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12/13/07
For The Gain of the Many and For the Welfare of the Many-Anti-incumbency the decider in Himachal politics- Sugar mills to get interest-free loan -606 IMA cadets commissioned as officers -Winter chill grips north India, five die -Judiciary should not cross limits: SC -Legal expert divided on SC order criticising its larger bench
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 10:33 am

 For The Gain of the Many and For the Welfare of the Many

IndiBlitz.com

You read it here first, right from the newsdesk

Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister and leader of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) Mayawati will visit the hill state on Sunday.

The second phase of polling in 65 constituencies will take place on December 19.

The first phase of polling was held in three tribal constituencies of Kinnaur, Lahaul Spiti and Bharmour on November 14.

The counting of votes will take place on December 28.

The term of the State Assembly is due to expire on March 9, 2008. (ANI)

Shimla, Dec 13 (IANS) If Himachal Pradesh’s electoral logic is valid, the ruling Congress has plenty of reasons to worry.

Political workers and analysts say that Himachal’s most literate voters have always voted against the party that controls the government, invariably bringing the opposition party to power.

Both parties are downplaying the entry into the electoral politics of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP).

The BSP is contesting all 68 seats and has even declared a chief ministerial candidate, Vijay Singh Mankotia, a two time state tourism minister who was recently expelled from the Congress.

The BSP, already feeling proud of its performance in Uttar Pradesh, says it is going to break new ground.

‘The election results will surprise all, the BSP will win half of the seats,’ says Mankotia.

Political observers are not dismissing the BSP, saying in the event of a hung assembly, the party could prove to be a kingmaker.

People still remember the crucial support given to the BJP by one single legislator Ramesh Dhawala when both the parties tied in 1998. Dhawala, formerly from the Congress, won as an independent. He chose to support the BJP.

In the 2003 poll, the Congress secured 43 seats and the BJP 16. Nine seats went to others.

Sixty-five constituencies will vote Dec 19. In view of the threat of early snowfall the first phase of polling covering three tribal seats of Bharmaur, Lahaul & Spiti and Kinnaur took place Nov 14. The vote count will take place Dec 28.

According to Chief Electoral Officer Manisha Nanda, there are 4,477,254 voters for 65 seats. There will be 5,934 polling stations and 324 candidates are in the fray.


Business Daily from THE HINDU group of publications
Saturday, Dec 15, 2007

Wheat, mustard, chana acreages trail due to dry weather

Wheat planted in 206.32 lakh hectares against 234.48 lh last year

Our Bureau

New Delhi, Dec 14

Sowing of wheat, rapeseed-mustard and chana continues to lag behind this year on account of dry weather in large parts of northern and central India.

According to the Agriculture Ministry’s latest Crop Weather Watch Report, farmers had, as on Friday, planted 206.32 lakh hectares (lh) under wheat, against 234.48 lh during the same period last year. The normal total area under wheat is 261.97 lh, while touching a record 279.84 lh last year.

Cumulative acreage has declined in Uttar Pradesh (65.17 lh versus 77.98 lh), Madhya Pradesh (28.10 versus 35.10), Rajasthan (17.12 versus 19.10), Gujarat (8.18 versus 9.22), Maharashtra (7.37 versus 8.56), Bihar (10.57 versus 12.96) and Karnataka (2.06 versus 2.39).

Belated sugarcane crushing

The virtual absence of any rains since August has affected sowing in Mahdya Pradesh and Rajasthan, where wheat is largely rainfed. In Uttar Pradesh, the drop has been ascribed to the belated crushing by sugar mills. Sugarcane occupies about 25 lh in UP, of which roughly 15 lh is accounted for by the ratoon crop that is harvested and crushed during November-January.

While mills normally crush from early November, this time they commenced only from around November 25. That has restricted the scope for farmers to vacate their cane area for planting wheat in time. The area impacted on this count is reckoned at 7-8 lh, i.e. half the ratoon cane.

Shortage of DAP

To add to this, there are reports from the ground of a severe shortage of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), a crucial nutrient required at the time of sowing. While the Centre has claims to have arranged sufficient DAP imports, the lack of distribution infrastructure at the State-level (particularly in UP and Bihar) has led to a shortfall at the farmers’ end.

On the brighter side, wheat acreage has gone up in Punjab (33.48 versus 33.16) and West Bengal (2.75 versus 2.50), while being just marginally lower in Haryana (23.35 versus 23.40) and Uttarakhand(3.21 versus 3.23). Since Punjab and Haryana are high-yielding regions and protected through perennial irrigation networks, the Centre can draw some comfort from the reasonably good coverage in these States. Also, the Punjab and Haryana Governments have been more proactive in ensuring adequate DAP stocks for distribution to farmers.

The Centre’s hopes now mainly rest on more area coming under late sown wheat in eastern UP and Bihar, which could partially offset the declines in M.P., Rajasthan and western UP.

Mustard positive areas

But this optimism may not hold for rapeseed-mustard — the most important rabi oilseed. Progressive area reported is lower this time, at 57.25 lh, against last year’s corresponding 64.27 lh and 65.99 lh for the whole of 2006-07. Acreage has fallen in Rajasthan (23.36 lh against 28.83 lh), Haryana (5.50 lh against 5.97 lh), Gujarat (3.28 lh against 3.59 lh), West Bengal (4 lh against 4.35 lh), while rising in UP (7.78 lh against 7.70 lh) and M.P. (6.70 lh against 6.57 lh).

The total area sown so far under all rabi oilseeds is lower this year at 77.39 lh, over last year’s cumulative figure of 87.29 lh. Besides rapeseed-mustard, acreages have declined for sunflower (from 9.86 to 8.30 lh), groundnut (3.64 to 3.46 lh), safflower (3.36 to 2.82 lh) and linseed (4.60 to 4.21 lh).

In gram (chana), too, there has been a fall in coverage from 75.95 lh to 70.77 lh. This has been more so in M.P. (from 25.84 to 22.11 lh), UP (7.72 to 5.85 lh), Karnataka (7.65 to 6.76 lh) and Maharashtra (10.34 to 10.32 lh). But these have been partly made up through higher plantings in Rajasthan (from 11.19 to 12.68 lh) and Andhra Pradesh (6 to 6.07 lh).

Rabi pulses

The overall rabi pulses area has dipped from 121.46 lh to 113.49 lh, with these being 14.32 to 12.58 lh for lentil (masur), 7.22 to 5.95 lh for peas (matar) and 5.85 to 4.90 lh for kulthi (horsegram). However, extra area has come under urad (from 4.97 to 5.34 lh), moong (2.60 to 4.30 lh) and lathyrus (4.10 to 4.57 lh).

On the coarse cereals front, the area under jowar so far this year, at 44.51 lh, is below the 46.81 lh of the corresponding period of 2006, while going up for maize (from 6.96 to 7.77 lh) and barley (from 6.25 to 6.43 lh).


UP, West Bengal have not affected India plan:Reliance Retail
13 Dec, 2007, 1736 hrs IST, PTI

NEW DELHI: Mukesh Ambani-led Reliance Retail on thursday said its nation-wide expansion plan has not been affected by problems in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, although operations in the two states have been put on hold.

“It (what happened in UP) has not affected our overall plans. We have opened more than 400 stores in last one year and retail expansion is going as per the plan across India,” Gunender Kapoor, Reliance Retail Foods Business President and Chief Executive, told PTI.

He, however, said following protests from small traders and government intervention in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, the company has stalled its operations in the two states.

Speaking to PTI earlier, Reliance Retail Lifestyle Division President and Chief Executive Bijou Kurien had said the company would wait till the Uttar Pradesh government’s next step based on the report of committee set up to study the impact of organised retail on local traders.

“However, wherever possible we are using the properties which were booked for Reliance Fresh for other format stores,” he added.

Asked about the original number of Reliance Fresh stores had planned in Uttar Pradesh and how the state government’s decision would impact the number, he said: “We are yet to check and arrive at the number of stores which would fall short of the target.”

After foraying into grocery, digital equipment, footwear, apparel and jewellery stores, Reliance recently entered the books and music segment with its ‘Timeout’ store in Bangalore. Reliance Timeout is the eighth format of the company, which plans to invest 25,000 crore in the next four years in 784 cities across India.

 


Online edition of India’s National Newspaper
Tuesday, Dec 11, 2007

New plane, chopper for Mayawati’s use

Special Correspondent

LUCKNOW: Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati, currently campaigning for the Bahujan Samaj Party candidates in Himachal Pradesh, will soon have a brand new aircraft and a chopper at her disposal to be used for official purposes. The present set would be phased out as they were not considered conducive from the safety and security point of view.

Negotiations for buying an eight seater Jet Airways plane and a helicopter were finalised this week in Washington following a meeting between the company officials and three top officials of the Mayawati government. State Chief Secretary Prashant Kumar Mishra, Principal Secretary, Finance, Shekhar Agarwal and Principal Secretary to the Chief Minister Shailesh Krishna represented the Uttar Pradesh government. The team returned to Lucknow on Friday.

Official sources said here on Saturday that negotiations centred around the price of the twin carriers. While the helicopter is priced at around Rs 35 crore, the airplane would cost the State exchequer Rs. 16 crore. The double engine helicopter has been made mandatory for carrying VIPs in the wake of several accidents involving helicopters equipped with a single engine, said an official of the Chief Minister’s Secretariat. The Jet aircraft will substantially reduce the travel time, particularly over long distances, and it would be for the first time that a Jet plane would figure in the fleet owned by the Uttar Pradesh government.

The chopper would be dismantled and airlifted to Singapore where it would be reassembled. Pilots would be flown in from Lucknow to Singapore where they will be imparted special training in flying the chopper. Only after the company’s instructors are convinced, would the pilots be allowed to bring the helicopter to Lucknow, the official said.

New Delhi: The Bharatiya Janata Party is poised to retain power in Gujarat but with a reduced majority, losing some ground in Sunday’s second and final phase of the Assembly elections in the northern and central parts, which were the worst hit by the 2002 communal riots, according to exit polls by four TV channels.

With the winning party required to get 92 of the 182 seats, the NDTV exit poll projected that the BJP would win between 90 and 110. The BJP won 127 seats in 2002.

The Congress’ share was put at somewhere between 70 and 95. Others had three to five seats.

The CNN-IBN-CSDS exit poll gave the BJP 92 to 100 seats with the Congress notching somewhere between 77 and 85. Others were given three to seven seats.

The exit poll of Star News-Nielsen saw the BJP getting 103, losing about 24 seats, 18 of which from central and northern Gujarat. In the last elections in these regions, the party swept 73 of the 95 seats. The Congress might get 76 seats, a gain of 25.

Zee News and C-Voter projected the BJP getting 93 to 104 seats, followed by the Congress at 75 to 87 seats.

It gave a vote share of about 48 per cent to the BJP and 45 per cent to the Congress while the Star News exit poll predicted the BJP would get 46.5 per cent votes while for the Congress, it would be 43.5 per cent.

The Star News exit poll projected 55 and 39 seats for the BJP and the Congress respectively in Sunday’s phase of polls.

The CNN-IBN exit poll gave the Congress an edge in Central Gujarat and a near cake-walk for the BJP in North Gujarat. — PTI

Once again the people of Gujarat will prove that the projection of all the above channels are biased and are totally wrong..

 

Migrant children to get extra dose of polio vaccine

Ramya Kannan




Bangalore case causes apprehension

Mapping of migrants in State begun




CHENNAI: The recent reporting of a polio case from Bangalore, with a two-year-old child of a migrant worker being affected, has revived Tamil Nadu’s apprehensions about migrant populations bringing back the polio virus into the State.

Determined to prevent this entry route for the polio virus, the State’s public health department has decided to target migrant workers for special attention and for an extra dose of oral polio vaccine for their children. The first round will be started immediately for the migrant populations of Kelamangalam village in Krishnagiri, one of the two districts bordering Karnataka.

As a precaution, the extra dose will also be administered in Bagalur, Thalli and Hosur in Krishnagiri and Hogenekkal (Dharmapuri).

With 80 per cent of the 676 polio cases reported in 2006 coming out of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, health department officials felt their apprehensions were justified, considering the large number of migrant workers from these two States.

Most of them come to Tamil Nadu to work in the construction industry, primarily in the large Information Technology parks coming up all over the state. Since the workers have to stay in the same place for at least two years, they bring their family along and the children are likely to spread the virus, transmitted largely through the faeco-oral route.

The State Government has started mapping the migrant populations in Tamil Nadu. Beginning in 2008, children of these groups will be given an extra dose of the vaccine after the two regular rounds in January and February. With monthly updates being planned to keep an accurate inflow and outflow of such groups of workers, officials hope they will be able to keep track of the children and include fresh migrants in the vaccination programme.

According to public health department sources, the child in Bangalore was a member of a migrant labourer from Faizabad, close to Agra, in Uttar Pradesh. The family had migrated to Karnataka in search of labour and were employed in a construction site. Health department officials explain this anomaly saying, the vaccine being used in Uttar Pradesh was the monovalent vaccine, guaranteeing protection against only one of the three strains.

606 IMA cadets commissioned as officers

Dehradun (PTI): Amid emotional scenes and chants of patriotic couplets, 606 bright young men on Monday stepped into the Indian Army as commissioned officers.

Uttar Pradesh led the tally among the states in terms of representation among the new lieutenants, with 116 of the recruits belonging to the state passing out from the Indian Military Academy (IMA).

And while UP’s neighbouring state Uttarakhand, despite its small size, was at second spot in the list with 69 officers, a larger state like Gujarat could boast of only two officers.

States from the North-east had a mixed bag, with Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim drawing a blank, while Manipur had eight officers, Assam five and Tripura one.

Haryana with 54 officers was at third position, followed by Maharashtra with 46 and Rajasthan with 36.

Twenty-eight of the officers belonged to the capital and while Kerala had a representation of 24.

Twenty of the officers belonged to militancy-hit Jammu and Kashmir.

Of the 606 officers who passed out today from the IMA, five were from foreign countries — one each from Bhutan, Lesotho, Kazakhstan and two from Kyrgyzstan.

While 197 of the officers will be streamed into infantry, 105 are being absorbed into artillery and 76 into engineering.

Of the 1,470 cadets in the IMA, the largest number, 271, is again from UP, and the second-largest, 140, is again from Uttarakhand.

Winter chill grips north India, five die

New Delhi (PTI): Chilly conditions prevailed in many parts of northern India on Monday with areas in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh recording sub-zero temperatures and snowfall even as five deaths were reported in the region.

In Uttar Pradesh, three persons died of the cold wave in Jaunpur and Muzaffarnagar, while one death each was reported from Jammu and Hoshiarpur in Punjab. Himachal Pradesh capital Shimla witnessed the first snowfall of the season as temperatures plummeted to 0.7 degrees Celsius. Kalpa had a minimum temperature of minus 4.1 degrees. While Shimla recorded 2 cm of snowfall, Dundi and Solang Nallah in Kullu district recorded 14 cm and 10 cm of snowfall respectively. The tourist spot of Kufri on the outskirts of Shimla recorded about 4 cm snowfall.

In Jammu and Kashmir, the higher reaches of the state experienced snowfall while the minimum temperature at Drass in Kargil sector was minus seven degrees. The hill station of Mt. Abu was the coldest place in Rajasthan with the mercury dipping to three degrees even as the rest of the state got some respite from the intense cold due to the western disturbances over the northern and southern parts of the state.

The national capital remained foggy as the minimum temperature was recorded at 8.8 degrees. But flights took off as scheduled at the airport here. In Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh, the minimum temperature rose by about a couple of notches in some parts.

Friday,Dec 14,2007


Sugar mills to get interest-free loan
BS Reporter / New Delhi December 11, 2007
Move to help them clear cane arrears
 
In a move that will bring relief to the beleagured sugar mills, the government today announced that it had notified a new scheme extending them financial assistance.
 
As part of the package, the sugar mills, which have been facing a crisis due to a production glut and low prices, will get interest-free loans to help them pay the dues of the farmers who supply them sugarcane.
 
The loans will be sanctioned for clearing the cane arrears of the 2006-07 sugar season and the cane price of 2007-08. The entire arrears for 2006-07 were estimated at Rs 2,800 crore (including Rs 1,200 crore in Uttar Pradesh alone), said SL Jain, director general, Indian Sugar Mills Association. “It is a very important decision and a first step in the direction that many countries like Thailand have taken. It will provide a new opening (to the mills)”, he added.
 
Mills would have to repay the loan in four years. The period includes a moratorium of two years. The government would give full interest subvention to all scheduled commercial banks, regional rural banks and co-operative banks for the total duration of the loan.
 
“The interest subvention will be limited to 12 per cent per annum, of which 5 per cent will be met out of general Budget provisions of the central government and the remaining 7 per cent from the Sugar Development Fund,” said a December 7 notification issued by the Department of Food and Public Distribution.
 
“It is a good move as it will add liquidity into the industry, but at the end of the day, it is a loan and not a grant. It is a stop-gap measure. The industry needs structural arrangement”, said Sanjay Tapriya, director (finance), Simbhaoli Sugar Mills.
 
Only those mills that have been functional during 2006-07 and 2007-08 sugar seasons will be eligible for the new loans. Non-performing assets are also covered under the scheme provided the state government gives a guarantee for new loans.
 
The loans will be sanctioned for clearance of arrears for cane price to be calculated on the basis of the statutory minimum price (SMP) fixed by the central government and not the usually-higher state-advised price.
Parsvnath to build footwear institute
Shruti Srivastava / New Delhi/ Lucknow December 15, 2007
Parsvnath Developers Ltd (PDL), one of the country’s leading real estate developers with projects spanning across key verticals of the real estate industry, is set to foray into building educational structures as well.
 
The company has recently signed a letter of intent (LoI) with the Ministry of Commerce for a project in Uttar Pradesh.
 
The project involves developing a Footwear Design and Development Institute at Rae Bareli in UP, which is also the constituency of Member of Parliament Rahul Gandhi. This project will envisage an investment of over Rs 47.07 crore.
 
“This is our maiden project in building an educational institute. The project involves developing a footwear park with state-of-the-art facilities,” said Pradeep Jain, chairman, Parsvnath Developers Ltd, while talking to Business Standard.
 
Setting up the footwear design institute will facilitate specialised business and employment opportunities for aspirants from the region. The project will be completed in a year and be the first of its kind in the district.
 
Talking about the role that the developer may play once the construction is completed, Jain said that PDL would have no role at all after this.
 
“Our role is limited to building the infrastructure. Once we are done with it, we will pass it over to the authorities concerned,” he said.
 
The institute is expected to come up on the lines of the one at Noida, the leading institute in India for infrastructure development for the footwear industry and human resource development.
 
Talking about its present township in the Lucknow, Jain informed that the project is in progress and is expected to seek an investment of about Rs. 150-200 crores.
 
Parsvnath Developers have a total of 22 residential projects in line in Uttar Pradesh out of which six projects are successfully completed and handed over.
 
For the records, DPL has pan-India presence across 48 cities and 17 states of the country. It now has 191 million square feet (msf) of developable area including 6 SEZs with developable area of 56.96 msf.
 
The company has already commenced work on 76 msf and expects that construction work on remaining would start in the current fiscal. The number of on going projects stands at 111 across verticals.

Judiciary should not cross limits: SC
Monday, 10 December , 2007, 18:29

New Delhi: Coming down heavily on judicial activism, the Supreme Court on Monday deprecated the tendency of courts to rule on issues like nursery admissions and autorickshaw overcharging and said judges should know their “limits” and not try to run the government.

In a judgement that did a lot of self-introspection, a two-member bench said “….we are repeatedly coming across cases where judges are unjustifiably trying to perform executive or legislative functions.

In our opinion, this is clearly unconstitutional. In the name of judicial activism, judges cannot cross their limits and try to takeover functions which belong to another organ of the state.

The apex court also looked inward when it held the directions given by it in the assembly proceedings in Uttar Pradesh in 1998 and Jharkhand in 2005 as “glaring examples of deviations from the clearly provided constitutional scheme of separation of powers.”

Justice A K Mathur and Justice Markandey Katju listed a number of local issues like unauthorised schools, criteria for free seats in schools, the size of speed-breakers on Delhi roads and enhancing of road fines dealt with by the Delhi High Court which, they said, were “matters pertaining exclusively to the executive or legislative domain.”

“If there is a law, judges can enforce it. But judges cannot create a law and seek to enforce it,” they observed.

The observations came in a 22-page verdict with the court setting aside a Punjab and Haryana High Court order directing creation of posts of tractor driver to accommodate two gardeners employed on daily wages at a golf club run by the Haryana Tourism Corporation and were asked to perform the duties of tractor drivers.

iconimg   Friday, December 14, 2007

Press Trust Of India
New Delhi, December 10, 2007
Legal expert divided on SC order criticising its larger bench
A rare outburst by a smaller bench of the Supreme Court on Monday against the orders of its larger benches for overstepping its jurisdiction in cases relating to Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh assembly matters has drawn mixed reactions from the legal fraternity.

Some legal experts have hailed the order saying that the Supreme Court is right in “admonishing” itself while a few senior lawyers viewed it as reflection of “divided judiciary”, which is not healthy for the institution.

A Bench of Justice AK Mathur and Justice Markandey Katju in today’s order observed that the interim orders of larger Benches of the Supreme Court relating to assembly proceedings in Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, are “two glaring examples of deviation from the clearly provided Constitutional scheme of separation of powers”.

Former Chief Justice of India AS Anand, commenting on the observations of the court, said judicial discipline warrants that the orders of the bench of “higher strength” are binding on smaller benches.

“Judicial discipline requires to be followed by all,” he noted.

But, former Law Minister Shanti Bhushan said the function of judiciary is to enforce rule of law and it can neither create law, nor can create power.

“The High Courts and Supreme Court, in many cases, have not understood the limitation of their power,” he said, adding, “it is good that some Judges realised the limitation of judicary”.

We are Provide to Ahmedabad News, Article, History, Weather Info, Festivals and area information. Best time to visit in Ahmedabad, languages spoken in Ahmedabad, history Ahmedabad, Company Information about Ahmedabad, Gujarat India – Ahmedabad-Info

Friday, December 14

While most constituencies will see a direct fight between the two main parties, the Bahujan Samaj Party is also contesting independently.

A total of 18.7 million people are eligible to vote. There are 599 candidates in the fray, including 31 women.

Rakhial in Ahmedabad is the constituency with the maximum number of contestants, 73, while Mahar is the only constituency where there is a direct fight between the two main parties.

The largest constituency in terms of size and voters is Sarkhej while the smallest one is Kalupur, both in Ahmedabad. A total of 20,544 electronic voting machines (EVMs) will be used in as many polling booths Sunday.

The counting of votes will take place on December 23.

 

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Noble Eightfold Path-Wisdom-Right View
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 10:31 am

Noble Eightfold Path

Wisdom

Right View

The Ten Fetters

(Sa.myojana)

There are ten ‘Fetters’-samyojana-by which beings are bound to the wheel of existence. They are:

<!–[if !supportLists]–>1.     <!–[endif]–>Self-Illusion (sakkaaya-di.t.thi)

<!–[if !supportLists]–>2.     <!–[endif]–>Scepticism (vicikicchaa)

<!–[if !supportLists]–>3.     <!–[endif]–>Attachment to mere Rule and Ritual (siilabbata-paraamaasa)

<!–[if !supportLists]–>4.     <!–[endif]–>Sensual Lust (kaamaraaga)

<!–[if !supportLists]–>5.     <!–[endif]–>Ill-Will (vyaapaada)

<!–[if !supportLists]–>6.     <!–[endif]–>Craving for Fine-Material Existence (ruupa-raaga)

<!–[if !supportLists]–>7.     <!–[endif]–>Craving for Immaterial Existence (aruupa-raaga)

<!–[if !supportLists]–>8.     <!–[endif]–>Conceit (maana)

<!–[if !supportLists]–>9.     <!–[endif]–>Restlessness (uddhacca)

<!–[if !supportLists]–>10.                        <!–[endif]–>Ignorance (avijjaa).

The Noble Ones

(Ariya-puggala)

One who is freed from the first three Fetters is called a ‘Stream - Enterer’ (in Pali: Sotaapanna) i.e. one who has entered the stream leading to Nibbaana. He has unshakable faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha, and is incapable of breaking the five Moral Precepts. He will be reborn seven times, at the utmost, and not in a state lower than the human world.

One who has overcome the fourth and the fifth Fetters in their grosser form, is called a Sakadaagaami, lit. ‘Once-Returner’ i.e. he will be reborn only once more in the Sensuous Sphere (kaama-loka), and thereafter reach Holiness.

An Anaagaami, lit. ‘Non-Returner’, is wholly freed from the first five Fetters which bind one to rebirth in the Sensuous Sphere; after death, while living in the Fine-Material Sphere (ruupa-loka), he will reach the goal.

An Arahat, i.e. the perfectly ‘Holy One’, is freed from all the ten Fetters.

Each of the aforementioned four stages of Holiness consists of the ‘Path’ (magga) and the ‘Fruition’, e.g. ‘Path of Stream Entry’ (sotaapatti-magga) and ‘Fruition of Stream Entry’ (sotaapatti-phala). Accordingly there are eight types, or four pairs, of ‘Noble Individuals’ (ariya-puggala).

The ‘Path’ consists of the single moment of entering the respective attainment. By ‘Fruition’ are meant those moments of consciousness which follow immediately thereafter as the result of the ‘Path’, and which under certain circumstances, may repeat innumerable times during life-time.

For further details, see B. Dict.: ariya-puggala, sotaapanna,etc.

Mundane And Super Mundane Understanding

M.117

Therefore, I say, Right Understanding is of two kinds:

1. The view that alms and offerings are not useless; that there is fruit and result, both of good and bad actions; that there are such things as this life, and the next life; that father and mother, as also spontaneously born beings (in the heavenly worlds), are no mere words; that there are in the world monks and priests, who are spotless and perfect, who can explain this life and the next life, which they themselves have understood: this is called the ‘Mundane Right Understanding’ (lokiya-sammaa-di.t.thi), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.

2. But whatsoever there is of wisdom, of penetration, of right understanding conjoined with the ‘Path’ (of the Sotaapanna, Sakadaagaami, Anaagaami, or Arahat)-the mind being turned away from the world and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued: this is called the ‘Super mundane Right Understanding’ (lokuttara-sammaa-di.t.thi), which is not of the world, but is super mundane and conjoined with the path.

Thus, there are two kinds of the Eightfold Path:

1. The ‘mundane’ (lokiya), practiced by the ‘Worldling’ (puthujjana), i.e. by all those who have not yet reached the first stage of Holiness; 2. The ’super mundane’ (lokuttara) practiced by the ‘Noble Ones’ (ariya-puggala).

Conjoined With Other Steps

Now, in understanding wrong understanding as wrong and right understanding as right, one practices ‘Right Understanding’ (1st factor); and in making efforts to overcome wrong understanding, and to arouse right understanding, one practices ‘Right Effort’ (6th factor); and in overcoming wrong understanding with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in the possession of right understanding one practices ‘Right Mindfulness’ (7th factor). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon right understanding, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.

Free from All Theories

M. 72

Now, if any one should put the question, whether I admit any theory at all, he should be answered thus: The Perfect One is free from any theory, for the Perfect One has understood what corporeality is, and how it arises and passes away. He has understood what feeling is, and how it arises and passes away. He has understood what perception is, and how it arises and passes away. He has understood what the mental formations are, and how they arise and pass away. He has understood what consciousness is, and how it arises and passes away. Therefore I say, the Perfect One has won complete deliverance through the extinction, fading-away, disappearance, rejection, and getting rid of all opinions and conjectures, of all inclination to the vain-glory of ‘I‘ and ‘mine‘.

The Three Characteristics

A. III. 134

Whether Perfect Ones (Buddhas) appear in the world, or whether Perfect Ones do not appear in the world, it still remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and fixed law: that all formations are impermanent (Anicca), that all formations are subject to suffering (dukkha); that everything is without a Self (an-attaa).

In Pali: sabbe sankhaaraa aniccaa, sabbe sankhaaraa dukkhaa, sabbe dhammaa anattaa.

The word ’sankhaaraa’ (formations) comprises here all things that are conditioned or ‘formed’ (sankhata-dhamma), i.e. all possible physical and mental constituents of existence. The word ‘dhamma’, however, has a still wider application and is all-embracing, as it comprises also the so-called Unconditioned (’unformed’, asankhata), i.e. Nibbana.

For this reason, it would be wrong to say that all dhammas are impermanent and subject to change, for the Nibbaana-dhamma is permanent and free from change. And for the same reason, it is correct to say that not only all the sankhaaras (=sankhata-dhamma), but that all the dhammas (including the asankhata-dhamma) lack an Ego (an-attaa).

S. XXII. 94

A corporeal phenomenon, a feeling, a perception, a mental formation, a consciousness, which is permanent and persistent, eternal and not subject to change, such a thing the wise men in this world do not recognize; and I also say that there is no such thing.

A. I. 15

And it is impossible that a being possessed of right understanding should regard anything as the Self.

Views and Discussions About the Ego

D. 15

Now, if someone should say that feeling is his Self, he should be answered thus: ‘There are three kinds of feeling: pleasurable, painful, and indifferent feeling. Which of these three feelings do you consider as your Self?’ Because, at the moment of experiencing one of these feelings, one does not experience the other two. These three kinds of feeling are impermanent, of dependent origin, are subject to decay and dissolution, to fading-away and extinction. Whosoever, in experiencing one of these feelings, thinks that this is his Self, must after the extinction of that feeling, admit that his Self has become dissolved. And thus he will consider his Self already in this present life as impermanent, mixed up with pleasure and pain, subject to arising and passing away.

If any one should say that feeling is not his Ego, and that his Self is inaccessible to feeling, he should be asked thus: ‘Now, where there is no feeling, is it then possible to say: “This am I?”

Or, another might say: ‘Feeling, indeed, is not my Self, but it also is untrue that my Self is inaccessible to feeling, for it is my Self that feels, my Self that has the faculty of feeling’. Such a one should be answered thus: ‘Suppose that feeling should become altogether totally extinguished; now, if after the extinction of feeling, no feeling whatever exists there, is it then possible to say: “This am I’?”

M. 148

To say that the mind, or the mind-objects, or the mind-consciousness, constitute the Self, such an assertion is unfounded. For an arising and a passing away is seen there; and seeing the arising and passing away of these things, one would come to the conclusion that one’s Self arises and passes away.

S. XII. 62

1t would be better for the unlearned worldling to regard his body, built up of the four elements, as his Self, rather than his mind. For it is evident that the body may last for a year, for two years, for three, four, five, or ten years, or even for a hundred years and more; but that which is called thought, or mind, or consciousness, arises continuously, during day and night, as one thing, and passes away as another thing.

S. XXII. 59

Therefore, whatsoever there is of corporeality, of feeling, of perception, of mental formations, of consciousness whether past, present or future, one’s own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near: of this one should understand according to reality and true wisdom: ‘This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Self.’

To show the impersonality and utter emptiness of existence, Visuddhi-Magga XVI quotes the following verse:

Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found,

The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there.

Nirvana is, but not the man that enters it.

The path is, but no traveler on it is seen’.

Past, Present and Future

D. 9

If now, any one should ask: ‘Have you been in the past, and is it untrue that you have not been? Will you be in the future, and is it untrue that you will not be? Are you, and is it untrue that you are not?’ - you may reply that you have been in the past, and that it is untrue that you have not been; that you will be in the future, and that it is untrue that you will not be; that you are, and that it is untrue that you are not.

In the past only that past existence was real, but unreal the future and present existence. In the future only the future existence will be real, but unreal the past and the present existence. Now only the present existence is real, but unreal, the past and future existence.

M. 28

Verily, he who perceives the ‘Dependent Origination’ (pa.ticca-samuppaada), perceives the truth; and he who perceives the truth, perceives the Dependent Origination.

D. 8

For just as from the cow comes milk, from milk curd, from curd butter, from butter ghee, from ghee the skim of ghee; and when it is milk, it is not counted as curd, or butter, or ghee, or skim of ghee, but only as milk; and when it is curd, it is only counted as curd: just so was my past existence at that time real, but unreal the future and present existence; and my future existence will be at that time real, but unreal the past and present existence; and my present existence is now real, but unreal the past and future existence. All these are merely popular designations and expressions, mere conventional terms of speaking, mere popular notions. The Perfect One indeed makes use of these, without however clinging to them.

S. XLIV 4

Thus, he who does not understand corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness according to reality (i.e. as void of a personality, or Ego) nor understands their arising, their extinction, and the way to their extinction, he is liable to believe, either that the Perfect One continues after death, or that he does not continue after death, and so forth.

The Two Extremes (Annihilation and Eternity Belief) and the Middle Doctrine

S. XII. 25

Truly, if one holds the view that the vital principle (jiva; ‘Soul’) is identical with this body, in that case a holy life is not possible; and if one holds the view that the vital principle is something quite different from the body, in that case also a holy life is not possible. Both these two extremes the Perfect One has avoided, and he has shown the Middle Doctrine, which says:

Dependent Origination

(Pa.ticca-samuppaada)

S. XII. 1

On Ignorance (avijjaa) depend the ‘Karma-formations’ (sankhaaraa).

On the Karma-formations depends ‘Consciousness’ (vi~n~naa.na; starting with rebirth-consciousness in the womb of the mother).

On Consciousness depends the ‘Mental and Physical Existence’ (naama-ruupa).

On the mental and physical existence depend the ‘Six Sense-Organs’ (sa.l-aayatana).

On the six sense-organs depends ‘Sensorial Impression’ (phassa).

On sensorial impression depends ‘Feeling’ (vedanaa).

On feeling depends ‘Craving’ (ta.nhaa).

On craving depends ‘Clinging’ (upaadaana).

On clinging depends the ‘Process of Becoming’ (bhava).

On the process of becoming (here: kamma-bhava, or karma-process) depends ‘Rebirth’ (jaati).

On rebirth depend ‘Decay and Death’ (jaraa-marana), sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair.

Thus arises this whole mass of suffering. This is called the noble truth of the origin of suffering.

“No god, no Brahma can be called

The maker of this wheel of life:

Empty phenomena roll on,

Dependent on conditions all.”

(Quoted in Visuddhi-Magga XIX).

S. XII. 51

A disciple, however, in whom Ignorance (avijjaa) has disappeared and wisdom arisen, such a disciple heaps up neither meritorious, nor de-meritorious, nor imperturbable Karma-formations.

The term sankhaaraa has been rendered here by ‘Karma Formations’ because, in the context of the Dependent Origination, it refers to karmically wholesome and unwholesome volition (cetanaa), or volitional activity, in short, Karma.

The threefold division of it, given in the preceding passage, comprises karmic activity in all spheres of existence, or planes of consciousness. The ‘meritorious karma-formations’ extend also to the Fine-Material Sphere (ruupaavacara), while the ‘imperturbable karma-formations’ (ane~njaabhisankhaaraa) refer only to the Immaterial Sphere (aruupaavacara).

S. XII. 1

Thus, through the entire fading away and extinction of this ‘Ignorance’, the ‘Karma-formations’ are extinguished. Through the extinction of Karma-formations, ‘Consciousness’ (rebirth) is extinguished. Through the extinction of consciousness, the ‘Mental and Physical Existence’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of the mental and physical existence, the ‘Six Sense-Organs’ are extinguished. Through the extinction of the six sense organs, ‘Sensorial Impression’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of sensorial impression, ‘Feeling’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of feeling, ‘Craving’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of craving, ‘Clinging’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of clinging, the ‘Process of Becoming’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of the process of becoming, ‘Rebirth’ is extinguished. Through the extinction of rebirth, ‘Decay and Death’, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair are extinguished. Thus takes place the extinction of this whole mass of suffering. This is called the noble truth of the extinction of suffering.

Rebirth-Producing Kamma

M. 43

Truly, because beings, obstructed by ignorance (avijjaa) and ensnared by craving (tanhaa) seek ever fresh delight, now here, now there, therefore fresh rebirth continually comes to be.

A. III. 33

And the action (kamma) that is done out of greed, hatred and delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), that springs from them, has its source and origin in them: this action ripens wherever one is reborn, and wherever this action ripens there one experiences the fruits of this action, be it in this life, or the next life, or in some future life.

Cessation of Kamma

M. 43

However, through the fading away of ignorance, through the arising of wisdom, through the extinction of craving, no future rebirth takes place again.

A. III. 33

For the actions which are not done out of greed, hatred and delusion, which have not sprung from them, which have not their source and origin in them: such actions, through the absence of greed, hatred and delusion, are abandoned, rooted out, like a palm-tree torn out of the soil, destroyed, and not able to spring up again.

A. VIII. 12

In this respect one may rightly say of me: that I teach annihilation, that I propound my doctrine for the purpose of annihilation, and that I herein train my disciples; for certainly I do teach annihilation-the annihilation, namely, of greed, hatred and delusion, as well as of the manifold evil and unwholesome things.

The Pa.ticca Samuppaada, lit, the Dependent Origination, is the doctrine of the conditionality of all physical and mental phenomena, a doctrine which, together with that of Impersonality (anattaa), forms the indispensable condition for the real understanding and realization of the Buddha’s teaching. It shows that the various physical and mental life-processes, conventionally called personality, man, animal, etc., are not a mere play of blind chance, but the outcome of causes and conditions. Above all, the Pa.ticca-Samuppaada explains how the arising of rebirth and suffering is dependent upon conditions; and, in its second part, it shows how, through the removal of these conditions, all suffering must disappear. Hence, the Pa.ticca-Samuppaada serves to elucidate the second and the third Noble Truths, by explaining them from their very foundations upwards, and giving them a fixed philosophical form.

The following diagram shows at a glance how the twelve links of the formula extend over three consecutive existences, past, present, and future:

Past Existence

1. Ignorance (avijjaa)

Karma Process (kamma-bhava) 5 causes: 1, 2, 8, 9, 10

2. Karma-Formations (sankhaaraa)

Present Existence

3. Consciousness (vi~n~naa.na)

Rebirth-Process (upapatti-bhava) 5 results: 3-7

4. Mental and Physical Existence (naamaruupa)

5. 6 Sense Organs (sa.l-aayatana)

6. Sense-Impression (phassa)

7. Feeling (vedanaa)

8. Craving (ta.nha)

Karma Process (kamma-bhava) 5 causes: 1, 2, 8, 9, 10

9. Clinging (upaadaana)

10. Process of Existence (bhava)

Future Existence

11. Rebirth (jaati)

Rebirth-Process (upapatti-bhava) 5 results: 3-7

12. Decay and Death (jaraa-marana)

The links 1-2, together with 8-10, represent the Karma-Process, containing the five karmic causes of rebirth.

The links 3-7, together with 11-12, represent the Rebirth-Process, containing the five Karma-Results.

Accordingly it is said in the Patisambhidaa-Magga:

Five causes were there in past,

Five fruits we find in present life.

Five causes do we now produce,

Five fruits we reap in future life.

(Quoted in Vis. Magga XVII)

For a full explanation see Fund. III and B. Dict.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Wisdom-Right Intention
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Noble  Eightfold Path

Wisdom

Right Intention

Right Thought

(Sammaa-sankappa)

D. 22

What, now, is Right Thought?

  1. Thought free from lust (nekkhamma-sankappa).
  2. Thought free from ill-will (avyaapaada-sankappa).
  3. Thought free from cruelty (avihimsaa-sankappa).

This is called Right Thought.

Mundane And Super Mundane Thought

M. 117

Now, Right Thought, I tell you, is of two kinds:

1. Thought free from lust, from ill-will, and from cruelty-this is called ‘Mundane Right Thought’ (lokiya sammaa-sankappa), which yields worldly fruits and brings good rcsu1ts.

2. But, whatsoever there is of thinking, considering, reasoning, thought, ratiocination, application-the mind being holy, being turned away from the world, and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued-these ‘verbal operations’ of the mind (vacii-sankhaaraa) are called the ‘Super mundane Right Thought’ (lokuttara-sammaa-sankappa), which is not of the world, but is super mundane, and conjoined with the path.

Conjoined with Other Factors

Now, in understanding wrong thought as wrong, and right thought as right, one practices Right Understanding (1st factor); and in making efforts to overcome evil thought and to arouse right thought, one practices Right Effort (6th factor); and in overcoming evil thought with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right thought, one practices Right Mindfulness (7th factor). Hence there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Thought, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Ethical Conduct-Right Speech
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Noble Eightfold Path

Ethical Conduct

Right Speech

Right Speech

(Sammaa-vaacaa)

What now, is Right Speech?

Abstaining from Lying

A. X. 176

1. Herein someone avoids lying and abstains from it. He speaks the truth, is devoted to the truth, reliable, worthy of confidence, not a deceiver of men. Being at a meeting, or amongst people, or in the midst of his relatives, or in a society, or in the king’s court, and called upon and asked as witness to tell what he knows, he answers, if he knows nothing: ‘I know nothing’, and if he knows, he answers: ‘I know’; if he has seen nothing, he answers: ‘I have seen nothing’, and if he has seen, he answers: ‘I have seen’. Thus he never knowingly speaks a lie, either for the sake of his own advantage, or for the sake of another person’s advantage, or for the sake of any advantage whatsoever.

Abstaining from Tale Bearing

2. He avoids tale bearing, and abstains from it. What he has heard here, he does not repeat there, so as to cause dissension there; and what he has heard there, he does not repeat here, so as to cause dissension here. Thus he unites those that are divided; and those that are united, he encourages. Concord gladdens him, he delights and rejoices in concord; and it is concord that he spreads by his words.

Abstaining from Harsh Language

3. He avoids harsh language, and abstains from it. He speaks such words as are gentle, soothing to the ear, loving, such words as go to the heart, and are courteous, friendly, and agreeable to many.

In Majjhima-Nicaaya No. 21, the Buddha says: ‘Even, O monks, should robbers and murderers saw through your limbs and joints, whosoever should give way to anger thereat would not be following my advice. For thus ought you to train yourselves:

‘Undisturbed shall our mind remain, no evil words shall escape our lips; friendly and full of sympathy shall we remain, with heart full of love, and free from any hidden malice; and that person shall we penetrate with loving thoughts, wide, deep, boundless, freed from anger and hatred’.

Abstaining from Vain Talk

A. X. 176

4. He avoids vain talk, and abstains from it. He speaks at the right time, in accordance with facts, speaks what is useful, speaks of the law and the discipline: his speech is like a treasure, uttered at the right moment, accompanied by arguments, moderate and full of sense.

This is called Right Speech.

Mundane and Super Mundane Speech

M. 117

Now, Right Speech. I tell you, is of two kinds:

1. Abstaining from lying, from tale-bearing, from harsh language, and from vain talk; this is called ‘Mundane Right Speech’ (lokiya-sammaa-vaacaa), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.

2. But the avoidance of the practice of this fourfold wrong speech, the abstaining, desisting. refraining there from-the mind being holy, being turned away from the world, and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued-this is called the ‘Super mundane Right Speech’ (lokuttara-sammaa-vaacaa), which is not of the world, but is super mundane, and conjoined with the path.

Conjoined with Other Factors

Now, in understanding wrong speech as wrong, and right speech as right, one practices Right Understanding (1st factor); and in making efforts to overcome evil speech and to arouse right speech, one practices Right Effort (6th factor); and in overcoming wrong speech with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right speech, one practices Right Mindfulness (7th factor). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Speech, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Ethical Conduct-Right Action
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Noble Eightfold Path

Ethical Conduct

Right Action

Right Action

(Sammaa-kammanta)

A. X. 176

What, now, is Right Action?

Abstaining from Killing

1. Herein someone avoids the killing of living beings, and abstains from it. Without stick or sword, conscientious, full of sympathy, he is desirous of the welfare of all living beings.

Abstaining from Stealing

2. He avoids stealing, and abstains from it; what another person possesses of goods and chattels in the village or in the wood, that he does not take away with thievish intent.

Abstaining from Unlawful Sexual Intercourse

3. He avoids unlawful sexual intercourse, and abstains from it. He has no intercourse with such persons as are still under the protection of father, mother, brother, sister or relatives, nor with married women, nor female convicts, nor lastly, with betrothed girls.

This is called Right Action.

Mundane And Super Mundane Action

M. 117

Now, Right Action, I tell you, is of two kinds:

1. Abstaining from killing, from stealing, and from unlawful sexual intercourse: this is called the ‘Mundane Right Action’ (lokiya-sammaa-kammanta) which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.

2. But the avoidance of the practice of this threefold wrong action, the abstaining, desisting, refraining there from-the mind being holy.  Being turned away from the world, and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued-this is called the ‘Super mundane Right Action’ (lokuttara-sammaa-kammanta), which is not of the world, but is super mundane, and conjoined with the path.

Conjoined With Other Factors

Now in understanding wrong action as wrong, and right action as right, one practices Right Understanding (1st factor): and in making efforts to overcome wrong action, and to arouse right action, one practices Right Effort (6th factor); and in overcoming wrong action with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right action, one practices Right Mindfulness (7th factor).  Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Action, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Ethical Conduct-Right Livelyhood
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Noble Eightfold Path

Ethical Conduct

Right Livelyhood

Right Livelihood

(Sammaa-aajiva)

What, now, is Right Livelihood?

D. 22

1. When the noble disciple, avoiding a wrong way of living, gets his livelihood by a right way of living, this is called Right Livelihood.

In the Majjhima-Nikaaya, No. 117, it is said: ‘To practice deceit, treachery, soothsaying, trickery, usury: this is wrong livelihood.’

And in the Anguttara-Nikaaya, V. 1 77, it is said: ‘Five trades should be avoided by a disciple: trading in arms, in living beings, in flesh, in intoxicating drinks, and in poison’.

Included are the professions of a soldier, a fisherman, a hunter, etc.

Now, Right Livelihood, I tell you, is of two kinds:

Mundane and Super mundane Right Livelihood

M. 117

1. When the noble disciple, avoiding wrong living, gets his livelihood by a right way of living: this is called ‘Mundane Right Livelihood’ (lokiya-sammaa-aajiva), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.

2. But the avoidance of wrong livelihood, the abstaining, desisting, refraining there from-the mind being holy, being turned away from the world, and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued-this is called the ‘Super mundane Right Livelihood’ (lokuttara-sammaa-aajiva), which is not of the world,  but is super mundane, and conjoined with the path.

Conjoined with Other Factors

Now. in understanding wrong livelihood as wrong, and right livelihood as right, one practices Right Understanding (1st factor); and in making efforts to overcome wrong livelihood, to establish right livelihood, one practices Right Effort (6th factor); and in overcoming wrong livelihood with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right livelihood, one practices Right Mindfulness (7th factor). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon Right Livelihood, namely: Right Understanding, Right Effort, and Right Mindfulness.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Mental Development-Right Effort
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Noble Eightfold Path

Mental Development

Right Effort

Right Effort

(Sammaa-vaayaama)

A. IV. 13, 14

What, now. is Right Effort?

There are Four Great Efforts; the effort to avoid, the effort to overcome, the effort to develop, and the effort to maintain.

I. The Effort to Avoid

(Sa.mvara-ppadhaana)

What, now is the effort to Avoid? Herein the disciple rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, unwholesome things that have not yet arisen; and he makes efforts, stirs up his energy; exerts his mind and strives.

Thus, when lie perceives a form with the eye, a sound with the ear, and an odor with the nose, a taste with the tongue, an impression with the body, or an object with the mind, he neither adheres to the whole, nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things, greed and sorrow, would arise, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses.

Possessed of this noble ‘Control over the Senses’ he experiences inwardly a feeling of joy, into which no evil thing can enter.

This is called the effort to avoid

2. The Effort to Overcome

(Pahaana-ppadhaana)

What, now, is the effort to Overcome? There the disciple rouses his will to overcome the evil, unwholesome things that have already arisen; and he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives.

He does not retain any thought of sensual lust, ill-will or grief, or any other evil and unwholesome states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them. causes them to disappear.

Five Methods of Expelling Evil Thoughts

M. 20

If, whilst regarding a certain object, there arise in the disciple, on account of it, evil and unwholesome thoughts connected with greed, hatred and delusion, then the disciple (1) should, by means of this object, gain another and wholesome object. (2) Or, he should reflect on the misery of these thoughts; ‘Unwholesome, truly, are these thoughts! Blamable are these thoughts! Of painful result are these thoughts!’ (3) Or he should pay no attention to these thoughts. (4) Or, he should consider the compound nature of these thoughts. (5) Or, with teeth clenched and tongue pressed against the gums, he should with his mind restrain, suppress and root out these thoughts; and in doing so these evil and unwholesome thoughts of greed, hatred and delusion will dissolve and disappear; and the mind will inwardly become settled and calm, composed and concentrated.

This is called the effort to overcome.

3. The Effort to Develop

(Bhaavanaa-ppadhaana)

A. IV. 13, 14

What, now, is the effort to Develop? Herein the disciple rouses his will to arouse wholesome things that have not yet arisen; and he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives.

Thus he develops the ‘Elements of Enlightenment’ (bojjhanga), based on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: ‘Mindfulness’ (sati), ‘Investigation of the Law’ (dhamma-vicaya), ‘Energy’ (viriya), ‘Rapture’ (piiti), ‘Tranquility’ (passaddhi), ‘Concentration’ (samadhi). and ‘Equanimity’ (upekkhaa).

This is called the effort to develop.

4. The Effort to Maintain

(Anurakkha.na-ppadhaana)

What, now, is the effort to Maintain? Herein the disciple rouses his will to maintain the wholesome things that have already arisen, and not to allow them to disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development (bhaavanaa); and he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives.

Thus, for example, he keeps firmly in his mind a favorable object of concentration that has arisen, such as the mental image of a skeleton, of a corpse infested by worms, of a corpse blue-black in color, of a festering corpse, of a corpse riddled with holes, of a corpse swollen up.

This is called the effort to maintain.

M. 70

Truly, for a disciple who is possessed of faith and has penetrated the Teaching of the master, it is fit to think: ‘Though skin sinews and bones wither away, though flesh and blood of my body dry up, I shall not give up my efforts till I have attained whatever is attainable by manly perseverance, energy and endeavor.’

This is called Right Effort.

A. IV. 14

The effort of Avoiding, Overcoming,

Of Developing and Maintaining:

These four great efforts have been shown

By him, the scion of the sun.

And he who firmly clings to them,

May put an end to suffering.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Mental Development-Right Mindfulness
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Noble  Eightfold Path

Mental Development

Right Mindfulness

Right Mindfulness

(Sammaa-sati)

What, now, is Right Mindfulness?

The Four Foundations of Mindfulness

(Satipa.t.thaana)

D. 22

The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and grief, to the entering upon the right path and the realization of Nibbana, is by the ‘Four Foundations of Mindfulness’. And which are these four?

Herein the disciple dwells in contemplation of the Body, in contemplation of Feeling, in contemplation of the Mind, in contemplation of the Mind-Objects; ardent, clearly comprehending them and mindful, after putting away worldly greed and grief.

1. Contemplation of the Body

(kaayaanupassanaa)

But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body?

Watching Over In- and Out-Breathing

(aanaapaana-sati)

Herein the disciple retires to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to a solitary place, seats himself with legs crossed, body erect, and with mindfulness fixed before him, mindfully he breathes in, mindfully he breathes out. When making a long inhalation, he knows: ‘I make a long inhalation’; when making a long exhalation, he knows: ‘I make a long exhalation’. When making a short inhalation, he knows: ‘I make a short inhalation’: when making a short exhalation, he knows: ‘I make a short exhalation’. ‘Clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body, I shall breathe in’: thus he trains himself; ‘Clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body, I shall breathe out’: thus he trains himself. ‘Calming this bodily function (kaaya-sankhaara), I shall breathe in’: thus he trains himself; ‘Calming this bodily function. I shall breathe out’: thus he trains himself.

Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both, he beholds how the body arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of the body. A body is there-

‘A body is there, but no living being, no individual, no woman, no man, no self, and nothing that belongs to a self; neither a person. nor anything belonging to a person. (Comm.)

this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body.

‘Mindfulness of Breathing’ (aanaapaana-sati) is one of the most important meditative exercises. It may be used for the development of Tranquility (samatha-bhaavanaa), i.e. for attaining the four Absorptions (jhana; see “The Four Absorptions” on page 67), for the development of Insight (vipassanaa-bhaavanaa) or for a combination of both practices. Here, in the context of satipa.t.thaana, it is principally intended for tranquillization and concentration preparatory to the practice of Insight, which may be undertaken in the following way.

After a certain degree of calm and concentration, or one of the Absorptions, has been attained through regular practice of mindful breathing, the disciple proceeds to examine the origin of breath. He sees that the inhalations and exhalations are conditioned by the body consisting of the four material elements and the various corporeal phenomena derived from them, e.g. the five sense organs, etc. Conditioned by fivefold sense-impression arises consciousness, and together with it the three other ‘Groups of Existence’, i.e. Feeling, Perception, and mental Formations. Thus the meditator sees clearly: ‘There is no ego-entity or self in this so called personality, but it is only a corporeal and mental process conditioned by various factors’. Thereupon he applies the Three Characteristics to these phenomena, understanding them thoroughly as impermanent subject to suffering, and impersonal.

For further details about Ânaapaana-sati, see M. 118.62: Visuddhi-Magga VIII, 3.

The Four Postures

And further, whilst going, standing, sitting, or lying down, the disciple understands (according to reality) the expressions; ‘I go’; ‘I stand’; ‘I sit’; ‘I lie down’; he understands any position of the body.

‘The disciple understands that there is no living being, no real Ego, that goes, stands, etc., but that it is by a mere figure of speech that one says: “I go”, “I stand” and so forth’. (Comm.)

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

(sati-sampaja~n~na)

And further, the disciple acts with clear comprehension in going and coming; he acts with clear comprehension in looking forward and backward; acts with clear comprehension in bending and stretching (any part of his body); acts with clear comprehension in carrying alms bowl and robes; acts with clear comprehension in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting; acts with clear comprehension in discharging excrement and urine; acts with clear comprehension in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, awakening; acts with clear comprehension in speaking and keeping silent.

In all that the disciple is doing, he has a clear comprehension: 1. of his intention, 2. of his advantage, 3. of his duty, 4. of the reality. (Comm.)

Contemplation of Loathsomeness

(pa.tikuula-sa~n~naa)

And further, the disciple contemplates this body from the sole of the foot upward, and from the top of the hair downward, with a skin stretched over it, and filled with manifold impurities: ‘This body has hairs of the head and of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, stomach, bowels, mesentery, and excrement; bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, lymph, tears, skin-grease, saliva, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, and urine.’

Just as if there were a sack, with openings at both ends, filled with various kinds of grain-with paddy, beans, sesamum and husked rice-and a man not blind opened it and examined its contents, thus: ‘That is paddy, these are beans, this is sesamum, this is husked rice’: just so does the disciple investigate this body.

Analysts of Four Elements

(dhaatu)

And further, the disciple contemplates this body, however it may stand or move, with regard to the elements; ‘This body consists of the solid element, the liquid element, the heating element and the vibrating element’. Just as if a skilled butcher or butcher’s apprentice, who had slaughtered a cow and divided it into separate portions, were to sit down at the junction of four highroads: just so does the disciple contemplate this body with regard to the elements.

In Visuddhi Magga XIII, 2 this simile is explained as follows:

When a butcher rears a cow, brings it to the place of slaughter, binds it to a post, makes it stand up, slaughters it and looks at the slaughtered cow, during all that time he has still the notion ‘cow’. But when he has cut up the slaughtered cow, divided it into pieces, and sits down near it to sell the meat, the notion, ‘cow’ ceases in his mind, and the notion ‘meat’ arises. He does not think that he is selling a cow or that people buy a cow, but that it is meat that is sold and bought. Similarly, in an ignorant worldling, whether monk or layman, the concepts ‘being’, ‘man’, ‘personality’, etc., will not cease until he has mentally dissected this body of his, as it stands and moves, and has contemplated it according to its component elements. But when he has done so, the notion ‘personality’, etc., will disappear, and his mind will become firmly established in the Contemplation of the Elements.

Cemetery Meditations

1. And further, just as if the disciple were looking at a corpse thrown on a charnel-ground, one, two, or three days dead, swollen up, blue-black in color, full of corruption-so he regards his own body: ‘This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it.’

2. And further, just as if the disciple were looking at a corpse thrown on a charnel-ground, eaten by crows, hawks or vultures, by dogs or jackals, or devoured by all kinds of worms-so he regards his own body; ‘This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it.’

3. And further, just as if the disciple were looking at a corpse thrown on a charnel-ground, a framework of bones, flesh hanging from it, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews;

4. A framework of bone, stripped of flesh, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews;

5. A framework of bone, without flesh and blood, but still held together by the sinews;

6. Bones, disconnected and scattered in all directions, here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot, there a shin bone, there a thigh bone, there a pelvis, there the spine, there the skull-so he regards his own body: ‘This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it.’

7. And further, just as if the disciple were looking at bones lying in the charnel-ground, bleached and resembling shells;

8. Bones heaped together, after the lapse of years;

9. Bones weathered and crumbled to dust-so he regards his own body: ‘This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, and cannot escape it.’

Thus he dwells in contemplation of the body, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both.  He beholds how the body arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of the body. ‘A body is there’: this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world.  Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the body.

Assured Of Ten Blessings

M. 119

Once the contemplation of the body is practiced, developed, often repeated, has become one’s habit, one’s foundation, is firmly established, strengthened and perfected; the disciple may expect ten blessings:

1. Over delight and discontent he has mastery; he does not allow himself to be overcome by discontent; he subdues it, as soon as it arises.

2. He conquers fear and anxiety; he does not allow himself to be overcome by fear and anxiety; he subdues them, as soon as they arise.

3. He endures cold and heat, hunger and thirst; wind and sun, attacks by gadflies, mosquitoes and reptiles; patiently he endures wicked and malicious speech, as well as bodily pains that befall him, though they be piercing, sharp, bitter, unpleasant, disagreeable, and dangerous to life.

4. The four Absorptions’ (jhana), which purify the mind, and bestow happiness even here, these he may enjoy at will, without difficulty, without effort.

Six ‘Psychical Powers’

(Abhi~n~naa)

5. He may enjoy the different ‘Magical Powers (id.dhi-vidhaa).

6. With the ‘Heavenly Ear’ (dibba-sota), the purified, the super-human, he may hear both kinds of sounds, the heavenly and the earthly, the distant and the near.

7. With the mind he may obtain ‘Insight into the Hearts of Other Beings’ (parassa-cetopariya-~naa.na), of other persons.

8. He may obtain ‘Remembrances of many Previous Births’ (pubbe-nivaasaanussati-~naa.na).

9. With the ‘Heavenly Eye’ (dibba-cakkhu), purified and super-human, he may see beings vanish and reappear, the base and the noble, the beautiful and the ugly, the happy and the unfortunate; he may perceive how beings are reborn according to their deeds.

10. He may, through the ‘Cessation of Passions’ (aasavakkhaya), come to know for himself, even in this life, the stainless deliverance of mind, the deliverance through wisdom.

The last six blessings (5-10) are the ‘Psychical Powers’ (abhi~n~naa). The first five of them are mundane (lokiya) conditions, and may therefore be attained even by a ‘worldling’ (puthujjana), whilst the last Abhi~n~naa is super-mundane (lokuttara) and exclusively the characteristic of the Arhat, or Holy One. It is only after the attainment of all the four Absorptions (jhana) that one may fully succeed in acquiring the five worldly ‘Psychical Powers’. There are four iddhipaada, or ‘Bases for obtaining Magical Powers’, namely: concentration of Will, concentration of Energy, concentration of Mind, and concentration of Investigation.

2. Contemplation of the Feelings

(vedanaanupassanaa)

D. 22

But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the feelings?

In experiencing feelings, the disciple knows: ‘I have an agreeable feeling’; or: ‘I have a disagreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have an indifferent feeling’; or: ‘I have a worldly agreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have an unworldly agreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have a worldly disagreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have an unworldly disagreeable feeling’, or: ‘I have a worldly indifferent feeling’, or: ‘I have an unworldly indifferent feeling’.

Thus he dwells in contemplation of the feelings, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how the feelings arise; beholds how they pass away; beholds the arising and passing away of the feelings. ‘Feelings are there’: this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the feelings.

The disciple understands that the expression ‘I feel’ has no validity except as a conventional expression (vohaaravacana); he understands that, in the absolute sense (paramattha), there are only feelings, and that there is no Ego, no experiencer of the feelings.

3. Contemplation of the Mind

(cittaanupassanaa)

But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind?

Herein the disciple knows the greedy mind as greedy, and the not greedy mind as not greedy; knows the hating mind as hating, and the not hating mind as not hating: knows the deluded mind as deluded and the undeluded mind as undeluded. He knows the cramped mind as cramped, and the scattered mind as scattered; knows the developed mind as developed, and the undeveloped mind as undeveloped; knows the surpass able mind as surpass able and the unsurpassable mind as unsurpassable; knows the concentrated mind as concentrated, and the unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; knows the freed mind as freed, and the un-freed mind as un-freed.

Citta (mind) is here used as a collective term for the Cittas, or moments of consciousness. Citta being identical with vi~n~naa.na, or consciousness, should not be translated by ‘thought’. ‘Thought’ and ‘thinking’ correspond rather to the ‘verbal operations of the mind’: vitakka (thought-conception) and vicaara (discursive thinking), which belong to the Sankhaara-kkhandha.

Thus he dwells in contemplation of the mind, either with regard to his own person, or to other persons, or to both. He beholds how consciousness arises; beholds how it passes away; beholds the arising and passing away of consciousness. ‘Mind is there’; this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind.

4. Contemplation of the Mind-Objects

(dhammaanupassanaa)

But how does the disciple dwell in contemplation of mind-objects?

Herein the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the ‘Five Hindrances.’

The Five Hindrances

(niivara.na)

1. He knows when there is ‘Lust’ (kaamacchanda) in him: ‘In me is lust’; knows when there is ‘Anger’ (vyaapaada) in him: ‘In me is anger’; knows when there is ‘Torpor and Sloth’ (thiina-middha) in him: ‘In me is torpor and sloth’; knows when there is ‘Restlessness and Mental Worry’ (uddhacca-kukkucca) in him: ‘In me is restlessness and mental worry’; knows when there are ‘Doubts’ (vicikicchaa) in him: ‘In me are doubts’. He knows when these hindrances are not in him: ‘In me these hindrances are not’. He knows how they come to arise; knows how, once arisen, they are overcome; and he knows how they do not rise again in the future.

For example, ‘Lust’ arises through unwise thinking on the agreeable and delightful. It may be suppressed by the following six methods: fixing the mind upon an idea that arouses disgust; contemplation of the loathsomeness of the body; controlling one’s six senses; moderation in eating; friendship with wise and good men; right instruction. Lust and anger are for ever extinguished upon attainment of Anaagaamiiship; ‘Restlessness’ is extinguished by reaching Arhatship; ‘Mental Worry’, by reaching Sotapanship.

The Five Groups of Existence

(khandha)

And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the five ‘Groups of Existence’.  He knows what ‘Corporeality’ (ruupa) is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what ‘Feeling’ (vedanaa) is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what ‘Perception’ (sa~n~naa) is, how it arises, how it passes away; knows what the ‘Mental Formations’ (Sankhara) are, how they arise, how they pass away; knows what ‘Consciousness’ (vi~n~naa.na) is, how it arises, how it passes away.

The Sense-Bases

(aayatana)

And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the six ‘Subjective-Objective Sense-Bases’. He knows the eye and visual objects, ear and sounds, nose and odors, tongue and tastes, body and bodily impressions, mind and mind-objects; and the fetter that arises in dependence on them, he also knows. He knows how the fetter comes to arise, knows how the fetter is overcome, and how the abandoned fetter does not rise again in future.

The Seven Elements of Enlightenment

(bojjhanga)

And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the seven ‘Elements of Enlightenment’, He knows when there is in him ‘Mindfulness’ (sati), ‘Investigation of the Law’ (dhammavicaya), ‘Energy’ (viriya), ‘Enthusiasm’ (piiti), ‘Tranquility’ (passaddhi), ‘Concentration’ (samadhi), and ‘Equanimity’ (upekkhaa). He knows when it is not in him, knows how it comes to arise, and how it is fully developed.

The Four Noble Truths

(ariya-sacca)

And further: the disciple dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects, namely of the ‘Four Noble Truths’. He knows according to reality, what Suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Origin of suffering is; knows according to reality what the Extinction of suffering is; knows according to reality, what the Path is that leads to the extinction of suffering.

Thus he dwells in contemplation of the mind-objects either with regard to his own person, or to other persons or to both. He beholds how the mind-objects arise, beholds how they pass away, beholds the arising and passing away of the mind-objects. ‘Mind-objects are there’: this clear awareness is present in him, to the extent necessary for knowledge and mindfulness; and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world. Thus does the disciple dwell in contemplation of the mind-objects.

The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and grief, to the entering upon the right path, and the realization of Nibbana, is by these four foundations of mindfulness.

These four contemplations of Satipa.t.thaana relate to all the five Groups of Existence, namely: 1. The contemplation of corporeality relates to ruupakkhandha; 2. the contemplation of feeling, to vedanaakkhandha; 3. the contemplation of mind, to vi~n~naanakkhandha; 4. the contemplation of mind-objects, to sa~n~naa- and sankhaara-kkhandha.

For further details about Satipa.t.thaana see the Commentary to the discourse of that name, translated in The Way of Mindfulness, by Bhikkhu Soma (Kandy 1967, Buddhist Publication Society).

Nibbaana Through Aanaapaana-Sati

M. 118

Watching over In - and Out-breathing (aanaapaana-sati), practiced and developed, brings the Four ‘Foundations of Mindfulness’ to perfection; the four foundations of mindfulness, practiced and developed, bring the seven ‘Elements of Enlightenment’ to perfection; the seven elements of enlightenment, practiced and developed, bring ‘Wisdom and Deliverance’ to perfection.

But how does watching over In- and Out-breathing, practiced and developed, bring the four ‘Foundations of Mindfulness’ (satipa.t.thaana) to perfection?

I. Whenever the disciple (1) mindfully makes a long inhalation or exhalation, or (2) makes a short inhalation or exhalation, or (3) trains himself to inhale or exhale whilst experiencing the whole (breath-) body, or (4) whilst calming down this bodily function (i.e. the breath)-at such a time the disciple dwells in ‘contemplation of the body’, full of energy, comprehending it, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, inhalation and exhalation I call one amongst the corporeal phenomena.

II. Whenever the disciple trains himself to inhale or exhale (1) whilst feeling rapture (piiti), or (2) joy (sukha), or (3) the mental functions (cittasankhaara), or (4) whilst calming down the mental functions-at such a time he dwells in ‘contemplation of the feelings’, full of energy, clearly comprehending them, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, the full awareness of In- and Out-breathing I call one amongst the feelings.

III. Whenever the disciple trains himself to inhale or exhale (1) whilst experiencing the mind, or (2) whilst gladdening the mind, or (3) whilst concentrating the mind, or (4) whilst setting the mind free–at such a time he dwells in ‘contemplation of the mind’, full of energy, clearly comprehending it, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief. For, without mindfulness and clear comprehension, I say, there is no Watching over In- and Out-breathing.

IV. Whenever the disciple trains himself to inhale or exhale whilst contemplating (1) impermanence, or (2) the fading away of passion, or (3) extinction, or (4) detachment-at such a time he dwells in ‘contemplation of the mind-objects’, full of energy, clearly comprehending them, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief. Having seen, through understanding, what is the abandoning of greed and grief, he looks on with complete equanimity.

Watching over In- and Out-breathing, thus practiced, and developed, brings the four Foundations of Mindfulness to perfection.

But how do the four Foundations of Mindfulness, practiced and developed, bring the seven ‘Elements of Enlightenment’ (bojjhanga) to full perfection?

1. Whenever the disciple dwells in contemplation of body, feelings, mind and mind-objects, strenuous, clearly comprehending them, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief-at such a time his mindfulness is undisturbed; and whenever his mindfulness is present and undisturbed, at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Mindfulness’ (sati-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

2. And whenever, whilst dwelling with mindfulness, he wisely investigates, examines and thinks over the ‘Law’ (dhamma)-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Investigation of the Law’ (dhammavicaya-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

3. And whenever, whilst wisely investigating, examining and thinking over the law, his energy is firm and unshaken-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Energy’ (viriya-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

4. And whenever in him, whilst firm in energy, arises super-sensuous rapture-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Rapture’ (piiti-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

5. And whenever, whilst enraptured in mind, his spiritual frame and his mind become tranquil-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Tranquility’ (passaddhi-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

6. And whenever, whilst being tranquillized in his spiritual frame and happy, his mind becomes concentrated-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Concentration’ (samaadhi-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

7. And whenever he looks with complete indifference on his mind thus concentrated-at such a time he has gained and develops the Element of Enlightenment ‘Equanimity’ (upekkhaa-sambojjhanga); and thus this element of enlightenment reaches fullest perfection.

The four Foundations of Mindfulness, thus practiced and developed, bring the seven elements of enlightenment to full perfection.

And how do the seven elements of enlightenment, practiced and developed, bring Wisdom and Deliverance (vijjaa-vimutti) to full perfection?

Herein the disciple develops the elements of enlightenment: Mindfulness, Investigation of the Law, Energy, Rapture, Tranquility, Concentration and Equanimity, based on detachment, on absence of desire, on extinction and renunciation.

The seven elements of enlightenment thus practiced and developed, bring wisdom and deliverance, to full perfection.

M. 125

Just as the elephant hunter drives a huge stake into the ground and chains the wild elephant to it by the neck, in order to drive out of him his wonted forest ways and wishes, his forest unruliness, obstinacy and violence, and to accustom him to the environment of the village, and to teach him such good behavior as is required amongst men: in like manner also should the noble disciple fix his mind firmly to these four Foundations of Mindfulness, so that he may drive out of himself his wonted worldly ways and wishes, his wonted worldly unruliness, obstinacy and violence, and win to the True, and realize Nibbana.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Mental Development-Right Concentration
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Noble Eightfold Path

Mental Development

Right Concentration

Right Concentration

(Sammaa-samaadhi)

M. 44

What, now, is Right Concentration?

Its Definition

Having the mind fixed to a single object (cittekeggataa, lit. ‘One-pointed ness of mind’): this is concentration.

‘Right Concentration’ (sammaa-samaadhi), in its widest sense, is the kind of mental concentration, which is present in every wholesome state of consciousness (kusala-citta), and hence is accompanied by at least Right Thought (2nd factor), Right Effort (6th factor) and Right Mindfulness (7th factor). ‘Wrong Concentration’ is present in unwholesome states of consciousness, and hence is only possible in the sensuous, not in a higher sphere.  Samadhi, used alone, always stands in the Sutta, for sammaa-samaadhi, or Right Concentration.

Its Objects

The four ‘Foundations of Mindfulness’ (7th factor): these are the objects of concentration.

Its Requisites

The four ‘Great Efforts’ (6th factor): these are the requisites for concentration.

Its Development

The practicing, developing, and cultivating of these things: this is the development (bhaavanaa) of concentration.

Right Concentration (sammaa-samaadhi) has two degrees of development; 1. ‘Neighborhood Concentration’ (upacaarasamaadhi). which approaches the first absorption without, however, attaining it; 2. ‘Attainment Concentration’ (appanaasamaadhi), which is the concentration present in the four Absorptions (jhana). These Absorptions are mental states beyond the reach of the fivefold sense-activity, attainable only in solitude and by unremitting perseverance in the practice of concentration. In these states all activity of the five senses is suspended. No visual or audible impressions arise at such a time, no bodily feeling is felt. But, although all outer sense-impressions have ceased, yet the mind remains active, perfectly alert, fully awake.

The attainment of these Absorptions, however, is not a requisite for the realization of the four Super mundane Paths of Holiness; and neither Neighborhood-Concentration nor Attainment-Concentration, as such, possesses the power of conferring entry to the four Super mundane Paths: hence they really have no power to free one permanently from evil things. The realization of the Four Supermundane Paths is possible only at the moment of deep ‘Insight’ (vipassanaa) into the Impermanency (aniccataa), Miserable Nature (dukkhataa) and Impersonality (anattataa) of this whole phenomenal process of existence. This Insight, again, is attainable only during Neighborhood-Concentration, not during Attainment Concentration.

He who has realized one or other of the Four Super mundane Paths without ever having attained the Absorptions, is called Sukkha-vipassaka, or Suddhavipassanaa-yaanika, i.e. ‘one who has taken merely Insight (vipassana) as his vehicle’. He, however, who, after cultivating the Absorptions, has reached one of the Super mundane Paths is called Saniathayaanika, or ‘one who has taken Tranquility (samatha) as his vehicle (yaana)’.

For samatha and vipassana see Fund IV. and B. Diet.

The Four Absorptions

(jhaana)

D.22

Detached from sensual objects, detached from evil things, the disciple enters into the first Absorption, which is accompanied by Thought Conception and Discursive Thinking, is born of detachment, and filled with Rapture and Happiness.

This is the first of the Absorptions belonging to the Fine-Material Sphere (rupaavacarajjhaana). It is attained when, through the strength of concentration, the fivefold sense activity is temporarily suspended, and the five Hindrances are likewise eliminated.

See B. Dict.: kasina, nimitta, samadhi.

M. 43

This first Absorption is free from five things, and five things are present. When the disciple enters the first Absorption, there have vanished (the five Hindrances): Lust, Ill-Will, Torpor and Sloth, Restlessness and Mental Worry, Doubts; and there are present: Thought Conception (vitakka), Discursive Thinking (vicaara), Rapture (piiti), Happiness (sukha), Concentration (citt’ekaggataa = samadhi).

These five mental factors present in the first Absorption, are called Factors (or Constituents) of Absorption (jhaananga). Vitakka (initial formation of an abstract thought) and vicaara (discursive thinking, rumination) are called ‘verbal functions’ (vaci-sankhaara) of the mind; hence they are something secondary compared with consciousness.

In Visuddhi-Magga, vitakka is compared with the taking hold of a pot, and vicaara with the wiping of it. In the first Absorption both are present, but are exclusively focused on the subject of meditation, vicaara being here not discursive, but of an ‘exploring’ nature. Both are entirely absent in the following Absorptions.

And further: after the subsiding of Thought-Conception and Discursive Thinking, and by the gaining of inner tranquility and oneness of mind, he enters into a state free from Thought-Conception and Discursive Thinking, the second Absorption, which is born of concentration (samadhi), and filled with Rapture (piti) and Happiness (sukha).

In the second Absorption, there are three Factors of Absorption: Rapture, Happiness, and Concentration.

And further: after the fading away of Rapture, he dwells in equanimity, mindful, with clear awareness: and he experiences in his own person that feeling of which the Noble Ones say: ‘Happy lives he who is equanimous and mindful’-thus he enters the third Absorption.

In the third Absorption there are two Factors of Absorption: equanimous Happiness (upekkhaa-sukha) and Concentration (citt’ekaggataa).

And further: after the giving up of pleasure and pain, and through the disappearance of previous joy and grief, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain, into the fourth Absorption, which is purified by equanimity and mindfulness.

In the fourth Absorption there are two Factors of Absorption: Concentration and Equanimity (upekkhaa).

In Visuddhi-magga forty subjects of meditation (kamma.t.thaana) are enumerated and treated in detail. By their successful practice the following Absorptions may be attained:

All four Absorptions. through Mindfulness of Breathing (see Vis. M. VIII. 3), the ten Kasina-exercises (Vis. M. IV, V. and B. Dict.); the contemplation of Equanimity (upekkhaa), being the practice of the fourth Brahma-vihaara (Vis. M. IX. 4).

The first three Absorptions: through the development of Loving-Kindness (mettaa), Compassion (karunaa) and Sympathetic Joy (muditaa), being the practice of the first three Brahma-vihaaras (Vis. M. IX. 1-3,).

The first Absorption: through the ten Contemplations of Impurity (asubha-bhaavanaa; i.e. the Cemetery Contemplations, which are ten according to the enumeration in Vis. M. VI); the contemplation of the Body (i.e. the 32 parts of the body; Vis. M. VIII, 2); ‘Neighborhood-Concentration’ (upacaara-samaadhi): through the Recollections on Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, on Morality, Liberality, Heavenly Beings, Peace (=Nibbana) and death (Vis. M. VI. VII); the Contemplation on the Loathsomeness of Food (Vis. M. XI. I); the Analysis of the Four Elements (Vis. M. IX. 2).

The four Immaterial Absorptions (aruupa-jjhaana or aaruppa), which are based on the fourth Absorption, are produced by meditating on their respective objects from which they derive their names; Sphere of Unbounded Space, of Unbounded Consciousness, of Nothingness, and of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception.

The entire object of concentration and meditation is treated in Vis M. III-XIII; see also Fund. IV.

8. XXII. 5

Develop your concentration: for he who has concentration, understands things according to their reality. And what are these things? The arising and passing away of corporeality, of feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness.

M. 149

Thus, these five Groups of Existence must be wisely penetrated; Ignorance and Craving must be wisely abandoned; Tranquility (samatha) and Insight (vipassana) must be wisely developed.

S. LVI. II

This is the Middle Path which the Perfect One has discovered, which makes one both to see and to know, and which leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.

Dhp. 275

“And following upon this path, you will put an end to suffering.

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Jhanas-Stream-enterer
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Jhanas

 Stream-enterer

The Sotapanna or ‘Stream-Enterer’

And by thus considering, three fetters vanish, namely; Self-illusion, Scepticism, and Attachment to mere Rule and Ritual.

M. 22

But those disciples, in whom these three fetters have vanished, they all have ‘entered the Stream‘ (sotaapanna).

Dhp. 178

More than any earthly power,

More than all the joys of heaven,

More than rule o’er all the world,

Is the Entrance to the Stream.

 

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Jhanas

 Once-returner

http://www.hinduwebsite.com/buddhism/messagetodisciples.asp

The Buddha’s last days

The Buddha “However disciples, when I pass away, you may think,” the Master’s doctrine is gone and the Master is no more.” You should not think so because the Dharma and the Discipline, which I have taught you, will be your Master after my death. “Let the Dharma be your light. Let It be your refuge. Do not seek any other refuge. “Disciples, you should well protect and preserve the doctrine which I advised you to probe so that this holy life may take its course and continue for ages to come for the welfare of many, to console the world, and for the happiness and welfare of the heavenly beings and men.”


 

Ananda notices that the Buddha is growing old

Now on that occasion the Blessed One, on emerging from seclusion in the late afternoon, sat warming his back in the western sun. Then Ven. Ananda went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, massaged the Blessed One’s limbs with his hand and said, “It’s amazing, lord. It’s astounding, how the Blessed One’s complexion is no longer so clear & bright; his limbs are flabby & wrinkled; his back, bent forward; there’s a discernible change in his faculties — the faculty of the eye, the faculty of the ear, the faculty of the nose, the faculty of the tongue, the faculty of the body.”

“That’s the way it is, Ananda. When young, one is subject to aging; when healthy, subject to illness; when alive, subject to death. The complexion is no longer so clear & bright; the limbs are flabby & wrinkled; the back, bent forward; there’s a discernible change in the faculties — the faculty of the eye, the faculty of the ear, the faculty of the nose, the faculty of the tongue, the faculty of the body.”

— SN XLVIII.41

To what refuge should the Buddha’s followers turn after his death?

“Now I am frail, Ananda, old, aged, far gone in years. This is my eightieth year, and my life is spent. Even as an old cart, Ananda, is held together with much difficulty, so the body of the Tathagata is kept going only with supports. It is, Ananda, only when the Tathagata, disregarding external objects, with the cessation of certain feelings, attains to and abides in the signless concentration of mind, that his body is more comfortable.

“Therefore, Ananda, be islands unto yourselves, refuges unto yourselves, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, seeking no other refuge.

“And how, Ananda, is a bhikkhu an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge?

“When he dwells contemplating the body in the body, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world; when he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, the mind in the mind, and mental objects in mental objects, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world, then, truly, he is an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; having the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge.”

— DN 16

He renounces his will to live on

Today, Ananda, at the Capala shrine, Mara, the Evil One, approached me, saying: ‘Now, O Lord, bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen, have come to be true disciples of the Blessed One — wise, well disciplined, apt and learned, preservers of the Dhamma, living according to the Dhamma, abiding in the appropriate conduct, and having learned the Master’s word, are able to expound it, preach it, proclaim it, establish it, reveal it, explain it in detail, and make it clear; and when adverse opinions arise, they are now able to refute them thoroughly and well, and to preach this convincing and liberating Dhamma.

“‘And now, O Lord, this holy life taught by the Blessed One has become successful, prosperous, far-renowned, popular and widespread, and it is well proclaimed among gods and men. Therefore, O Lord, let the Blessed One come to his final passing away! Let the Happy One utterly pass away! The time has come for the Parinibbana of the Lord.’

“And then, Ananda, I answered Mara, the Evil One, saying: ‘Do not trouble yourself, Evil One. Before long the Parinibbana of the Tathagata will come about. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away.’

“And in this way, Ananda, today at the Capala shrine the Tathagata has renounced his will to live on.”

At these words the Venerable Ananda spoke to the Blessed One, saying: “May the Blessed One remain, O Lord! May the Happy One remain, O Lord, throughout the world-period, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men!”

And the Blessed One answered, saying: “Enough, Ananda. Do not entreat the Tathagata, for the time is past, Ananda, for such an entreaty.”

— DN 16

His last admonition to the monks

“Now, O bhikkhus, I say to you that these teachings of which I have direct knowledge and which I have made known to you — these you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men.

“And what, bhikkhus, are these teachings? They are the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four constituents of psychic power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the Noble Eightfold Path. These, bhikkhus, are the teachings of which I have direct knowledge, which I have made known to you, and which you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men.”

Then the Blessed One said to the bhikkhus: “So, bhikkhus, I exhort you: All compounded things are subject to vanish. Strive with earnestness. The time of the Tathagata’s Parinibbana is near. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away.”

— DN 16

His last meal

And soon after the Blessed One had eaten the meal provided by Cunda the metalworker, a dire sickness fell upon him, even dysentery, and he suffered sharp and deadly pains. But the Blessed One endured them mindfully, clearly comprehending and unperturbed.

Then the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: “Come, Ananda, let us go to Kusinara” And the Venerable Ananda answered: “So be it, Lord.”

— DN 16

He retires to his death-bed

Then the Blessed One with a large community of monks went to the far shore of the Hiraññavati River and headed for Upavattana, the Mallans’ sal-grove near Kusinara. On arrival, he said to Ven. Ananda, “Ananda, please prepare a bed for me between the twin sal-trees, with its head to the north. I am tired, and will lie down.”

Responding, “As you say, lord,” Ven. Ananda prepared a bed between the twin sal-trees, with its head to the north. Then the Blessed One lay down on his right side in the lion’s sleeping posture, with one foot on top of the other, mindful & alert.

Now at that time the twin sal-trees were in full bloom, even though it was not the time for flowering. They showered, strewed, & sprinkled on the Tathagata’s body in homage to him. Heavenly coral-tree blossoms fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata’s body in homage to him. Heavenly sandalwood powder fell from the sky, showering, strewing, & sprinkling the Tathagata’s body in homage to him. Heavenly music was playing in the sky, in homage to the Tathagata. Heavenly songs were sung in the sky, in homage to the Tathagata.

— D 16

The Buddha recommends four pilgrimage sites

“Ananda, there are these four places that merit being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merit his feelings of urgency & dismay (samvega). Which four? ‘Here the Tathagata was born’ is a place that merits being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merits his feelings of urgency & dismay. ‘Here the Tathagata awakened to the unexcelled right self-awakening’… ‘Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled wheel of Dhamma’… ‘Here the Tathagata was totally unbound in the remainderless property of Unbinding’ is a place that merits being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merits his feelings of urgency & dismay. These are the four places that merit being seen by a clansman with conviction, that merit his feelings of urgency & dismay. They will come out of conviction, Ananda — monks, nuns, male lay followers, & female lay followers — to the spots where ‘Here the Tathagata was born,’ ‘Here the Tathagata awakened to the unexcelled right self-awakening,’ ‘Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled wheel of Dhamma,’ ‘Here the Tathagata was totally unbound in the remainderless property of Unbinding.’ And anyone who dies while making a pilgrimage to these memorials with a bright, confident mind will — on the break-up of the body, after death — reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.”

— DN 16

Thousands lament the imminent passing of the Buddha

Now at that time the Kusinara Mallans had met for some business in their assembly hall. Ven. Ananda went to the assembly hall and on arrival announced to them, “Tonight, Vasitthas, in the last watch of the night, the total Unbinding of the Tathagata will occur. Come out, Vasitthas! Come out, Vasitthas! Don’t later regret that ‘The Tathagata’s total Unbinding occurred within the borders of our very own town, but we didn’t get to see him in his final hour!’” When they heard Ven. Ananda, the Mallans together with their sons, daughters, & wives were shocked, saddened, their minds overflowing with sorrow. Some of them wept, tearing at their hair; they wept, uplifting their arms. As if their feet were cut out from under them, they fell down and rolled back & forth, crying, “All too soon, the Blessed One will be totally unbound! All too soon, the One Well-gone will be totally unbound! All too soon, the One with Eyes will disappear from the world!”

Then the Mallans together with their sons, daughters, & wives — shocked, saddened, their minds overflowing with sorrow — went to Ven. Ananda at Upavattana, the Mallans’ sal-grove near Kusinara.

— DN 16

As long as the noble Eightfold Path is practiced, there will be arahants

“In any doctrine & discipline where the noble eightfold path is not found, no contemplative of the first… second… third… fourth order [stream-winner, once-returner, nonreturner, or arahant] is found. But in any doctrine & discipline where the noble eightfold path is found, contemplatives of the first… second… third… fourth order are found. The noble eightfold path is found in this doctrine & discipline, and right here there are contemplatives of the first… second… third… fourth order. Other teachings are empty of knowledgeable contemplatives. And if the monks dwell rightly, this world will not be empty of arahants.”

— DN 16

The Buddha’s parting words

[Date: 1 BE]

Then the Blessed One addressed the monks, “Now, then, monks, I exhort you: All fabrications are subject to decay. Bring about completion by being heedful.” Those were the Tathagata’s last words.

Then the Blessed One entered the first jhana. Emerging from that he entered the second jhana. Emerging from that, he entered the third… the fourth jhana… the dimension of the infinitude of space… the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness… the dimension of nothingness… the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. Emerging from that, he entered the cessation of perception & feeling.

Then the Blessed One, emerging from the cessation of perception & feeling, entered the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. Emerging from that, he entered the dimension of nothingness… the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness… the dimension of the infinitude of space… the fourth jhana… the third… the second… the first jhana. Emerging from the first jhana he entered the second… the third… the fourth jhana. Emerging from the fourth jhana, he immediately was totally Unbound.

— DN 16

Abbreviations

Source: Reproduced and reformatted from Access To Insight edition. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted, and redistributed in any medium. It is the author’s wish, however, that any such republication and redistribution be made available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis and that translations and other derivative works be clearly marked as such.



The Buddhist Bible

1. In his final words to his disciples under the sala trees, the Buddha uttered these words: “Make my teaching your light! Rely upon it; do not depend upon any other teaching. Make of yourself a light. Rely upon yourself; do not depend upon anyone else.” “Consider your body; think of its impurity; how can you indulge its cravings as you see that both its pain and delight are alike causes of suffering? Consider your soul; think of its transiency; how can you fall into delusion about it and cherish pride and selfishness, knowing that they must all end in inevitable suffereing? Consider all substances; can you find among them any enduring ’self’? Are they not all aggregates that sooner or later will break apart and be scattered? Do not be confused by the universality of suffering, but follow my teaching and you will be rid of pain. Do this and you will indeed be my discples.” 

2. “My disciples. The teachings that I have given you are never to be forgotten nor abandoned. They are to be treasured, they are to be thought about, they are to be practiced! If you follow these teachings you will always be happy.” “The point of the teachings is to control your own mind. Restrain your mind from greed, so shall you keep your body right, your mind pure, your words faithful. Always thinking of the transiency of your life, you will be able to desist from greed and anger and will be able to keep clear from all evil. “If you find your mind entangled in greed and tempted, you must suppress the greed and control the entangled mind; be the master of your own mind. A man’s mind may make of him a Buddha, or it may make of him a beast. Being misled by error one becomes a demon; being enlightened one becomes a Buddha. Therefore keep your mind under control and do not let it deviate from the Noble Path.” 

3. “Under my teachings, brothers should respect each other and refrain from disputes; they should not repel each other like water and oil, but should mingle together like milk and water. Study together, learn together, practice the teachings together. Do not waste your mind and time in idleness and bickering. Enjoy the blossoms of enlightenment in their season and harvest the fruit of benevolence. “The teachings which I have given you, I gained by following the path myself. You should follow the teachings and conform to their spirit on every occasion. If you neglect them it means that you have never really met me. It means that you are far from me even though you are actually with me, but if you accept and practice my teachings then you are very near to me, even though you are far away.” 

4. “My disciples. The end is approaching, our parting is near, but do not lament. Life is ever changing; none escape the dissolution of the body. Now I am to manifest the Dharma by my own death, the body falling apart like a decayed cart. Do not vainly lament, but wonder at the rule of transiency and learn from it the emptiness of human life. Do not cherish the unworthy desire that the changeable might become unchanging. The demon of worldly desire is always seeking chances to deceive the mind. If a viper lives in your room, if you wish to have a peaceful sleep, you must chase it out. You must break the bonds of worldly passions and get rid of them as you would a viper.” 

5. “My disciples. The last moment has come, but do not forget that death is but the vanishing of a body. The body was born from parents and was nourished by food, so sickness and death is unavoidable. But the true Buddha is not a human body: it is Enlightenment. A human body must vanish, but the wisdom of Enlightenment will exist forever in the truths of the Dharma, and in the practice of the Dharma. He who sees my body only, is not the one who truly sees me. He who accepts my teachings, is the one who truly sees me. After my death, Truth shall be your teacher. Follow Truth and you will be true to me. “During the last forty-five years of my life I have kept back nothing from my teaching. There is no secret teaching, no hidden meaning, everything has been taught openly and clearly. “My dear disciples; this is the end. In a moment I shall be passing into Nibbana.”

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Jhanas- Non-returner
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Jhanas

 Non-returner

Kindly visit:

http://www.webupon.com/Web-Talk/25-Useful-and-Entertaining-Websites.54156

http://youtube.com/watch?v=YVc-i9XfBn0

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Reason Behind your Birth- A buddhist song

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSOPcHoNNXc&feature=related

Ambedkar , Jai Bhim

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d3Hegaqigzc&feature=related

Bhima Tuzya janma Mule,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wzn8h0RtDvg&feature=related

DR B R AMBEDKAR FROM JABAR PATEL’S MOVIE

http://youtube.com/watch?v=ZJQiiormJUk

Dalit icon

http://youtube.com/watch?v=vLECDjJQB4w

Ambedkar , Jai Bhim

http://youtube.com/watch?v=EaNpqG58270

Ambedkar , Jai Bhim

http://youtube.com/watch?v=vaK4cJLSpcA

Ambedkar , Jai Bhim

http://youtube.com/watch?v=1SJDU1obQJM

Dr. bhimrao ambedkar - hajar pacshe chya notavar

http://youtube.com/watch?v=wWkBt6ufFO0

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar-kahe suchena mala(patankar)

http://youtube.com/watch?v=1X1jTy4E3Cw

AMBEDKAR JAINTI 2007

http://youtube.com/watch?v=QKB_-dORLlU

Babasaheb Ambedkar (yougyatra)

http://youtube.com/watch?v=WvQ67njr5z0

Dr B R Ambedkar Memorial Lecture 2007, TISS, Mumbai

http://youtube.com/watch?v=ocwTHbYXqng

Ambedkar , Jai Bhim

http://youtube.com/watch?v=zB1R3fgVJeY

2006-December-6 Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Mahaparinirwan Din

http://youtube.com/watch?v=caj-CoAReLA

Ambedkar , Jai Bhim {Majya jati che jaati che}

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Jhanas-Arahant
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Jhanas

Arahant

 

Achieving A Sublime State of Mind Through Buddhist Meditation
 

Majjhima Nikaya 72

Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta

To Vacchagotta on Fire

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
For free distribution only.

Introduction:  Does an arahant reborn or does he reappear some where after his death. Why are we paying reverence to him, since he has passed away? Buddha refused to answer to this question stating that it is beyond our layman knowledge to perceive what happened to Arahat after his death. The simile given here is a fire and after you extinguished the fire, no body knows where that fire has gone. It is for the wise to comprehend what happened after the arahant passed away.

Aggi-Vacchagotta Sutta

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi, at Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. Then the wanderer Vacchagotta went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there he asked the Blessed One: “How is it, Master Gotama, does Master Gotama hold the view:

‘The cosmos is eternal: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

“Then does Master Gotama hold the view: ‘The cosmos is not eternal: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

Then does Master Gotama hold the view: ‘The cosmos is finite: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

“Then does Master Gotama hold the view: ‘The cosmos is infinite: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

“Then does Master Gotama hold the view: ‘The soul and the body are the same: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

“Then does Master Gotama hold the view: ‘The soul is one thing and the body another: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

“Then does Master Gotama hold the view: ‘After death a Tathagata exists: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

“Then does Master Gotama hold the view: ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

“Then does Master Gotama hold the view: ‘After death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

“Then does Master Gotama hold the view: ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless’?”

“…no…”

“How is it, Master Gotama, when Master Gotama is asked if he holds the view ‘the cosmos is eternal…’… ‘after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist: only this is true, anything otherwise is worthless,’ he says ‘…no…’ in each case. Seeing what drawback, then, is Master Gotama thus entirely dissociated from each of these ten positions?”

Vaccha, the position that ‘the cosmos is eternal’ is a thicket of views, a wilderness of views, a contortion of views, a writhing of views, a fetter of views. It is accompanied by suffering, distress, despair, and fever, and it does not lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation; to calm, direct knowledge, full Awakening, Unbinding.

“The position that ‘the cosmos is not eternal’…

“…’the cosmos is finite’…

“…’the cosmos is infinite’…

“…’the soul and the body are the same’…

“…’the soul is one thing and the body another’…

“…’after death a Tathagata exists’…

“…’after death a Tathagata does not exist’…

“…’after death a Tathagata both exists and does not exist’…

“…’after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist’… does not lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation; to calm, direct knowledge, full Awakening, Unbinding.”

Does Master Gotama have any position at all?”

“A ‘position,’ Vaccha, is something that a Tathagata has done away with. What a Tathagata sees is this: ‘Such is form, such its origin, such its disappearance; such is feeling, such its origin, such its disappearance; such is perception… such are mental fabrications… such is consciousness, such its origin, such its disappearance.’ Because of this, I say, a Tathagata — with the ending, fading out, cessation, renunciation, and relinquishment of all construings, all excogitations, all I-making and mine-making and obsession with conceit — is, through lack of clinging/sustenance, released.”

“But, Master Gotama, the monk whose mind is thus released: Where does he reappear?”

“‘Reappear,’ Vaccha, doesn’t apply.”

“In that case, Master Gotama, he does not reappear.”

“‘Does not reappear,’ Vaccha, doesn’t apply.”

“…both does and does not reappear.”

“…doesn’t apply.”

…neither does nor does not reappear.”

“…doesn’t apply.”

“How is it, Master Gotama, when Master Gotama is asked if the monk reappears… does not reappear… both does and does not reappear… neither does nor does not reappear, he says, ‘…doesn’t apply’ in each case. At this point, Master Gotama, I am befuddled; at this point, confused. The modicum of clarity coming to me from your earlier conversation is now obscured.”

“Of course you’re befuddled, Vaccha. Of course you’re confused. Deep, Vaccha, is this phenomenon, hard to see, hard to realize, tranquil, refined, beyond the scope of conjecture, subtle, to-be-experienced by the wise. For those with other views, other practices, other satisfactions, other aims, other teachers, it is difficult to know. That being the case, I will now put some questions to you. Answer as you see fit. How do you construe this, Vaccha: If a fire were burning in front of you, would you know that, ‘This fire is burning in front of me’?”

“…yes…”

“And suppose someone were to ask you, Vaccha, ‘This fire burning in front of you, dependent on what is it burning?’ Thus asked, how would you reply?”

“…I would reply, ‘This fire burning in front of me is burning dependent on grass and timber as its sustenance.’”

“If the fire burning in front of you were to go out, would you know that, ‘This fire burning in front of me has gone out’?”

“…yes…”

“And suppose someone were to ask you, ‘This fire that has gone out in front of you, in which direction from here has it gone? East? West? North? Or south?’ Thus asked, how would you reply?”

“That doesn’t apply, Master Gotama. Any fire burning dependent on a sustenance of grass and timber, being unnourished — from having consumed that sustenance and not being offered any other — is classified simply as ‘out’ (unbound).”

“Even so, Vaccha, any physical form by which one describing the Tathagata would describe him: That the Tathagata has abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. Freed from the classification of form, Vaccha, the Tathagata is deep, boundless, hard to fathom, like the sea. ‘Reappears’ doesn’t apply. ‘Does not reappear’ doesn’t apply. ‘Both does and does not reappear’ doesn’t apply. ‘Neither reappears nor does not reappear’ doesn’t apply.

“Any feeling… Any perception… Any mental fabrication…

“Any consciousness by which one describing the Tathagata would describe him: That the Tathagata has abandoned, its root destroyed, like an uprooted palm tree, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. Freed from the classification of consciousness, Vaccha, the Tathagata is deep, boundless, hard to fathom, like the sea. ‘Reappears’ doesn’t apply. ‘Does not reappear’ doesn’t apply. ‘Both does and does not reappear’ doesn’t apply. ‘Neither reappears nor does not reappear’ doesn’t apply.”

When this was said, the wanderer Vacchagotta said to the Blessed One: “Master Gotama, it is as if there were a great sala tree not far from a village or town: From inconstancy, its branches and leaves would wear away, its bark would wear away, its sapwood would wear away, so that on a later occasion — divested of branches, leaves, bark, and sapwood — it would stand as pure heartwood. In the same way, Master Gotama’s words are divested of branches, leaves, bark, and sapwood and stand as pure heartwood.

“Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or were to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has Master Gotama has — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. I go to Master Gotama for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of monks. May Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life.”

The Ten Fetters

The ten fetters referred to in Buddhist scriptures are what bind beings to the cycle of birth and death. The first five are referred to as the ‘lower fetters’ and the second five as the ‘higher fetters’.

1. Personality-Belief
This refers to the mistaken belief - from a Buddhist perspective - that the self is a permanent, unchanging essence or soul. Buddhism teaches that what we call the self or personality is made up of five factors - corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations (including volition or will) and consciousness. To cling to the idea of a permanent self, therefore, is erroneous. (See teaching on
Not-Self or Anatta)

2. Skeptical Doubt
This is to have doubts about
the three jewels, namely the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha; about what is morally wholesome and what is not; about the nature of religious training outlined by the Buddha and about the conditionality of all things.

3. Clinging to Rites and Rituals
Although rites and rituals form a part of Buddhist practices in various schools, the Buddha taught that there was no point in clinging to them for their own sake. Rites and rituals are a means of giving form to the expression of heart and mind, otherwise they are empty vessels.

4. Sensuous Craving
On one level this refers to lust but it has a broader meaning in terms of craving for pleasant sensations, those that our senses bring to us: sounds, sights, smells, tastes and touch.

5. Ill-will
This encapsulates feelings of enmity, even hatred, towards others. It is the opposite of
loving-kindness (metta).

6. Craving for Fine-Material Existence
In the development of meditation, refined, rapturous states known as jhanas can be experienced. But even attachment to these is ultimately unwholesome to progress. This relates to the first four of eight
jhanas.

7. Craving for Immaterial Existence
This fetter calls for the abandonment of subtle attractions to those states of mind experienced in the final four jhanas .

8. Conceit
This is sometimes interpreted as pride but it is likely something more subtle is intended, namely, attachment to the idea of self on an experiential level, even if the belief in an enduring self has been abandoned intellectually.

9. Restlessness
Restlessness or agitation suggests that true peace and contentment have still not been achieved in full.The mind is still unsettled.

10. Ignorance
At the core of the Buddha’s teaching is the idea that we live in a state of unknowing, of sleep, of ignorance. The whole Buddhist approach is aimed at dispelling our ignorance which is synonymous with waking up to truth. It is not surprising then that this is the final fetter.

The removal of the first three fetters makes one a ’stream-enterer’, one whose final awakening is assured within seven further rebirths. The removal of the first three fetters and the dilution of the next two makes one ‘a once-returner’; in other words, there will only one more rebirth as a human being before enlightenment. The compete abandonment of the first five fetters makes one a ‘non-returner’ and therefore leads to rebirth in one of the Buddhist ‘Pure Abodes’ where final awakening will be assured. An arahat or ’saint’ is one in whom all ten fetters have been destroyed.

Buddhist Publication Society
Newsletter

2nd Mailing 1995                                                                                                        No. 30

Towards a Threshold of Understanding - I

Pope John Paul II’s recent book, Crossing the Threshold of Hope is a collection of reflections primarily on issues of Christian faith; but the book also features the Pope’s assessment of other religions, including a short chapter on Buddhism. The Pontiff s words in this chapter are far from appreciative. The release of the book in Sri Lanka on the eve of the Pope’s visit to this country this past January stirred up waves of indignation in the Buddhist community that spread as far as the Vatican. The Buddhist prelates announced that they would not attend an inter-religious meeting requested by the Pope unless he formally retracted his unfavourable remarks about Buddhism. Although on arrival the Pope tried to appease the feel­ings of Buddhist leaders by declaring his esteem for their religion, even quoting the Dhammapada, he fell short of proffering a full apology, and this did not satisfy the Sangha elders.

The following essay is intended as a short corrective to the Pope’s demeaning characterization of Buddhism. It addresses the issues solely at the level of ideas, without delving into the question whether ulterior motives lay behind the Pope’s pronouncements. The essay is based on an article written for a Polish publisher, Source (Katowice), which is presently compiling a book on the Buddhist response to the Pope’s book.

The Pope states that “the Buddhist tradition and the methods deriv­ing from it have an almost exclusively negative soteriology (doc­trine of salvation).” Such a view of the Buddhist teachings was widespread among Christian missionaries in Asia during the 19th century, serving to justify their evangelical incursions into the heartlands of Buddhism. Serious scholars of comparative religion have long recognized this view to be a misrepresentation, rooted, in the case of the early missionaries, partly in misunderstanding, partly in deliberate distortion. It is therefore puzzling that the present head of the Catholic Church, otherwise so well informed, should repeat these worn-out lines, particularly at a time when greater mutual understanding is expected from the leaders of different religions.

The Pope does not explain exactly why he regards Buddhist soteriology as negative. Most likely, he takes this view because the Buddhist path of deliverance does not recognize a personal God as the agent and end of salvation. Like beauty, however, what is nega­tive and what is positive lies in the eye of the beholder, and what is negative for one may turn out to be another’s supreme ideal. If one seeks an everlasting union between one’s eternal soul and a creator God, then a doctrine that denies the existence of an eternal soul and a Divine Creator will inevitably appear negative. If one regards everything conditioned as impermanent and devoid of self, and seeks deliverance in Nibbana, the Deathless Element, then a doctrine of everlasting union between God and the soul will seem-not nega­tive perhaps—but founded upon wishful thinking and unacceptable articles of faith. For the ordinary reader, however, the word “nega­tive,” when applied to Buddhism, will suggest something far differ­ent from a philosophically acute way of approaching the Ultimate, conjuring up pictures of a bleak doctrine of escapism aimed at per­sonal annihilation. Behind the Pope’s words we can detect echoes of the ancient texts: “There are, monks, some recluses and brahmins who charge me with being an annihilationist, saying that the recluse Gotama teaches the annihilation of an existent being. That is false misrepresentation. What I teach, in the past as also now, is suffering and the cessation of suffering” (MN 22).

Even more worrisome than the Pope’s characterization of the Bud­dhist doctrine of salvation as negative is his contention that “the Buddhist doctrine of salvation constitutes the central point, or rather the only point, of this system.” The conclusion implied by this pro­nouncement, left hanging silently behind the lines, is that Buddhism is incapable of offering meaningful guidance to people immersed in the problems of everyday life; it is an otherworldly religion of escape suited only for those of an ascetic bent.

While Western scholars in the past have focused upon the Buddhist doctrine of salvation as their main point of interest, the living tradi­tions of Buddhism as practised by its adherents reveal that this atti­tude, being one-sided to begin with, must yield one-sided results. The Buddhist texts themselves show that Buddhism addresses as wide a range of concerns as any other of humanity’s great religions. Nibbana remains the ultimate goal of Buddhism, and is certainly “the central point” of the Dhamma, but it is by no means “the only point” for which the Buddha proclaimed his Teaching.

According to the Buddhist texts, the Dhamma is intended to pro­mote three types of good, each by way of different but overlapping sets of principles. These three goals, though integrated into the frame­work of a single internally consistent teaching, enable the Dhamma to address individuals at different stages of spiritual development, with varying capacities for comprehension. The three goods are:

(i) the good pertaining to the present life (ditthadhammattha), i.e. the achievement of happiness and well-being here and now, through ethical living and harmonious relationships based on kind­ness and compassion;

(ii) the good pertaining to the future life (samparayikattha), i.e. a favourable rebirth within the round of existence, by practising generosity, observing the precepts, and cultivating the mind in meditation; and

(iii) the ultimate good (paransattha), i.e. the attainment of Nib­bana, by following the complete training defined by the Noble Eightfold Path.

For most Buddhists in their day-to-day lives, the pursuit of Nibbana is a distant rather than an immediate goal, to be approached gradu­ally during the long course of rebirths. Until they are ready for a direct assault on the final good, they expect to walk the path for many lives within samsara, pursuing their mundane welfare while aspiring for the Ultimate. To assist them in this endeavour, the Bud­dha has taught numerous guidelines that pertain to ethically upright living within the confines of the world. In the Sigalovada Sutta, for example, he enumerates the reciprocal duties of parents and children, husband and wife, friends and friends, employers and em­ployees, teachers and students, religious and laity. He made right livelihood an integral part of the Noble Eightfold Path, and explained what it implies in the life of a busy lay person. During his long ministry he gave advice to merchants on the prudent conduct of business, to young wives on how to behave towards their husbands, to rulers on how to administer their state. All such guidance, issu­ing from the Buddha’s great compassion, is designed to promote the welfare and happiness of the world while at the same time steer­ing his followers towards a pleasant rebirth and gradual progress towards final liberation.

Yet, while the Buddha offers a graduated teaching adjusted to the varying life situations of his disciples, he does not allow any illu­sion to linger about the ultimate aim of his Doctrine. That aim is Nibbana, which is not a consoling reconciliation with the world but irreversible deliverance from the world. Such deliverance cannot be gained merely by piety and good works performed in a spirit of social sympathy. It can be won only by renunciation, by “the relin­quishment of all acquisitions” (sabb’upadhipatinissagga), includ­ing among such “acquisitions” the bodily and mental processes that we identify as our self. The achievement of this end is necessarily individual. It must be arrived at through personal purification and personal insight, as the fruit of sustained effort in fulfilling the en­tire course of training. Hence the Buddha did not set out to found a church capable of embracing all humanity within the fold of a sin­gle creed. He lays down a path—a path perfect in its ideal formula­tion—to be trodden by imperfect human beings under the imperfect conditions that life within the world affords. While the quest for the highest goal culminates in deliverance from the world, this same ideal “bends back” towards the world and spells out standards of conduct and a scale of values to guide the unenlightened manyfolk in their daily struggles against the streams of greed, hatred, and delusion. Nibbana remains the “chief point” and the omega point of the Dhamma. But as this goal is to be experienced as the extinction of greed, hatred, and delusion, it defines the condition for its reali­zation as a life devoted to overcoming greed through generosity, to overcoming hatred through patience and loving kindness, and to overcoming delusion through wisdom and understanding.

Bhikkhu Bodhi

Part II of this essay will appear in the next BPS newsletter.

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