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01/25/08
Wish You A Very Happy Republic Day!- May You Be Ever Happy, Well and Secure! May All Beings in This Universe Be Ever Happy, Well and Secure! May You Live Long! May You All Have Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and An Equanimity Mind With a Clear Understanding that Nothing is Permanent!-For The Gain of the Many and For the Welfare of the Many-C.M. greets the people on Republic Day -C.M. grieved on the death of senior journalist Khurshid Kamil Kidwai -
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Posted by: @ 5:45 pm

Wish You A Very Happy Republic Day!

May You Be Ever Happy, Well and Secure!

May All Beings in This Universe Be Ever Happy, Well and Secure!

May You Live Long!

May You All Have Calm, Quiet, Alert, Attentive and An Equanimity Mind

With a Clear Understanding that Nothing is Permanent!

 
Blue Bunting

                               
 
Aging Angel

Enya

 

For The Gain of the Many and For the Welfare of the Many

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RRGfg-EBAfM&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OCnGPIVI1No&feature=related

you tube has so many stupid dick heads who make coments without India Republic Day Parade. 01:27 From: johnwcollins. Views: 2,169. Indian Republic Day 2007
www.youtube.com/watch?v=RRGfg-EBAfM - 106k - Cached

C.M. greets the people on Republic Day

Lucknow : January 25, 2008 The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, Km. Mayawati has greeted the people of the State on the occasion of Republic Day wishing for their prosperity, happiness and bright future. In a greeting message, the Chief Minister said that on Republic Day we remember the known and unknown martyrs and freedom fighters, whose sacrifice gave us freedom. On this day, we should also remember the propounders of social revolution Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj, Narayan Guru, Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar and Manyawar Shri Kanshi Ram ji, who devoted their entire life for the cause of equality and economic independence to the downtrodden, backwards and poor people. The Chief Minister said that on the occasion of Republic Day we should seriously ponder that how far we have become successful in achieving the objectives of the constitution. She said that all of us should do our best efforts for the prosperity and peaceful atmosphere of the State, besides taking the resolve to strengthen the feeling of social harmony and brotherhood. ———

President addresses the ConservativesChandraBhan Prasad

The head of the Indian Republic represents the collective wisdom of the nation. He is also the official moderator of the nation’s conscience. And therefore, whenever he speaks up, he does so for the common good of society and the nation. A diverse society or rather, a complex one carries a dark past - a “shadow” from which the nation had to come clean when it evolved into a Republic in 1950. At the time of its birth, it mandated a manifesto for the entire nation, those at the seat of power were expected to translate the same into reality. That meant transforming India’s varna or caste ridden order into a civil one, where a citizen’s merit and wisdom alone would define his personality and standing in the civil order.

After half a century of experimentation, the nation has moved in that direction, but very slowly and very little. The Republic’s manifesto was, to begin with, seen with some contempt by the Indian polity. The political parties showed a considerable amount of reluctance when it came to pursuing the Republic’s goals. They feared intervening with the internal affairs of society. The end result, we all know. The crises have only grown and the Dalit and non-Dalit divide has widened. The slogan of “Progress” missed the cordial message of “Peace.” Now the nation is confronted with a new choice: “Progress with Social Peace” or “Progress without Social Peace.”

The post of the President is a political one. Anyone who occupies it is a political person. We live in and hail this era of liberal democracy. Democracy allows ideologies and political formations to contend “democratically.” In a society like ours, several political persuasions are allowed to grow. But under this vast political sun, the Head of the State, irrespective of his/her political beliefs, is a mirror in which every citizen can see his/her face, voice and aspirations. But at times, the President’s individual choices, beliefs and commitments find echo in his reflections. A President of Brahman origin may visit several temples and organise Mata Jagarans at Rashtrapati Bhavan, as also seek the blessings of one of the Shankaracharyas. Similarly, a President of Dalit origin may find it fit to attend Dr Ambedkar’s birth anniversary.

Which is why the nation was expecting a major portion of the President’s Republic Day eve speech to touch on anti-saffronisation or the dual policies being adopted by the White House on the issue of terrorism. After all, the Honourable KR Narayanan is considered to be ideologically Left of the Centre or to be precise, a scholarly person with Left inclinations. But the President, departing from his life long ideological convictions, took a line which not many expected. It is not for nothing that a leading English daily, while reporting his address, said, “The President made a major departure from the socialist tenor of his previous speeches.”

The President, in his address to the nation, included the following: “Even today, it is amazing that we have not become an inclusive society, in spite of the political triumph of our democracy. The discrimination being suffered by women, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes is a crying denial of the democracy that is enshrined in our Constitution. Recently, a conference of Dalit and tribal intellectuals and activists was held in Bhopal. They issued a declaration called the Bhopal Declaration, charting a new course for Dalits and the tribal people of the 21st century. After calling for the implementation of the policies, enshrined in our Constitution and aiming at their development, the declaration emphasises the importance, in this present era of privatisation, of providing representation for these deprived classes, not only in Government and public institutions but in private corporations and enterprises which benefit from Government funds and facilities. Indeed, in the present economic system and that of the future, it is necessary for the private sector to adopt social policies which are progressive and more egalitarian; for these deprived classes to be uplifted from their state of deprivation and inequality and given the rights of citizens and civilised human beings. This is not asking private enterprise to accept Socialism but to do something like what America, with its Diversity Bill and affirmative action, have adopted and are implementing. My fellow citizens, I have talked to you of these social questions because if our great democracy is to remain great and relevant to the problems of the masses, we will have to pay heed to these crying socio-economic issues.”

The President knows that globalisation is an irreversible process and that the Dalit masses will find themselves left out of a market economy. Hence, he found it necessary to remind the nation of the commitments made five decades ago. In doing so, he refers to the American experience. Dalits have always drawn inspiration from the Black movement and if the Blacks have, through their struggle, made inroads into the American economy, why not emulate the same in India? But, will the Conservative streams - the Sangh and the Left/Socialist, in particular - listen to the President’s voice?

 Dr. B. R. Ambedkar

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Bhimji Ramji Ambedkar was born on April 14th, 1891, in Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. His parents both were untouchables. His father was a retired army officer and headmaster in a military school, and his mother an illiterate woman.

Because he was born as a untouchable, he was made to sit in a corner of the class room, separated from other students. His teachers feared pollution, that is why they would not touch him. Despite all kinds of humiliations, he passed his high school in 1908. This was such an exceptional achievement for an untouchable, that he was felicitated in a public meeting

After his graduation he went to the USA to study economics at the Columbia University. After his return to India he got a job as Military Secretary in Baroda Raja’s office. Here he was ill-treated again by the upper caste employees. Even drinking water was not given to him and files were kept at a distance from him.

A great lawyer and Original Inhabitant of Jambudvipa that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath leader

In 1920 he went to London where he got his Bar-at-Law at Gray’s Inn for Law.

While coming back to India in 1923, Ambedkar again experienced humiliation. The upper caste lawyers would not even have tea at his desk. But his greatest consolation were his clients, whom he treated with a liberal mind. His reputation and fame among the Depressed Classes began to grow. He was one of the greatest thinkers that India has produced. He visualised and struggled for a casteless and equal India.

At this time he was fully convinced that nothing could emancipate the Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath except through a complete destruction of the caste system. He asserted: ‘I was born a Hindu, but never will die a Hindu. Hinduism should become a religion of social equality. What is required is to get rid of the doctrine of ‘Chatuvarna’. That is the root cause of all inequality and is also the parent of the caste system and untouchability, which are merely other forms of inequality’.

Ambedkar’s struggle for equality

In 1924 he started the organisation ‘Bahiskrit Hitakarini Sabha’, for the upliftment of the untouchables. Ambedkar adopted a two-pronged strategy: 

- Eradication of illiteracy and economic uplift of the downtrodden.

- Non-violent struggle against visible symbols of casteism, like denial of entry into temples and drawing water from public wells and tanks.

Ambedkar won two major victories when the High Court of Bombay gave a verdict in favour of the untouchables and made a successful non-violent march and entry into a temple. The two struggles shook the religious foundation on which the caste system is built.

He formed a political party ‘Scheduled Castes Federation’ in April 1942. Ambedkar was also advocate of women’s rights. He struggled for women’s liberalisation from the caste-entrenched patriarchal system. At the conference of the Depressed Classes Women in Nagpur in 1942, he stated: ‘let every girl who marries stand by her husband, claim to be her husband’s friend and equal, and refuse to be his slave’.

Architect of the Constitution

He was the prime architect of the Constitution of independent India. In August 1947 a drafting committee was appointed to prepare a Draft Constitution. Dr. Ambedkar was the chairman of this committee. The Draft was submitted to the Governor General of India on February 21, 1948. The Constitution was finalised in November 1949 and came into force on January 26th, 1950; the day that India became a Republic. In that same year he became Law Minister in the first cabinet after Independence, but he resigned from the ministry as Nehru’s cabinet refused to pass the Women’s Rights Bill

Buddhism

Ambedkar was justifiably bitter and disenchanted with Hinduism and thus he changed his religion. In October 1956 he, along with about two lakh Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath men and women, converted to Buddhism in Nagpur. For Ambedkar Buddha was one of the main inspiring personalities in history who raised a strong voice of protest against inequality between people and between men and women.

On 6 December 1956 Dr. B. R. Ambedkar died. Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath will always remember him as their Liberator and Champion of their rights. ‘Rights are protected not by laws, but by the social and moral conscience of society’, Ambedkar said.

Indian Republic Day, January 26th Indian Republic Day, January 26th
 
Even before the Independence of India from the British rule on August 15, 1947, January 26th was celebrating in a different context. “It was the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress at midnight of December 31, 1929 - January 1, 1930, that the Tri-Colour Flag was unfurled by the nationalists and a pledge taken that every year on January 26, the “Independence Day” would be celebrated and that the people would unceasingly strive for the establishment of a Sovereign Democratic Republic of India”.

 
Tri-Colour Flag
 
India became a Republic and the constitution came into force on January 26, 1950. The Constituent Assembly was convened and appointed a committee with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as Chairman to draft the Constitution. India declared herself to be a Sovereign Democratic Republic. The Indian Constitution, the longest in the world, consist 397 articles and 12 schedules, which provides for a single citizenship for the whole of India.
 
Justice, social, economic and political Liberty of thought, ex-pression, belief, faith and worship. Equality of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation Republic Day, January 26th is celebrated all over the country at national capital, state capitals, municipal corporations, talukas, panchayats and other official agencies. At the level of the people, it is observed in families, housing colonies, schools, colleges and other institutions of every kind.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

B. R. Ambedkar
Alternate name(s): Baba Saheb
Place of birth: Mhow, Central Provinces, India
Place of death: Delhi, India
Movement: Buddhist movement
Major organizations: Independent Labour Party, Scheduled Castes Federation, Republican Party of India
Religion: Buddhism
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Image:B.R. Ambedkar.jpg
A ‘constituent assembly’ is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution.
 
 
 

Preface

Contents

Art 1 - 242

Art 243 - 395

1 - 6 Schedule

7th Sch – App V

Index

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Republic Day, January 26, is celebrated at New Delhi “with most spectacular events include the march past of the three armed Forces, (air, sea & land) massive parades of police contingents, Home guards and Civil Defence, NCC, school children and cultural troupes folk dances by tribal folk from the different states in picturesque costumes marking the cultural unity of India.
Republic Day, January 26, is celebrated at New Delhi
 
Further, the streak of jet planes of Indian Air Force, leaving a trial of coloured smoke, marks the end of the festival. The trees on both sides of the routes and the lawns become alive with spectators.” And, no other country in the world can parade so many ethnically different people in splendid uniforms as India’s Armed Forces. But they are all united in their proven loyalty to the Government and in their proud traditions and legendary gallantry.

Since many years, the Republic Day Parade starts from Rashtrapati Bhavan and winding its way through the heart of the city, ends at the historic Red Fort in Old Delhi.

Republic Day reminds us of the fulfillment of the pledge that was made on the midnight of Independence Day as a “tryst with destiny”. The act of framing the Constitution puts a spotlight on B.R. Ambedkar whose indefatigable efforts and sharp insights helped the preparation of the document. It endeavours to secure justice, liberty, equality and fraternity and assures the dignity of the individual by conferring fundamental rights upon the citizen. With one stroke, it abolished all distinctions of status, rank, creed, colour and sex.

The President of India at New Delhi, takes salute of the contingents of Armed Forces. In the States, the Governors take the salute, and in Taluqas and administrative headquarters on same procedure is adopted.

The celebration mood lasts for one week. It consists of the ground preparations, rehearsals, the main display and at Vijay Chowk in New Delhi, three days later (i.e. 29th January) the massed bands of the Armed Forces “Beat the Retreat” in a majestic manner, a day before Martyrs Day, which marks the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the nation . The notes of ‘Abide with me’, favourite of Mahatma Gandhi is played with final retreat marking the end of Republic day celebrations The mass media, All India Radio, Doordarshan and TV channels are agog with a variety of programmes.

REPUBLICAN DAY MESSAGES of Dr. Rajendra Prasad - the 1st president of India

 
“We must re-dedicate ourselves on this day to the peaceful but sure realisation of the dream that had inspired the Father of our Nation and the other captains and soldiers of our freedom struggle, the dream of establishing a classless, co-operative, free and happy society in “his country,”
“We must remember that this is more a day of dedications than of rejoicing - dedication to the glorious task of making the peasants and workers the toilers and the thinkers fully free, happy and cultured,” he added.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad - the 1st president of India
History of India
1920s in India (1920s)
1930s in India (1930s)
1940-1947 in India (1940s)
Partition of India (1947)
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 (1947)
1950s in India (1950s)
1960s in India (1960s)
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (1965)
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 (1971)
1970s in India (1970s)
1980s in India (1980s)
Siachen conflict (1984)
1987 Sino-Indian skirmish (1987)
1990s in India (1990s)
Kargil War (1999)
2000s in India (2000s)

C.M. grieved on the death of senior journalist Khurshid Kamil Kidwai

Lucknow : 25 January 2008 The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, Km. Mayawati has expressed profound grief over the sudden death of senior Journalist and former Bureau Chief UNI and Chief Editorial Advisor of Urdu Daily Avadhnama, Mr. Khurshid Kamil Kidwai. In a condolence message, the Chief Minister said that late Kidwai was a sensitive Journalist who always encouraged ideal journalism. He remained associated with several news papers. In his death, the world of journalism had suffered an irreparable loss, she added. The Chief Minister has conveyed her deep sympathies and heartfelt condolences to the family members and prayed for peace to the departed soul.

http://www.hindu.com/2008/01/26/stories/2008012656740700.htm


Online edition of India’s National Newspaper
Saturday, Jan 26, 2008
ePaper | Mobile/PDA Version

Mayawati knocks at Governor’s door for package

Special Correspondent

Urges him to exercise his influence on the Centre to get special area package sanctioned



Inside Lucknow: Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati, under tight security, arrives at the main hall of her official residence on Friday to address a press conference.

LUCKNOW: Chief Minister Mayawati on Friday urged the Governor, T. V. Rajeswar, to exercise his influence on the Union Government to get the special area incentive package and other packages sanctioned at the earliest. Ms. Mayawati observed that the Governor should use his office in favour of the drought-stricken people of Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh.

Mr. Rajeswar visited the Bundelkhand region on January 22 and 23, where he reportedly expressed his dissatisfaction at the pace of the drought-relief measures. Responding to the Governor’s remarks, and in an apparent bid to clear certain “misconceptions”, the Chief Minister on Friday shot off a three-page missive to him. She slammed the previous state governments, as well as the Centre, for their failure to retrieve the situation in the region which has been in the throes of drought for the past four years.

Ms. Mayawati noted that in the 60 years since Independence, non- Bahujan Samaj Party governments had been in power in Uttar Pradesh for 57 years, particularly the Congress which ruled the State for about 38 years. The Chief Minister accused these governments of ignoring the cause of Bundelkhand as a result of which it was today the most backward region of the State.

The Chief Minister assailed the UPA Government at the Centre for not sanctioning the packages demanded by her and said that in her meeting with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on May 26 last year she had asked for his assistance in the development of the State. Thereafter, the Rs.80,000-crore special area incentive package for Bundelkhand and Purvanchal was presented to the Prime Minister on July 20, she added.

Stating that no action had been taken on the packages demanded, the Chief Minister said a Rs.3,750-crore special package was given for the Vidharba region in 2006 by the Central Government.

Ms. Mayawati accused the previous Samajwadi Party regime of taking no concrete measures for Bundelkhand, which was reflected in no drought relief money being sanctioned for Banda, Chitrakoot, Mahoba and Hamirpur in the past two years, whereas Rs.1 crore was released for Jalaun in 2005-06 and Rs.81 lakh for Jhansi district in 2006-07 by the Mulayam Singh regime.

The Chief Minister apprised the Governor of the measures taken by her government for mitigating the sufferings of the drought-hit people. She further apprised him of shortcomings in National Rural Employment Guarantee Act scheme and said some public measures like construction of school buildings, panchayat bhawans and cleaning of water drains in villages should be incorporated into the rural employment scheme.

New runway not planned: Aviation Ministry

Staff Reporter

KANCHEEPURAM: The Ministry of Civil Aviation has said that it had only applied for clearance from the Public Investment Board (PIB) for extending the secondary runway at the Chennai airport and not for constructing a new parallel runway.

According to a copy of a reply dated January 7 by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) to queries raised by the public under the Right to Information Act, the AAI seem to have never planned for constructing a new parallel runway on the northern side of the Adyar. Claiming that there were no technical and economic feasibility reports available for the construction of a parallel runway, it said no environmental impact assessment report had been prepared either. Distributing copies of the reply to the press on Thursday, Thamizh Selvan, Balesh and Sumathi of Tharapakkam said they were at a loss to comprehend why the State government was keen on acquiring 1,650 acres of land in Tharapakkam, Kolapakkam, Gerugembakkam, Kovur and Manapakkam.

The AAI had no plans of constructing a new runway . It had not yet obtained clearance from the PIB for the extension of the secondary runway.

“Such being the case, what is the need to speed up the process of land acquisition,” they wondered.

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For The Gain of the Many and For the Welfare of the Many-Uttar Pradesh renews demand for SPG cover for Mayawati-Faster and cheaper air travel soon!-Animation firm DQ will now produce for Indian market
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For The Gain of the Many and For the Welfare of the Many

India eNews Logo

Uttar Pradesh renews demand for SPG cover for Mayawati

From correspondents in Uttar Pradesh, India, 11:32 PM IST

The Uttar Pradesh government Thursday wrote a letter to the central government renewing demand for a Special Protection Group (SPG) security cover for Chief Minister Mayawati.

This is the third such letter the state government has written to the centre, urging it to give in to Mayawati’s demand.

Sources have said that Union Minister of State for Home Shree Prakash Jaiswal, while turning down the demand on the grounds that no chief minister is entitled to SPG cover, has said that best that could be done is to increase the number of National Security Guards (NSG) attached to her.

Mayawati currently has 36 NSG guards at her service as part of her entitlement to Z-plus security.

Undeterred by the centre’s repeated refusal to oblige, the state government in its latest letter has said, ‘She (Mayawati) is a frequent traveller to different states of the country to campaign for her party.’

‘Since SPG’s jurisdiction cuts across the boundaries of states, it would be in the fitness of things to ensure a SPG cover to the Uttar Pradesh chief minister.’

‘The security threat to her also necessitates that she be allowed to drive right up to her aircraft at all airports of the country,’ it said.

It was the recovery of a roughly drawn map of the road leading to the chief minister’s residence Dec 28 from two suspected terrorists that prompted the state cabinet secretary to write to the union home ministry demanding SPG cover for her.

The next letter was on Jan 10 with the plea that a review of the chief minister’s security had confirmed the need for qualitative and quantitative enhancement of her protection

Faster and cheaper air travel soon!

Air travel in India would be faster, and possibly cheaper, as soon as the civil aviation and defence ministries work out ways for civilian aircraft to fly over the country’s restricted airspace.

Aircraft would then be able to fly at higher altitudes, resulting in faster travel and lower fuel consumption. Air is thinner at higher altitudes, offering lower resistance to a plane’s passage, thus increasing its speed.

‘We have already initiated a pilot project in southern India called the Chennai Flights Information Region. We will soon extend this project in other regions. Once complete, we can fly civilian aircraft at higher altitudes,’ civil aviation secretary Ashok Chawla told IANS.

The civil aviation and defence ministries are working on ways to jointly manage airspace in the country.

‘This will be worked out soon and civilian aircraft will be allowed to use restricted airspace,’ Chawla said.

Currently, the defence ministry and the Indian Air Force (IAF) control more than 50 percent of India’s airspace. They have been strongly opposing the move to allow civilian aircraft into this space.

The civil aviation ministry, on the other hand, has been pitching for freeing more airspace for the smoother movement of civilian aircraft.

‘The draft of the civil aviation policy had clearly stated that the Airport Authority of India would take care of the civilian air space and the defence ministry would control the restricted airspace,’ he pointed out.

‘The security and control of restricted airspace would still be retained by the defence ministry and the IAF,’ he added.

Earlier, major differences had emerged between the IAF and the civil aviation ministry on the proposed civil aviation policy. The IAF had publicly expressed its displeasure at not being consulted at the drafting stage of the policy.

The defence ministry had also raised several objections to the proposed civil aviation policy, including a move to release more airspace meant exclusively for the IAF.

But the civil aviation ministry had said the policy should be converted to a ‘national aviation policy’ rather than be restricted only to the civil aviation sector.

Animation firm DQ will now produce for Indian market

DQ Entertainment Ltd, a Hyderabad-based animation, visual effects and gaming solutions company that produces content for Walt Disney Television Animation, now plans to target Indian users.

‘Our productions have so far catered to the overseas markets. However, DQ will now produce content for the Indian market which is thirsting for home-grown content that viewers can identify with,’ Tapas Chakravarti, the managing director and chief executive officer of DQ, told IANS.

Some of the games and animations that the company is proud of are - The Large Family, Skyland, Pet Pals 2 and amp;3, And Yet It Moves, Leonardo, Todd World 2 and Making Fiends. ‘Also, a brand for Walt Disney Television Animation,’ added Chakravarti.

Virtually all the content so far has been for the foreign market. Recently the company was ranked among the Deloitte Technology Fast 500 Asia Pacific Companies for the second time.

‘The games industry has become a multi-billion dollar industry and it is the fastest growing segment in the animation industry. Game developers and publishers are spending more money to develop the market and distribute games than ever before. And as the market grows, so too does the consumer’s level of sophistication for advanced graphics, game play and interactivity,’ he added.

Chakravarti gives credit to digital technology for making animation and gaming industry a flourishing business.

He said: ‘Digital technology is certainly bringing about a revolution in the animation and gaming industry. New game consoles are hitting the market - Sony Playstation3, Microsoft’s Xbox and Nintendo’s Wii, to name a few.

‘These systems give games the cinematic quality of movies with real-time capabilities and are more powerful than the super computers of the past and have tremendous graphics complexities. Use of technology is fulfilling the ever increasing creative needs across the platforms of distribution and the bar to innovate is being pushed higher.’

To keep pace with its growth, DQ plans to increase its workforce to 8,500 this year. Its total workforce in 2007 was 2,500.

The company has been growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of over 47 percent with the company’s current order book estimated at $94.6 million.’

How much does it cost to develop a new game and make an animation film? ‘It costs about $10-40 million to make an animation film,’ said Chakravarti.

The company plans to develop a technology and knowledge campus to house the entire work force for Animation, VFX and Gaming Production in a sprawling Campus at Hyderabad’s Hi-Tech City.

The ‘DQ Film School’ will also be part of this magnificent campus. The company has decided to raise $100 million soon for expansion.

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The Buddha’s First Teaching-Noble Eightfold Path-Wisdom-1)Right View-The Ten Fetters((Sa.myojana)
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The Buddha’s First Teaching

Wisdom-

1)Right View-The Ten Fetters((Sa.myojana)

 

 

 

The Components of the Noble Eightfold Path
The Lord Buddha explained that the Noble Eightfold Path comprises:

1. Right View [Sammaa Di.t.thii]
2. Right Intention [Sammaa Sa”nkappa]
3. Right Speech [Sammaa Vaacaa]
4. Right Action [Sammaa Kammanta]
5. Right Livelihood [Sammaa Aajiiva]
6. Right Effort [SammaaVaayaama]
7. Right Mindfulness [Sammaa Sati]
8. Right Concentration [Sammaa Samaadhi]

You can define the components of the Eightfold Path in terms of practice at two levels: low (mundane) (see more detail Chapter Eight) and high (transcendental) (see more detail Chapter Seven).

1.1 Right View (mundane): At low level Right View means having the discretion to believe in the working of karma [kammassakataa~naa.na]: that doing good deeds will merit good outcomes and that evil deeds will cause unfortunate retribution.

1.2 Right View (transcendental): At high level Right View means the ultimate wisdom, based on an attainment of Nirvana, which is devoid of any further influence of ignorance1 [avijjaa] or subtle defilements1 [anusaya].

2.1 Right Intention (mundane): At low level Right Intention means having the wholesome intention to be generous, keep the Five Precepts, renounce the world to become a monk, avoid taking advantage of other people or animals.

2.2 Right Intention (transcendental): At high level Right Intention means the intention to dedicate oneself entirely to the attainment of Nirvana.

3. Right Speech: Right Speech means avoiding the four types of False Speech:

1. Telling Lies [musaavaada];
2. Divisive Speech [pisu.naavaacaa];
3. Harsh Speech [pharusavaacaa];
4. Idle Chatter [samphapphalaapa].

4. Right Action: Right Action means practising the three wholesome physical deeds [kaayasucarita], namely:

1. Refraining from killing or physically torturing other living beings [paa.naatipaataa];
2. Refraining from stealing or obtaining things in a dishonest way [adinnaadaanaa];
3. Refraining from sexual relations outside marriage (committing adultery) [kaamesumicchaaraa].

Furthemore, one must not consume intoxicants such as alcohol that lead to heedlessness.

5. Right Livelihood: Right Livelihood means earning one’s living in an honest way - and in a way that avoids evils like telling lies or deception. In the Tipi.taka, in many places2, the Buddha exhorts even his monks, to earn their living by the monk’s equivalent of Right Livelihood, by avoiding such evils as fortune telling, sacrifices or interpreting dreams, because these are all ‘low arts’ [tiracchaanavijjaa]. The Buddha even prohibited monks from making medicines or from earning their living as a physician. As for householders, in the Va.nijja Sutta, the Buddha prohibits Buddhist laypeople from the following trades:

1. Selling weapons;
2. Selling people (as slaves);
3. Selling animals (live ones for slaughter);
4. Selling alcohol or drugs;
5. Selling poison.

6. Right Effort: Right Effort means endowing oneself with four sorts of striving:
1. Avoidance of evils not yet done;
2. Abandonment of evils already done;
3. Development of virtues not yet done;
4. Maintenance of virtues already mastered.

7.1 Right Mindfulness (mundane): At low level Right Mindfulness means a mindfulness that keeps our mind on wholesome thoughts like that of meritorious actions like generosity, keeping the Precepts, thinking of the Triple Gem, thinking of those to whom you have a debt of gratitude like your parents or teachers.

7.2 Right Mindfulness (transcendental): At high level Right Mindfulness means cultivating the Four Foundations of Mindfulness [satipa.t.thaana] - that is to concentrate one’s mind to see and know four aspects of reality:

1. mindfulness of the body [kaayaanupassanaasatipa.t.thaana]: Continuously seeing and knowing the body in the body - that is to see and know the subtle inner bodies that lie hidden within our physical body: the astral body (sometimes called ethereal, dream or subtle body) through to the various bodies of enlightenment [dhammakaaya].

2. mindfulness of the feelings [vedanaanupassanaa-satipa.t.thaana]: Continuously seeing and knowing the feelings in the body in the inner bodies - that is to see what is happiness, what is suffering and what is neither happiness-nor-suffering in the physical body and the inner bodies. ‘Outer feelings’ means the feelings of the physical body while ‘inner feelings’ means the feelings of the inner bodies.

3. mindfulness of the mind [cittaanupassanaasatipa.t.thaana]: Continuously seeing and knowing the ‘minds within minds’ in the physical body and in the inner bodies - that is continually to see and know the state of mind - knowing when the mind is caught up with defilements or knowing when the mind has become free of the action of defilements. ‘Outer mind’ means the mind of the physical body while ‘inner mind’ means the mind of the inner bodies.

4. mindfulness of the dhammas (mental phenomena) [dhammaanupassanaasatipa.t.taana]: Continuously seeing and knowing the ‘mental phenomena within mental phenomena’ in the physical body and in the inner bodies - that is continually to see and know the sphere of dhamma which gives rise to our physical body. ‘Outer mental phenomena’ means the sphere of dhamma of the physical body while ‘inner mental phenomena’ means the sphere of dhamma of the inner bodies.

7.1 Right Concentration (mundane): At low level Right Concentration means determination of mind to be generous, keep the Precepts, meditate or listen to Dhamma sermons. Such determination is a precursor of concentration called ‘kha.nika-samaadhi’.

7.2 Right Concentration (transcendental): At high level Right Concentration means attaining neighbourhood concentration [upacaara-samaadhi] and access concentration [appanaa-samaadhi] - the former means concentrating the mind to the degree that it is so stable that it rests on the brink of the ‘absorptions’ and the latter means attaining the absorptions, from the first absorption upwards.

The Dhammacakka: Transport to Nirvana
The word ‘cakka’ means a ‘wheel’ - a wheel in just the same way as a cartwheel or a car wheel. Any wheel has three important components: hub, spokes and rim. For as long as the components are separated, they could not be called a wheel. Just as a skilled wheelwright can assemble the components to make a strong wheel ready to be put to work, the Buddha, through his preaching of the three groupings of Dhamma to the pa~ncavaggiya, and relating them, gave rise to a ‘Dhammacakka’ which would bear the practitioner towards benefit and ultimately liberation. The Dhammacakka was also composed of these three components - the Lord Buddha compared the

* the hub to the Thirty-Seven Factors of Enlightenment
* the spokes to the Links of Dependent Origination
* the rim to the Four Noble Truths

The close relationship between these three sets of Dhamma teachings is manifested by their relationship in the Dhammacakka - the sets of Dhammas rely on each other for their strength in just the same way as the different components of a wheel lend each other mutual support. The sermon wouldn’t have been called ‘Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta’ if only the Four Noble Truths or Dependent Origination or the Factors of Enlightenment were important - thus by the name of the sermon, we know that the important thing about the sermon is the way it shows the interconnection between these three Dhamma groups - as if the Buddha himself were the wheelwright who had assembled the fragments into a coherent and usable whole. Thus even if only some parts of the wheel are specifically mentioned in the sermon, as students we should look beyond to the implications for the Thirty-Seven Factors of Enlightenment and the Links of Dependent Origination too.

 

 

 

 
 
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