For The Gain of the Many and For the Welfare of the Many
Over Eating and Starving are Dis-ease!
So Eat Less!
Always Sleeping and Sleeplessness are Dis-ease!
So Sleep Less!
Speaking Too Much and Speachlessness are Dis-ease!
So Speak Less!
Most Luxurious Dress and Nakedness are Dis-ease!
So wear Moderate Dress!
That is the way to be Happy without Stress!
The first completely customisable news site on the web
132 years in print
Lucknow, Oct 26 (IANS) Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati Friday urged Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to order a fresh Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) probe into the 2002 communal riots in Gujarat following the Tehelka expose that showed Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi’s alleged role in the carnage.
In a letter to the prime minister, Mayawati stressed the need to bring the guilty to book.
‘The manner in which the direct involvement of the Gujarat government and some close allies of the ruling BJP has been brought to light in the sting operation … clearly shows how the massacre of members of a particular minority was undertaken with evident state patronage,’ the chief minister noted.
An undercover operation conducted by Tehelka weekly has caught Hindu activists alleging that Modi sanctioned the 2002 riots, in which more than 1,000 people, mostly Muslims, were killed.
Mayawati reminded the prime minister of the killing of the Congress’ former member of parliament, who was burnt alive during the Gujarat riots.
‘The Gujarat massacre has already put the entire nation to shame; and since the sting operation has thrown light on certain vital facts, it would be pertinent to get the entire issue probed afresh by the CBI,’ she said.
While urging the Centre to publicly condemn the facts brought forth in the sting operation, Mayawati said: ‘Deterrent action is required in the matter, not only to bring the guilty to book, but to also ensure due justice to the riot victims as also to restore the shaken confidence of the minority community in the Indian secular democratic system.’
Bolstered by an emphatic win, her Bahujan Samaj Party has scored in the just-concluded Assembly elections in Uttar Pradesh, BSP supremo Mayawati is most likely to enter with a bang in the political arena of Gujarat, and may send jitters among the rank and file of both - the BJP and opposition Congress -during the Assembly polls due this year-end.
“As soon as Mayawatiji completes an exercise to form her government in UP, the Gujarat unit of BSP will invite her to visit the State to take stock of the situation here and also guide party workers to further strengthen our orgnisation,” State BSP vice-president Surendrasinh Kaloriya told this paper on Friday.
Accompanied by State BSP chief co-ordinator Rampalsinh Engineer, Kaloriya said: “We will have a separate meeting with Mayawatiji in Lucknow, where we will apprise her of political situation here and also urge her to pay visit to Gujarat.” A busload of BSP workers from Gujarat are also expected to reach Lucknow in a day or two to compliment Mayawati for scoring the poll victory. As evident from poll outcome in UP, besides people belonging to Scheduled Caste and other backward classes (OBCs), high caste Hindus and Muslims had thrown their weight behind the BSP and ensured the party’s win in there. “The BSP expects people hailing from all these castes and classes in Gujarat to lend their support to our party, for they all are getting disillusioned with present BJP dispensation in the State,” claims the State BSP leader.
In fact, Mayawati has tested the waters in Gujarat politics by fielding as many as 34 BSP candidates in 2002 Assembly elections, and 20 in 2004 Lok Sabha polls in the State.
Though none of the BSP candidates won a single seat in both elections, the party polled 66,429 votes (0.32 %) in the Assembly elections, with its vote share rising to over 2.25 lakh votes (1.48 %) in the Lok Sabha polls. “It was a mere electoral experiment our party supremo had conducted in Gujarat. Now that the BSP has fought the electoral battle successfully in UP, peeping not only Mulayam Singh’s Samajwadi Party but also trouncing BJP and Congress, our party expects to make further inroads in Gujarat,” asserts a BSP office-bearer.
“If Mulayam attempted to fool Muslims in UP, Modi has been misleading Hindus in Gujarat for political gains. There is hardly any difference between the two as far as their style of playing politics is concerned,” argues the BSP leader.
Modi’s Hindutva card fails to click
Chief Minister Narendra Modi’s Hindutva card and his bashing of UPA Government failed to click in Uttar Pradesh elections. The BJP leadership had invited him to participate in the poll campaign. Modi had visited UP three times and addressed public meetings, covering 21 seats. Out of these, the BJP lost as many as 17 seats. The State BJP had even sent specially designed hoardings to places where Modi had addressed poll meetings, depicting his and Advani’s photographs and calling electorate to adopt “Gujarat Model” in UP. “The electorate in UP did not respond to his Hindutva rhetoric,” said a senior BJP rebel leader. Interestingly, BJP candidate Lallu Singh Chauhan, who opposed his party’s move to send Modi to Ayodhya for canvassing, has won from the temple town. Following protests by Chauhan and Faziabad district unit of BJP, Modi gave Ayodhya a miss and went to Varanasi to address a series of public meetings there.
|Mayawati to acquire aircraft for personal use|
|Sunday, 09 December , 2007, 01:18|
Lucknow: Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati has decided to buy a brand new aircraft for her personal travel and sent off senior officials in her government to the United States to negotiate the deal.
Senior officials, including Principal Secretary to the Chief Minister Shailesh Krishna, have flown to the US on Friday to shop for the latest aircraft to add to the fleet.
Official sources told IANS that the plane was being bought for the State government, but the aircraft will be for her personal use. Mayawati already has two planes of the State government at her disposal.
The high-flying Mayawati’s fondness for planes is well known. Just recently the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) chief flew in a chopper from her official residence in Lucknow to the Ramabai Rally Sthal, just a few km away, to address a mammoth rally on the occasion of BSP leader Kanshi Ram’s death anniversary, much to the delight of her supporters.
“Her travel by air even for short distances makes her Dalit supporters feel proud of her as they see it as another milestone in their social advancement,” said a party leader.
Plans to purchase an exclusive aircraft for her travel have been in the pipeline for almost a month.
“A Dalit ki beti (daughter of a Schedule Caste) using a chopper, becoming Chief Minister of the India’s largest State and wearing expensive jewellery gives the Schedule Castes a sense of achievement,” said another party leader.
Sugar millgate prices decline on fresh arrivals
8 Dec, 2007, 2051 hrs IST,
In the millgate, sattha dipped by Rs 10 at Rs 1,240 while, chandpur quoted lower at Rs 1,255 a quintal.
Marketmen said arrivals of new sugarcane crop forced sugar mills to clear their stocks, which mainly influenced trading sentiment.They said most of the millgate sugar varieties traded lower in Uttar Pradesh region as new crop started coming in this region.
The government is considering setting up a unified authority for regulating post-graduate medical courses in the country, Health Minister Anbumani Ramadoss said on Friday.
“In India, we have two authorities to regulate post-graduate medical education; the Medical Council of India and the National Board of Examination,” the minister told Rajya Sabha in response to supplementaries during Question Hour.
The minister acknowledged that MCI-regulated post-graduate education has been recognised by many countries except in the neighbourhood. “But as far as National Board of Examination is concerned, there has been wider acceptance internationally because of the standards of education and its quality,” Ramadoss said.
The minister, however, emphasised the government would take a final decision on the recommendation for a unified authority only after consultations with the stakeholders concerned. He also declared the government was going in for a drastic change in the curriculum at both levels. “The curriculum we are following today is a little outdated. Hence, we are going in for a new curriculum change according to modern concepts, modern technology development,” he said.
The minister, who’d been pushing for a mandatory stint for young doctors in rural areas, also said the government was going to allow government hospitals at district headquarters to join hands with private players to start medical colleges. This is to bridge the divide between six states where two-thirds of India’s medical institutions are located and the rest of the country.
Of the 270 medical colleges in India, six states — Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra — account for 180 of them. The remaining 23 states share the rest.
“There is a huge lacuna in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, etc. Bihar has only eight medical colleges for a population of 110 million. Uttar Pradesh has 16 and Madhya Pradesh has eight. In the Northeast also, there has been a huge lacuna,” he explained.
Uttar Pradesh team to scout for planes in US
Chief Minister Mayawati recently announced the state government decision to purchase one more helicopter with more seating capacity and two planes for the use of the state ministers and officials.
A reputed US company was contacted for the purchase but the government backed out when it learned that the planes and helicopter would only be delivered by 2011.
The team, whose other two members are Principal Secretary to the Chief Minister Shailesh Krishna and Principal Secretary Finance Shekhar Agrawal, will look for company that will fulfil the desires of Mayawati at the earliest.
A decision to this effect was taken at the state cabinet meeting presided over by chief minister Mayawati on Friday, an official release said.
Earlier, the government had decided to implement VAT in from December 1, 2007, but following late President’s approval to Uttar Pradesh Value Added Tax Bill 2007 delayed it, the release said.
The cabinet has now approved VAT implementation from January 1, 2008, it added.It might be mentioned that several trade unions and some political parties have been opposing VAT.
Noble Eightfold Path
There are ten ‘Fetters’-samyojana-by which beings are bound to the wheel of existence. They are:
<!–[if !supportLists]–>1. <!–[endif]–>Self-Illusion (sakkaaya-di.t.thi)
<!–[if !supportLists]–>2. <!–[endif]–>Scepticism (vicikicchaa)
<!–[if !supportLists]–>3. <!–[endif]–>Attachment to mere Rule and Ritual (siilabbata-paraamaasa)
<!–[if !supportLists]–>4. <!–[endif]–>Sensual Lust (kaamaraaga)
<!–[if !supportLists]–>5. <!–[endif]–>Ill-Will (vyaapaada)
<!–[if !supportLists]–>6. <!–[endif]–>Craving for Fine-Material Existence (ruupa-raaga)
<!–[if !supportLists]–>7. <!–[endif]–>Craving for Immaterial Existence (aruupa-raaga)
<!–[if !supportLists]–>8. <!–[endif]–>Conceit (maana)
<!–[if !supportLists]–>9. <!–[endif]–>Restlessness (uddhacca)
<!–[if !supportLists]–>10. <!–[endif]–>Ignorance (avijjaa).
One who is freed from the first three Fetters is called a ‘Stream - Enterer’ (in Pali: Sotaapanna) i.e. one who has entered the stream leading to Nibbaana. He has unshakable faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha, and is incapable of breaking the five Moral Precepts. He will be reborn seven times, at the utmost, and not in a state lower than the human world.
One who has overcome the fourth and the fifth Fetters in their grosser form, is called a Sakadaagaami, lit. ‘Once-Returner’ i.e. he will be reborn only once more in the Sensuous Sphere (kaama-loka), and thereafter reach Holiness.
An Anaagaami, lit. ‘Non-Returner’, is wholly freed from the first five Fetters which bind one to rebirth in the Sensuous Sphere; after death, while living in the Fine-Material Sphere (ruupa-loka), he will reach the goal.
An Arahat, i.e. the perfectly ‘Holy One’, is freed from all the ten Fetters.
Each of the aforementioned four stages of Holiness consists of the ‘Path’ (magga) and the ‘Fruition’, e.g. ‘Path of Stream Entry’ (sotaapatti-magga) and ‘Fruition of Stream Entry’ (sotaapatti-phala). Accordingly there are eight types, or four pairs, of ‘Noble Individuals’ (ariya-puggala).
The ‘Path’ consists of the single moment of entering the respective attainment. By ‘Fruition’ are meant those moments of consciousness which follow immediately thereafter as the result of the ‘Path’, and which under certain circumstances, may repeat innumerable times during life-time.
For further details, see B. Dict.: ariya-puggala, sotaapanna,etc.
Therefore, I say, Right Understanding is of two kinds:
1. The view that alms and offerings are not useless; that there is fruit and result, both of good and bad actions; that there are such things as this life, and the next life; that father and mother, as also spontaneously born beings (in the heavenly worlds), are no mere words; that there are in the world monks and priests, who are spotless and perfect, who can explain this life and the next life, which they themselves have understood: this is called the ‘Mundane Right Understanding’ (lokiya-sammaa-di.t.thi), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.
2. But whatsoever there is of wisdom, of penetration, of right understanding conjoined with the ‘Path’ (of the Sotaapanna, Sakadaagaami, Anaagaami, or Arahat)-the mind being turned away from the world and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued: this is called the ‘Super mundane Right Understanding’ (lokuttara-sammaa-di.t.thi), which is not of the world, but is super mundane and conjoined with the path.
Thus, there are two kinds of the Eightfold Path:
1. The ‘mundane’ (lokiya), practiced by the ‘Worldling’ (puthujjana), i.e. by all those who have not yet reached the first stage of Holiness; 2. The ’super mundane’ (lokuttara) practiced by the ‘Noble Ones’ (ariya-puggala).
Now, in understanding wrong understanding as wrong and right understanding as right, one practices ‘Right Understanding’ (1st factor); and in making efforts to overcome wrong understanding, and to arouse right understanding, one practices ‘Right Effort’ (6th factor); and in overcoming wrong understanding with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in the possession of right understanding one practices ‘Right Mindfulness’ (7th factor). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon right understanding, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.
Now, if any one should put the question, whether I admit any theory at all, he should be answered thus: The Perfect One is free from any theory, for the Perfect One has understood what corporeality is, and how it arises and passes away. He has understood what feeling is, and how it arises and passes away. He has understood what perception is, and how it arises and passes away. He has understood what the mental formations are, and how they arise and pass away. He has understood what consciousness is, and how it arises and passes away. Therefore I say, the Perfect One has won complete deliverance through the extinction, fading-away, disappearance, rejection, and getting rid of all opinions and conjectures, of all inclination to the vain-glory of ‘I‘ and ‘mine‘.
A. III. 134
Whether Perfect Ones (Buddhas) appear in the world, or whether Perfect Ones do not appear in the world, it still remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and fixed law: that all formations are impermanent (Anicca), that all formations are subject to suffering (dukkha); that everything is without a Self (an-attaa).
In Pali: sabbe sankhaaraa aniccaa, sabbe sankhaaraa dukkhaa, sabbe dhammaa anattaa.
The word ’sankhaaraa’ (formations) comprises here all things that are conditioned or ‘formed’ (sankhata-dhamma), i.e. all possible physical and mental constituents of existence. The word ‘dhamma’, however, has a still wider application and is all-embracing, as it comprises also the so-called Unconditioned (’unformed’, asankhata), i.e. Nibbana.
For this reason, it would be wrong to say that all dhammas are impermanent and subject to change, for the Nibbaana-dhamma is permanent and free from change. And for the same reason, it is correct to say that not only all the sankhaaras (=sankhata-dhamma), but that all the dhammas (including the asankhata-dhamma) lack an Ego (an-attaa).
S. XXII. 94
A corporeal phenomenon, a feeling, a perception, a mental formation, a consciousness, which is permanent and persistent, eternal and not subject to change, such a thing the wise men in this world do not recognize; and I also say that there is no such thing.
A. I. 15
And it is impossible that a being possessed of right understanding should regard anything as the Self.
Now, if someone should say that feeling is his Self, he should be answered thus: ‘There are three kinds of feeling: pleasurable, painful, and indifferent feeling. Which of these three feelings do you consider as your Self?’ Because, at the moment of experiencing one of these feelings, one does not experience the other two. These three kinds of feeling are impermanent, of dependent origin, are subject to decay and dissolution, to fading-away and extinction. Whosoever, in experiencing one of these feelings, thinks that this is his Self, must after the extinction of that feeling, admit that his Self has become dissolved. And thus he will consider his Self already in this present life as impermanent, mixed up with pleasure and pain, subject to arising and passing away.
If any one should say that feeling is not his Ego, and that his Self is inaccessible to feeling, he should be asked thus: ‘Now, where there is no feeling, is it then possible to say: “This am I?”
Or, another might say: ‘Feeling, indeed, is not my Self, but it also is untrue that my Self is inaccessible to feeling, for it is my Self that feels, my Self that has the faculty of feeling’. Such a one should be answered thus: ‘Suppose that feeling should become altogether totally extinguished; now, if after the extinction of feeling, no feeling whatever exists there, is it then possible to say: “This am I’?”
To say that the mind, or the mind-objects, or the mind-consciousness, constitute the Self, such an assertion is unfounded. For an arising and a passing away is seen there; and seeing the arising and passing away of these things, one would come to the conclusion that one’s Self arises and passes away.
S. XII. 62
1t would be better for the unlearned worldling to regard his body, built up of the four elements, as his Self, rather than his mind. For it is evident that the body may last for a year, for two years, for three, four, five, or ten years, or even for a hundred years and more; but that which is called thought, or mind, or consciousness, arises continuously, during day and night, as one thing, and passes away as another thing.
S. XXII. 59
Therefore, whatsoever there is of corporeality, of feeling, of perception, of mental formations, of consciousness whether past, present or future, one’s own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near: of this one should understand according to reality and true wisdom: ‘This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Self.’
To show the impersonality and utter emptiness of existence, Visuddhi-Magga XVI quotes the following verse:
Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found,
The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there.
Nirvana is, but not the man that enters it.
The path is, but no traveler on it is seen’.
If now, any one should ask: ‘Have you been in the past, and is it untrue that you have not been? Will you be in the future, and is it untrue that you will not be? Are you, and is it untrue that you are not?’ - you may reply that you have been in the past, and that it is untrue that you have not been; that you will be in the future, and that it is untrue that you will not be; that you are, and that it is untrue that you are not.
In the past only that past existence was real, but unreal the future and present existence. In the future only the future existence will be real, but unreal the past and the present existence. Now only the present existence is real, but unreal, the past and future existence.
Verily, he who perceives the ‘Dependent Origination’ (pa.ticca-samuppaada), perceives the truth; and he who perceives the truth, perceives the Dependent Origination.
For just as from the cow comes milk, from milk curd, from curd butter, from butter ghee, from ghee the skim of ghee; and when it is milk, it is not counted as curd, or butter, or ghee, or skim of ghee, but only as milk; and when it is curd, it is only counted as curd: just so was my past existence at that time real, but unreal the future and present existence; and my future existence will be at that time real, but unreal the past and present existence; and my present existence is now real, but unreal the past and future existence. All these are merely popular designations and expressions, mere conventional terms of speaking, mere popular notions. The Perfect One indeed makes use of these, without however clinging to them.
S. XLIV 4
Thus, he who does not understand corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness according to reality (i.e. as void of a personality, or Ego) nor understands their arising, their extinction, and the way to their extinction, he is liable to believe, either that the Perfect One continues after death, or that he does not continue after death, and so forth.
S. XII. 25
Truly, if one holds the view that the vital principle (jiva; ‘Soul’) is identical with this body, in that case a holy life is not possible; and if one holds the view that the vital principle is something quite different from the body, in that case also a holy life is not possible. Both these two extremes the Perfect One has avoided, and he has shown the Middle Doctrine, which says:
S. XII. 1
On Ignorance (avijjaa) depend the ‘Karma-formations’ (sankhaaraa).
On the Karma-formations depends ‘Consciousness’ (vi~n~naa.na; starting with rebirth-consciousness in the womb of the mother).
On Consciousness depends the ‘Mental and Physical Existence’ (naama-ruupa).
On the mental and physical existence depend the ‘Six Sense-Organs’ (sa.l-aayatana).
On the six sense-organs depends ‘Sensorial Impression’ (phassa).
On sensorial impression depends ‘Feeling’ (vedanaa).
On feeling depends ‘Craving’ (ta.nhaa).
On craving depends ‘Clinging’ (upaadaana).
On clinging depends the ‘Process of Becoming’ (bhava).
On the process of becoming (here: kamma-bhava, or karma-process) depends ‘Rebirth’ (jaati).
On rebirth depend ‘Decay and Death’ (jaraa-marana), sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair.
Thus arises this whole mass of suffering. This is called the noble truth of the origin of suffering.
“No god, no Brahma can be called
The maker of this wheel of life:
Empty phenomena roll on,
Dependent on conditions all.”
(Quoted in Visuddhi-Magga XIX).
S. XII. 51
A disciple, however, in whom Ignorance (avijjaa) has disappeared and wisdom arisen, such a disciple heaps up neither meritorious, nor de-meritorious, nor imperturbable Karma-formations.
The term sankhaaraa has been rendered here by ‘Karma Formations’ because, in the context of the Dependent Origination, it refers to karmically wholesome and unwholesome volition (cetanaa), or volitional activity, in short, Karma.
The threefold division of it, given in the preceding passage, comprises karmic activity in all spheres of existence, or planes of consciousness. The ‘meritorious karma-formations’ extend also to the Fine-Material Sphere (ruupaavacara), while the ‘imperturbable karma-formations’ (ane~njaabhisankhaaraa) refer only to the Immaterial Sphere (aruupaavacara).
S. XII. 1
Thus, through the entire fading away and extinction of this ‘Ignorance’, the ‘Karma-formations’ are extinguished. Through the extinction of Karma-formations, ‘Consciousness’ (rebirth) is extinguished. Through the extinction of consciousness, the ‘Mental and Physical Existence’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of the mental and physical existence, the ‘Six Sense-Organs’ are extinguished. Through the extinction of the six sense organs, ‘Sensorial Impression’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of sensorial impression, ‘Feeling’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of feeling, ‘Craving’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of craving, ‘Clinging’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of clinging, the ‘Process of Becoming’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of the process of becoming, ‘Rebirth’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of rebirth, ‘Decay and Death’, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair are extinguished. Thus takes place the extinction of this whole mass of suffering. This is called the noble truth of the extinction of suffering.
Truly, because beings, obstructed by ignorance (avijjaa) and ensnared by craving (tanhaa) seek ever fresh delight, now here, now there, therefore fresh rebirth continually comes to be.
A. III. 33
And the action (kamma) that is done out of greed, hatred and delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), that springs from them, has its source and origin in them: this action ripens wherever one is reborn, and wherever this action ripens there one experiences the fruits of this action, be it in this life, or the next life, or in some future life.
However, through the fading away of ignorance, through the arising of wisdom, through the extinction of craving, no future rebirth takes place again.
A. III. 33
For the actions which are not done out of greed, hatred and delusion, which have not sprung from them, which have not their source and origin in them: such actions, through the absence of greed, hatred and delusion, are abandoned, rooted out, like a palm-tree torn out of the soil, destroyed, and not able to spring up again.
A. VIII. 12
In this respect one may rightly say of me: that I teach annihilation, that I propound my doctrine for the purpose of annihilation, and that I herein train my disciples; for certainly I do teach annihilation-the annihilation, namely, of greed, hatred and delusion, as well as of the manifold evil and unwholesome things.
The Pa.ticca Samuppaada, lit, the Dependent Origination, is the doctrine of the conditionality of all physical and mental phenomena, a doctrine which, together with that of Impersonality (anattaa), forms the indispensable condition for the real understanding and realization of the Buddha’s teaching. It shows that the various physical and mental life-processes, conventionally called personality, man, animal, etc., are not a mere play of blind chance, but the outcome of causes and conditions. Above all, the Pa.ticca-Samuppaada explains how the arising of rebirth and suffering is dependent upon conditions; and, in its second part, it shows how, through the removal of these conditions, all suffering must disappear. Hence, the Pa.ticca-Samuppaada serves to elucidate the second and the third Noble Truths, by explaining them from their very foundations upwards, and giving them a fixed philosophical form.
The following diagram shows at a glance how the twelve links of the formula extend over three consecutive existences, past, present, and future:
1. Ignorance (avijjaa)
Karma Process (kamma-bhava) 5 causes: 1, 2, 8, 9, 10
2. Karma-Formations (sankhaaraa)
3. Consciousness (vi~n~naa.na)
Rebirth-Process (upapatti-bhava) 5 results: 3-7
4. Mental and Physical Existence (naamaruupa)
5. 6 Sense Organs (sa.l-aayatana)
6. Sense-Impression (phassa)
7. Feeling (vedanaa)
8. Craving (ta.nha)
Karma Process (kamma-bhava) 5 causes: 1, 2, 8, 9, 10
9. Clinging (upaadaana)
10. Process of Existence (bhava)
11. Rebirth (jaati)
Rebirth-Process (upapatti-bhava) 5 results: 3-7
12. Decay and Death (jaraa-marana)
The links 1-2, together with 8-10, represent the Karma-Process, containing the five karmic causes of rebirth.
The links 3-7, together with 11-12, represent the Rebirth-Process, containing the five Karma-Results.
Accordingly it is said in the Patisambhidaa-Magga:
Five causes were there in past,
Five fruits we find in present life.
Five causes do we now produce,
Five fruits we reap in future life.
(Quoted in Vis. Magga XVII)
For a full explanation see Fund. III and B. Dict.
Noble Eightfold Path
What, now, is Right Thought?
This is called Right Thought.
Now, Right Thought, I tell you, is of two kinds:
1. Thought free from lust, from ill-will, and from cruelty-this is called ‘Mundane Right Thought’ (lokiya sammaa-sankappa), which yields worldly fruits and brings good rcsu1ts.
2. But, whatsoever there is of thinking, considering, reasoning, thought, ratiocination, application-the mind being holy, being turned away from the world, and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued-these ‘verbal operations’ of the mind (vacii-sankhaaraa) are called the ‘Super mundane Right Thought’ (lokuttara-sammaa-sankappa), which is not of the world, but is super mundane, and conjoined with the path.
Now, in understanding wrong thought as wrong, and right thought as right, one practices Right Understanding (1st factor); and in making efforts to overcome evil thought and to arouse right thought, one practices Right Effort (6th factor); and in overcoming evil thought with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right thought, one practices Right Mindfulness (7th factor). Hence there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Thought, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.
Noble Eightfold Path
What now, is Right Speech?
A. X. 176
1. Herein someone avoids lying and abstains from it. He speaks the truth, is devoted to the truth, reliable, worthy of confidence, not a deceiver of men. Being at a meeting, or amongst people, or in the midst of his relatives, or in a society, or in the king’s court, and called upon and asked as witness to tell what he knows, he answers, if he knows nothing: ‘I know nothing’, and if he knows, he answers: ‘I know’; if he has seen nothing, he answers: ‘I have seen nothing’, and if he has seen, he answers: ‘I have seen’. Thus he never knowingly speaks a lie, either for the sake of his own advantage, or for the sake of another person’s advantage, or for the sake of any advantage whatsoever.
2. He avoids tale bearing, and abstains from it. What he has heard here, he does not repeat there, so as to cause dissension there; and what he has heard there, he does not repeat here, so as to cause dissension here. Thus he unites those that are divided; and those that are united, he encourages. Concord gladdens him, he delights and rejoices in concord; and it is concord that he spreads by his words.
3. He avoids harsh language, and abstains from it. He speaks such words as are gentle, soothing to the ear, loving, such words as go to the heart, and are courteous, friendly, and agreeable to many.
In Majjhima-Nicaaya No. 21, the Buddha says: ‘Even, O monks, should robbers and murderers saw through your limbs and joints, whosoever should give way to anger thereat would not be following my advice. For thus ought you to train yourselves:
‘Undisturbed shall our mind remain, no evil words shall escape our lips; friendly and full of sympathy shall we remain, with heart full of love, and free from any hidden malice; and that person shall we penetrate with loving thoughts, wide, deep, boundless, freed from anger and hatred’.
A. X. 176
4. He avoids vain talk, and abstains from it. He speaks at the right time, in accordance with facts, speaks what is useful, speaks of the law and the discipline: his speech is like a treasure, uttered at the right moment, accompanied by arguments, moderate and full of sense.
This is called Right Speech.
Now, Right Speech. I tell you, is of two kinds:
1. Abstaining from lying, from tale-bearing, from harsh language, and from vain talk; this is called ‘Mundane Right Speech’ (lokiya-sammaa-vaacaa), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.
2. But the avoidance of the practice of this fourfold wrong speech, the abstaining, desisting. refraining there from-the mind being holy, being turned away from the world, and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued-this is called the ‘Super mundane Right Speech’ (lokuttara-sammaa-vaacaa), which is not of the world, but is super mundane, and conjoined with the path.
Now, in understanding wrong speech as wrong, and right speech as right, one practices Right Understanding (1st factor); and in making efforts to overcome evil speech and to arouse right speech, one practices Right Effort (6th factor); and in overcoming wrong speech with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right speech, one practices Right Mindfulness (7th factor). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Speech, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.
Noble Eightfold Path
A. X. 176
1. Herein someone avoids the killing of living beings, and abstains from it. Without stick or sword, conscientious, full of sympathy, he is desirous of the welfare of all living beings.
2. He avoids stealing, and abstains from it; what another person possesses of goods and chattels in the village or in the wood, that he does not take away with thievish intent.
3. He avoids unlawful sexual intercourse, and abstains from it. He has no intercourse with such persons as are still under the protection of father, mother, brother, sister or relatives, nor with married women, nor female convicts, nor lastly, with betrothed girls.
This is called Right Action.
Now, Right Action, I tell you, is of two kinds:
1. Abstaining from killing, from stealing, and from unlawful sexual intercourse: this is called the ‘Mundane Right Action’ (lokiya-sammaa-kammanta) which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.
2. But the avoidance of the practice of this threefold wrong action, the abstaining, desisting, refraining there from-the mind being holy. Being turned away from the world, and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued-this is called the ‘Super mundane Right Action’ (lokuttara-sammaa-kammanta), which is not of the world, but is super mundane, and conjoined with the path.
Now in understanding wrong action as wrong, and right action as right, one practices Right Understanding (1st factor): and in making efforts to overcome wrong action, and to arouse right action, one practices Right Effort (6th factor); and in overcoming wrong action with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right action, one practices Right Mindfulness (7th factor). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Action, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.
Noble Eightfold Path
What, now, is Right Livelihood?
1. When the noble disciple, avoiding a wrong way of living, gets his livelihood by a right way of living, this is called Right Livelihood.
In the Majjhima-Nikaaya, No. 117, it is said: ‘To practice deceit, treachery, soothsaying, trickery, usury: this is wrong livelihood.’
And in the Anguttara-Nikaaya, V. 1 77, it is said: ‘Five trades should be avoided by a disciple: trading in arms, in living beings, in flesh, in intoxicating drinks, and in poison’.
Included are the professions of a soldier, a fisherman, a hunter, etc.
Now, Right Livelihood, I tell you, is of two kinds:
1. When the noble disciple, avoiding wrong living, gets his livelihood by a right way of living: this is called ‘Mundane Right Livelihood’ (lokiya-sammaa-aajiva), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.
2. But the avoidance of wrong livelihood, the abstaining, desisting, refraining there from-the mind being holy, being turned away from the world, and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued-this is called the ‘Super mundane Right Livelihood’ (lokuttara-sammaa-aajiva), which is not of the world, but is super mundane, and conjoined with the path.
Now. in understanding wrong livelihood as wrong, and right livelihood as right, one practices Right Understanding (1st factor); and in making efforts to overcome wrong livelihood, to establish right livelihood, one practices Right Effort (6th factor); and in overcoming wrong livelihood with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right livelihood, one practices Right Mindfulness (7th factor). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Livelihood, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.
Noble Eightfold Path
A. IV. 13, 14
What, now. is Right Effort?
There are Four Great Efforts; the effort to avoid, the effort to overcome, the effort to develop, and the effort to maintain.
What, now is the effort to Avoid? Herein the disciple rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, unwholesome things that have not yet arisen; and he makes efforts, stirs up his energy; exerts his mind and strives.
Thus, when lie perceives a form with the eye, a sound with the ear, and an odor with the nose, a taste with the tongue, an impression with the body, or an object with the mind, he neither adheres to the whole, nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things, greed and sorrow, would arise, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses.
Possessed of this noble ‘Control over the Senses’ he experiences inwardly a feeling of joy, into which no evil thing can enter.
This is called the effort to avoid
What, now, is the effort to Overcome? There the disciple rouses his will to overcome the evil, unwholesome things that have already arisen; and he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives.
He does not retain any thought of sensual lust, ill-will or grief, or any other evil and unwholesome states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them. causes them to disappear.
If, whilst regarding a certain object, there arise in the disciple, on account of it, evil and unwholesome thoughts connected with greed, hatred and delusion, then the disciple (1) should, by means of this object, gain another and wholesome object. (2) Or, he should reflect on the misery of these thoughts; ‘Unwholesome, truly, are these thoughts! Blamable are these thoughts! Of painful result are these thoughts!’ (3) Or he should pay no attention to these thoughts. (4) Or, he should consider the compound nature of these thoughts. (5) Or, with teeth clenched and tongue pressed against the gums, he should with his mind restrain, suppress and root out these thoughts; and in doing so these evil and unwholesome thoughts of greed, hatred and delusion will dissolve and disappear; and the mind will inwardly become settled and calm, composed and concentrated.
This is called the effort to overcome.
A. IV. 13, 14
What, now, is the effort to Develop? Herein the disciple rouses his will to arouse wholesome things that have not yet arisen; and he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives.
Thus he develops the ‘Elements of Enlightenment’ (bojjhanga), based on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: ‘Mindfulness’ (sati), ‘Investigation of the Law’ (dhamma-vicaya), ‘Energy’ (viriya), ‘Rapture’ (piiti), ‘Tranquility’ (passaddhi), ‘Concentration’ (samadhi). and ‘Equanimity’ (upekkhaa).
This is called the effort to develop.
What, now, is the effort to Maintain? Herein the disciple rouses his will to maintain the wholesome things that have already arisen, and not to allow them to disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development (bhaavanaa); and he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives.
Thus, for example, he keeps firmly in his mind a favorable object of concentration that has arisen, such as the mental image of a skeleton, of a corpse infested by worms, of a corpse blue-black in color, of a festering corpse, of a corpse riddled with holes, of a corpse swollen up.
This is called the effort to maintain.
Truly, for a disciple who is possessed of faith and has penetrated the Teaching of the master, it is fit to think: ‘Though skin sinews and bones wither away, though flesh and blood of my body dry up, I shall not give up my efforts till I have attained whatever is attainable by manly perseverance, energy and endeavor.’
This is called Right Effort.
A. IV. 14
The effort of Avoiding, Overcoming,
Of Developing and Maintaining:
These four great efforts have been shown
By him, the scion of the sun.
And he who firmly clings to them,
May put an end to suffering.
Noble Eightfold Path
What, now, is Right Mindfulness?
The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and grief, to the entering upon the right path and the realization of Nibbana, is by the ‘Four Foundations of Mindfulness’. And which are these four?
Herein the disciple dwells in contemplation of the Body, in contemplation of Feeling, in contemplation of the Mind, in contemplation of the Mind-Objects; ardent, clearly comprehending them and mindful, after putting away worldly greed and grief.
But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body?
Herein the disciple retires to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to a solitary place, seats himself with legs crossed, body erect, and with mindfulness fixed before him, mindfully he breathes in, mindfully he breathes out. When making a long inhalation, he knows: ‘I make a long inhalation’; when making a long exhalation, he knows: ‘I make a long exhalation’. When making a short inhalation, he knows: ‘I make a short inhalation’: when making a short exhalation, he knows: ‘I make a short exhalation’. ‘Clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body, I shall breathe in’: thus he trains himself; ‘Clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body, I shall breathe out’: thus he trains himself. ‘Calming this bodily function (kaaya-sankhaara), I shall breathe in’: thus he trains himself; ‘Calming this bodily function. I shall breathe out’: thus he trains himself.
Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both, he beholds how the body arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of the body. A body is there-
‘A body is there, but no living being, no individual, no woman, no man, no self, and nothing that belongs to a self; neither a person. nor anything belonging to a person. (Comm.)
this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body.
‘Mindfulness of Breathing’ (aanaapaana-sati) is one of the most important meditative exercises. It may be used for the development of Tranquility (samatha-bhaavanaa), i.e. for attaining the four Absorptions (jhana; see “The Four Absorptions” on page 67), for the development of Insight (vipassanaa-bhaavanaa) or for a combination of both practices. Here, in the context of satipa.t.thaana, it is principally intended for tranquillization and concentration preparatory to the practice of Insight, which may be undertaken in the following way.
After a certain degree of calm and concentration, or one of the Absorptions, has been attained through regular practice of mindful breathing, the disciple proceeds to examine the origin of breath. He sees that the inhalations and exhalations are conditioned by the body consisting of the four material elements and the various corporeal phenomena derived from them, e.g. the five sense organs, etc. Conditioned by fivefold sense-impression arises consciousness, and together with it the three other ‘Groups of Existence’, i.e. Feeling, Perception, and mental Formations. Thus the meditator sees clearly: ‘There is no ego-entity or self in this so called personality, but it is only a corporeal and mental process conditioned by various factors’. Thereupon he applies the Three Characteristics to these phenomena, understanding them thoroughly as impermanent subject to suffering, and impersonal.
For further details about Ânaapaana-sati, see M. 118.62: Visuddhi-Magga VIII, 3.
And further, whilst going, standing, sitting, or lying down, the disciple understands (according to reality) the expressions; ‘I go’; ‘I stand’; ‘I sit’; ‘I lie down’; he understands any position of the body.
‘The disciple understands that there is no living being, no real Ego, that goes, stands, etc., but that it is by a mere figure of speech that one says: “I go”, “I stand” and so forth’. (Comm.)
And further, the disciple acts with clear comprehension in going and coming; he acts with clear comprehension in looking forward and backward; acts with clear comprehension in bending and stretching (any part of his body); acts with clear comprehension in carrying alms bowl and robes; acts with clear comprehension in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting; acts with clear comprehension in discharging excrement and urine; acts with clear comprehension in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, awakening; acts with clear comprehension in speaking and keeping silent.
In all that the disciple is doing, he has a clear comprehension: 1. of his intention, 2. of his advantage, 3. of his duty, 4. of the reality. (Comm.)
And further, the disciple contemplates this body from the sole of the foot upward, and from the top of the hair downward, with a skin stretched over it, and filled with manifold impurities: ‘This body has hairs of the head and of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, stomach, bowels, mesentery, and excrement; bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, lymph, tears, skin-grease, saliva, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, and urine.’
Just as if there were a sack, with openings at both ends, filled with various kinds of grain-with paddy, beans, sesamum and husked rice-and a man not blind opened it and examined its contents, thus: ‘That is paddy, these are beans, this is sesamum, this is husked rice’: just so does the disciple investigate this body.
And further, the disciple contemplates this body, however it may stand or move, with regard to the elements; ‘This body consists of the solid element, the liquid element, the heating element and the vibrating element’. Just as if a skilled butcher or butcher’s apprentice, who had slaughtered a cow and divided it into separate portions, were to sit down at the junction of four highroads: just so does the disciple contemplate this body with regard to the elements.
In Visuddhi Magga XIII, 2 this simile is explained as follows:
When a butcher rears a cow, brings it to the place of slaughter, binds it to a post, makes it stand up, slaughters it and looks at the slaughtered cow, during all that time he has still the notion ‘cow’. But when he has cut up the slaughtered cow, divided it into pieces, and sits down near it to sell the meat, the notion, ‘cow’ ceases in his mind, and the notion ‘meat’ arises. He does not think that he is selling a cow or that people buy a cow, but that it is meat that is sold and bought. Similarly, in an ignorant worldling, whether monk or layman, the concepts ‘being’, ‘man’, ‘personality’, etc., will not cease until he has mentally dissected this body of his, as it stands and moves, and has contemplated it according to its component elements. But when he has done so, the notion ‘personality’, etc., will disappear, and his mind will become firmly established in the Contemplation of the Elements.
1. And further, just as if the disciple were looking at a corpse thrown on a charnel-ground, one, two, or three days dead, swollen up, blue-black in color, full of corruption-so he regards his own body: ‘This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it.’
2. And further, just as if the disciple were looking at a corpse thrown on a charnel-ground, eaten by crows, hawks or vultures, by dogs or jackals, or devoured by all kinds of worms-so he regards his own body; ‘This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it.’
3. And further, just as if the disciple were looking at a corpse thrown on a charnel-ground, a framework of bones, flesh hanging from it, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews;
4. A framework of bone, stripped of flesh, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews;
5. A framework of bone, without flesh and blood, but still held together by the sinews;
6. Bones, disconnected and scattered in all directions, here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot, there a shin bone, there a thigh bone, there a pelvis, there the spine, there the skull-so he regards his own body: ‘This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it.’
7. And further, just as if the disciple were looking at bones lying in the charnel-ground, bleached and resembling shells;
8. Bones heaped together, after the lapse of years;
9. Bones weathered and crumbled to dust-so he regards his own body: ‘This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it.’
Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the body arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of the body. ‘A body is there’: this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body.
Once the contemplation of the body is practiced, developed, often repeated, has become one’s habit, one’s foundation, is firmly established, strengthened and perfected; the disciple may expect ten blessings:
1. Over delight and discontent he has mastery; he does not allow himself to be overcome by discontent; he subdues it, as soon as it arises.
2. He conquers fear and anxiety; he does not allow himself to be overcome by fear and anxiety; he subdues them, as soon as they arise.
3. He endures cold and heat, hunger and thirst; wind and sun, attacks by gadflies, mosquitoes and reptiles; patiently he endures wicked and malicious speech, as well as bodily pains that befall him, though they be piercing, sharp, bitter, unpleasant, disagreeable, and dangerous to life.
4. The four Absorptions’ (jhana), which purify the mind, and bestow happiness even here, these he may enjoy at will, without difficulty, without effort.
5. He may enjoy the different ‘Magical Powers (id.dhi-vidhaa).
6. With the ‘Heavenly Ear’ (dibba-sota), the purified, the super-human, he may hear both kinds of sounds, the heavenly and the earthly, the distant and the near.
7. With the mind he may obtain ‘Insight into the Hearts of Other Beings’ (parassa-cetopariya-~naa.na), of other persons.
8. He may obtain ‘Remembrances of many Previous Births’ (pubbe-nivaasaanussati-~naa.na).
9. With the ‘Heavenly Eye’ (dibba-cakkhu), purified and super-human, he may see beings vanish and reappear, the base and the noble, the beautiful and the ugly, the happy and the unfortunate; he may perceive how beings are reborn according to their deeds.
10. He may, through the ‘Cessation of Passions’ (aasavakkhaya), come to know for himself, even in this life, the stainless deliverance of mind, the deliverance through wisdom.
The last six blessings (5-10) are the ‘Psychical Powers’ (abhi~n~naa). The first five of them are mundane (lokiya) conditions, and may therefore be attained even by a ‘worldling’ (puthujjana), whilst the last Abhi~n~naa is super-mundane (lokuttara) and exclusively the characteristic of the Arhat, or Holy One. It is only after the attainment of all the four Absorptions (jhana) that one may fully succeed in acquiring the five worldly ‘Psychical Powers’. There are four iddhipaada, or ‘Bases for obtaining Magical Powers’, namely: concentration of Will, concentration of Energy, concentration of Mind, and concentration of Investigation.
But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the feelings?
In experiencing feelings, the disciple knows: ‘I have an agreeable feeling’; or: ‘I have a disagreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have an indifferent feeling’; or: ‘I have a worldly agreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have an unworldly agreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have a worldly disagreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have an unworldly disagreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have a worldly indifferent feeling’, or: ‘I have an unworldly indifferent feeling’.
Thus he dwells in contemplation of the feelings, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the feelings arise; beholds how they pass away; beholds the arising and passing away of the feelings. ‘Feelings are there’: this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the feelings.
The disciple understands that the expression ‘I feel’ has no validity except as a conventional expression (vohaaravacana); he understands that, in the absolute sense (paramattha), there are only feelings, and that there is no Ego, no experiencer of the feelings.
But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind?
Herein the disciple knows the greedy mind as greedy, and the not greedy mind as not greedy; knows the hating mind as hating, and the not hating mind as not hating: knows the deluded mind as deluded and the undeluded mind as undeluded. He knows the cramped mind as cramped, and the scattered mind as scattered; knows the developed mind as developed, and the undeveloped mind as undeveloped; knows the surpass able mind as surpass able and the unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable; knows the concentrated mind as concentrated, and the unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; knows the freed mind as freed, and the un-freed mind as un-freed.
Citta (mind) is here used as a collective term for the Cittas, or moments of consciousness. Citta being identical with vi~n~naa.na, or consciousness, should not be translated by ‘thought’. ‘Thought’ and ‘thinking’ correspond rather to the ‘verbal operations of the mind’: vitakka (thought-conception) and vicaara (discursive thinking), which belong to the Sankhaara-kkhandha.
Thus he dwells in contemplation of the mind, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how consciousness arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of consciousness. ‘Mind is there’; this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind.
But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of mind-objects?
Herein the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the ‘Five Hindrances.’
1. He knows when there is ‘Lust’ (kaamacchanda) in him: ‘In me is lust’; knows when there is ‘Anger’ (vyaapaada) in him: ‘In me is anger’; knows when there is ‘Torpor and Sloth’ (thiina-middha) in him: ‘In me is torpor and sloth’; knows when there is ‘Restlessness and Mental Worry’ (uddhacca-kukkucca) in him: ‘In me is restlessness and mental worry’; knows when there are ‘Doubts’ (vicikicchaa) in him: ‘In me are doubts’. He knows when these hindrances are not in him: ‘In me these hindrances are not’. He knows how they come to arise; knows how, once arisen, they are overcome; and he knows how they do not rise again in the future.
For example, ‘Lust’ arises through unwise thinking on the agreeable and delightful. It may be suppressed by the following six methods: fixing the mind upon an idea that arouses disgust; contemplation of the loathsomeness of the body; controlling one’s six senses; moderation in eating; friendship with wise and good men; right instruction. Lust and anger are for ever extinguished upon attainment of Anaagaamiiship; ‘Restlessness’ is extinguished by reaching Arhatship; ‘Mental Worry’, by reaching Sotapanship.
And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the five ‘Groups of Existence’. He knows what ‘Corporeality’ (ruupa) is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what ‘Feeling’ (vedanaa) is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what ‘Perception’ (sa~n~naa) is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what the ‘Mental Formations’ (Sankhara) are, how they arise, how they pass away; knows what ‘Consciousness’ (vi~n~naa.na) is, how it arises, how it passes away.
And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the six ‘Subjective-Objective Sense-Bases’. He knows the eye and visual objects, ear and sounds, nose and odors, tongue and tastes, body and bodily impressions, mind and mind-objects; and the fetter that arises in dependence on them, he also knows. He knows how the fetter comes to arise, knows how the fetter is overcome, and how the abandoned fetter does not rise again in future.
And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the seven ‘Elements of Enlightenment’, He knows when there is in him ‘Mindfulness’ (sati), ‘Investigation of the Law’ (dhammavicaya), ‘Energy’ (viriya), ‘Enthusiasm’ (piiti), ‘Tranquility’ (passaddhi), ‘Concentration’ (samadhi), and ‘Equanimity’ (upekkhaa). He knows when it is not in him, knows how it comes to arise, and how it is fully developed.
And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the ‘Four Noble Truths’. He knows according to reality, what Suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Origin of suffering is; knows according to reality what the Extinction of suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Path is that leads to the extinction of suffering.
Thus he dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects either with regard to his own person, or to other persons or to both. He beholds how the mind-objects arise, beholds how they pass away, beholds the arising and passing away of the mind-objects. ‘Mind-objects are there’: this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind-objects.
The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and grief, to the entering upon the right path, and the realization of Nibbana, is by these four foundations of mindfulness.
These four contemplations of Satipa.t.thaana relate to all the five Groups of Existence, namely: 1. The contemplation of corporeality relates to ruupakkhandha; 2. the contemplation of feeling, to vedanaakkhandha; 3. the contemplation of mind, to vi~n~naanakkhandha; 4. the contemplation of mind-objects, to sa~n~naa- and sankhaara-kkhandha.
For further details about Satipa.t.thaana see the Commentary to the discourse of that name, translated in The Way of Mindfulness, by Bhikkhu Soma (Kandy 1967, Buddhist Publication Society).
Watching over In - and Out-breathing (aanaapaana-sati), practiced and developed, brings the Four ‘Foundations of Mindfulness’ to perfection; the four foundations of mindfulness, practiced and developed, bring the seven ‘Elements of Enlightenment’ to perfection; the seven elements of enlightenment, practiced and developed, bring ‘Wisdom and Deliverance’ to perfection.
But how does watching over In- and Out-breathing, practiced and developed, bring the four ‘Foundations of Mindfulness’ (satipa.t.thaana) to perfection?
I. Whenever the disciple (1) mindfully makes a long inhalation or exhalation, or (2) makes a short inhalation or exhalation, or (3) trains himself to inhale or exhale whilst experiencing the whole (breath-) body, or (4) whilst calming down this bodily function (i.e. the breath)-at such a time the disciple dwells in ‘contemplation of the body’, full of energy, comprehending it, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, inhalation and exhalation I call one amongst the corporeal phenomena.
II. Whenever the disciple trains himself to inhale or exhale (1) whilst feeling rapture (piiti), or (2) joy (sukha), or (3) the mental functions (cittasankhaara), or (4) whilst calming down the mental functions-at such a time he dwells in ‘contemplation of the feelings’, full of energy, clearly comprehending them, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, the full awareness of In- and Out-breathing I call one amongst the feelings.
III. Whenever the disciple trains himself to inhale or exhale (1) whilst experiencing the mind, or (2) whilst gladdening the mind, or (3) whilst concentrating the mind, or (4) whilst setting the mind free–at such a time he dwells in ‘contemplation of the mind’, full of energy, clearly comprehending it, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, without mindfulness and clear comprehension, I say, there is no Watching over In- and Out-breathing.
IV. Whenever the disciple trains himself to inhale or exhale whilst contemplating (1) impermanence, or (2) the fading away of passion, or (3) extinction, or (4) detachment-at such a time he dwells in ‘contemplation of the mind-objects’, full of energy, clearly comprehending them, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief. Having seen, through understanding, what is the abandoning of greed and grief, he looks on with complete equanimity.
Watching over In- and Out-breathing, thus practiced, and developed, brings the four Foundations of Mindfulness to perfection.
But how do the four Foundations of Mindfulness, practiced and developed, bring the seven ‘Elements of Enlightenment’ (bojjhanga) to full perfection?
1. Whenever the disciple dwells in contemplation of body, feelings, mind and mind-objects, strenuous, clearly comprehending them, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief-at such a time his mindfulness is undisturbed; and whenever his mindfulness is present and undisturbed, at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Mindfulness’ (sati-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.
2. And whenever, whilst dwelling with mindfulness, he wisely investigates, examines and thinks over the ‘Law’ (dhamma)-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Investigation of the Law’ (dhammavicaya-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.
3. And whenever, whilst wisely investigating, examining and thinking over the law, his energy is firm and unshaken-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Energy’ (viriya-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.
4. And whenever in him, whilst firm in energy, arises super-sensuous rapture-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Rapture’ (piiti-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.
5. And whenever, whilst enraptured in mind, his spiritual frame and his mind become tranquil-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Tranquility’ (passaddhi-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.
6. And whenever, whilst being tranquillized in his spiritual frame and happy, his mind becomes concentrated-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Concentration’ (samaadhi-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.
7. And whenever he looks with complete indifference on his mind thus concentrated-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Equanimity’ (upekkhaa-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.
The four Foundations of Mindfulness, thus practiced and developed, bring the seven elements of enlightenment to full perfection.
And how do the seven elements of enlightenment, practiced and developed, bring Wisdom and Deliverance (vijjaa-vimutti) to full perfection?
Herein the disciple develops the elements of enlightenment: Mindfulness, Investigation of the Law, Energy, Rapture, Tranquility, Concentration and Equanimity, based on detachment, on absence of desire, on extinction and renunciation.
The seven elements of enlightenment thus practiced and developed, bring wisdom and deliverance, to full perfection.
Just as the elephant hunter drives a huge stake into the ground and chains the wild elephant to it by the neck, in order to drive out of him his wonted forest ways and wishes, his forest unruliness, obstinacy and violence, and to accustom him to the environment of the village, and to teach him such good behavior as is required amongst men: in like manner also should the noble disciple fix his mind firmly to these four Foundations of Mindfulness, so that he may drive out of himself his wonted worldly ways and wishes, his wonted worldly unruliness, obstinacy and violence, and win to the True, and realize Nibbana.
Noble Eightfold Path
What, now, is Right Concentration?
Having the mind fixed to a single object (cittekeggataa, lit. ‘One-pointed ness of mind’): this is concentration.
‘Right Concentration’ (sammaa-samaadhi), in its widest sense, is the kind of mental concentration, which is present in every wholesome state of consciousness (kusala-citta), and hence is accompanied by at least Right Thought (2nd factor), Right Effort (6th factor) and Right Mindfulness (7th factor). ‘Wrong Concentration’ is present in unwholesome states of consciousness, and hence is only possible in the sensuous, not in a higher sphere. Samadhi, used alone, always stands in the Sutta, for sammaa-samaadhi, or Right Concentration.
The four ‘Foundations of Mindfulness’ (7th factor): these are the objects of concentration.
The four ‘Great Efforts’ (6th factor): these are the requisites for concentration.
The practicing, developing, and cultivating of these things: this is the development (bhaavanaa) of concentration.
Right Concentration (sammaa-samaadhi) has two degrees of development; 1. ‘Neighborhood Concentration’ (upacaarasamaadhi). which approaches the first absorption without, however, attaining it; 2. ‘Attainment Concentration’ (appanaasamaadhi), which is the concentration present in the four Absorptions (jhana). These Absorptions are mental states beyond the reach of the fivefold sense-activity, attainable only in solitude and by unremitting perseverance in the practice of concentration. In these states all activity of the five senses is suspended. No visual or audible impressions arise at such a time, no bodily feeling is felt. But, although all outer sense-impressions have ceased, yet the mind remains active, perfectly alert, fully awake.
The attainment of these Absorptions, however, is not a requisite for the realization of the four Super mundane Paths of Holiness; and neither Neighborhood-Concentration nor Attainment-Concentration, as such, possesses the power of conferring entry to the four Super mundane Paths: hence they really have no power to free one permanently from evil things. The realization of the Four Supermundane Paths is possible only at the moment of deep ‘Insight’ (vipassanaa) into the Impermanency (aniccataa), Miserable Nature (dukkhataa) and Impersonality (anattataa) of this whole phenomenal process of existence. This Insight, again, is attainable only during Neighborhood-Concentration, not during Attainment Concentration.
He who has realized one or other of the Four Super mundane Paths without ever having attained the Absorptions, is called Sukkha-vipassaka, or Suddhavipassanaa-yaanika, i.e. ‘one who has taken merely Insight (vipassana) as his vehicle’. He, however, who, after cultivating the Absorptions, has reached one of the Super mundane Paths is called Saniathayaanika, or ‘one who has taken Tranquility (samatha) as his vehicle (yaana)’.
For samatha and vipassana see Fund IV. and B. Diet.
Detached from sensual objects, detached from evil things, the disciple enters into the first Absorption, which is accompanied by Thought Conception and Discursive Thinking, is born of detachment, and filled with Rapture and Happiness.
This is the first of the Absorptions belonging to the Fine-Material Sphere (rupaavacarajjhaana). It is attained when, through the strength of concentration, the fivefold sense activity is temporarily suspended, and the five Hindrances are likewise eliminated.
See B. Dict.: kasina, nimitta, samadhi.
This first Absorption is free from five things, and five things are present. When the disciple enters the first Absorption, there have vanished (the five Hindrances): Lust, Ill-Will, Torpor and Sloth, Restlessness and Mental Worry, Doubts; and there are present: Thought Conception (vitakka), Discursive Thinking (vicaara), Rapture (piiti), Happiness (sukha), Concentration (citt’ekaggataa = samadhi).
These five mental factors present in the first Absorption, are called Factors (or Constituents) of Absorption (jhaananga). Vitakka (initial formation of an abstract thought) and vicaara (discursive thinking, rumination) are called ‘verbal functions’ (vaci-sankhaara) of the mind; hence they are something secondary compared with consciousness.
In Visuddhi-Magga, vitakka is compared with the taking hold of a pot, and vicaara with the wiping of it. In the first Absorption both are present, but are exclusively focused on the subject of meditation, vicaara being here not discursive, but of an ‘exploring’ nature. Both are entirely absent in the following Absorptions.
And further: after the subsiding of Thought-Conception and Discursive Thinking, and by the gaining of inner tranquility and oneness of mind, he enters into a state free from Thought-Conception and Discursive Thinking, the second Absorption, which is born of concentration (samadhi), and filled with Rapture (piti) and Happiness (sukha).
In the second Absorption, there are three Factors of Absorption: Rapture, Happiness, and Concentration.
And further: after the fading away of Rapture, he dwells in equanimity, mindful, with clear awareness: and he experiences in his own person that feeling of which the Noble Ones say: ‘Happy lives he who is equanimous and mindful’-thus he enters the third Absorption.
In the third Absorption there are two Factors of Absorption: equanimous Happiness (upekkhaa-sukha) and Concentration (citt’ekaggataa).
And further: after the giving up of pleasure and pain, and through the disappearance of previous joy and grief, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain, into the fourth Absorption, which is purified by equanimity and mindfulness.
In the fourth Absorption there are two Factors of Absorption: Concentration and Equanimity (upekkhaa).
In Visuddhi-magga forty subjects of meditation (kamma.t.thaana) are enumerated and treated in detail. By their successful practice the following Absorptions may be attained:
All four Absorptions. through Mindfulness of Breathing (see Vis. M. VIII. 3), the ten Kasina-exercises (Vis. M. IV, V. and B. Dict.); the contemplation of Equanimity (upekkhaa), being the practice of the fourth Brahma-vihaara (Vis. M. IX. 4).
The first three Absorptions: through the development of Loving-Kindness (mettaa), Compassion (karunaa) and Sympathetic Joy (muditaa), being the practice of the first three Brahma-vihaaras (Vis. M. IX. 1-3,).
The first Absorption: through the ten Contemplations of Impurity (asubha-bhaavanaa; i.e. the Cemetery Contemplations, which are ten according to the enumeration in Vis. M. VI); the contemplation of the Body (i.e. the 32 parts of the body; Vis. M. VIII, 2); ‘Neighborhood-Concentration’ (upacaara-samaadhi): through the Recollections on Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, on Morality, Liberality, Heavenly Beings, Peace (=Nibbana) and death (Vis. M. VI. VII); the Contemplation on the Loathsomeness of Food (Vis. M. XI. I); the Analysis of the Four Elements (Vis. M. IX. 2).
The four Immaterial Absorptions (aruupa-jjhaana or aaruppa), which are based on the fourth Absorption, are produced by meditating on their respective objects from which they derive their names; Sphere of Unbounded Space, of Unbounded Consciousness, of Nothingness, and of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception.
The entire object of concentration and meditation is treated in Vis M. III-XIII; see also Fund. IV.
8. XXII. 5
Develop your concentration: for he who has concentration, understands things according to their reality. And what are these things? The arising and passing away of corporeality, of feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness.
Thus, these five Groups of Existence must be wisely penetrated; Ignorance and Craving must be wisely abandoned; Tranquility (samatha) and Insight (vipassana) must be wisely developed.
S. LVI. II
This is the Middle Path which the Perfect One has discovered, which makes one both to see and to know, and which leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.
“And following upon this path, you will put an end to suffering.
But those disciples, in whom these three fetters have vanished, they all have ‘entered the Stream‘ (sotaapanna).
More than any earthly power,
More than all the joys of heaven,
More than rule o’er all the world,
Is the Entrance to the Stream.
“However disciples, when I pass away, you may think,” the Master’s doctrine is gone and the Master is no more.” You should not think so because the Dharma and the Discipline, which I have taught you, will be your Master after my death. “Let the Dharma be your light. Let It be your refuge. Do not seek any other refuge. “Disciples, you should well protect and preserve the doctrine which I advised you to probe so that this holy life may take its course and continue for ages to come for the welfare of many, to console the world, and for the happiness and welfare of the heavenly beings and men.”
Now on that occasion the Blessed One, on emerging from seclusion in the late afternoon, sat warming his back in the western sun. Then Ven. Ananda went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, massaged the Blessed One’s limbs with his hand and said, “It’s amazing, lord. It’s astounding, how the Blessed One’s complexion is no longer so clear & bright; his limbs are flabby & wrinkled; his back, bent forward; there’s a discernible change in his faculties — the faculty of the eye, the faculty of the ear, the faculty of the nose, the faculty of the tongue, the faculty of the body.”
“That’s the way it is, Ananda. When young, one is subject to aging; when healthy, subject to illness; when alive, subject to death. The complexion is no longer so clear & bright; the limbs are flabby & wrinkled; the back, bent forward; there’s a discernible change in the faculties — the faculty of the eye, the faculty of the ear, the faculty of the nose, the faculty of the tongue, the faculty of the body.”
— SN XLVIII.41
“Now I am frail, Ananda, old, aged, far gone in years. This is my eightieth year, and my life is spent. Even as an old cart, Ananda, is held together with much difficulty, so the body of the Tathagata is kept going only with supports. It is, Ananda, only when the Tathagata, disregarding external objects, with the cessation of certain feelings, attains to and abides in the signless concentration of mind, that his body is more comfortable.
“Therefore, Ananda, be islands unto yourselves, refuges unto yourselves, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, seeking no other refuge.
“And how, Ananda, is a bhikkhu an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge?
“When he dwells contemplating the body in the body, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world; when he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, the mind in the mind, and mental objects in mental objects, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world, then, truly, he is an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; having the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge.”
— DN 16
“Today, Ananda, at the Capala shrine, Mara, the Evil One, approached me, saying: ‘Now, O Lord, bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen, have come to be true disciples of the Blessed One — wise, well disciplined, apt and learned, preservers of the Dhamma, living according to the Dhamma, abiding in the appropriate conduct, and having learned the Master’s word, are able to expound it, preach it, proclaim it, establish it, reveal it, explain it in detail, and make it clear; and when adverse opinions arise, they are now able to refute them thoroughly and well, and to preach this convincing and liberating Dhamma.
“‘And now, O Lord, this holy life taught by the Blessed One has become successful, prosperous, far-renowned, popular and widespread, and it is well proclaimed among gods and men. Therefore, O Lord, let the Blessed One come to his final passing away! Let the Happy One utterly pass away! The time has come for the Parinibbana of the Lord.’
“And then, Ananda, I answered Mara, the Evil One, saying: ‘Do not trouble yourself, Evil One. Before long the Parinibbana of the Tathagata will come about. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away.’
“And in this way, Ananda, today at the Capala shrine the Tathagata has renounced his will to live on.”
At these words the Venerable Ananda spoke to the Blessed One, saying: “May the Blessed One remain, O Lord! May the Happy One remain, O Lord, throughout the world-period, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men!”
And the Blessed One answered, saying: “Enough, Ananda. Do not entreat the Tathagata, for the time is past, Ananda, for such an entreaty.”
— DN 16
“Now, O bhikkhus, I say to you that these teachings of which I have direct knowledge and which I have made known to you — these you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men.
“And what, bhikkhus, are these teachings? They are the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four constituents of psychic power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the Noble Eightfold Path. These, bhikkhus, are the teachings of which I have direct knowledge, which I have made known to you, and which you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men.”
Then the Blessed One said to the bhikkhus: “So, bhikkhus, I exhort you: All compounded things are subject to vanish. Strive with earnestness. The time of the Tathagata’s Parinibbana is near. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away.”
— DN 16
And soon after the Blessed One had eaten the meal provided by Cunda the metalworker, a dire sickness fell upon him, even dysentery, and he suffered sharp and deadly pains. But the Blessed One endured them mindfully, clearly comprehending and unperturbed.
Then the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: “Come, Ananda, let us go to Kusinara” And the Venerable Ananda answered: “So be it, Lord.”
— DN 16
Then the Blessed One with a large community of monks went to the far shore of the Hiraññavati River and headed for Upavattana, the Mallans’ sal-grove near Kusinara. On arrival, he said to Ven. Ananda, “Ananda, please prepare a bed for me between the twin sal-trees, with its head to the north. I am tired, and will lie down.”
Responding, “As you say, lord,” Ven. Ananda prepared a bed between the twin sal-trees, with its head to the north. Then the Blessed One lay down on his right side in the lion’s sleeping posture, with one foot on top of the other, mindful & alert.
Now at that time the twin sal-trees were in full bloom, even though it was not the time for flowering. They showered, strewed, & sprinkled on the Tathagata’s body in homage to him. Heavenly coral-tree blossoms fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata’s body in homage to him. Heavenly sandalwood powder fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata’s body in homage to him. Heavenly music was playing in the sky, in homage to the Tathagata. Heavenly songs were sung in the sky, in homage to the Tathagata.
— D 16
“Ananda, there are these four places that merit being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merit his feelings of urgency & dismay (samvega). Which four? ‘Here the Tathagata was born’ is a place that merits being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merits his feelings of urgency & dismay. ‘Here the Tathagata awakened to the unexcelled right self-awakening’… ‘Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled wheel of Dhamma’… ‘Here the Tathagata was totally unbound in the remainderless property of Unbinding’ is a place that merits being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merits his feelings of urgency & dismay. These are the four places that merit being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merit his feelings of urgency & dismay. They will come out of conviction, Ananda — monks, nuns, male lay followers, & female lay followers — to the spots where ‘Here the Tathagata was born,’ ‘Here the Tathagata awakened to the unexcelled right self-awakening,’ ‘Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled wheel of Dhamma,’ ‘Here the Tathagata was totally unbound in the remainderless property of Unbinding.’ And anyone who dies while making a pilgrimage to these memorials with a bright, confident mind will — on the break-up of the body, after death — reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.”
— DN 16
Now at that time the Kusinara Mallans had met for some business in their assembly hall. Ven. Ananda went to the assembly hall and on arrival announced to them, “Tonight, Vasitthas, in the last watch of the night, the total Unbinding of the Tathagata will occur. Come out, Vasitthas! Come out, Vasitthas! Don’t later regret that ‘The Tathagata’s total Unbinding occurred within the borders of our very own town, but we didn’t get to see him in his final hour!’” When they heard Ven. Ananda, the Mallans together with their sons, daughters, & wives were shocked, saddened, their minds overflowing with sorrow. Some of them wept, tearing at their hair; they wept, uplifting their arms. As if their feet were cut out from under them, they fell down and rolled back & forth, crying, “All too soon, the Blessed One will be totally unbound! All too soon, the One Well-gone will be totally unbound! All too soon, the One with Eyes will disappear from the world!”
Then the Mallans together with their sons, daughters, & wives — shocked, saddened, their minds overflowing with sorrow — went to Ven. Ananda at Upavattana, the Mallans’ sal-grove near Kusinara.
— DN 16
“In any doctrine & discipline where the noble eightfold path is not found, no contemplative of the first… second… third… fourth order [stream-winner, once-returner, nonreturner, or arahant] is found. But in any doctrine & discipline where the noble eightfold path is found, contemplatives of the first… second… third… fourth order are found. The noble eightfold path is found in this doctrine & discipline, and right here there are contemplatives of the first… second… third… fourth order. Other teachings are empty of knowledgeable contemplatives. And if the monks dwell rightly, this world will not be empty of arahants.”
— DN 16
[Date: 1 BE]
Then the Blessed One addressed the monks, “Now, then, monks, I exhort you: All fabrications are subject to decay. Bring about completion by being heedful.” Those were the Tathagata’s last words.
Then the Blessed One entered the first jhana. Emerging from that he entered the second jhana. Emerging from that, he entered the third… the fourth jhana… the dimension of the infinitude of space… the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness… the dimension of nothingness… the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. Emerging from that, he entered the cessation of perception & feeling.
Then the Blessed One, emerging from the cessation of perception & feeling, entered the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. Emerging from that, he entered the dimension of nothingness… the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness… the dimension of the infinitude of space… the fourth jhana… the third… the second… the first jhana. Emerging from the first jhana he entered the second… the third… the fourth jhana. Emerging from the fourth jhana, he immediately was totally Unbound.
— DN 16
|Source: Reproduced and reformatted from Access To Insight edition. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted, and redistributed in any medium. It is the author’s wish, however, that any such republication and redistribution be made available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis and that translations and other derivative works be clearly marked as such.|
1. In his final words to his disciples under the sala trees, the Buddha uttered these words: “Make my teaching your light! Rely upon it; do not depend upon any other teaching. Make of yourself a light. Rely upon yourself; do not depend upon anyone else.” “Consider your body; think of its impurity; how can you indulge its cravings as you see that both its pain and delight are alike causes of suffering? Consider your soul; think of its transiency; how can you fall into delusion about it and cherish pride and selfishness, knowing that they must all end in inevitable suffereing? Consider all substances; can you find among them any enduring ’self’? Are they not all aggregates that sooner or later will break apart and be scattered? Do not be confused by the universality of suffering, but follow my teaching and you will be rid of pain. Do this and you will indeed be my discples.”
2. “My disciples. The teachings that I have given you are never to be forgotten nor abandoned. They are to be treasured, they are to be thought about, they are to be practiced! If you follow these teachings you will always be happy.” “The point of the teachings is to control your own mind. Restrain your mind from greed, so shall you keep your body right, your mind pure, your words faithful. Always thinking of the transiency of your life, you will be able to desist from greed and anger and will be able to keep clear from all evil. “If you find your mind entangled in greed and tempted, you must suppress the greed and control the entangled mind; be the master of your own mind. A man’s mind may make of him a Buddha, or it may make of him a beast. Being misled by error one becomes a demon; being enlightened one becomes a Buddha. Therefore keep your mind under control and do not let it deviate from the Noble Path.”
3. “Under my teachings, brothers should respect each other and refrain from disputes; they should not repel each other like water and oil, but should mingle together like milk and water. Study together, learn together, practice the teachings together. Do not waste your mind and time in idleness and bickering. Enjoy the blossoms of enlightenment in their season and harvest the fruit of benevolence. “The teachings which I have given you, I gained by following the path myself. You should follow the teachings and conform to their spirit on every occasion. If you neglect them it means that you have never really met me. It means that you are far from me even though you are actually with me, but if you accept and practice my teachings then you are very near to me, even though you are far away.”
4. “My disciples. The end is approaching, our parting is near, but do not lament. Life is ever changing; none escape the dissolution of the body. Now I am to manifest the Dharma by my own death, the body falling apart like a decayed cart. Do not vainly lament, but wonder at the rule of transiency and learn from it the emptiness of human life. Do not cherish the unworthy desire that the changeable might become unchanging. The demon of worldly desire is always seeking chances to deceive the mind. If a viper lives in your room, if you wish to have a peaceful sleep, you must chase it out. You must break the bonds of worldly passions and get rid of them as you would a viper.”
5. “My disciples. The last moment has come, but do not forget that death is but the vanishing of a body. The body was born from parents and was nourished by food, so sickness and death is unavoidable. But the true Buddha is not a human body: it is Enlightenment. A human body must vanish, but the wisdom of Enlightenment will exist forever in the truths of the Dharma, and in the practice of the Dharma. He who sees my body only, is not the one who truly sees me. He who accepts my teachings, is the one who truly sees me. After my death, Truth shall be your teacher. Follow Truth and you will be true to me. “During the last forty-five years of my life I have kept back nothing from my teaching. There is no secret teaching, no hidden meaning, everything has been taught openly and clearly. “My dear disciples; this is the end. In a moment I shall be passing into Nibbana.”