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06 12 2011 458 LESSON Dhammika Sutta Dhammika And then Sakka, chief among the gods, created a magical creation of such a form that a mighty wind and rain came down and raised up the royal fig tree Steadfast, and its roots were entirely healed.FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY & BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS LETTER Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
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Posted by: @ 9:35 pm

06 12 2011 458 LESSON Dhammika Sutta Dhammika And then Sakka, chief among the gods,
created a magical creation of such a form that a mighty wind and rain came down
and raised up the royal fig tree Steadfast, and its roots were entirely healed.
FREE
ONLINE eN
ālandā Research
and Practice UNIVERSITY & BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS LETTER Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

FREE ONLINE CONCENTRATION
PRACTICE INSTITUTE FOR STUDENTS(FOCPIS)-

The
Narratives for the Levels of Departmental Curricula- Course Descriptions-

THE
BUDDHIST ON LINE GOOD NEWS LETTER

COURSE PROGRAM
 LESSON 458

Babasaheb
Dr.BR Ambedkar Maha Parinibbana day function on 06-12-2011 at 11:00AM at BSP HQ
& from 10:00 AM Timapuri Chowk to Jagat Jyoti march by Gulbargah BSP.
Please attend in large numbers


Important events/dates in the
life of Dr B R Ambedkar

1891

Apr 14

Born at Mahu
(Madhya Pradesh), the fourteenth child of Subhedar Ramji Sapkal and Mrs
Bhimabai Ambedkar.

1896

Death of the
mother, Mrs Bhimabai Ambedkar

1900

Nov

Entered the
Government High School at Satara.

1904

Entered the
Elphinstone High School at Bombay.

1906

Married Ramabai
daughter of Mr. Bhiku Walangkar, one of the relations of Gopal Baba
Walangkar

1907

Passed
Matriculation Examination, s
cored 382 marks out of 750.

1908

Jan

Honoured in a
meeting presided over by Shri S K Bole, Shri K A (Dada) Keluskar Guruji
presented a book on the life of Gautam Buddha written by him. Entered the
Elphinstone College, Bombay.

1912

Dec

Birth of the
son Yeshwant.

1913

Passed B.A
Examination with Persian and English from University of Bombay, s
cored 449 marks out of 1000.

1913

Feb

Death of father
Subhedar Ramji Maloji Ambedkar at Bombay.

1913

July

Gaikwar’s
Scholar in the Columbia University, New York, reading in the Faculty of
Political Science.

1915

June 5

Passed M.A.
Examination majoring in Economics and with Sociology, History Philosophy,
Anthropology and Politics as
the other subjects of study.

1916

May

Read a paper on
The Castes in India’ before Prof. Goldernweiser’s Anthropology Seminar. The
paper was later published in The Indian Antiquary in May 1917.
It was also republished in the form of a brochure, the first published work
of Dr Ambedkar. Wrote a Thesis entitled ‘The National Divident of India – A
Historical and Analytical Study’ for the Ph.D Degree.

1916

June

Left Colombia
University after completing work for the Ph.D, to join the London School of
Economics and Political Science, London as a graduate student.

1917

Columbia
University conferred a Degree of Ph.D.

1917

June

Return to India
after spending a year in London working on the thesis for the M.Sc. (Econ)
Degree. The return before completion of the work was necessitated by the
termination the scholarship granted by the Baroda State.

1917

July

Appointed as
Military Secretary to H.H. the Maharaja Gaikwar of Baroda with a view
Finance Minister. But left shortly due to ill. Treatment meted out to him
because of his lowly caste.Published “Small Holdings in India and Their
Remedies”.

1918

Gave evidence
before the Southborough Commission on Franchise. Attended the Conference of
the depressed

Classes held at Nagpur.

1918

Nov

Professor of
Political Economy in the Sydenham College of Commerce & Economics,
Bombay.

1920

Jan 31

Started a
Marathi Weekly paper Mooknayak to champion the cause of the
depressed classes. Shri Nandram Bhatkar was the editor, later Shri Dyander
Gholap was the editor.

1920

Mar 21

Attended
depressed classes Conference held under the presidency of Chhatrapati Shahu
Maharaj at Kolhapur.

1920

Mar

Resigned
professorship at Sydenham College to resume his studies in London.

1920

May

Memorable
speech in Nagpur, criticised Karmaveer Shinde and Depressed Classes
Mission.

1920

Sept

Rejoined the
London School of Economics. Also entered Gray’s Inn to read for the Bar.

1921

June

The thesis
‘Provincial Decentralisation of Imperial Finance in British India’ was
accepted for M.Sc. (Econ) Degree by the

London University.

1922-23

Spent some time
in reading economics in the University of Bonn in Germany.

1923

Mar

The Thesis ‘The
Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution’ was accepted for the
degree of D.Sc. (Econ.). The thesis was published in December 1923 by P S
King & Company, London. Reissued by Thacker & Company, Bombay in
May 1947 under the title History of Indian Currency and Banking Vol. 1.

1923

Called to the
Bar.

1923

Apr

Returned to
India.

1924

June

Started
practice in the Bombay High Court.

1924

July 20

Founded the
‘Bahishkrit Hitkarini Sabha’ for the uplift of the depressed classes. The
aims of the Sabha were educate, agitate, organise.

1925

Published ‘The
Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India’ – dissertation on the
provincial decentralisation of Imperial

Finance in India’.

Opened a hostel
for Untouchable students at Barshi.

1926

Gave evidence
before the Royal Commission on Indian Currency (Hilton Young Commisssion).

Nominated
Member of the Bombay Legislative Council.

1927

Mar 20

Started
Satyagraha at Mahad (Dist Kolaba) to secure to the untouchables the Right
of access to the Chavdar Tank.

1927

Apr 3

Started a
fortnightly Marathi paper Bahiskrit Bharat Dr Ambedkar himself
was the editor.

1927

Sept

Established
‘Samaj Samata Sangh’.

1927

Dec

Second
Conference in Mahad.

1928

Mar

Introduced the
“Vatan Bill” in the Bombay Legislative Council.

1928

May

Gave evidence
before the Indian Statutory Committee (Simon Commission).

1928

June

Professor.
Government Law College Bombay.

Principal.
Government Law College Bombay.

1928-29

Member. Bombay
Presidency Committee of the Simon Committee.

1930

Mar

Satyagraha at
Kalram Temple. Nasik to secure for the Untouchables the right of entry into
the temple.

1930-32

Delegate. Round
Table Conference representing Untouchables of India.

1932

Sept

Signed with Mr.
M.K. Gandhi the Poona Pact giving up, to save Gandhi’s life. separate
electorates granted to the Depressed Classes by Ramsay MacDonald’s Communal
Award, and accepting, instead representation through joint electorates.

1932-34

Member joint Parliamentary
Committee on the Indian Constitutional Reform.

1934

Left Parel,
Damodar Hall and came to stay in ‘Rajagriha’ Dadar (Bombay). This was done
in order to get more accommodation for his library which was increasing day
by day.

1935

May 26

Death of wife.
Mrs. Ramabai Ambedkar.

1935

June

Dr. Ambedkar
was appointed as Principal of Government Law College, Bombay. He was also
appointed Perry Professor of

Jurisprudence.

Oct 13

Historical Yeola
Conversion Conference held under the Presidentship of Dr. Ambedkar at Yeola
Dist., Nasik. He exhorted the Depressed Classes to leave Hinduism and
embrace another religion. He declared: ‘I was born as a Hindu but I will
not die as a Hindu’. He also advisedhisfollowers to abandon the
Kalaram Mandi entry Satyagriha, Nasik.

Dec

Dr. Ambedkar
was invited by the Jat Pat Todak Mandal of Lahore to preside over the
Conference. Dr.Ambedkar prepared his historical speech. The Annihilation of
Caste’. The conference was cancelled by the Mandal on the ground that
Dr.Ambedkar’s thoughts were revolutionary. Finally, Dr. Ambedkar refused to
preside and published his speech in book form in1937.

1936

Jan 12-13

The Depressed
Classes Conference was held at Pune.

Dr. Ambedkar
reiterated his resolve of the Yeola Conference to leave Hinduism. The
conference was presided over by Rav Bahadur N. Shina Raj.

Feb 29

Dr. Ambedkar’s
Conversion Resolution was supported by the Chambars (Cobblers)
of East Khandesh.

May 30

Bombay
Presidency Conversion Conference (Mumbai Elaka Mahar Panshad) of Mahars was
held at Naigaum (Dadar) to sound their opinion on the issue of Conversion.
Mr. Subha Rao, popularly known as Hydrabadi Ambedkar, presided over the
Conference. In the morning the Ascetics shaved their beards, moustaches and
destroyed their symbols of Hinduism in an Ascetic’s Conference.

June 15

Conference of
Devadasis was held m Bombay to support Dr. Ambedkar’s Resolution of
Conversion.

June 18

Dr.
Ambedkar-Dr. Moonje talks on conversion. Pro Sikkhism.

June 23

Matang Parishad
in support of Conversion.

Aug

Dr. Ambedkar
founded the Independent Labour Party, a strong opposition party in Bombay’s
Legislative Council.

Sept 18

Dr.Ambedkar
sent a delegation of 13 members to the Golden Temple Amritsar to study
Sikkhism.

Nov 11

Dr.Ambedkar
left for Geneva and London.

1937

Dr.Ambedkar
organised the ‘Municipal Workers’ Union’ Bombay in 1937.

Jan 14

Dr. Ambedkar
returned to Bombay.

Feb 17

The First
General Elections were held under the Govt. of India Act of 1935. Dr.
Ambedkar was elected Member of Bombay Legislative Assembly (Total Seats
175. Reserved Seats 15. Dr. Ambedkar’s Independent Labour Party won 17
seats.)

Mar 17

The Mahad Chowdar
Tank case was decided in favour of D.C. by which they got a legal right to
use the public wells and tanks.

July31

Dr. Ambedkar
received a grand reception at Chalisgaon Railway station.

Sept 17

Dr. Ambedkar
introduced his Bill to abolish the Mahar Watan in the Assembly

Dec31

Reception at
Pandhapur on the way to Solapur, where he was going to preside over the
Solapur District D.C’. Conference.

1938

Jan 4

Reception given
by the Solapur Municipal Council.

1938

Jan

The Congress
Party introduced a Bill making a change in the name of Untouchables. i.e.
they would be called Harijans meaning sons of God. Dr. Ambedkar
criticised the Bill. as in his opinion the change of name would make no
real change in their conditions. Dr. Ambedkar and Bhaurav Gaikwad protested
against the use of the term Harijans in legal matters. When the ruling
party by sheer force of numbers defeated the I.L.P., the Labour-Party group
walked out of the Assembly in protest under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar.
He organised peasants march on Bombay Assembly. The peasants demanded the
passing of Dr. Ambedkar’s Bill for abolition of the Khoti system.

1938

Jan 23

Dr. Ambedkar
addressed a Peasants’ Conference at Ahmedabad.

1938

Feb 12-13

Dr. Ambedkar
addressed a historical Conference of Railway workers at Manmad (Dist.
Nasik).

1938

Apr

Dr. Ambedkar
opposed creation of a separate Karnataka State in the national interest.

1938

May

Dr. Ambedkar
resigned from the Principal-ship of the Government Law College, Bombay.

1938

May 13-21

Dr. Ambedkar
went on tour of Konkan Region. He also went to Nagpur in connection with a
court case.

1938

Aug

A meeting was
held at R.M. Bhat High School, Bombay for exposing Gandhiji’s attitude in
disallowing a D.C. man being taken into the Central Ministry.

1938

Sept

Dr. Ambedkar
spoke on the Industrial Disputes Bill in the Bombay Assembly. He bitterly
opposed it for its attempt to outlaw the right of workers to strike. He
said: If Congressmen believe that Swaraj is their birth-right, then the
right to strike is the birth-right of workers.

1938

Oct 1

Dr. Ambedkar
addressed a large gathering at Bawala, near Ahmedabad. On return he
addressed another meeting at Premabhai Hall, Ahmedabad.

1938

Nov 6

The Industrial
Workers strike. The procession (under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar,
Nirnkar, Dange, Pasulkar etc) was organised from Kamgar Maidan to Jambori
Maidan, Wor
li. Dr.Ambedkar toured the workers
areas with Jamvadas Mehta.

1938

Nov 10

Dr. Ambedkar
moved a Resolution for adoption of the methods for birth-control in the
Bombay Assembly.

1938

Dec

Dr. Ambedkar
addressed the first D.C. Conference in Nizam’s dominion at Mahad.

1939

Jan 18

Dr. Ambedkar
addressed a large gathering at Rajkot

Jan 19

Ambedkar-Gandhi
talks.

Jan 29

Kale Memorial
Lecture of Gorkhale School of Politics and Economics, Poona reviewing
critically the All India Federation Scheme set out in the Govt. of India
Act of 1935. The speech was issued in March 1939 as a tract for the times
under the title ‘Federation v/s Freedom’.

July

Dr. Ambedkar
addressed a meeting organised for Rohidas Vidya Committee.

Oct

Dr.Ambedkar-Nehru
first meeting.

Dec

The Conference
at Haregaon was held under the Presidentship of Dr.Ambedkar to voice the
grievances of Mahar and Mahar Watandass

1940

May

Dr. Ambedkar
founded the ‘Mahar Panchayat’.

1940

July 22

Netaji Subash
Chandra Bose met Dr. Ambedkar in Bombay.

1940

Dec

Dr. Ambedkar
published his Thoughts on Pakistan. The second edition with the
title Pakistan or Partition of India was issued in February
1945. A third impression of the book was published in 1946 under the
title India’s Political What’s What: Pakistan or Partition of
India.

1941

Jan

Dr.Ambedkar
pursued the issue of recruitment of Mahars in the Army. In result the
Mahars Battallion was formed

1941

May 25

Mahar Dynast
Panchayat Samiti was Formed by Dr. Ambedkar.

1941

July

Dr.Ambedkar was
appointed to sit on the Defence Advisory Committee.

1941

Aug

The Conference
was held at Sinnar in protest of tax on Mahar Watams. Dr.Ambedkar launched
a no-tax campaign. He saw the Governor. Finally, the tax was abolished. The
Mumbai Elaka Conference of Mahars, Mangs and Derdasis were organised under
the Chairmanship of Dr.Ambedkar

1942

Apr

Dr. Ambedkar
founded the All India Scheduled Castes Federation in Nagpur.

1942

July 18

Dr. Ambedkar
addressed All India D.C. Conference at Nagpur.

1942

July 20

Dr.Ambedkar
joined the Viceroy’s Executive Council as a Labour Member

1942

Dec

Dr. Ambedkar
submitted a paper on “The problems of the Untouchables in India” to the
Institute of Pacific Relations at its Conference held in Canada. The paper
is printed in the proceedings of the Conference. The paper was subsequently
published in December 1943 in the book form under the title Mr
Gandhi and Emancipation of the Untouchables.

1943

Jan 19

Dr. Ambedkar
delivered a Presidential address on the occasion of the 101st Birth
Anniversary of Justice Mahader Govind Ranade. It is published in book form
in April 1943 under the titleRanade. Gandhi and Jinnah.

1944

Dr. Ambedkar
founded “The Building Trust and the Scheduled Caste Improvement Trust”.

1944

May 6

Dr.Ambedkar
addressed the Annual Conference of the All India S.C. Federation at Parel
(Bombay) The speech was later published under the title “The Communal
Deadlock and a way to solve it.’

1944

June

Dr.Ambedkar
published his book What Congress and Gandhi have done to the
Untouchables -
a complete compendium of information regarding the
movement of the Untouchables for political safeguards. Dr.Ambedkar attended
the Simla Conference.

1944

July

Dr Ambedkar
founded ‘People’s Education Society’ in Bombay.

1946

Dr Ambedkar
gave evidence before the British delegation.

1946

Apr

Opening of
Siddharth College of Arts and Science in Bombay

1946

May

The Bharat
Bhushan Printing Press (founded by Dr Ambedkar) was burnt down in the
clashes between D.C. and the Caste-Hindus

1946

June 20

Siddharth
College started

Sept

Dr Ambedkar
went to London to urge before the British Government and the Opposition
Party the need to provide safeguards for the D.C., on grant of Independence
to India and thus to rectify the wrongs done to the D.C. by the Cabinet
Mission.

Oct 13

Dr Ambedkar
published his book. Who were Shudras? An enquiry into how the
Shudras came to be the fourth Varna in the Indo-Aryan Society.

Dr Ambedkar was
elected Member of the Constitution Assembly of India.

Nov

Dr Ambedkar’s
First speech in the Constituent Assembly. He called for a ‘strong and
United India’.

1947

Mar

Published
‘States and Minorities’. A memorandum of Fundamental Rights, Minority
Rights, safeguards for the D.C. and on the problems of Indian states.

1947

Apr 29

Article 17 of
the Constitution of India for the abolition of Untouchability was moved by
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in the Constituent Assembly and it was passed.

1947

Aug 15

India obtained
her Independence. Dr Ambedkar was elected to the Constituent Assembly by
the Bombay Legislature Congress Party. Dr Ambedkar joined Nehru’s Cabinet.
He became the

First Law Minister of Independent
India. The Constituent Assembly appointed him to the drafting Committee,
which elected him as a Chairman on 29th August 1947.

1948

Feb

Dr Ambedkar
completed the Draft Constitution of Indian Republic.

1948

Apr 15

Second marriage
– Dr Ambedkar married Dr Sharda Kabir in Delhi.

1948

Oct

Published his
book The Untouchables. A thesis on the origin of
Untouchability. Dr Ambedkar submitted his Memorandum, “Maharashtra as a
linguistic Province” to the Dhar Commission. The Linguistic Provinces
Commission).

1948

Oct 4

Dr.Ambedkar
presented the Draft Constitution to Constituent Assembly.

1948

Nov 20

The Constituent
Assembly adopted Article 17 of the Constitution for the abolition of
Untouchability.

1949

Jan

Dr Ambedkar,
Law Minister of India visited Hydrabad (Deccan)

1949

Jan 15

Dr Ambedkar was
presented with a Purse at Manmad by his admirers. He addressed a large
gathering.

1949

Jan 21

He stayed at
Aurangabad in connection with his opening proposed College. During the stay
he visited Ajanta – Ellora Caves.

1949

Mar/ may

Dr Ambedkar
visited Bombay in connection with College work and for a medical check-up.

1949

Sept

Meeting between
Dr Ambedkar and Madhavrao Golvalker, Chief of RRs and the residence of Dr
Ambedkar at Delhi.

1949

Nov

Dr Ambedkar
came to Bombay for college work meeting and medical check-up.

1949

Nov

Dr Ambedkar
addressed the Constituent Assembly.

1949

Nov 26

Constituent
Assembly adopted the Constitution. Dr Ambedkar came to Bombay for check-up.

1950

Jan 11

Dr Ambedkar
addressed the Siddharth College Parliament on the Hindu Code Bill. In the
evening he was presented with a silver casket containing a copy of the
Indian Constitution at Nare Park Maidan, Bombay.

May

Dr Ambedkar’s
article The Buddha and the Future His Religion’ was published in the
journal of Mahabodhi Society, Calcutta. Dr.Ambedkar addressed the Young
Men’s Buddhist Association on “The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women”. Dr
Ambedkar spoke on the “Merits of Buddhism” at the meeting arranged on the
occasion of Buddha Jayanti in Delhi.

1950

Sept 1

Dr Rajendra
Prasad, the First President of the Indian Republic laid the foundation
stone of Milind Maharidyalaya, Aurangabad. Dr.Ambedkar delivered a speech
on the occasion (The printed speech is available with Mr Surwade)

1950

Dec

Dr Ambedkar
went to Colombo as a Delegate to the World Buddhist Conference.

1951

Feb 5

Dr.Ambedkar,
Law Minister introduced his “Hindu Code Bill” in the Parliament.

1951

Apr 15

Dr Ambedkar
laid the foundation stone of “Dr Ambedkar Bhavan”. Delhi.

1951

July

Dr Ambedkar
founded “The Bhartiya Buddha Jansangh”.

1951

Sept

Dr Ambedkar
compiled a Buddhist prayer book Buddha Upasana Palha

1951

Sept 9

Dr Ambedkar
resigned from the Nehru Cabinet because, among other reasons, the
withdrawal of Cabinet support to the Hindu Code Bill in spite of the
earlier declaration in the Parliament by the Prime Minister Pt Jawaharlal
Nehru, that his Government would stand or fall with the Hindu Code Bill.
Apart from this Nehru announced that he will sink or swim with the Hindu
Code Bill.

Dr Ambedkar
published his speech in book form under the title The Rise and Fall
of Hindu Women.

1951

Sept 19

The marriage
and divorce Bill was discussed in the Parliament.

1951

Oct 11

Dr Ambedkar
left the Cabinet.

1952

Jan

Dr Ambedkar was
defeated in the First Lok Sabha elections held under the Constitution of
Indian Republic. Congress candidate N. S. Kajrolkar defeated Dr Ambedkar.

1952

Mar

Dr Ambedkar was
introduced into Parliament as a member of the Council (Rajya Sabha) of
States, representing Bombay.

1952

June 1

Dr Ambedkar
left for New York from Bombay.

1952

June 15

Columbia
University (USA) conferred the honorary Degree of LL.D., in its
Bi-Centennial Celebrations Special Convocation held in New York.

1952

June 16

Dr Ambedkar
returned to Bombay.

1952

Dec 16

Dr Ambedkar
addressed Annual Social Gathering of Elphinstone College, Bombay.

1952

Dec 22

Dr Ambedkar
delivered a talk on “Conditions Precedent to the Successful working of
Democracy” at the Bar Council, Pune.

1953

Jan 12

The Osmania
University conferred the honorary Degree of LL.D on Dr Ambedkar.

1953

Mar

The
Untouchability (offences) Bill was introduced in the Parliament by the
Nehru Government.

1953

Apr

Dr Ambedkar
contested the By-Election for Lok Sabha from Bhandara Constituency of
Vidarbha Region but was defeated Congress Candidate Mr Borkar.

1953

May

Opening of
Siddharth College of Commerce and Economics in Bombay.

1953

Dec

Dr Ambedkar
inaugurated the All India Conference of Sai devotees at the St. X’avier’s
Maidan Parel Bombay (His inaugural speech is available with Mr Surwade)

1954

May

Dr Ambedkar
visited Rangoon to attend the function arranged on the occasion of Buddha
Jayanti.

1954

June

The Maharaja of
Mysore donated 5 acres of land for Dr Ambedkar’s proposed Buddhist Seminary
to be started at Bangalore

1954

Sept 16

Dr Ambedkar
spoke on the Untouchability (Offences) Bill in the Rajya Sabha

1954

Oct 3

dj- ambedkar
broadcast his talk “My Personal Philosophy”

1954

Oct 29

Shri R. D.
Bhandare, President of Bombay Pradesh S.C. Federation presented a purse of
Rs 118,000 on behalf of S.C.F. to Dr Ambedkar at Purandare Stadium, Naigaum
(Bombay)

1954

Dec

Dr Ambedkar
participated as delegate to the 3rd World Buddhist Conference at Rangoon.

1955

April 3

Delivered a
speech “Why Religion is necessary”.

1955

May

Dr Ambedkar
established Bhartiya Bauddha Mahasabha (The Buddhist Society of India

1955

Aug

Founded
‘Murnbai Rajya Kanishtha

Garkamgart
Association’

1955

Dec

Published his
opinions on linguistic states in book form under the title Thoughts
on linguistic States.

1955

Dec

Dr Ambedkar
installed an image of Buddha at Dehu Road (near Pune)

1955

Dec 27

Dr Ambedkar
spoke against reservation of seats in the State and Central Legislatures.

1956

Feb

Dr Ambedkar
completed his The Buddha and His Dhamma, Revolution &
Counter-revolution in Ancient India.

1956

Mar 15

Dr Ambedkar
wrote and dictated the Preface of The Buddha and His Dhamma.

1956

May 1

Dr Ambedkar
spoke on Linguistic states in the Council of States.

Dr Ambedkar
spoke on BBC London on “Why I like Buddhism”, Also, he spoke for Voice
Voice of America on “The Future of Indian

Democracy”.

1956

May 24

Dr Ambedkar
attended a meeting at Nare Park organised on the eve of Buddha Jayanti,
Shri B.G.Kher, Prime Minister of Bombay was Chief Guest. This meeting was
the last meeting of Dr Ambedkar in Bombay.

1956

June

Opening of
Siddharth College of Law in Bombay.

1956

Oct 14

Dr Ambedkar
embraced Buddhism at an historic ceremony at Diksha Bhoomi, Nagpur with his
millions of followers. Announced to desolve S.C.F and establish Republican
Party.

1956

Nov 20

Delegate, 4th
World Buddhist Conference, Khalinandu, where he delivered his famous speech
famous speech ‘Buddha or Karl Marx’.

1956

Dec 6

Maha Nirvana at
his residence, 26 Alipore Road,New Delhi.

1956

Dec 7

Cremation at
Dadar Chawpatti – Now known as Chaitya Bhoomi Dadar (Bombay).



AN 6.54

PTS: A iii 366

Dhammika Sutta: Dhammika

(excerpt)

translated from the Pali
by

Andrew Olendzki

© 2005–2011

In[1]
ancient times when seafaring merchants put to sea in ships, they took with them
a bird to sight land. When the ship was out of sight of land, they released the
bird; and it flew eastward and westward, northward and southward, upward and
all around. And if the bird saw no land, it returned to the ship; but if the
bird sighted land nearby, it was truly gone.[2]

Once
upon a time[3]

there was a royal fig tree called Steadfast, belonging to king Koravya, whose
five outstretched branches provided a cool and pleasing shade. Its girth
extended a hundred miles, and its roots spread out for forty miles. And the
fruits of that tree were indeed great: As large as harvest baskets — such were
its succulent fruits — and as clear as the honey of bees.

One
portion was enjoyed by the king, along with his household of women; one portion
was enjoyed by the army; one portion was enjoyed by the people of the town and
village; one portion was enjoyed by brahmans and ascetics; and one portion was
enjoyed by the beasts and birds. Nobody guarded the fruits of that royal tree,
and neither did anyone harm one another for the sake of its fruits.

But
then a certain man came along who fed upon as much of Steadfast’s fruits as he
wanted, broke off a branch, and wandered on his way. And the deva who dwelled
in Steadfast thought to herself: “It is astonishing, it is truly amazing,
that such an evil man would dare to feed upon as much of Steadfast’s fruits as
he wants, break off a branch, and then wander on his way! Now, what if
Steadfast were in the future to bear no more fruit?” And so the royal fig
tree Steadfast bore no more fruit.

So then
king Koravya went up to where Sakka, chief among the gods, was dwelling, and
having approached said this: “Surely you must know, sire, that Steadfast,
the royal fig tree, no longer bears fruit?” And then Sakka created a
magical creation of such a form that a mighty wind and rain came down and
toppled the royal fig tree Steadfast, uprooting it entirely. And then the deva
who dwelled in Steadfast grieved, lamented, and stood weeping on one side with
a face full of tears.

And
then Sakka, chief among the gods, went up to where the deva was standing, and
having approached said this: “Why is it, deva, that you grieve and lament
and stand on one side with a face full of tears?” “It is because,
sire, a mighty wind and rain has come and toppled my abode, uprooting it
entirely.”

“And
were you, deva, upholding the dhamma of trees when this happened?”
“But how is it, sire, that a tree upholds the dhamma of trees?”

“Like
this, deva: Root-cutters take the root of the tree; bark-strippers take the
bark; leaf-pickers take the leaves; flower-pickers take the flowers;
fruit-pickers take the fruits — and none of this is reason enough for a deva to
think only of herself or become morose. Thus it is, deva, that a tree upholds
the dhamma of trees.”

“Then
indeed, sire, I was not upholding the dhamma of trees when the mighty wind and
rain came and toppled my abode, uprooting it entirely.” “If it were
the case, deva, that you were to uphold the dhamma of trees, it may be that
your abode might be as it was before.” “I will indeed, sire, uphold
the dhamma of trees! May my abode be as it was before!”

And
then Sakka, chief among the gods, created a magical creation of such a form
that a mighty wind and rain came down and raised up the royal fig tree
Steadfast, and its roots were entirely healed.

Notes

1.

This passage also appears at DN 11. — Ed.

2.

The word used here for “truly gone” is tathagatako
(translated by E.M. Hare in the PTS edition as “gone for good”), and
this story helps us considerably in understanding how the Buddha used the
epithet “Tathagata” to describe himself.

His
given name was Siddhattha; as a wandering ascetic he went by his mother’s clan
name, Gotama; he was known throughout his world as the sage of his father’s
family, or Sakyamuni; and when enlightened he became known as Buddha, the
Awakened One. His followers most often referred to him as Bhagavant, or
“Blessed One,” but the name he almost always used for himself was
Tathagata.

Tathagata
has always been an awkward word to translate. Tatha on its own means
something like “so,” “thus,” or “in this way”;
and gata is the past participle of the verb to go, and simply means
“gone.” We therefore often find the phrase translated in the texts as
“Thus-gone” or “the Thus-Gone one.” The commentator
Buddhaghosa lists eight different ways the word can be construed (Digha
Atthakatha 1.59), and in the process engages in some characteristically
creative etymology.

I admit
to having never really understood the import of the term Tathagata
until I came across this story. With the image of the bird released by the
sailors, searching for land upon which to alight, a number of things began to
fall into place.

To
begin with we should recognize two ways the expression is used: one referring
to the Buddha as a being who will no longer be reborn, and the other describing
how the consciousness of an awakened person still in this world relates to the
object of experience.

Sometimes
when one of the arahants passes away, Mara like a dark cloud can be seen
searching for where their consciousness has become re-established (i.e.,
reborn). In such cases, the Buddha says of the arahant that their consciousness
is “not stationed anew anywhere” (e.g., SN 22.87). In this sense the Buddha
is clearly using the epithet “Tathagata” to mean that he will not be
reborn again — like the bird leaving the ship without returning, his
consciousness does not alight again in any of the worlds to become re-bound
with another body.

But
there is also a sense in which the phrase aptly describes the nature of the
awakened mind here in this life. When his questioners try to pin the Buddha
down about whether his consciousness survives after death, he rebukes them by
saying that even here and now the consciousness of a Tathagata is untraceable,
since there is no means of measuring or knowing it (e.g., Sn 1074). The awakened mind is said to be
unattached to anything in the world — like a bird that does not alight upon and
thus get bound to any object of experience.

In fact
learning to un-attach the mind from its fetters is a good deal of what insight
meditation training is all about. The Satipatthana Sutta, for example,
(the main text that gives instructions for insight meditation) states that when
practicing mindfulness properly a person “abides independent, not clinging
to anything in the world” (MN 10). The householder Anathapindika, just
before his death, received instructions from Sariputta urging him to train
himself thus: “I will not cling to what is seen, heard, sensed, cognized,
encountered, sought after, and examined by the mind; my consciousness will not
be dependent on any of that” (MN 143).

All
this combines to suggest that a crucial aspect of the Buddha’s teaching is the
notion of consciousness being unattached to mental or physical objects. In
moment-to-moment practice this means letting go of attachments and letting
experience be simply what it is. Perhaps with proper practice we can live as a
bird freely circling the ship of our body and our world, rather than as one
imprisoned in a cage on its deck.

3.

Perhaps this is a true story — perhaps Steadfast is a name for
the entire planet, not just a mythological tree. How else might we explain the
earth’s great forbearance and continued beneficence in the face of the rapacity
and destruction we have wrought upon her? I think Gaia, the deity inhabiting
the abode of our lovely Earth, was taught this lesson by Sakka in ancient times,
and has with great patience and dignity put up with the worst we can render. If
this is true, then she will not give us a sign when we have gone too far —
perceiving this is our own responsibility.

Like
every Buddhist story, this one works on many levels simultaneously. It is no
accident that the great tree has five branches, or that the word used for each
portion is khandha — the term designating the five aggregates of form,
feeling, perception, formations and consciousness. The man eating his fill of
fruit is manifesting greed, craving or desire, and his breaking of the branch
represents hatred, anger or aversion. These are two of the three poisonous
roots out of which all unwholesome action arises (the third — ignorance — is
always present when others occur). Thus the entire image is representative of a
person being wronged by another or facing the eruption of their own latent
tendencies for harmful action.

Notice
that the story does not teach the “evil man” the folly of his ways,
since there is often nothing one can do to avoid such people or such
inclinations in oneself. The teaching is more about our response to
transgression. Sakka’s point is that it is self-centered to react petulantly to
such an affront, and that the only suitable response is with kindness and
generosity — to oneself as well as to others. As the Dhammapada so aptly says,
“Never at any time in this world are hostilities resolved by hostility;
but by kindness they are resolved — this is an eternal truth” [Dhp 5].

This
teaching is given to Dhammika, a monk who complains of his treatment by certain
laypeople. The Buddha reflects the situation back upon Dhammika, who as it
turns out does not treat his fellow monks very well. It is an occasion to teach
Dhammika, with the help of this story, the “dhamma of a recluse,”
which boils down to “not returning the insult of the insulter, the anger
of the angry or the abuse of the abuser.”

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