions such that it does not become confused or deluded by worldly
    matters. The paramita of meditative concentration can remove the defilement of doubt.
  6. Prajna (prajna-paramita)The paramita of prajna is the most important of the paramitas, and the forerunner of the other five. By using prajna wisdom one can eradicate the defilement of ignorance.

I loved playing basketball when I was young, so I often draw my
analogies from basketball: be it spiritual cultivation, academic study,
or interacting with others, they’re all like playing basketball. For
example, when trying to get along with others, you should not go off to
fight your own battles, for it is important to remember team spirit. One
should wait for the right time to act, just as when one has possession
of the ball, one must wait for any opportunity to make a shot. And if
you break the rules, you must admit your fault, just as in raising one’s
hand in a game.

When playing basketball, one must have the spirit of the six paramitas:
you must pass the ball to your teammates to help them to score points
on a basket (giving), you need to play by the rules of the court
(morality), you must show restraint to avoid being bumped by others
during the heat of a match (patience), you must practice your skills if
you want to score (diligence), and, in addition to fundamentals, you
must develop basketball strategy in order to win (prajna).

Why is prajna considered the foremost paramita? The Treatise on the Perfection of Great Wisdom says, “the other five perfections are blind without prajna to guide them.” It is impossible to reach the ultimate goal by relying only upon the other five paramitas and attempting to do without prajna. This is why prajna is described as the foundation of the six paramitas and is also the foundation of the Dharma.

The Lotus Sutra states, “The turmoil of the three realms is
like a burning house.” The three realms of Buddhist cosmology (the
desire realm, the form realm, and the formless realm) are like a burning
house. But if we make our minds nice and cool, then the blaze of
suffering that presses upon us will disappear. Only by cultivating prajna without the expectation of gain can we succeed with the six paramitas.

Once the Chan master Caoshan Huixia said to his attendant, “An
enlightened person will be unperturbed by heat, no matter how hot it
gets inside or outside.”

Huixia’s attendant agreed. Huixia then asked, “If it were extremely hot now, where would you go to escape it?”

The attendant answered, “I would seek refuge in a burning-hot cauldron.”

Huixia was puzzled. He asked further, “Nothing is hotter than a cauldron. Why would you seek refuge in such blazing heat?”

Pointing at his heart, the attendant answered, “The great mass of suffering cannot reach me here.”

The Diamond Sutra reveals to us the secret of success: to have a mind that does not abide in anything. This is prajna.
The mind itself is all of wondrous existence, while abiding in nothing
is true emptiness; and there cannot be wondrous existence without true
emptiness. The prajna of the Buddha can make one
understand the mind and body with crystal clarity, like the moon
reflected in water, transporting one from this shore of delusion and
attachment to the other shore that is permanent, blissful, pure, and has
an inherent self. Practitioners are able to turn a world of blazing
heat into a realm that is refreshingly cool, and transform defilement
and affliction into the Pure Land. Such people find no situation in
which they are not content.

1. These are the “five causes of loss”: five things mentioned in the Buddhist sutras that can destroy our wealth. Ed.

The three kinds of supernatural knowledge are knowledge of past,
present, and future lives, heavenly eyes, and the power of ending all
defilement. Ed.

橫遍十方,豎窮三際: The ten directions are the four cardinal directions, the
four intermediate directions, plus above and below, and the three time
periods are the past, present, and future. There is a suggestion in the
Chinese expression that space exists on a horizontal plane and that time
exists on a vertical plane, with the two together encompassing
everything. Ed.

This type of patience comes from the realization that, on a
supramundane level, phenomena do not truly arise or cease, and all
things are simply as they are. Ed.

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Voice of All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS)

BSP chief Mayawati addressed the allegations of having made a
“personal attack” on Prime Minister Narendra Modi, after she said that
he had abandoned his wife for political gains. She said that those who
“deserve to get abused”, get abused “eventually”.

Makkal Needhi Maiyam (MNM) founder Kamal Haasan stoked a controversy,
saying free India’s first “terrorist was a Hindu, and his name was
Nathuram Godse” — who killed Mahatma Gandhi. Addressing an election
campaign in Tamil Nadu on Sunday night, the actor-politician said he was
one of those “proud Indians” who desires an India with equality and
where the “three colours” in the tricolour, an obvious reference to
different faiths, “remained intact.”

“I am not saying this because this is a Muslim-dominated area, but I
am saying this before a statue of Gandhi. Free India’s first terrorist
was a Hindu, his name is Nathuram Godse. There it (terrorism,
apparently) starts,” he said.

Murderer of democratic institutions and Master of diluting
institutions (Modi) gobbled the Master Key by tampering the fraud
EVMs.Its software and the source code is hidden from the candidates and
voters diluting the Universal Adult Franchise. To restore it 99.9% all
aboriginal awakened societies must unite for a real freedom struggle
against just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists
of the world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded
Paradesis from Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Rakshasa
Swayam Sevaks) remotely controlling the stooges, slaves, chamchas,
chelas, bootlickers, own mother’s flesh eaters ( Brashtachar Jhoothe
Psychopaths (BJP) full of haterd, anger, jealousy, delusion, stupidity
that are defilement of the mind requiring mental treatment in mental
asylums at Bene Israel. to save Universal Adult Franchise, Democracy,
Equality, Fraternity, Liberty as enshrined in our Marvelous Modern

Because the Ruler changes but not the Ruling! Policy changes but not
principle of governance ! Ruling Brahman changes but not Brahmanism! BJP
Brahman goes & Congress Brahman comes! Congress Brahman goes &
BJP Brahman comes! Both are against your change from slavery to

Just 0.1% intolerant, violent, militant, number one terrorists of the
world, ever shooting, mob lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded paradesi
foreigners of Bene Israel chitpavan brahmins of RSS (Rowdy Rakshasa
Swayam Sevaks) are ruling 99.9% all Awakened Aboriginal Societies by
tampering the Fraud EVMs/ VVPATs. Savarkar, naturam Godse, Vinoba Bhave,
Tilak, Gokhale are RSS, Hindu Mahasabha are all chitpavan brahmins. It
is of the chitpavan brahmins, by the chitpavan brahmins and for the
chitpavan brahmins. If elections are conducted with ballot papers they
will get only 0.1% votes. In other phases more than 180 candidate must
contest in each constituency where the EC (Election Criminals ) will be
compelled to use Ballot Papers and to save Universal Adult Franchise.

The Bene Israel claim that Chitpavans are also of Jewish origin.

The Konkan region witnessed the immigration of groups, such as the Bene Israel, and Kudaldeshkars.
Each of these settled in distinct parts of the region and there was
little mingling between them. The Chitpavans were apparently the last
major community to arrive there and consequently the area in which they
settled, around Ratnagiri, was the least fertile and had few good ports
for trading.

Historians cite nepotism and corruption
as causes of the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818. Richard Maxwell
Eaton states that this rise of the Chitpavans is a classic example of
social rank rising with political fortune.
The British would not subsidize the Chitpavans on the same scale that
their caste-fellow, the Peshwas, had done in the past. Pay and power was
now significantly reduced.


The RSS was founded in 1925 by the Maratha Brahmin Keshav Baliram
Hegdewar on the Aryan Vaishnava Holy day of Vijaya Dashami (the 10th day
of the moon) when the Aryan invader Rama destroyed the Dravidian Empire
of Lanka [ Sangh ]. This was done to symbolise its inherent anti-Sudra
nature. Its organisation is highly skewed, with the Sar Sangh Chalak
(supreme dictator) at the top [ Roots ]. This person can only be a

RSS militia is organised around local cells or `shakas’ where
weapons are distributed to its hardcore members, who are drilled in a
vigorous program of harsh discipline. RSS converted hindu temples serve
as repositories of weapons as well as centers of dissemination of its
racist ideology of Aryan supremacy. RSS cadre graduate to the BJP.

VHP (Vishwa Hindu Parishad)

The council was established on August 29, 1964 in Bombay, Maharastra
[ Biju ] with a political objective of establishing the supremacy of
Hinduism all over the world. It obtains funds and recruits from Aryan
Hindus all across the globe, especially from the US, UK and Canada and
has grown to become the main fund-raising agency of Brahmanist
Fundamentalism. The council was instrumental in the demolition of the
holiest Islamic shrine in Oudh, the Babri Masjid at Ayodhya and has
organised several massacres of Muslims and Christians. It is in the
forefront in the call for a Hindu Rashtra, a Hindu State ethnically
cleansed of its non-Aryan populations.

Bajrang Dal ( Party of Monkey God called Hanuman.)

The militant wing of the VHP, it was formed “to counter `Sikh
militancy’ ” during the Sikh Genocide of 1983-84 [ Bajrang ]. Created
with the objective of the eradication of Sikhs which it has termed
“Muslims in disguise”, its cadres fought alongside Congress-backed
Hindutva militias during the massacre of 200,000 Sikhs under Indira
Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi. Recruits carry a ” knife-like trident to be
slung across the shoulder – an answer to the Sikh kirpan ” [ Bajrang ].
later it has subsequently expanded its targets to include Muslims and
Christians as well.


This front comprises students of Hindu religious schools
(vidyalayas). It has expanded its base by infiltration into `secular’
universities. Its higher-ranking cadres are well-equipped with weaponry;
they often organise communal campus disturbances against Christians,
Muslims, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains. Most of its members graduate to
become hardcore RSS and VHP militants.

All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) Votes are for
All Awakened Aboriginal Societies (VoAAAS) and not for just
0.1% intolerant,militant,violent, number one terrorists of the
world,ever shooting, mob lynching,lunatic, mentally retarded foreigners
of Bend Israel paradesis chitpavan brahmins of
Rowdy Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) remotely controlling Stooges, chamchas,
Slaves, chelas, bootlickers, own mother’s flesh eaters Murderers of
democratic and Master of diluting institutions(Modi) and the
Brashtachar Jhoothe Psychopaths(BJP)

RSS : World’s largest terrorist Organization?
Oct 22, 2016 #1
Banglar Bir
Banglar Bir

Joined:Mar 19, 2006
Ratings:+1 / 3,846 / -4 Bangladesh
About Hindutva, Sanghparivar, RSS, Fascism, Religious Terror,
“The whole business of Hindutva and its nationalism is a poison in the
body politic of India. We have to accept that the poison has been
injected and it will take a lot to purge it,” Arundhati Roy

RSS : World’s largest terrorist Organization?

What makes one or an organization terrorist?

American Heritage Dictionary: The unlawful use or threatened use of
force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or
property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or
governments, often for ideological or political reasons.

Does the Sanghparivar have any of these qualities in its work to make it not to declare a terrorist organization?

An American research centre has placed our ultra-nationalist
Rashtrya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS) on its terrorist list. The East
Virginia-based Terrorism Research Center (TRC) is closely connected to
the American government and many of its directors and researchers have
closely worked with US administrations and have taken part in research
and planning for the US administration.

In the list of ?? in India, the TRC has placed RSS under no. 21.
Here is the link as it appeared on 9 September 2004 on the group?s
website under the caption ?Known Terrorist Groups Operating in India?.

The Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale,
whom Gandhi acknowledged as a preceptor, and Vinoba Bhave, one of his
outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the “jewel of his
disciples”, and recognised Gokhale as his political guru. However,
strong opposition to Gandhi came from the Chitpavan community. Vinayak
Damodar Savarkar, the founder of the political ideology hindutva,
was a chitpavan brahmin and several other chitpavans were among the
first to embrace it because they thought it was a logical extension of
the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak.
These Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform
movement of Phule and the mass politics of Gandhi. Large numbers of the
community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. ,
drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.The
upper castes, that is, Marathi Brahmins, Saraswat Brahmins and Prabhus
(CKPs and Pathare Prabhus)
were only about 4% of the population in Maharashtra. A majority of this
4% were Brahmins. As per the 1901 census, about 5% of the Pune
population was Brahmin and about 27% of them were Chitpawans.
Anti-Brahmin violence in the 20th century after Gandhi’s assassination

After Gandhi’s assassination by Nathuram Godse, a Chitpawan, Brahmins
in Maharashtra, became targets of violence, mostly by members from the
caste. The motivating factor for the violence was not love for Gandhi
on the part of the rioters but the denigration and humiliation that the Marathas were subjected to due to their caste status.
In the Patwardhan princely states such as Sangli, the Marathas were joined by the Jains and the Lingayats
in the attacks against the Brahmins. Here, specifically, advanced
factories owned by the Chitpawans were destroyed. This event led to the
hasty integration of the Patwardhan states into the Bombay Province by
March 1948 – a move that was opposed by other Brahmins as they feared
the Maratha predominance in the integrated province. During early 20th
century, the ruler of Kolhapur state, Shahu had collaborated with the
British against the Indian freedom struggle – a struggle that was
identified with Chitpavans like Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
He was also instrumental in shaping anti-Brahmin attitude in the
non-Brahmin communities during that period. This led to great violence
against Brahmins in Kolhapur.
Social status

Earlier, the Deshastha Brahmins believed that they were the highest
of all Brahmins and looked down upon the Chitpavans as parvenus (a
relative newcomer to a socio-economic class), barely equal to the
noblest of dvijas. The Deshastha Brahmins and the Karhadas
treated the Peshwa’s caste with contempt and refused to interdine with
them. Even during the days of earlier Peshwa’s they hesitated the admit
the Chitpavans to social equality.Even the Peshwa was denied the rights
to use the ghats reserved for Deshastha priests at Nashik on the
Godavari river.
The rise in prominence of the Chitpavans compared to the
Deshastha Brahmins resulted in intense rivalry between the two
communities.19th century records also mention Gramanyas or village-level
debates between the Chitpavans and Daivajnas, Chandraseniya Kayastha
Prabhus and the Chitpawans, Saraswat Brahmins and the Chitpavans,
Pathare Prabhus and the Chitpavans and Shukla Yujurvedi Deshastha
Brahmins and the Chitpavans. These were quite common in Maharashtra.

in 01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pali,
06) Classical Devanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,

07) Classical Cyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans

09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,
14) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
15) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
16) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
17) Classical  Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
18) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
19) Classical  Catalan-Català clàssic
20) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo,

21) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,

22) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),

23) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),

24) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,

25) Classical  Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,

26) Classical  Czech-Klasická čeština,
27) Classical  Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,

28) Classical  Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
29) Classical English,Roman
30) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,

31) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,

32) Classical Filipino,
33) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,

34) Classical French- Français classique,

35) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,

36) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
37) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,

38) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
39) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
40) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
41) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,

42) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
43) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,

44) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
45) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,

46) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,

47) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
48) Classical Igbo,

49) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,

50) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
51) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
52) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
53) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
54) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
55) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,

56) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
57) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,

58) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),

59) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
60) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
61) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,

62) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,

63) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,

64) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,

65) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
66) Classical Malagasy,
67) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,

68) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,

69) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
70) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
71) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,

72) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,

73) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),

74) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
75) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,

76) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو

77) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
78) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,

79) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
80) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
81) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
82) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
83) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
84) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
85) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
86) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
87) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
88) Classical Sindhi,
89) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,

90) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
91) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
92) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
93) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
94) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
95) Classical Swahili,
96) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
97) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,

98) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
99) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
100) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
101) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
102) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
103) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
104) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’zbek,
105) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việt cổ điển,

106) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
107) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
108) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש

109) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
110) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu


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Maha Sathipattana Suthraya - මහා සතිපට්ඨාන සුත්‍රය -

 Maha-parinibbana Sutta — Last Days of the Buddha

The Great Discourse on the Total Unbinding

wide-ranging sutta, the longest one in the Pali canon, describes the
events leading up to, during, and immediately following the death and
final release (parinibbana) of the Buddha. This colorful narrative
contains a wealth of Dhamma teachings, including the Buddha’s final
instructions that defined how Buddhism would be lived and practiced long
after the Buddha’s death — even to this day. But this sutta also
depicts, in simple language, the poignant human drama that unfolds among
the Buddha’s many devoted followers around the time of the death of
their beloved teacher.
Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ (Pali) - 2 Kāyānupassanā ānāpānapabbaṃ


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