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Main Page

Welcome to our yoga postures section. Here you will find

yoga moves that are broken down to the bare basics with colour photos

to match. We also have state of the art flash yoga animation technology that you can use to view these moves in full screen size, full colour and with full instruction.

Yogic exercises cater to the needs of each individual

according to his or her specific needs and physical condition. They

involve vertical, horizontal, and cyclical movements, which provide

energy to the system by directing the blood supply to the areas of the

body which need it most.

In yoga, each cell is observed, attended to, and

provided with a fresh supply of blood, allowing it to function smoothly.

The mind is naturally active and dynamic, while the innerself is

luminous. In this section we will give you plenty of yoga images and


Breathing Pose
Arm Stretch
Kneeing Twist

Breathing Pose

The simple act of learning to control the breath

has a number of beneficial effects on your wellbeing, ranging from

increasing your energy, to improved relaxation into sleep. It purifies

the body by flushing away the gaseous by products of metabolism and will

also help you to remain calm in the face of the challenges that we

encounter in our everyday lives.

Control of the breath is an essential element in

the art of yoga. When bringing the air in to the abdomen, do not to puff

the stomach out, but pull the air into it while extending the inside

wall. By harnessing the power of the breath the mind can be stilled and

can be prepared for your Yoga practise.

Instruction Table Breathing Basics

Sit in a simple cross-legged position on

the floor. If you don’t feel comfortable in this position place a folded

blanket under your buttocks. 

Place your right hand on the rib cage and your left hand on your abdomen 


slowly through the nose feeling the breath filling the abdomen,

bringing it slowly into the rib cage, then the upper chest. 


softly feeling the breath leave the abdomen first, then the ribs and

lastly the upper chest. Observe the space at the end of the exhale

Now move hands so your forearms come to a comfortable position

resting on your knees and continue the breathing with a relaxed rhythm.

Continue with a flowing controlled breath in your own time.

Yoga breathing is also call Pranayama . Many say that Pranayama (Rhythmic control of breath) is one of the bests medicines in the world .

Right click the link and save as to download a beginners breathing routine . Then watch in windows media player.

Click the BIG play button in the middle below. To watch a Pranayama Breathing overview .

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The Virasana Arm/Shoulder Stretch

Hero Pose

The purpose of this pose is to help give the entire

body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It improves

strength and endurance and helps to control your breathing in

conjunction with the movements of the body.

It eases and stimulates the joints especially the

knees, ankles and shoulders. It reduces and alleviates backache and

improves the circulation of the entire body.

Instruction Table

Come in to a position on your hands and your 

knees with your knees together and your feet slightly wider than hip width apart. Your big 

toes & little toes pressing firmly into the floor

Push back with your hands & sit between your

buttocks on the floor, make sure you roll your calf muscles out wards so

your not sitting on them.

Make sure the inner calves are touching the outer thighs and your ankles are outside your buttocks, arms resting at the sides.

Inhale as you slowly raise your arms to shoulder height, shoulders down.

Exhale lengthen out through the fingertips & turn your palms to the roof. Inhale stretch your arms overhead.

Interlock the fingers. Slowly exhaling turn the palms

towards the ceiling, and with a powerful push lift up from the belly

into your chest and shoulders.

Exhale bring your hands down in a smooth continuance motion….

Now bringing your arms interlocking behind your back

with straight arms, being careful not to roll the shoulders forward,

squeezing the shoulder blades together and opening the chest on the

front of the body.

Inhale hands back to the side

Repeat 2-3 more times

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Kneeing Twist Pose

Regular practice of the kneeling twist pose

will aid in your ability to rotate the spine and upper torso more

effectively, while increasing the flexibility and strength in your back

and abdominal muscles. It also massages, stimulates and rejuvenates the

internal abdominal organs.

This pose is a good beginners pose and will get you ready for more advanced twists.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table


Sit on your heals with your knees together, the tops of the feet

pressing firmly into the ground. Your head, shoulders, and hips should

be in one straight line.

Arms relaxed by the side keep your base firm by contracting your buttocks.


Inhale, extending the spine upwards, exhale twist around to the

right, placing your left hand on the outside of your right thigh,

turning the head in the direction of the twist, but keeping the head and

shoulders relaxed.

Take a few breaths here, keeping the stomach soft and the eyes soft.

Repeat on the other side

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Triangle Pose

The Triangle Pose

Triangle pose tones the leg muscles, spinal nerves and abdominal organs; it contributes towards a strong healthy lower back.

The triangle gives an excellent and complete stretch

throughout the entire body.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Align yourself in mountain pose. 

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

Inhale deeply and jump your feet out landing approx

1.2-1.5m apart. your feet need to be in line and pointing forward at

right angles. Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that they

are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle of

your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead.

Now turn your right foot out while keeping your hips to

the front, and turn your left foot in from 90 to 70 degrees, by pivoting

on your heel. Insure your right heel is in line with the instep of the

left foot.

This is important as it sets the base for this pose.

The kneecaps and thighs are pulling up,

simultaneously pushing downward through your feet into the floor.

Inhale, extend the spine, exhale as you bend to the right, pushing out

from the hips, through the right arm…

Taking your right hand to a comfortable position on your

leg, your left arm coming up to straight, moving down as far as

possible without turning the hips or torso. Keep the thighs firm and

rolling around towards the buttocks, moving the left hip back and open

the chest.

Inhale, extend the neck and spine, exhale, turn your head to look up at your left hand.


your head, your buttocks and your heels in one straight line,not

looking down with you body, keep opening your whole body up.

The Tree Pose

This pose harnesses the powers of mental concentration, while

allowing you to calm the mind. It develops balance and stability, and

strengthens the legs and feet, also increasing flexibility in the hips

and knees.

The tree pose is a balance pose incorporating three lines of

energy, emitting from the centre outwards. One line proceeds down the

straight leg, one line extends up the spine and out the fingertips, and

the third moves outward through the bent knee.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Align yourself in mountain pose. 

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

On your next inhale; shift the bulk of your weight onto

your left foot. Exhale bend the right knee, and assisting with your

hand, place the sole of your right foot as high as possible into the

left inner thigh, with toes pointing down, steady yourself, and 

breathe easy.

Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that

they are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle

of your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead. Keep completely

focused on the pose.

Now bring your palms together in prayer

position. Keeping your eyes focused on a point in front of you, will

assist your balance.

Inhale as you raise your arms overhead keeping your palms together and stretching upwards through the fingertips. 

Keep working your right knee back and contracting your buttocks muscles in and down.

Feel your abdomen plane and hips facing straight ahead, while lifting out of the waist.

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The Warrior Pose


The Warrior pose is

named after the mythic warrior-sage, Virabhadra. This challenging pose

strengthens the entire body while improving mental capacity and self


It builds, shapes and tones the entire lower body. It tones the

abdominal section and helps to prevent, reduce and eliminate back pain.

The entire upper body -front and back- is worked and doing this pose

increases the capacity of the respiratory system.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Stand in mountain pose continuing with your smooth flowing breath.

Jump your feet sides ways and sweep your arms out to the side so your

ankles are below your wrists. Establish your foundation, by pulling

your knees and thighs up, tucking your tailbone under, pushing your feet

firmly into the floor.


an imaginary line running vertically down the centre of your body,

dropping your shoulders. Squeeze your arms and legs away from the



Keep an awareness of this line as you turn your right

foot out to 90 degrees and turn your left foot in to 70 degrees. Ensure

the heel of your front foot aligns with arch of your back foot, hips

facing forward.

If your body wants to turn off centre, counter-act it by pushing simultaneously in opposite directions from the centre line.

Inhale, an as you exhale bend your right

leg, pulling up with the outside and inside of the thigh to form a right

angle at the knee. Only go as low as you can with out turning your hips

off centre.


you want your knee directly above your ankle with you leg coming

vertically out of the floor like pillar. Keep the power flowing through

the back leg into the floor.

Inhale lift the spine; exhale turn your head to look over your right arm. Take a few deep breaths through the nose.

Hold the pose and breathe smooth.

Reverse the procedure back to mountain pose and repeat back to the other side.


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Mountain Pose
Prayer Pose

Mountain Yoga Pose

The Mountain Pose is one of the most important poses in yoga. It is the start and finish point of all standing poses.

When standing in mountain pose, the mind is quiet,

and the body strong and still, like a mountain. This is a pose you can

practise in your daily life, practising to stand correctly will have a

profound influence on your physical and mental well being.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

   Moutain Pose 1

Stand with your feet hip width apart, so the outsides of the feet are almost parallel edged.

Press and spread the toes into the floor. Feel the weight of your

body distributed evenly through your feet, from the toes to the heels,

keep pressing firmly into the floor.


Moutain Posture 2
Lift the kneecaps up by contracting the front thigh

muscles, but not locking the backs of the knees. Pull up with the back

of the thighs, and activate the hip and buttocks to level the pelvis. 


Mountain Poses Back
Your hips should be directly over your knees, and your

knees over your ankles. This gives you a stable foundation and by

positioning the pelvis properly, keeps the spine healthy.

Now extend the spine, by slowly inhaling, lifting up

through the legs as you lift the ribcage, opening the chest and dropping

the shoulders down, extending the neck, keeping the jaw and eyes soft.


    Bring the shoulder blades into the back, to support the ribcage. Breathe slowly and softly.

Keep your head directly over your shoulders, and look at eye level at a point in front of you.

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The Prayer Pose

This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a

key movement to more advanced poses. This pose will teach you how to

push from under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle

group of the back. A key movement in a lot of yoga poses.

It strengthens and aligns the upper body while

releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,

which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the

abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Centre yourself in mountain pose and take a

few deep breaths here, breathing down into the abdomen, continuing the

breathing that you are now familiar with.

Inhale, raise your arms to shoulder height and stretch them out in the opposite direction to each other 

Now twist your arms from the shoulder and turning your palms upwards. Keep the body in a nice strong upright position

Bring your arms out in front of you, pushing

your elbows firmly together and your fingers extending away from you,

while focusing on pulling your shoulder blades together..

Continue squeezing the elbows together as you bring your palms together

Now bend at the elbow and take the forearms to vertical.

Keep pressing firmly with the palms and the elbows as you breathe the

arms upwards. With each exhale moving slightly higher.
Shoulder opener Yoga Posture. This

movement will teach you how to push from under the shoulders and out of

the lats, the major muscle group of the back. A key movement in a lot of

yoga poses. This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a key

movement to more advanced poses.
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The Shoulder Shrug

The shoulder rotation is another pose which can be practiced anywhere and at any time.

It strengthens and aligns the shoulder region while

releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,

which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the

abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Align yourself in mountain pose. 

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

As you inhale, lift your shoulders to your ear lobes, keeping the head erect and soft.

As you exhale, rotate the shoulders around 

by pushing up out of the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together, rotating them 

in a full circle.

Back down into mountain pose

Repeat 3 more times

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Lying Twist
Downward Dog
Seated Forward Bend

The Lying Basic Twist

Doing this pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

The lying twist is another pose which is very

simple yet extremely effective. This pose is soothing to the spine and

neck, and warms and frees the lower back and hips and it also improves

digestion and assists in toxin elimination.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table


Come to a position lying on your back and stretch your arms out to

the side and place your palms and shoulders firmly on the floor.

Move your shoulder blades under. Spread your toes apart. Feel the

back and shoulders moulding to the straight lines of the floor.



Bend your knees as far as they come towards the chest.



Inhale, keeping your knees and ankles together,

Exhale, rolling your knees to the right. Focus on keeping your arms

pressing out wards and your shoulders pushing firmly into the ground.

You may feel or hear your spine lengthening as it extends into the

correct alignment.

Knees & ankles together breathe, focus on creating length between the left lower rib and the hip,

Now turn your head to look over your left hand. Relax in to this pose, stomach soft, breathing soft and relaxed.

Reverse the pose back up and repeat to the other side

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The Downward Facing Dog

Adhomukha Svanasana

The downward yoga pose is

named as such as it resembles the shape of a Dog stretching itself out.

This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in the legs

while strengthening and shaping the upper body. Dog pose Yoga Posture .

One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try

this one.

Holding this pose for a minute or longer will

stimulate and restore energy levels if you are tired. Regular practice

of this pose rejuvenates the entire body and gently stimulates your

nervous system.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Come up onto your hands and knees with your knees hip

width apart and the hands shoulder width apart, your fingers wide

pressing firmly into the floor.

Inhale, arch your spine and look up as you turn your toes under.

As you exhale straighten your legs and pause here for a moment.

Now push the floor away from you hands, positioning your

body like an inverted V, achieving a straight line from your hands to

your shoulders to the hips. Straight arms and straight legs.

As you inhale press downward into your hands and lift outward out of the shoulders.

Lift your head and torso back through the line of your body.

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The Seated Forward Bend


The purpose of this pose is to give the entire back

of your body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It is

excellent for posture improvement and stimulates the internal organs as


It adds in improved mental concentration and

endurance and helps to control and calm the mind. It relieves

compression while increasing the elasticity of the spine, it also

strengthens and stretches the hamstrings.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Come to a sitting position with your legs together in front of you. 


the fleshy part of your buttocks from underneath you, so you are on the

top of your sitting bones, which are located at the very top of your



Roll the thighs inwards so that the kneecaps are facing directly upwards.

Activate the legs by pressing down into the floor, and out through the heels.

Spread your toes wide and pull them towards you. 

Lengthen your lower back muscles down as you extend your spine up and out of the pelvis.


Now take your strap around both feet. The

strap`s purpose is to keep the spine straight. This is very important.

Be aware the head is an extension of the spine, so keep it aligned


Use the breath to create the optimum degree of intensity in the stretch.


On your next exhale; come down the belt further while

maintaining the extension on the front and back of the torso. Some of

you will be able to grab the sides of your feet. Breathe softly and

continuously. Don’t pull yourself forward by the strength of your upper


Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.


Go a little further, relax your abdomen, and inhale, as

you lengthen, exhale, and come further forward, increasing the space in


The Locust
The Bridge
Extended Child’s Pose

The Locust Pose


The locus yoga posture is

named as such as it resembles the shape of the insect known as the

Locust. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in

the lower back while bringing flexibility to the upper back region.

When you first begin to practice this pose, your

legs may not move very far off the floor. Please continue and stay

positive as you will find your range will continue to improve the more

you practice. Learning to master this pose will hold you in good stead

for more advanced back bends.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Come to a position lying face down on the floor, with

your arms along side your body, palms and forehead down. Bring your

knees and ankles together. Squeeze the shoulder blades together and

down. Push your palms into the floor. Pull the abdominals inwards,

contract the buttocks, and press the hips and pubis firmly into the


On your next exhale; raise the legs to a height that is comfortable but challenging.

Keep the buttocks activated, lock the knees, keep the ankles together.


Extend the front of your body as you pull

the shoulder blades together, raising the head, the arms, and upper

torso away from the floor, looking straight ahead, opening the front of

the chest and pushing down the lines of the arms.

Keep the legs working strongly.

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The Bridge Pose

The Bridge Pose is

a simple yet very effective pose to practice. It helps to promote a

healthy flexible spine while strengthening the legs and buttock muscles.

It also helps to stretch and stimulate the abdominal muscles and


It aids in easing and stimulating the mind and is a great way to reenergize if feeling tired.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Lie on your back with your legs bent, heels close to the buttocks, Feet pressing firmly into the floor, hip width and parallel. 

Your arms should be slightly out from your sides, the palms of your hands pressing firmly into the floor.

Inhale, and with the exhale raise the hips up by pushing strongly

into the floor with your feet. Keep the buttocks firm, and press the

shoulders and arms into the floor. Only go to the height that you are

comfortable with. 

Take a few nourishing breaths in this position, as you keep opening the chest and lengthening the torso.


Now bring your arms over your head to the floor behind

you. Keep lifting your buttocks away from the floor, keeping them

contracted, which will protect the lower spine, and work softly with the

breath, keeping the head and neck relaxed.


pose stretches the whole front of the body, and brings mobility to the

spine. Breathing is improved from the opening of the ribcage and chest


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The Extended Child’s Pose / Garbhasana

The Childs Yoga pose when

practiced regularly is very beneficial to your entire mind and body. It

helps to release the pressure on the spine while providing an entire

stretch through the upper body to the fingertips. It also aids in

strengthening and stretching the insides of the legs while massaging the

internal organs.

Breathing will becomes more efficient and your mind

will become clear. It also aids in improved mental processes and helps

to rejuvenate and energize the entire being.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Bring your big toes together and your knees wide apart, inhale as you lift your spine and extend your stomach.

Exhale bend forward from the hips as you walk you hands

out as far in front of you as possible, extending from the hips to the


Place your forehead on the ground & buttocks

back to the heels. Work your pubis to the floor and strech the inner

thigh muscles. Focus on the breath.

Breathing into the abdomen as you extend it

forward in to the breastbone, creating length through the upper body.

Exhale from deep in the abdomen relaxing in the spine and continue the

slow controlled breathing.

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Standing Forward Bend
The Boat (beginners)

The Standing Forward Bend

This pose aids in digestion and is restorative. It

frees the rib cage allowing for improved breathing. It aids in mental

concentration and helps to revive mental and pysichal exhaustion. The

heartbeat is slowed and the lower back is strengthened and pressure is

removed from the lumbar region.

It increases flexibility while strengthening and

developing the hamstrings. It also helps to strengthen the feet and

ankles while realigning the entire body.

To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table


Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your

arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.


Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.

Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend forward,

continue lifting out of the hips keeping your legs strong and your base

nice and firm, looking forward to begin with. Keep the extension on the

stomach, which will help keep your back flat protecting it. 

Take a few breaths here.

Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to

the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger



you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on your knees and

keep slowly working down your legs, working with your body, not against

it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.


Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.

Remember to keep the arches high.

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The Boat Pose

Doing the boat pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

Keep challenging yourself to stay in this pose

longer. If you find the stimulation of the midsection becoming intense,

just persist with it, knowing your mind has ultimate control over the


To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table

Find yourself on your sitting bones, lifting out of the hips.

Extend your spine upwards, and press the soles of your feet into the floor, with the knees and ankles together.

Using your fingertips on the floor for balance, extend your abdomen as you lean back slightly.

Bring your lower legs up, parallel to the floor.

Breathe softly, in and out through the nose, while opening the chest and

squeezing the shoulder blades together. 

Focus on a point at eye level in front of you. You may find this pose challenging to begin with

Now bring your arms up beside your knees, parallel to the floor,

opening the chest. Keep your focus on that point in front of you. This

will help your stability. Continue with the controlled breathing.

Feel the stimulation of the entire abdominal region, as you hold this pose for a few more breaths.

Advanced Variation of The Boat

Now bring your legs up to straight. Continue to keep your focus on that point in front of you.

Continue with the controlled breathing.

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The Yoga Suttas of Patanjali: a manual of Buddhist meditation


and free adaptation of the article published on the blog “Theravadin -

Theravada Practice Blog” (

We consider here the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, a classical text and revered in Hinduism, dated at approx. 200 BC and compared its semantics and vocabulary to Buddhist canonical texts. In

summary, this comparison is quite obvious that the author of Yoga Sutra

was highly influenced by Buddhist philosophy and meditation practice,

possibly contemporaneously to the author.


it appears that a student of Buddhist canonical texts may in fact be

more easily understood than the Yoga Sutra a Hindu practitioner with no

other previous reference parameter practical and philosophical.

do not consider comments here later Hindu / Brahman existing this text,

some of which seem to avoid (or ignore) the original references to

Buddhism in this text.


proximity of the Yoga Sutra-style, vocabulary, and subject to canonical

texts in Pali could also mean simply that Patanjali - or whoever it is

that inspired his writings - had practiced meditation from a Buddhist

contemplative community, a community of monks for a time before

returning to Brahmanism and then the movement would have rephrased his

experience in order to add a divine touch to your experience, making

substantial use of technical terms of Buddhist meditation, as originally

framed or developed by the Buddha for the purpose of contemplative

 But this would be pure speculation, because there is so far no studies or historical finding that supports this understanding.


is also possible, even likely, that the Buddhist meditation had so

broadly permeated the practice Hindu / Brahman at the time (after years

of a strong cultural influence began with Buddhist proselytism promoted

by Ashoka the Buddhist Sangha in his reign and Consolidation of India),

that these technical terms as well as descriptions of practice of jhana /

dhyana (meditative absorptions) have it built into common knowledge at

the point of no longer sounding particularly Buddhists.

similar to what happens today with the adoption of the ideas of

“nirvana” and “karma” in Western culture, in Christian countries.


particular, if the Yoga Sutra is read in one continuous line is amazing

how close the text is the thoughts and topics about samadhi, jhana

meditation and Samatha (concentration) as defined in the ancient texts

in Pali Buddhist.

For a first analysis, an overview. Look

at the “Ashtanga Yoga” or the “Eightfold Path of Yoga” (sic) we are

certainly inclined to think the definition of the central Buddha of the

Noble Eightfold Path.


instead of following the Buddhist literary definition of the Noble

Eightfold Path, the interpretation of the eightfold path of yoga follows

(to our surprise?) Another description of the Buddhist path: the one

given by the Buddha as he described how he taught his disciples to

practice in your system meditative, which consists of a number of steps

outlined in various suttas of the volume of speeches with Mean Length

(as in Ariyapariyesana Sutta, MN 26, etc.) and remind us much of the way

“yogic” (pragmatic?), as devised by Patanjali at Yoga Sutra.

Then compare these two “paths to reach the samadhi.”

First what is in the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali:

1.                  Yama, on the field conduct, morality or virtue

2.                 Niyama, self-purification and study

3.                 Asana, proper posture

4.                 Pranayama, breath control

5.                 Pratyahara, the removal of the five senses

6.                 Dharana, concentration or apprehension of the object meditative

7.                  Samadhi, meditative absorption

And down the list of steps recommended by the Buddha when asked about the gradual development through his teachings. This list is found in many suttas of the volumes of speeches and Mean Length Long, as in other parts of the Canon:

1.                  Sila, moral conduct or virtue, and Santosa, contentment

2.                 Samvara, containment or removal of the senses

3.                 Kayagata-sati and Iriyapatha, or “Asana” means the cultivation of mindfulness and four correct postures.

4.                 Anapanasati, mindfulness of breathing

5.                 Overcoming Obstacles or five nivarana (sensual desire, ill will, anxiety and remorse, sleep and torpor, doubt, skeptical)

6.                 Sati, mindfulness, keep the object in mind, often quoted along with the comments dharana canonical.

7.                  Jhana, levels of meditative absorption

8.                 Samadhi, a result of absorption, the “realization” of various kinds or Samāpatti

Of course we’re not the first to notice similarities such as the list above. A handful of other authors have noted some more and others less obvious parallels. In fact, even Wikipedia has an entry for Yoga Sutra in which we read:

“Karel Werner writes that” the system of Patanjali is unthinkable without Buddhism. As

far as terminology goes aa long in the Yoga Sutra that reminds us of

formulations of the Buddhist Pali Canon and even more Abhidharma

Sarvastivada Sautrantika and school. “Robert Thurman writes that

Patanjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system

to formulate its own matrix for the version of thought he considered

orthodox (…) The division between Eight States (Sanskrit Ashtanga)

Yoga is reminiscent of the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddha, and the

inclusion of brahmavihara (Yoga Sutra 1:33) also shows the influence of

Buddhism in parts of the Sutras. “


this is where the subject becomes interesting for us here on this blog

and its relevance to the practice of Buddhist meditation.


all the above tells us that the Yoga Sutra is a comment Hindu / Brahmin

or at least a photograph of meditation practices common (influenced by

Buddhism) in the second century BC?

If this is the case, definitely warrants a closer look at. Certainly,

this is because the text is not a Buddhist but shares a “core” of

fundamental ideas on meditation to be able to take it as a sign pointing

to a deeper understanding of some of the terminology in the context of

the first centuries of Buddhist practice.


if the Yoga Sutra is read in a Buddhist context, one can have some idea

of how people understood at that time and (ou!) practiced Buddhist

 Could this be of some help in triangular or point of which was the direction of former Buddhist meditation?


more we know how people practiced a few centuries after the Buddha’s

Parinibbana, the more we can understand how some of his teachings have

evolved and how they were implemented and explained / taught.


makes this fascinating idea is that this text would definitely be

filterable through the eyes of a Hindu / Brahman, but he is still

influenced by the “knowledge” of Buddhist meditation apparently so well

received, and the time of his writing had become the mainstream

“contemplative practices.

would show us how and in what particular point, was considered to be

the “essence” of meditation (in addition to being philosophical

discussion of its purpose) in order to be considered universally true,

then that can be “merged” into other forms of practice religious.

Under this view, the Yoga Sutra is actually quite revealing. Consider a few passages that copies may shed light on this idea. Passages like the following really seems a direct copy and paste the Buddha-Dhamma. Some of them even make much sense in a context of religious doctrine theological-in-search-of-the-soul-creationist , but it fits absolutely in the philosophy of liberation through concentration and wisdom. However,

they were considered “truth” and “accepted” so that the author Hindu /

Brahman had no other choice but to incorporate them into their theistic

philosophy, reminding us Western Christians today that due to the common

acceptance of the idea karma / kamma, sometimes find ways to

incorporate this idea in their religious views.

Let’s start seeing the following list of impurities that Yoga Sutra tells us must be overcome:


(ignorance), Asmita (egoism), raga-Dvesha (desires and aversions),

Abhinivesha (clinging to mundane life) are the five klesha or distress.
 Destroy these afflictions [e] You will realize Samadhi. “

[Free translation of the original quote from Wikipedia]


impresses the reader as Buddhist before this paragraph is the simple

fact that all these impurities listed are those that no longer are you

supposed to Arahant one, or Awakened (!!!).
 That is, according to the text of Patanjali, the “Samadhi of Conduct” would be conceptually the same as the Buddhist Liberation.

Consider the terms used:


ignorance or mental turvidão is even mentioned in the first place,

while clearly a Buddhist point of view is considered the root of all



“asmita”, which is superficially translated as “selfishness” by

understanding that had developed in shallow Sanskrit tradition that was

ignorant of the deeper meaning of that term as used in the suttas of the

Pali Canon (or tried to distort to suit your context religious).


term Buddhist in particular, pointing to the deeply embedded “notion

that it is” (ASMI-tā) has a clear explanation in the suttas, but here in

this passage and elsewhere, is reduced to a mere “selfishness” as a

moral impurity devoid of its original psychological application.

the suttas “ASMI-Mana” is a deeply rooted psychological tendency that

only a Arahant (Iluminsfo) won [see post “The scent of am” blog



there is also “abhinivesa”, a term the Buddha uses to explain how our

mind comes in and assumes the five groups of attachment.

term “Nives” denotes a dwelling, a house - a simile brought by the

Buddha to show how our consciousness moves “inside” of the contact

experience of the senses and settles as if living in a house (see Sutta

Nipata, Atthakavagga , and Haliddakani Magandiya Sutta Sutta). This

usage is decreased very particular psychological context in Hindu /

Brahmin to denote only an “attachment to worldly life.”But here is worth

questioning whether this was also shared by superficial understanding

or just by Patanjali Yoga Sutra later commentators, who have lost sight

of these implications for not having knowledge of or access to the

preceding context of Buddhism in the Yoga Sutra was written?

And sometimes something awakening about the “sati” Buddhist can also be found. We

have another pearl of a Buddhist point of view, which can be considered

truly revealing: the use of the word “Dharana” in the text of


This is one area in which our contemporary knowledge of Buddhism can benefit from insights. The

term “Dharana”, which literally means short and “I can hold, carry,

keep (in mind)” is a good description of the task faced in Buddhist

contemplative practice, regardless of what tradition / school


In meditation we also need to maintain our meditation object firmly in focus in mind, without losing it. This

central feature of the task undertaken when trying to cultivate

meditative concentration, relates as an equivalent to the literal

meaning of the Buddhist term “sati” (which means reminder / recall) and

what is general and now translated simply as “mindfulness” - a

translation that often aboard with questions.

And the reason is as follows, in summary: To maintain the object of meditation in mind you need to remember it. Remember here that means you have to hold, keep in mind, your object of concentration. This

is exactly what makes the faculty of memory, usually being pushed away

by the impressions with new information by the six senses, which, if

penetrated, would result in more or less a wild spin.


you are able to sustain their concentration on one point however - or

even as much as you can keep it, one of the laws of functioning of the

mind that the Buddha rediscovered and explained in detail that this

rebate is “artificial” senses the support and focus on a particular

mental object equivalent to a minor sensory stimulus.


a result of mental calmness and happiness (piti) and happiness index

(sukha) will arise and show signs of the primeirs a stronger

concentration - these being two of the five factors of meditative

absorption (jhana), along with (i) directed thought (vitakka) (ii)

sustained (Vicara) and (iii) equanimity (Upekkha).


is also the reason why is quite logical that samma sati, mindfulness,

has to come before samma samadhi, full concentration in the Noble

Eightfold Path of Buddhism - or, as shown in this case in the Yoga

Sutra, “Dharana” would be the stage immediately prior to “Delivering the



this case the Yoga Sutra throws much light on the original meaning as

understood in the early centuries of Buddhist practice and can help us

reach a more precise understanding of what “samma sati, right

mindfulness, originally meant or pointed.
 (In Theravadin blog post is a rather plain and that shows how sati yoniso manasikara are coming in practical terms, check this link ).


the opposite side, or better, understanding it as a byproduct of the

practice of sati is no other term that would best be described as

 The Pali term is sampajaññā -

which literally means “next-consideration”, eg, be well aware of when

performing an action, then a “clear understanding” of what it does - but

this activity is a result of sati, as having the mind fixed on an

object leads to a refined consciousness that arises when during the next

and keep the mind of an object, creating a clear understanding of the

few sensory impressions that may enter. According to this concept, mindfulness would be a result of sati and not the practice of sati in itself!


again, both activities are happening almost simultaneously, even if not

in the same order and then the current use of the term translated can

be done - at the same time a fine distinction, however, has its

 You can not

keep an object from the standpoint of mind without which would create or

develop mindfulness in mind - but (unfortunately!) you may be aware of

all your actions that you work without the right concentration - as when

eat an ice cream, in seeking the sensual pleasure, an example of

improper care. This being the fact that unfortunately idealize the interpretations of some Westerners who want to say “Buddhist”.


is a difference between deliberately let himself be led by sense

impressions by focusing on their physical pleasures and enhancing /

supporting raga (desire) and nandi (joy) - and, from the perspective of

Gotama Buddha, put his feet on the ground using the mindful memory and

thus experiencing a more refined awareness of trying to get it off the

shaft so that it results in a greater mindfulness, in the culmination of

his experience flows into total equanimity in the face of both

pleasurable and painful sensations.


then, we must understand as vipassanā is no way a synonym for

mindfulness (sati) but something that springs from the combination of

all these factors especially the last two, samma sati (mindfulness) and

samma samadhi (right concentration) applied to the relentless

observation of what appears to be in front of (yathabhuta).


could say, vipassanā is a name for the Buddhist practice of sati

associated samadhi directed to the view anicca / anatta / dukkha (ie,

generating the wisdom of the vision of these three features) in the

processes of the six senses, including any mental activity.
 Thus, one will find the term vipassanā but the idea of sati in

the Yoga Sutra, Buddhist texts mention as the first term clearly having

samādhi as just the beginning of the journey to insight and access -

for example aniccanupassana .

Finish here the parenthesis. Suffice

to say that any particular reference to the Buddhist philosophy citing

anicca antta or point to the goal of Nibbana, a philosophical

proposition to which the system of Yoga certainly does not refer.

In essence the school of Yoga can be placed below the postures eternalists. So,

while it definitely does need to produce sati-samadhi, definitely does

not need to understand is samadhi anicca, dukkha and anatta - that does

not sound very compatible with the worldview of a eternalistic. Before

this, all spiritual approach arise due to the attempt to interpret

Samadhi Yoga Sutra as marriage or at least as close as you can get from a

“God”, a “Lord.” Something

that sounds quite natural in the end to a theist - such as an

Evangelical Christian would never interpret the reduction of its focus

on mental object unique sensual ecstasy and consequently a mere effect

of a psychological technique, but he would label it “the divine sign of

God touching him. “ It is for

this reason that, according to the Buddha Dhamma, in fact in most

situations we are inclined to be led by the plots of our senses,

including the mental impressions / thoughts / feelings / perceptions -

and therefore tend to limit ourselves to go beyond such experiences also

distorted the merger would allow access to insight and liberation.


to the context of comparison with the Christian interpretation of this

ecstasy, in short what Patanjali is facing such a theistic

interpretation sounds like someone moving a large portion of vocabulary

and terminology for the New Testament, which gives this ring a Buddhist.


funny thing is that this is exactly how many of the contemporary New

Age books are written - an amalgam of the terms of Western Spirituality /

Christian trying to express a view east.

one can imagine that the situation in India was similar to that when

the Yoga Sutra was written addressing the Buddhist philosophy of that



remaining Buddhist philosophy with his particular terminology

established by the Buddha himself would have become so pervasive in

religious thought, so to make seemingly trusted what was written on

meditation was a need to borrow or rely on several of these Buddhist

concepts predominant.

had largely been done or even conscious, as most New Age authors

present not even reflect the content of their texts but about the

message you want to spend.


below is done in a way a translation - or rather a translation of a

transliteration given the proximity between languages - as was done with

the text of the Yoga Sutra in Sanskrit brought back to Pāli.
 Similar to what has been done this Sutra ( Theravadin available on the blog, in English on this link ),

the exercise helps us see how the same text would sound the Pāli

language, opening then find parallels in ancient Buddhist texts, the



having said all that, pragmatism invoked by the text (which is what

makes it so valuable) also indicates much more than a simple textual

 As you

read this you can not discern the notion, especially since the position

of a meditator concentration of whoever has written or inspired by this

text, at some point personally experienced jhana and samadhi and wanted

to convey his experience making use a rich language Buddhist meditation

on the same interpretation being directed to an audience Brahman /

proto-Hindu India 200 BC.


check by itself - the pauses between sets of paragraphs labeled in bold

are the author / translator and some important technical terms

Buddhists were deployed, with additional comments made in italics:

Patañjalino yogasutta (Part I of IV)


atha yogānusāsana | | 1 | |

And now a statement about the European Union (Yoga)

[1] Read yourself to be the object of meditation, or an instruction (anusāsana) on the meditative practice (yoga).

yogo-citta-vatta nirodho | | 2 | |

The Union (Yogo) is the extinction of the movement of the mind

[2] in this passage denotes vatta turbulence, swirl, activity - literally wandering, circling, confused. In

this context broadly means “meditation is (…) a stop to the busy

mind,” which is very active and its activity suggests a walk in circles.
 Probably the most direct (and correct) translation.

Tada ditthi (muni) svarūpe’avaṭṭhāna | | 3 | |

(Only) then he who sees is allowed (to be) in (his) true nature.


In the Pāli language Drist the word does not exist, and it would be

something like subsitituída by Muni, which has the same meaning -

except, of course, the fact that “he who sees” further points in this

case the seeing process.
 Here was however used the term Pāli ditthi so as to maintain the link with the term semantic ditthi. The alternate translation is then: “So lets see who (or have the opportunity - avaṭṭhāna) of being in their true and natural.”

Sarup-vatta itaritara | | 4 | |

(Otherwise) at other times we become (equal) to this activity (of mind).


vatta Panza kilesa akilesā ca ca | | 5 | |

Activities (Mental) are five, some non-contaminating other contaminants:

pamanes-vipariyesa-vikappa-Nidda-sati | | 6 | |


Experience (Evident-Measurement), ii) misperception (Illusion), iii)

Intentional Thinking / Willing, iv) Sleep / Numbness, v) Memory /


i) pamanes, experience or clear-measurement

Paccakkh’ānumān’āgamā honte pamāāni | | 7 | |

What one sees and looks directly (paccakha), taking as a reference - it’s called experience.

[7] Literally: “What comes through direct visualization and measurement is called the experience”

ii) Vipariyesa, misperception or illusion

Micca vipariyeso-Nanam atad-rūpa-patiṭṭhita | | 8 | |

Illusion is the wrong understanding, based on something (lit. “one way”) that is not really.

iii) Vikappa, Thought Intentional / Keen

Saddam-ñāānupattī vatthu-Sunna vikappo | | 9 | |


Thinking / Willing is any way of understanding and unfounded assertion

(ie the internal speech, voltiva, partial and willful, based on mental



Alternative translation: “Thinking is cognition without a sound object /

cause noise (vatthu).Think about it, thoughts are no more than sounds,

silent babble that passes through our being.

iv) Nidda, Sleep / Numbness

abhava-paccay’-ārammaā vatta Nidda | | 10 | |

Mental activity in the absence of mental objects is called Sleep / Torpor.

v) Sati, the Memory / Mindfulness

Anubhuti-visayāsammosā sati | | 11 | |

Not to be confused (or not lose) the object (sensory) previously experienced is called Memory / Mindfulness.

Abhyasa-virāgehi Tesam nirodho | | 12 | |

The extinction of these [activities] comes from the practice of detachment / cessation of passions (turning)

[12] We have here the words turn and nirodha in the same sentence! It can not be more Buddhist canon than this! Interestingly, however, is the current use and non-metaphysical terms of this stretch. They are applied in a simple process of meditation, in particular the process of concentration meditation. This can not go unnoticed and goes directly in line with readings jhanic cultivation practices in Buddhism.

 The Training 

tatra-tiṭṭha yatano abhyasi | | 13 | |


practice’s commitment to non-movement (ie, become mentally property (at

the same time it parmanece fluid - an excellent description for the


so-Kala-pana Dīgha nirantara-sakkār’āsevito dalhia-bhumi | | 14 | |

Mast this (practice) must be based firmly in a long and careful exercise [excellent point here!]


This goes in line with what the author wrote the medieval Pali

subcomentários the volume of the Digha Nikaya, where also we find the

combination of the terms and dalhia bhumi - “firmness” and

“establishment” - in the same sentence, denoting ” firm establishment “

diṭṭhānusavika-visaya-vitahāya Vasik-Sannes viraga | | 15 | |

Detachment is the mastery (VASI-kara) of perception, the dropping of the seat (vitahā) by the following (anu-savika, lit.’s Subsequent flow) experience a prey to view.

parama-tam Puris akkhātā gua-vitaha | | 16 | |

This is the climax: the abandonment of the current headquarters of the senses, based on personal revelation / knowledge of self.

[16] Here we turned a Brahman, is this approach that allows the soul to win the seat / attachment, Tanh. And this short sentence has much to offer! At

that moment in history, Patanjali was so convinced of the Buddhist goal

of “opening up the attachment, the seat stop,” which boils down to vita
hā term he uses. However,

it does not give up without a soul which its theistic philosophy simply

collapses and nothing in the text would make it distinguishable from a

treatise on the Buddha Dhamma.

mounted on a meditative Buddhist terminology and guidelines in the

conversation he introduces the term “Puris, which can be read as” soul,

“saying that the more you get closer to its” intrinsic nature “(svarūpa)

and inner body “Puri, or soul, you become able to stop itself this seat

/ attachment.

Realization - Jhana / Dhyanas 

The first jhana / Dhyāna

vitakka-vicar-Anand-Asmita rūp’ānugamā sampajaññatā | | 17 | |


is the alertness (sampajañña) from (the) (Kingdom of) form: a

self-directed thought-based consciousness, which remains (to this) and

inner happiness.

[17] Here we describe an almost identical description of the first jhana used time and again by the Buddha in Pali texts ( see this example ). Indeed,

we have a very beautiful description of the first jhana as a form of

sampajaññatā (fully aware of what is happening), after the plan of the

form (the theme of our meditation is a mental form) and a combined

happiness at the thought we are trying to grasp what itself could be

described as the pure experience of “I am” (Asmita - the term is being

used more loosely in place as would suttas).


the announcement vitakka / vicara the first mention of meditative

absorption is a clear reference to the origin of Buddhist Yoga Sutra.
 Interesting also is the connection that is being done now with sampajaññatā: Think of everything we have said before about sati. If sati is simply the seizure of an object (the paṭṭhāna

of sati, so to speak), so it’s interesting to see how sampajaññā this

case, is identified with the state of the first jhana.
 Could this mean that when the Buddha mentions these two texts in Pali, which implicitly means samatha-vipassana?


is not at all a strange idea, like many vipassana meditators, focusing

on objects will be much more subtle quickly show signs of the first

 Could it be then that the term “sampajaññatā” was seen as the first result of a concentrated mind?


any case, experience will teach you very quickly that when you try to

hold an object in your mind, your awareness of what happens at this time

will increase dramatically, simply due to the fact that his effort to

keep the object is under constant danger during the siege of sense.

saw-Paticca Abhyasa-anno-pubbo sakhāraseso | | 18 | |

(This accomplishment) is based on detachment and previously applied for any subsequent activities.

bhava-Paticca videha-prakriti-layana | | 19 | |

(For example) Based on this existence and the characteristics of self

saddha-viriya-sati-samadhi-paññā-pubbaka itaresam | | 20 | |


flower gives himself (based on these qualities) of conviction (saddha),

energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samadhi) and wisdom


[20] The Buddha mentions these five factors when he was training arupa jhana under his previous two teachers. He also mentions how crucial factors when striving for enlightenment under the Bodhi tree. Later,

during his years of teaching, he gave the name of “powers” (bullet) and

explained that, if perfected, would lead to enlightenment.

Tibba-savegānām āsanno | | 21 | |

(For those) with a firm determination reached (this accomplishment, the first Dhyana / jhana).

Advancing in jhana, tips and tricks.

Mudu-majjhim’ādhi-mattatā tato’pi Visions | | 22 | |

There is also a differentiation between (achievement) lower, middle and high

Issar paidhānā-go | | 23 | |

Or based on devotion (devotion) to a Lord (a master of meditation).

kilesa-kamma-vipākāsayā aparāmissā Puris-visions’ Issar | | 24 | |

The Lord (the Master) that is no longer influenced by the outcome kammic impurities and past desires.


Besides the question whether the term “Issar” found here could be read

as merely referring to a master of meditation (which fits perfectly into

the discussion until verse 27, where it starts to not fit any more) is

likely discussion, including on-line
 translation of the Yoga Sutra by Geshe Michael Roach . The

principle can be interpreted so as to skeptics recalling the first

sutta MN seemed more logical to assume Issar was first used to designate

“the Lord” (ie your God).

But with a little more research found that the term Issar Theragatha us are used to designate the “master”. Interesting is also the word in Pali āsayih replaced simple wish / desire - “Asa.” But

“almost” sounds like “Asava” that would fit even better in the context

of kamma and vipaka Asava.But the idea is very specific (”that which

flows within you, taking it) and may or may not be what was meant in

this passage.

tatra-niratisaya sabbaññatā bīja | | 25 | |

It is this that lies the seed of omniscience unmatched.

sa pubbesam api guru kālen’ānavacchedanā | | 26 | |

This Master from the beginning never abandoned him or abandon

[26] Literally, “not” drop “(an + evaluation + chedana), or abandon, even for a time (short) (Kalena)

tassa vācako Panavia | | 27 | |

His Word is the breath and the clamor of living

[27] On the panavah term, which can be interpreted as “om” in Hindu literature. It

all depends if we read verses 24-27 as involving “Issar” to mean “God”

or simply refer to consider meditation master of meditation you learn.

you do a search in the Tipitaka, you see that when the Buddha used the

term was to refer to teachers (see for example Theragatha)

taj-tad-japp attha-bhavana | | 28 | |

Praying in unison with this, this is the goal of meditation

touch-pratyak cetanādhigamo’pi antarāyābhāvo ca | | 29 | |

So if the mind itself and carries it away all obstacles / hazards:



skeptical questions, be moved to laziness of attachment, wrong view of

things, not meditative placements, or not yet firmly established in


citta-vikkhepā te’ntarāyā | | 30 | |

These are the causes of mental distractions (they fall due).

dukkha-domanass’agam ejayatv’assāsa-Passaseo vikkhepa-saha-Bhuvah | | 31 | |

The physical and mental pain arises in the body, the shaking of the inhale and exhale conjução occur with such distractions.

[31] Here dukkha and Domanassam mentioned. They also appear in the definition of the Buddha’s four jhana, but in a different direction. The problem described here meditative seems out of place and looks as if someone had to fit these words here. Also

the inhale and exhale clearly has an important role in that they cease

to exist (nirodha) so subjective to the practitioner in the fourth

 It is strange that all this is on the list, but is presented in a very different interpretation.

  The Objects of Meditation

tat-pratiedhārtham ekatattābhyāsa | | 32 | |

In order to control these distractions, this is the practice of unification of mind:

metta-karuna-mudita Upekkha-sukha-dukkha-Visayan-puññāpuñña bhāvanātassa cittapasādana | | 33 | |


cheerful calm the mind (citta-pasada) is achieved by meditation of

loving kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity in the face of pleasure,

pain as well as luck and misfortunes.

[33] And here we go. The

four brahmavihara, of course, famous for the way Buddha encouraged

monks to practice them to subdue the obstacles and enter the five jhana.

is also interesting as the Tipitaka sometimes aligns them with the

progression in four jhana (which deserves to be studied separately).

pracchardana-vidhāraābhyā go prāasya | | 34 | |

Or the inhale and exhale, which is also an excellent exercise in meditation.

Visayavati go pa-vatta uppannā manaso thiti-nibandhinī | | 35 | |

It helps to stop and control the increasing mental activity that occurs through the power of the senses.


and 35] Wow, now includes Anapanasati to the list of meditation

techniques, the most favorite topics of Buddhist meditation, in addition

to brahmavihara, which “coincidentally” was mentioned in the previous


he almost “cites” the benefit of Anapanasati of Pali suttas, the Buddha

gave in the Anapanasatisamyutta Mahavagga, where it is clearly said

that the greatest benefit of Anapanasati is the ability to quiet the

 Very interesting!

Visoko go jotimatī | | 36 | |

And the mind becomes free from sorrow and radiant.

vita-raga-visaya go citta | | 37 | |

Free from desire for sense objects


and 37] These two passages seem more like a copy of what the Buddha

says in the suttas: “It is almost always remain in these states, O

monks, neither my body or my eyes get tired.” Although it immediately to

Explaining how the mind free from desires and radiant moves away from

the senses, as do the experienced meditators, this passage is important

because it shows that the author knew what he was talking in terms

pragmáticos.Não there is something more important to the induction of

samadhi (ie, jhana) that the resolution of the mind, the balance against

the attack of the senses to the mind.

svapna Nidda-go-jnānālambana | | 38 | |

Of dreaming and sleep,

yathābhimata dhyānād-go | | 39 | |

parama-anu-stop-mahattvānto’ssa vasīkāri | | 40 | |

kkhīa-vatta abhijātass’eva grahīt mani-Graham-grāhyeu stha-tat-tad-anjanatāsamāpatti | | 41 | |


it happens in the destruction of mental activity or movement

[Khin-vatta], there is the appearance of a jewel, the emergence of

someone who carries such an object, the object and the carrying of such

an object in itself - and this immobility is what is called a

realization, or state of completion.

tatra-nana-saddattha vikappai sakiṇṇā savitakkā Samāpatti, | | 42 | |

There is the state of realization is “with thought” and marked by impurity of speech of conscious thought, the internal speech.

[42], in the Pali Canon parlance we would say “savitakka-jhana.”

sati-parisuddha svarūpa-suññevattha-matta-nibbhāsā nivitakkā | | 43 | |


there is a state of achievement without thinking (nirvitakka) with full

attention and clearer that it is the nature of emptiness without a


[43] parisuddham sati is obviously the name the Buddha gave to the fourth jhana. It

seems that the author tries to show us the range of four jhana,

pointing to the criteria of the first, and then, in contrast to the

characteristics of the fourth jhana again using the terminology of the

Pali suttas.

etadeva savic Nirvicārā ca-sukkhuma visaya akkhātā | | 44 | |

Likewise, the state with and without research and consideration (vicara) is judged by subtlety of the object.

[44] Here we are somewhat hampered by the language, and tempted to ask: by whom discerned before the non-self (anatta)?

sukkhuma-visayatta c’āliga-pary’avasānam | | 45 | |

It culminates in a subtle object with no features

tā eva sa-Bijo samādhi | | 46 | |

But even this is a samadhi with seed / question.

Nirvicārā-visārad’ajjhatta-pasado | | 47 | |


is attained with the inner conviction without regard to the

concentration already (vicara, which is paired with vitakka)

itabharā paññā tatra | | 48 | |

In this way, the truth is filled with wisdom.

sut’ānumāna paññāyā-anna-visaya vises’atthatā | | 49 | |

And this wisdom is of a different kind of knowledge acquired through learning.

taj-jo-sakhāro’ñña Samkhara-paibaddhī | | 50 | |

Such activity (meditative and induced) obstructs born (all) other activities.

tassāpi nirodha Sabba-nirodha nibbījo samādhi | | 51 | |

With the extinction of it all is also stopped - and this is the root-without-samadhi (samadhi-unborn)


This last sentence sounds more like a reporter who, after being invited

to a very important meeting, is eager to share what he heard from

relevant sources.


we are given a definition, in fact, the definition of the Buddha

“phalasamāpatti” - a state of jhana, which can only happen after someone

has had a realization that the particular insight nirvanic, giving you

access to that which is samadhi no “seeds” (nibbīja).


whole concept fits nicely into a row of theistic argument, and no

attempt is being made here in the final set of samadhi, to explain it.


the Buddhists speak of this matter so that among the philosophical

circles “mainstream” of the time it was automatically understood as “the

highest you can get,” and the argument was so powerful that, despite

not fit in the school already thinking of the times (an ancient

Hinduism) was considered indisputable?

Hard to say. This

argument appears in the Sutta Ratanasutta Nipata.Vemos this final

state, without seeds, as something that would target when trying to

“Sanna-vedayita-nirodha” cessation of perception and feeling, a

realization of the Buddha described as possible Arahants Anagami for

that, after entering the eighth jhana sequentially finally leave the

activity more subtle (the sankhara) back.

Patanjali Yoga viracite-iti-samadhi sutta pahamo-pated | | |

This is the first chapter on the Samadhi Yoga Sutra of Patanjali.

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