In early times, charity was usually prompted by religious faith and
helped to assure a reward in an afterlife, a notion found in Egypt many
centuries before the Christian era. Throughout history, active
participation in philanthropy has been a particular characteristic of
Western societies. A traditional philanthropic ideal of Christianity is
that of the tithe, which holds that one tenth of a person’s income
should go to charity. Charity is also important in Islam, Buddhism, and
other religions. Foundations ( foundation
foundation, institution through which private
wealth is contributed and distributed for public purpose. Foundations
have existed since Greek and Roman times, when they honored deities.
During the Middle Ages in Europe the church had many foundations, and
in the Arab lands the waqf, or pious endowment, developed with
the growth of Islam. In modern times European foundations, generally
smaller than their U.S. counterparts, have been closely regulated by
the state (e.g., the Nobel prizes; see Nobel, Alfred Bernhard).
In the United States there were a few early foundations, notably
those endowed by Benjamin Franklin in 1791 to provide funds for loans
to “young married artificers of good character” and by James Smithson
in 1846 for the establishment of the Smithsonian Institution;
however, it was not until after the Civil War that foundations
developed rapidly. Social disintegration in the South and the
establishment of early foundations such as the Peabody Education Fund
and the John F. Slater Fund (both designed to provide educational
opportunities for African Americans in the South) promoted the
movement. The rapid growth of northern industrial enterprise in the
postbellum years brought with it an accumulation of huge private
fortunes. By the turn of the century, persuasive preachers of the
“social gospel” urged the wealthy to meet their charitable obligations
to society. Andrew Carnegie Carnegie, Andrew (kärnĕg`ē, kär`nəgē), 1835–1919, American industrialist and philanthropist, b.
….. Click the link for more information. and John D. Rockefeller John Davison Rockefeller, Jr.,
1874–1960, b. Cleveland, grad. Brown, 1897, took over active management
of his father’s interests in 1911 and engaged in numerous
philanthropies. Riverside Church in New York City was built through his
….. Click the link for more information. ,
Sr., in the period 1896 to 1918, led the way in creating foundations
that could distribute their enormous wealth in what was considered to
be the most efficient and socially beneficent manner.
Favorable income tax laws in the 1940s further spurred philanthropic
activity. During the early 1950s many American foundations were
attacked by right-wing journalists and Congressmen; between 1950 and
1953 the House of Representatives conducted two separate investigations
into “subversion and Communist penetration” of the nation’s
philanthropic foundations. Attacks on the foundations began to subside,
however, with the passing of the so-called McCarthy era. Although a
number of foundations have been restricted by their charters to
specific philanthropic functions, the larger U.S. foundations have
devoted themselves to broad areas (see separate articles on Lilly Endowment, Inc Lilly Endowment, Inc.,
institution founded (1937) at Indianapolis, Ind., by pharmaceutical
manufacturer Josiah K. Lilly (1861–1948) as a philanthropic foundation
for “the promotion and support of religious, educational, or charitable
purposes”; most of its work
….. Click the link for more information. .; Ford Foundation Ford Foundation,
philanthropic institution, established (1936) in Michigan by Henry Ford
and his son, Edsel, for the general purpose of advancing human welfare.
….. Click the link for more information. ; Rockefeller Foundation Rockefeller Foundation,
philanthropic institution established (1913) by John D. Rockefeller ,
Sr., to promote “the well-being of mankind throughout the world.”
During its first 14 years the foundation received $183 million from
….. Click the link for more information. ; Sloan Foundation Sloan Foundation,
fund established (1934) by automobile executive Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. as
a philanthropic institution supporting research in various areas. In
its early years it stressed support of U.S. economic education and
….. Click the link for more information. ; and Commonwealth Fund Commonwealth Fund,
foundation established (1918) by Anna M. Harkness, wife of Stephen V.
Harkness, an early Standard Oil investor, “for the welfare of mankind.”
Its headquarters are in New York City.
….. Click the link for more information. ). The 1980s and 90s saw a doubling in the number of grantmaking foundations, including those developed by financier George Soros Soros, George (sôr`ōs), 1930–, American stock trader and philanthropist, b. Budapest, Hungary, as George Schwartz.
….. Click the link for more information. and Microsoft founder Bill Gates Gates, Bill
(William Henry Gates 3d), 1955–, American business executive, b.
Seattle, Wash. At the age of 19, Gates founded (1974) the Microsoft
Corp., a computer software firm, with Paul Allen.
….. Click the link for more information. .
Due in part to economic prosperity, foundation giving doubled between
1990 and 1998 to $19.5 billion. In 1997, the largest recipients of
grant dollars were education, health, and human services
Part of a structural system that supports and
anchors the superstructure of a building and transmits its loads
directly to the earth. To prevent damage from repeated freeze-thaw
cycles, the bottom of the foundation must be below the frost line. The
foundations of low-rise residential buildings are nearly all supported
on spread footings, wide bases (usually of concrete) that support walls
or piers and distribute the load over a greater area. A concrete grade beam supported by isolated footings, piers, or piles
may be placed at ground level, especially in a building without a
basement, to support the exterior wall. Spread footings are also
used—in greatly enlarged form—for high-rise buildings. Other systems
for supporting heavy loads include piles, concrete caisson
columns, and building directly on exposed rock. In yielding soil, a
floating foundation—consisting of rigid, boxlike structures set at such
a depth that the weight of the soil removed to place it equals the
weight of the construction supported—may be used.
Nongovernmental, nonprofit organization with
assets provided by donors and managed by its own officials and with
income expended for socially useful purposes. Foundations can be traced
back to ancient Greece. The late 19th century first saw the
establishment of large foundations with broad purposes and great
freedom of action, usually originating in the fortunes of wealthy
industrialists. Today foundations are classified as community (having
support from many donors and located in a specific community),
corporation-sponsored, and independent. Notable examples include the Smithsonian Institution (1846), the Carnegie Corp. of New York (1911), the Rockefeller Foundation (1913), and the Ford Foundation (1936), one of the largest in the world. Nongovernmental organizations are known colloquially as “NGOs.”
….. Click the link for more information. —institutions that distribute private wealth for public purposes—also have an ancient history.
At the end of the 19th cent. it was recognized that corporations
could play a part in financing voluntary agencies when the Young Men’s
Christian Association set a new pattern for raising money: intensive
drives over a short period of time, the use of sophisticated techniques
to raise money, and an emphasis on corporation donations. Other
voluntary agencies soon copied this pattern, and it is still the
typical practice for large-scale fundraising. During World War I,
coordination of effort became a trend in philanthropic activity. In the
United States, this coordination took the form of Community Chests, (community chest, cooperative organization of
citizens and social welfare agencies in a city. Also known as a united
fund, it has two purposes: to raise funds through an annual campaign
for its member agencies and to budget the funds raised. The fund is
administered by the community chest or united fund itself, or as a
joint endeavor with a community welfare council; to represent the idea
of administering, as well as collecting, the funds, the national
association in 1927 took the name Community Chests and Councils. Today
the organization’s official name is the United Way of America. In 1974,
it formed United Way International to provide assistance to the
international United Way community and similar fundraising
organizations outside the United States. The idea of cooperative
collecting for charitable purposes originated in Liverpool, England
(1873), and, in the United States, in Denver (1887). In 1900 the
Cleveland chamber of commerce went a step further and assumed
responsibility for endorsing the agencies seeking funds; 13 years later
Cleveland brought almost all its welfare organizations together in the
Cleveland Welfare Council. The name community chest was coined in Rochester, N.Y., in 1913.)which combined a number of charities under one appeal, now known as the United Way.
Today the organization and coordination of philanthropy has
eliminated much of the spontaneity of giving. They have also brought
about a more rational assessment of ability to give as well as the
introduction of scientific methods of ascertaining community and
national needs and of raising money. The focus has also shifted from
the relief of immediate need to long-term planning to prevent future
Voluntary, organized efforts intended for
socially useful purposes. Philanthropic groups existed in the ancient
civilizations of the Middle East, Greece, and Rome: an endowment
supported Plato’s Academy (c. 387 BC) for some 900 years; the Islamic waqf (religious endowment) dates to the 7th century AD;
and the medieval Christian church administered trusts for benevolent
purposes. Merchants in 17th- and 18th-century western Europe founded
organizations for worthy causes. Starting in the late 19th century,
large personal fortunes led to the creation of private foundations that
bequeathed gifts totaling millions and then billions in support of the
arts, education, medical research, public policy, social services,
environmental causes, and other special interests. See Andrew Carnegie; B’nai B’rith; Bill Gates; George Peabody; Rockefeller Foundation; Straus family.
LIVING MEMORY: Rivals allege UP Chief Minister is wasting public money
Lucknow: With its huge dome set majestically on tall carved pillars,
the new imposing structure in Lucknow may seem like a shrine. But it
is just the police outpost meant to guard Chief Minister Mayawati’s
dream project–a memorial to SC icon B R Ambedkar.
Sprawling across 750 square metres in Gomti Nagar, the police outpost
has been built by the Lucknow Development Authority (LDA) at an
estimated cost of Rs one crore.
While its facade is of lovely pink Mirjapuri stone, the interior is
As you enter the building by swinging open the sparkling glass door,
you get a feeling of being in a corporate office. The five spacious
rooms, with smooth reddish-black granite floors and designer ceilings,
are nothing like what is normally seen in police offices.
The building also houses two bathrooms and a kitchen whose fittings
can outshine even those in luxury hotels.
As the outpost is in the immediate vicinity of the Ambedkar Samajik
Parivartan Sthal, the LDA has made all efforts to ensure that it
contributes to the beauty of the area.
For this, the 700-metre path leading to the guard room from the
Ambedkar memorial has been decked up with about 50 pairs of designer
streetlights. At the head of the road is a marble statue of Gautam
Buddha with four faces looking in different directions.
“This police post is one of its kind. Probably it is the most
expensive one ever built in the country. Being posted here definitely
makes you feel thrilled and privileged,” Vimal Kumar Gautam, who heads
the police outpost, told IANS.
At least 19 policemen will be deployed to guard the memorial, which is
being developed as a tourist attraction. It will have a park, museum,
library and statues of Dalit leaders.
“Most of the police officials attached to this outpost are currently
on election duty. They would surely be excited to be on duty here,”
The LDA began the construction of the guard room around 10 months ago
and it became functional in the last week of April. However, finishing
touches are still being made to the structure.
Gautam said a police outpost in the area became a necessity after
thefts of construction material from the 50-acre site of Ambedkar
Sthal, which is being built at an estimated cost of Rs 1,000 crore.
“It has also become important to regularly inspect the area following
recent accidents involving labourers,” he added.
Two labourers died in an accident while working on the site in April.
“Criminals caught by those posted at this outpost will be handed over
to the Gomti Nagar police station,” said Gautam.
‘Terrace-farming’ of a different kind
Scientist grows healthy vegetables in house
BANGALORE: How many of us in the city only dream of having a garden
full of vegetables and flowers? But here is someone who single-mindedly
has done it before, and is all set to do it again.
B. Narayan Vishwanath, a former lecturer with the University of
Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, says anyone with even a tiny patch can
do it. With a Ph.D in Agriculture, Dr. Vishwanath has authored Organic Terrace Gardening,
a slim book in which he has penned his experiences and successes while
growing his own patch of greenery. Through his book, he urges everyone
to grow plants in their homes, no matter how small the available space
Rise in pollution
“With a drastic increase in all sorts of pollution, especially in
the cities, there is a greater need for people to grow plants in their
homes to keep healthy,” says Dr. Vishwanath.
He is particularly keen that chemicals — be they fertilizers or
pesticides — be kept away from such terrace gardens. Instead, he
advises people to opt for compost and bio-fertilizers. The rampant use
of chemicals, banned elsewhere in the world, bothers him. “The only
reason for permitting their use in India is the political system as
well as the extreme lobbying at the Centre. People are making millions
in the absence of a ban on these chemicals.”
These chemicals have permanent effects on us, says the energetic
65-year-old: “It is a well known fact that the excessive use of
chemicals in vegetables and fruits harms our health. If one is not
cultivating large-scale, I believe everyone can grow enough to feed at
least themselves and their children.”
To propagate his views, Dr. Vishwanath gives lectures and conducts
workshops on organic gardening. He has a diploma in television
production, and has made a number of documentaries in support of his
He did have a glorious terrace garden in a house he recently vacated
in Kengeri. Having moved to a new house in Jayanagar Fifth Block, he
has set to work with full enthusiasm on yet another garden, starting
out with tomatoes and chillies on his terrace. He does not mind
starting afresh, although he grumbles that squirrels seem to be reaping
too much of what he has sown. He is also experimenting with growing a
garden only in compost minus the soil.
So when did he start feeling so passionately about organic
horticulture? He says he was inspired by Rachel Carson’s seminal work Silent Spring.
The book, as far back as 1962, had warned the world about the hazards
of the use of DDT, and criticises the American chemical industry for
spreading disinformation, as well as public officials for accepting
industry claims uncritically.
Dr. Vishwanath can be contacted on 9845627217 or email@example.com
For the first time, Thailand has appeared in the list of top five
countries imposing Internet censorship on their citizens. This is due
to the fact that Herdict reporting software is being used intensively
to provide accurate monitoring. Presumably, FACTsite is somewhere on
that list! It should give Thai govt with all its pretensions of
democracy to fall into an elite censorship club, just behind Iran,
China, Moldova, and the United States (for reasons of copyright
Jillian C. York
Herdict: May 8th, 2009
we now know, Internet filtering is no longer limited to the usual
suspects (China, Iran, Burma); Herdict has allowed us to get wind of
new filtering across the world, in places the OpenNet Initiative has never even tested. That is why this week we’re bringing you the top 5 countries reporting inaccessibility!
comes in at #1 with 63 reports of inaccessible sites. While that’s not
so surprising (after all, Iran is frequently marked by human rights
groups as an “Internet enemy“), it’s interesting to note that the most reported sites are all news-related. BBC Persian, Iran Press News, and others are all trending this week.
2. China, always a high-ranking censor of the Net, is #2 on our list this week. While the inaccessibility of such sites as YouTube, Tor, and The Official Website of the Central Tibetan Administration might come as no surprise, 25 inaccessibility reports for The Huffington Post just might.
3. Moldova, for which the OpenNet Initiative found no signs of filtering in 2007, comes in third this week, with 45 reports of inaccessibility. Sites reported included Moldovan Jurnaltv (an “Internet TV” site which has been reporting on Moldova’s recent uprising), Facebook (only on some ISPs), and Unimedia, a Moldovan news site.
4. United States comes in at #4, with the top reported sites all cases of geolocational filtering (also known as reverse filtering) such as Scenta.co.uk (which limits the site to UK users) and Abc.net.au
(which is accessible but prohibits users outside of Australia from
viewing videos for copyright reasons). In addition to these cases,
there are a number of sites such as Facebook being reported as inaccessible from workplaces or public cafes.
5. Rounding out the list at #5 is Thailand, where the most-reported sites are blogs and social media platforms, such as this Ning group, which is an organizing platform for members of Thailand’s red shirt movement.
What Top 5 list would you like to see next week? Let us know.
C. York is the Project Coordinator for the OpenNet Initiative and part
of the fantastic Herdict Team. She created most of the textual content
on the site, so if you spot something funny, let her know! She’s also
the face behind the @Herdict Twitter feed.
Namo Budday! Jaibheem!!
Jayanthi Celebrated in Gorrekunta Village of Warangal District on 9th
May-2009, the event organized by the Buddhist Education Center- founded
by Pragnanand in this celebration about 1000 people participated from
surrounding villages and warangal town.
At 11am about 400 people went to ambedkar statue as rally and
garlanded, and came back to the meeting place at 12pm, the meeting
started at 12pm
S.Chandrainah- General Secretary - All India samatha sainik Dal,
B.Karthik Navayan- General Secretary NAVAYANA- A Society for social transformation
S Narendar social activist,
Pro: Burra Ramulu,
And other local leaders of the diferant peoples organisations were participated as a speakers
The Bouddha vandana suttha sangraham 500 -Telugu books distributed
at free of cost among the participants the books provided by Mangesh
Dahiwale (Thank you Mangesh)
Today is Buddha Jaynti and let me wish all of you a very happy 2553th. Buddha Jaynti.
I always say ” It does not matter who leads you ,what matters is where they leave you.”
lead us to perfect liberation and left us in a perfect brotherhood.
The light of Asia what a lofty tenet Baba sahib Directed us to.
am also attaching some photographs of the function held on the 11th
April 2009 at Columbia university New York USA. This was the university
where Baba Sahib not only educated himself, but also dreamt about his,
our and his future generations liberation from the shackles of the Arya
It was a great function and I throughly enjoyed it. It
was a privilege to be participant of such a reputed and prestigious
I could not thank enough Mr Raju Kamble President Dr. Ambedkar international Mission Inc. USA and its members
Southern Asian Institute Columbia University New York USA for
providing me with such an honourable opportunity and audience to
express my views.
I am not new to the University as years ago we
came to denote Poitrat and some volumes of Baba Sahib Ambedkar’s
Writing and Speeches to this very university.
In 1994 Bust of Baba
Sahib Ambedkar with some more volumes of Baba Sahib Ambedkar’s Writings
and Speeches were also denoted by our UK based
Federation of Ambedkarites and Buddhist Organisations UK.
Incidently I am denoting two copies of ,”THE EVILS OF CASTE.” a
report written by the Mr Chanan Chahal President of FABO the above
organisation. This report is written in response to the Hindu counsel
UK report of the denial of the caste system and its effect.
this will make a good read as your topic for dicussion is also ,”Caste
after Dr. Ambedkar.”, and will also have reference for future students
of this university.
I am also happy to be here to garland and speak
of this greatest son of India Dr. Ambedkar ,who was empowered by this
very world renouned university.
For this I have reason to salute
to this source of empowerment that further liberated and restored human
rights and dignity to millions of Indigenious Indians,
enslaved by the Braminical Social Order for centuries. I must not also
forget to thank the honourable professor Dirk, vice chancellor and
Dean for arts and sciences New York, along with professor Janaki
Bakhle, Southern Asian Institute, Columbia university and Mr
Panjarmurti for making this function more enjoyable and informative.
about Ambedkar and his birth annaversary mean talking of the greatest
and talles son of India. It is our pious duty to remember our ancestors
and time to time speak of their personallity, their acheivements and
even failures .So that our children and grandchildren should remember
what our past generations have gone throgh,what they have done and what
is left for us to persue. Ambedkar, just imagine an Untouchable student
who came from India to study in this university and you ask him to sit
in the corridoors while all other students sit in their classrooms,
what would be going through his mind how can he concentrate to study?
That is what happened to young Ambedkar when he was studying back in
India. All his understanding energy was wasted through the humiliating
and degrading behaviour of his class mates and teachers alike. I class
him a very resilient, bold and forward looking person in the history of
India, and find no other individual parallel to his stature. Therefore
I have reason to salute this world renowned educational institution
Columbia university for empowering and enabling him to deal with
centuries of old regimes back in his country where his fellow pupils
were treated worse than animals.
I’m not only saying this, as it
is evident from his struggle when he joins his services under the
contract with Saya Ji Gaikward, in Boroda where people at his service
like peons would not pass the files to his hand, but throw at his desk
from a distance regardless of him being one of the highly educated and
paid persons in that office. He couldn’t find a place to live in so he
disguised himself to get a room at Parsi Inn. He was evicted from there
at midnight, as they realised he was an Untouchable in spite of the
fact that he offered a greater rent. He picks up his belongings and
goes across to Maharaja’s Garden, and sits under a tree and weeps
bitterly. There he analysed the root cause of this problem, that
having the highest education and a decent wage weren’t enough for equal
treatment. Keeping the Mulnivasi Bahujans traditions in mind, according
to Buddha’s saying “be thy own light” he looked within himself,
without turning to any gods or godesses he planned and strategised his
struggle and took a solemn oath that if he failed to uproot this
Brahminical social order that denies him the proper human dignity, he
would put a bullet through his head. This was the turning point in his
life. He bonfired the Manusamriti in a public function and led his
people to take water from Mahad water tank which was prohibited for his
people. There he said “We are not drinking this water because we are
dying, we are drinking to demonstrate that we are also human beings
i.e. animals alike cats, dogs and pigs can drink the water, but we as
humans cannot.”. That made him the most loved leader of the
Untouchables in India, and the sworn enemy of the Brahmans. To counter
his struggle, the Brahmans and the media turned agaisnt him saying he
was dividing the Hindu society on the caste basis. To prove we are not
Hindus, he took his struggle to the Kala Ram Mandir where on his entry
to the temple, brought reactions from the higher castes, by throwing
stones at the protestors.
On that basis, he again said “that
if we were Hindus, we should have rights to enter the temple to worship
our deity like all other Hindus do, and if they have objected to our
entry and thrown stones at us, it means we are not Hindus.”. On that
basis that we are not Hindus, he gave memorandom to the British
government that we are a separate entities and need separate rights. On
this agreement, the Bristish people invited him to a conference at The
Round Table in London 1930-1932 to work out proper rights for each
community, where Ghandi stood like a mountain to oppose him. He
(Ghandi) was happy to have rights for Muslims, Sikhs and all other
minorities but not for Untouchables. But the British government still
granted the Untouchables separate electrotes. Ghandi goes on a fast
till death to rebuke our hard earned separate electrotes, which was
essentially emotional blackmail targeting Ambedkar. A compromise was
reached under the Puna Pact agreement. Therefore this point it is to be
understood that all scheduled castes, whatever rights they have today,
are on the basis that they are not Hindus, unfortunately leaving few
Buddhists and Abedkarists, all scheduled castes believe they are
Hindus. Worshipping Hindu gods and godesses, follow gtheir customs and
traditions, celebrating all Hindu festivals they have almost forgotten
their own history, identity, heritage and glorious past.
find it very disturbing to observe today we have almost forgotten about
the Indus Valley civilisation, Buddha and Ashoka, when India was known
as a Golden Sparrow. In other words the Brahamans have stimulated us
into their own process of enslavement, and it is further disturbing to
witness that the new calendars and portraits of Baba Sahib Ambedkar are
also distorted where originally he stands in the compound of Indian
parliment pointing out towards parliment, inspiring his people to
capture the temple of power where the decision of their fates and
future are made. But today his hand is pointed toward the gods
indicating that whatever we can recieve and achieve is only available
with the will of god. I request to all the Ambedkarists and Buddhists
here that they must stop buying these portraits and also remove all
these RSS propaganda and deceptive portraits from their homes and
offices, as I feel caste and god are the Brahman’s very important tools
to enslave us and our survival and development depends on upon the
rejection of these two, and the earlier we reject these two the sooner
we will be liberated from their clutches of Brahiminical Social Order.
I’m sure Baba Sahib Ambedkar’s embracement of Buddhism in 1956, was a
step in the right direction.
Those Brahnins beleive are born from the feet and desreve only insults and hummuliations ,are insulting Brahmins left and right.
Yours in the footsteps of our forefathers
Mulkiat Singh Bahal
VOTE MAYA 2
B PM 2 GET THE
BSP APPEAL 2 VOTERS THRU
alert so that their
in valuable votes are neither bought nor looted nor remain unused and no
selfish person is able to misuse their votes by ensnaring them in the name of
caste and creed, money, temple and mosque or by any kind of emotional
blackmail, not to get carried away by alluring promises made in the election
manifesto of opposition parties, in other words they have to rise in their
defence of democracy !
BUTTON FACING ELEPHANT SYMBOL OF
SMS 2 PALS.
IN NEWS PAPER 2 C APPEAL in
DO DOOR 2
DOOR CAMPAIGN 2 WIN AND B