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VR1 MEDIA FREE ONLINE TRAINING ON PRECEPTS AND TRADE-34- ON MORALITY THE WAY OF CULTIVATION-Comprehensive Plāi Course-Chart Comparing and contrasting hindrances and fetters under the five heads-PIL to include neo-Buddhists in SC/ST category filed in HC
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For Buddhism, the five precepts and ten wholesome conducts represent the standard for human morality. They encourage us to “commit no wrongdoings and only practice good deeds” and not infringe on the body, wealth, reputation, or dignity of others. They can completely transform the human mind and provide order to network of human relations for the improvement of society. For Buddhism, practicing the six perfections is the criterion for a moral life. Of the six perfections, upholding the precepts, meditation and prajna - wisdom are considered the “three studies”. They can cure the three poisons - greed, anger, and ignorance - and restrain human selfishness. If a person upholds the precepts, he or she will not be selfish; and without selfishness, greed will not arise.By meditating, a person will not harm others; and without harm, anger will not arise. If a person cultivates prajna - wisdom, he or she will not be ignorant; and without ignorance, stupidity cannot exist. Once greed, anger, and ignorance are eleminated and a person practices giving charity, then a benevlent and compassionate mindwill manifest itself naturally. By practicing patience, it will be possible for a person to perfect a resolute spirit. By practicing diligence, a person will be filled with a fearless strength.

Comprehensive Plāi Course



            The i language consists of 41 letters of which 8 are sara (vowels) and 33 are
byanjana (consonants).

Vowels:            a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, o

Of these
a, i, u are short and ā, i,
  ū are long;
e, o may be

short or long, according to the context.


: Gutterals (Ka-vagga)
       :           k, kh, g, gh,

                        Palatals (ca-vagga)      :           c,
ch, j, jh, ñ,

                        Cerebrals (ta-vagga)    :           , h, , h, ,

                        Dantals (ta-vagga)        :           t,
th, d, dh, n,

                        Labials (pa-vagga)       :          
p, ph, b, bh, m,

                        Aspirate                       :           y, r, l, v,

                        Niggahīta:                    :           s, h, , a,


Parts of


are four parts of speech in
i :

            1.         Nāma               =          Noun.

            2.         Akkāta =          Verb.

            3.         Upasagga        =          Prefix.

            4.         Nipāta              =          indeclinable particles,

such as, Conjunctions,

prepositions, adverbs etc.


are treated as nons because they are

Similarly declined.



There are 3 genders (linga) in Pāi language, viz.,

            1.         Pullingga                     =          Masculine gender.

            2.         Itthilinga                      =          Feminine

            3.         Napumsakalinga          =          Neuter

which denote males are masculine and

Those which denote females are
feminine. But qualities

and inanimate things are not
necessarily neuter.

Therefore, gender in Pāi is only a
grammatical distinction

existing in words.



In Pāi there are two numbers (vacana):

            1.         Ekavacana       =          Singular

            2.         Bahuvacana    =          plural numbers.

                        i does not have dual,
as found in Sanskrit.

This makes Pāi simpler.



There are 8 cases in Pāi:

1. Pahamā vibhatti     = Nominative case       = subject

2. Dutiyā vibhatti          =
Accusative case         = Object

3.Tatiyā vibhatti           =
Instrumental case (prepositions)

by, with,through

4. Catuth vibhatti        = Dative case               = to, far

5. Pancami vibhatti      = Ablative
case            = from

6. Chaṭṭhī vibhatti       = Genitive/possessive case = of

7. Sattamī vibhatti       = Locative
case           =on, in, at,


8. Alapana vibhatti      = Vocative case           = Oh, etc.

are declined according th the genders,

Numbers and cases.




Exercise 1


Translate into English:


Dārakā ganassa magge



Boys on the path of

Buddho Lokassa ācariyo.


The Awakened One, the
Teacher of the world.

Sagahassa Samaa panditā.


The monks of the Holy
Order, wise ones.

ācayiyana vihāresu Sāvakā


Disciples in the
monastries of the teachers.

Bālassa dārakā panditā.


The boys of the
ignorant wise ones.


Gāme Sāvakāna vihārā.


The monasteries of the
disciples in the village.

Lobbhassa, Dosassa,
Mohassa maggo b


For the ignorant the
path of greed, hatred, delusion.

Buddhassa sāvakā pādena gāmesu.


Disciples of the
Buddha in the villages by foot.


Manussāna ācariyo samano.


The monk, the teacher
of the men.

Buddhassa maggo panditāna.


Exercise - 2

Translate into Pāli:



The Teachings of the
Awakened One.

Buddhassa Dhammo



The monks of the Holy
Order of the Awakened One.

Buddhassa Sanghassa



The Awakened One’s
disciple’ monastery in the village.

Buddhassa sāvākānam vihāro gāmasmi.



Ignorant among men.

Manusessesu Bālā.



Wise ones with

āchariyehi panditā.



Boys from the village.

Gāmato dārakā.



Ignorants on the path
of greed, hatred and delusion.

Bālā lobassa, dosassa, mohassa maggamhi.



Path through monastery
to the village of men.

Manussāna gāmassa maggo vihārena.



Monks by foot on the
path of the village of men.

Gāmassa maggasmim pādena.


The disciples of the
Awakened One among men in the village.

Buddhasssa sāvakā manussesu gāmasmi.





Declension of nouns (Nāma vibhatti)

Masculine gender (Noun ending in a)


Vibhatti                        Singular                       Plural

1.         Pahamā         :           0                                  ā

Dutiyā :           a

3.         Tatiyā              :           ena                              ebhi,

4.         Catuth            :           assa, āya                     āna

5.         Pancami          :           ā, asmā, amhā, to        ebhi, ehi

6.         Chaṭṭhī            ;           assa                             āna

7.         Sattamī            :           e, asmi, amhi            esu

8.         Alapana           :           a                                  ā


   Buddha = The awakened One.



Vibhatti                        Singular                       Plural

1.         Pahamā         :           Buddho                        Buddhā

Dutiyā :           Buddha

3.         Tatiyā              :           Buddhena(by)  Buddhebhi, Buddheni

4.         Catutthī            :           Buddhaassa (to)                      

                                                Buddhāya        (for)

5.         Pancami          :           Buddhā,                       Buddhebhi,Buddheni




6.         Chaṭṭhī            ;           Buddhassa
(of) Buddhāna

7.         Sattamī            :           Buddhe (on)                 Buddhesu

                                                Buddhasmi (in)


8.         Alapana           :           Buddha!
(oh)                Buddhā



: The following words are similarly declined:


Buddha =
The Awakened One
ṇḍita = wise One

Dhamma =
The teachings of the
         Sāvaka =

                        Buddha, Truth              Lobha = Greed

Sañgha =
Order of the Buddha’s
         Vihāra =

                        Monastic disciples       Dosa = Hatred

Samaa = Monk                                  Pāda = foot

Bāla =
= Delusion

Dāraka =
= Teacher

Gāma =
= Man

Magga =
= World





Conjugation of Verbs (Kriya


Verbs are conjugated according to
persons, tenses

and voices.


Persons: There are 3 persons

Pathama Purisa           =          Third

Majjhima Purisa          =          Second

Uttama Purisa =          First


Pronouns (Sabbanama):

So                    =          He

Te                    =          They

Tvam               =          You

Tumhe =          You (plural)

Aham               =          I

Mayam =          WE


Tense:  There are 3 tenses (Kāla)

Vattamana Kāla           =          Present Tense

Atita Kāla                     =          Past Tense

Anagata Kāla               =          Future Tense


Voices: There are 2 voices:

Kattukāraka                 =          Active voice

Kammakāraka =          Passive voice


Conjugation:    Active voice: Present Tense:


Person                         Singular           Plural

Pathama Purisa           ti                      anti

Majjhima Purisa          si                      tha

Uttama Purisa  mi                    ma

For examble:   VKar    = to do


Person                         Singular           Plural

Pathama          Kar + ti = Karoti           Kar
+ anti = Karoniti

Majjhima         Kar + si = Karosi          Kar
+ tha = Karotha

Uttama             Kar = mi = Karomi       Kar
+ ma = Karoma


I do                  =          Aham karomi

We do              =          Mayam

You do =          Tvam karosi

You do =          Tumhe karotha

He does           =          So karoti

They do           =          Te karonti


Vocabulary: Similarly conjugated

Vgam   =
to go             so gacchati = he goes

Vvas     =
to stay           so vasati     = he lives, dwells, resides

Vsi       =
to sleep         so sayati     = he sleeps

Vdis     =
to see            so passati   = he sees, understands

Vbhas = to speak         so bhasati   = he speaks

Vtha    = to stand         so
titthati    = he stands

ni+Vsid= to sit  so nisidati  
= he sits

a+Vgam= to come       so agacchati = he comes, returns

Vdes    =
to teach, instruct       so deseti = he


Vcar     =
to travel, move         so carati = he
travels, moves  

Vyac    =
to beg           so yacati                      = he begs

Vbhuj   = to eat            so
bhunjati                   = he eats

Vda      =
to give          so dadati or deti          = gives, offers

A+Vda= to take            so adati                        =he takes,


Carati               = to behave, to

Ganhati            = to take, to hold

Panatipata       = killing

Natthi               = is not, be not, has not

Ama or evam = yes

Saranam          = refuge, protection

Ca                    =


Chart Comparing and
contrasting hindrances and fetters under the five heads


Sl.        Akussala
        Fetters            Hindrances     Hihdrances
& Hindrances     fetters

No.      Cetasikas                                            fetters             not fetters       not hindrances                                                1.
(delusion), Derived from Ö muh, to be stupefied, to be deluded.
Moha is one of the three roots of evil and is common to all immoral
types of consciousness. It is opposed to paññā - wisdom.

The chief characteristic of moha
is confusion with regard to the nature of an object. Moha clouds one’s
knowledge with regard to Kamma and its consequences and the four Noble Truths.

 2. Ahirikam,

(shamelessness), An abstract noun formed of “a”
+ hirika.

He who is not ashamed of doing evil
is ahiriko. The state of such a person is ahirikkam = ahirikam.

One who has hiri recoils from
evil just as a cock’s feather shrinks in front of fire. One who has no hiri,
would commit any evil without the least compunction.

 3. Anottappam

(fearlessness), Na + ava + Ö tapp,
to be tormented.

Ottappa is fear to do evil,
i.e., fear of the Consequences.

Anottappa is its opposite and
is compared to a moth that is singed by fire. A person who is afraid of fire
would not touch it, but a moth, unaware of the consequences, attracted by fire,
would get burnt. In the same way a person without ottappa would commit
evil and
suffer in states of woe.

4. Uddhaccam,

(restlessness) U = up, above,
Dhu, to waver, to shake off.

Uddhutassa bhāvo Uddhuccam =
- state of throwing up. It is compared to the disturbed state of
a heap of ashes when hit with a stone. It is the unsettled state of mind, and
is opposed to collectedness (vupasama). As one of the five Hindrances it
is the antithesis of sukha, happiness.

In some rare instances uddhacca
is used in the sense of puffed-up state of mind, corresponding to conceit. Here
it is not used in that sense. As a rule uddhacca is differentiated from māna
because both of them are treated as samyojanas (Fetters).

These four, viz., moha, ahirika,
anottappa, uddhacca
- that head the list of Immoral cetasikas - are
common to all Immoral types of consciousness.

5. Lobho,

attachment must arise. See Ch. 1,
note 9. Lobha, dosa, and moha are the three roots of
evil. Their opposites are the roots of good.

Lobha, from Ö lubh,
to cling, or attach itself, may be rendered by ‘attachment’ or ‘clinging’. Some
scholars prefer ‘greed’. Craving is also used as an equivalent of lobha.

In the case of a desirable object of
sense, there arises, as a rule, clinging or attachment. In the case of an
undesirable object, ordinarily there is aversion.

In Pāli such aversion is termed dosa
or patigha. Dosa is derived from
Ö dus, to be displeased.
Patigha is derived from ‘pati’, against, and
Ö ‘gha’
to strike, to contact. Ill-will, hatred are also suggested as
equivalents of ‘patigha’.

Moha is derived from Ö muh,
to delude. It is delusion, stupidity, bewilderment. It is ‘moha’ that
clouds an object and blinds the mind. Sometimes ‘moha’ is rendered by

According to Abhidhamma, moha
is common to all evil. Lobha and dosa do not arise alone, but
always in combination with moha. Moha, on the other hand, does arise singly-hence
the designation ‘momūha’, intense delusion.

Diametrically opposed to the above
three roots are the roots of kusala. They not only indicate the absence
of certain evil conditions, but also signify the presence of certain positive
good conditions. Alobha does not merely mean non-attachment, but also
generosity. Adosa does not merely mean non-anger or non-hatred, but also
goodwill, or benevolence, or loving-kindness (mettā). Amoha does not
merely mean non-delusion, but also wisdom or knowledge (ñāna or paññā).


 6. Ditthi,

misbelief must arise. This term is derived
‘dis’, to see, to perceive. It is usually translated as view, belief,
opinion, etc. When qualified by ’samma’, it means right view or right
belief; when qualified by ‘micchā’, it means wrong view or wrong belief.
Here the term is used without any qualification in the sense of wrong view.

 7. Māno,

conceit cannot arise.
Derived from Ö man, to think.

8. Doso,


9. Issā,

(envy) Derived
from i +
Ö su, to be envious, to be jealous.

10. Macchariyam,

 (avarice) Maccharassa bhāvo - the
state of an avaricious person.

Commentary gives another

‘Let not this wonder be to others,
but to myself’.

(Mā idam acchariyam aññesam hotu,
mayham’ev hotu).

The chief characteristic of macchariya
is the concealment of one’s prosperity. Contrary to issā, this is

Both issā and macchariya
are regarded as the friends of dosa because each of them arises


11. Kukkuccam,

 (brooding) Kukatassa bhāvo = kukkuccam
= the state of having done amiss.

According to the commentary evil that
is done is ku + kata, and so is good that is not done. Remorse over the
evil that is done is kukkucca, and so is remorse over the good that is
not done.

It has the characteristic of grieving
over the evil that is done and the good that is not done.

Dhammasangani explains:-

“What is worry?”

“Consciousness of what is lawful
in something that is unlawful, consciousness of what is unlawful in something
that is lawful; consciousness of what is immoral in something that is moral;
consciousness of what is moral in something that is immoral - all this sort of
worry, fidgeting, over-scrupulousness, remorse of conscience, mental
sacrificing - this is what is called worry”.

Kukkucca is one of the five
Hindrances and is used together with uddhacca. It pertains to past
things only.

According to Vinaya, kukkucca
is healthy doubt with regard to rules, and is commended. According to
Abhidhamma, on the contrary, it is repentance which is not commended.

12. Thīnam, Derived from Ö the,
to shrink, + na. Thena = thāna
= thīna.

It is the shrinking state of the mind
like a cock’s feather before fire. It is opposed to viriya. Thīna is explained
as citta - gelaññam, sickness of the mind.

As such it is the antithesis of citta-kammaññatā,
adaptability of the mind, one of the

13. Middham, Derived from Ö middh, to be inactive,
to be inert, to be incapable.

This is the morbid state of the
mental factors.

Both thīna and middha
are always used in conjunction, and are one of the five Hindrances. They are
inhibited by vitakka, initial application, one of the Jhāna factors. Middha,
too, is opposed to viriya. Where there are thīna and middha
there is no viriya.

Middha is explained as the kāya-gelañña,
sickness of the mental body. Here body is not used in the sense of material
form, but is applied to the body of mental factors, viz., vedanā, saññā and
(feeling, perception, and the remaining fifty mental factors).
Hence middha is the antithesis of kāya-kammaññatā, adaptability
of mental factors.

Both thīna and middha
are explained in the Dhammasangani as follows:-

“What is stolidity (thīna)?”

“That which is indisposition,
unwieldiness of intellect, adhering and cohering; clinging, cleaving to,
stickiness; stolidity, that is, a stiffening, a rigidity of the intellect -
this is called stolidity.

“What is torpor (middha)?”

“That which is indisposition,
unwieldiness of sense, a shrouding, enveloping, barricading within; torpor that
which is sleep, drowsiness; sleep, slumbering, somnolence this is called

   14. Vicikicchā . This is an ethic-religious
term. Commentary gives two interpretations.

(1.) Vici = vicinanto,
seeking, inquiring; - kicch, to tire, to strain, to be vexed. It is
vexation due to perplexed thinking.

(2.) Vi, devoid + cikicchā,
remedy (of knowledge). It means that which is devoid of the remedy of

Both these interpretations indicate a
perplexed or undecided frame of mind. Doubt, perplexity, skepticism, indecision
are used as the closest English equivalents.

Reasoning or investigation for the
sake of understanding the truth is not discouraged in Buddhism. Nor is blind
faith advocated in Buddhism.

[Vicihicchā is the inability to
decide anything definitely that it is as such. Buddhaghosa-Majjhima Nikāya

Vicikicchā, as a Hindrance,
does not mean doubts with regard to the Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha, etc.,

Majjhima Nikāya commentary states -
“it is so called because it is incapable of deciding that it is as

(Idam’ev’idanti nicchetum
asamatthabhāvato’ti vicikicchā).

PIL to include neo-Buddhists in SC/ST category filed in HC
Mayura Janwalkar / DNAMonday, July 13, 2009 2:31 IST

Mumbai: A Public Interest Litigation (PIL) filed before the Bombay

High Court has sought the inclusion of neo-Buddhists among Scheduled

Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) and accordingly increase the

number of Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly seats reserved for

backward classes.

Pointing out that by counting out 6.03% Buddhists in the state, the

registrar general and census commissioner of India (RGCC) and the

director of census operation (DCO), Maharashtra, have acted in a

“blind-folded” manner and have erroneously counted the SC and ST

population of the state to be 10.20%.

The PIL has been filed by Swwapnil Bhingardevay, 39, an industrialist

who belongs to the SC community. Bhingardevay has stated that by

leaving out the 6.03% of the neo-Buddhists, the Centre, state, the

Delimitation Commission, GRCC and the DCO have all denied three Member

of Parliament (MP) seats and 18 Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA)

seats to the SC and ST community.

Bhingardevay’ s advocate Pradeep Havnur said that the petition is

likely to be heard by a division bench in the coming week.

Bhingardevay has contended that the current number of reserved MP

seats should be raised from 5 to 8 and MLA seats should be raised from

29 to 47. Calling it a “systematic denial of rights”, he has urged the

court to restrain the government from announcing the date of the

forthcoming assembly elections until neo-Buddhists are also given

recognition as SCs and STs.

He added that if the government continues to hold that the population

of SCs and STs in the state is 10.20% against the actual 16.23%, it

would mean that the government and its agencies “deliberately” do not

want to adhere to the rights provided to SCs and STs in Article 330 of

the Constitution.

The PIL also states that if the neo-Buddhists would have been counted

among the SC, ST population in 2001 census, it would add to 58,38,710

to the existing 98,81,656 population of SCs and STs.

The PIL has also urged the court to direct the concerned authorities

of reserve a seat for backward classes in the Karad constituency which

has SC and ST population of 43,224 instead of Phaltan which has a

greater population of 53,071.


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