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Noble Eightfold Path-Wisdom-2) Right Intention(Right Thought)(Sammaa-sankappa)
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Wisdom-1)Right View-The Ten Fetters((Sa.myojana)-

2) Right Intention(Right Thought)(Sammaa-sankappa)

2.1 Right Intention (mundane): At low level Right Intention means having the wholesome intention to be generous, keep the Five Precepts, renounce the world to become a monk, avoid taking advantage of other people or animals.

2.2 Right Intention (transcendental): At high level Right Intention means the intention to dedicate oneself entirely to the attainment of Nibbana.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Ethical Conduct-3) Right Speech(Sammaa-vaacaa)-
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Ethical Conduct-

3) Right Speech(Sammaa-vaacaa)

3. Right Speech: Right Speech means avoiding the four types of False Speech:

1. Telling Lies [musaavaada];
2. Divisive Speech [pisu.naavaacaa];
3. Harsh Speech [pharusavaacaa];
4. Idle Chatter [samphapphalaapa].

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Noble Eightfold Path-Ethical Conduct-4) Right Action(Sammaa-kammanta)
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Ethical Conduct-3) Right Speech(Sammaa-vaacaa)-

4) Right Action(Sammaa-kammanta)

4. Right Action: Right Action means practising the three wholesome physical deeds [kaayasucarita], namely:

1. Refraining from killing or physically torturing other living beings [paa.naatipaataa];
2. Refraining from stealing or obtaining things in a dishonest way [adinnaadaanaa];
3. Refraining from sexual relations outside marriage (committing adultery) [kaamesumicchaaraa].

Furthemore, one must not consume intoxicants such as alcohol that lead to heedlessness

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Noble Eightfold Path-Ethical Conduct-5) Right Livelihood(Sammaa-aajiva)
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Ethical Conduct-3) Right Speech(Sammaa-vaacaa)-4) Right Action(Sammaa-kammanta)-

5) Right Livelihood(Sammaa-aajiva)

5. Right Livelihood: Right Livelihood means earning one’s living in an honest way - and in a way that avoids evils like telling lies or deception. In the Tipi.taka, in many places2, the Buddha exhorts even his monks, to earn their living by the monk’s equivalent of Right Livelihood, by avoiding such evils as fortune telling, sacrifices or interpreting dreams, because these are all ‘low arts’ [tiracchaanavijjaa]. The Buddha even prohibited monks from making medicines or from earning their living as a physician. As for householders, in the Va.nijja Sutta, the Buddha prohibits Buddhist laypeople from the following trades:

1. Selling weapons;
2. Selling people (as slaves);
3. Selling animals (live ones for slaughter);
4. Selling alcohol or drugs;
5. Selling poison.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Mental Development-6) Right Effort(Sammaa-vaayaama)
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Mental Development-

6) Right Effort(Sammaa-vaayaama)

6. Right Effort: Right Effort means endowing oneself with four sorts of striving:
1. Avoidance of evils not yet done;
2. Abandonment of evils already done;
3. Development of virtues not yet done;
4. Maintenance of virtues already mastered.


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Noble Eightfold Path-Mental Development-7) Right Mindfulness(Sammaa-sati)
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Mental Development-6) Right Effort(Sammaa-vaayaama)-

7) Right Mindfulness(Sammaa-sati)

7.2 Right Mindfulness (transcendental): At high level Right Mindfulness means cultivating the Four Foundations of Mindfulness [satipa.t.thaana] - that is to concentrate one’s mind to see and know four aspects of reality:

1. mindfulness of the body [kaayaanupassanaasatipa.t.thaana]: Continuously seeing and knowing the body in the body - that is to see and know the subtle inner bodies that lie hidden within our physical body: the astral body (sometimes called ethereal, dream or subtle body) through to the various bodies of enlightenment [dhammakaaya].

2. mindfulness of the feelings [vedanaanupassanaa-satipa.t.thaana]: Continuously seeing and knowing the feelings in the body in the inner bodies - that is to see what is happiness, what is suffering and what is neither happiness-nor-suffering in the physical body and the inner bodies. ‘Outer feelings’ means the feelings of the physical body while ‘inner feelings’ means the feelings of the inner bodies.

3. mindfulness of the mind [cittaanupassanaasatipa.t.thaana]: Continuously seeing and knowing the ‘minds within minds’ in the physical body and in the inner bodies - that is continually to see and know the state of mind - knowing when the mind is caught up with defilements or knowing when the mind has become free of the action of defilements. ‘Outer mind’ means the mind of the physical body while ‘inner mind’ means the mind of the inner bodies.

4. mindfulness of the dhammas (mental phenomena) [dhammaanupassanaasatipa.t.taana]: Continuously seeing and knowing the ‘mental phenomena within mental phenomena’ in the physical body and in the inner bodies - that is continually to see and know the sphere of dhamma which gives rise to our physical body. ‘Outer mental phenomena’ means the sphere of dhamma of the physical body while ‘inner mental phenomena’ means the sphere of dhamma of the inner bodies.

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Noble Eightfold Path-Mental Development-8) Right Concentration(Sammaa-samaadhi)
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Mental Development-6) Right Effort(Sammaa-vaayaama)-7) Right Mindfulness(Sammaa-sati)-

8) Right Concentration(Sammaa-samaadhi)

7.1 Right Concentration (mundane): At low level Right Concentration means determination of mind to be generous, keep the Precepts, meditate or listen to Dhamma sermons. Such determination is a precursor of concentration called ‘kha.nika-samaadhi’.

7.2 Right Concentration (transcendental): At high level Right Concentration means attaining neighbourhood concentration [upacaara-samaadhi] and access concentration [appanaa-samaadhi] - the former means concentrating the mind to the degree that it is so stable that it rests on the brink of the ‘absorptions’ and the latter means attaining the absorptions, from the first absorption upwards.

Right Concentration


M. 44

What, now, is Right Concentration?

Its Definition

Having the mind fixed to a single object (cittekeggataa, lit. `One-pointedness of mind’): this is concentration.

`Right Concentration’ (sammaa-samaadhi), in its widest sense, is the kind of mental concentration which is present in every wholesome state of consciousness (kusala-citta), and hence is accompanied by at least Right Thought (2nd factor), Right Effort (6th factor) and Right Mindfulness (7th factor). `Wrong Concentration’ is present in unwholesome states of consciousness, and hence is only possible in the sensuous, not in a higher sphere. Samaadhi, used alone, always stands in the Sutta, for sammaa-samaadhi, or Right Concentration.

Its Objects

The four `Foundations of Mindfulness’ (7th factor): these are the objects of concentration.

Its Requisites

The four `Great Efforts’ (6th factor): these are the requisites for concentration.

Its Development

The practising, developing and cultivating of these things: this is the development (bhaavanaa) of concentration.

Right Concentration (sammaa-samaadhi) has two degrees of development; 1. `Neighborhood Concentration’ (upacaarasamaadhi). which approaches the first absorption without, however, attaining it; 2. `Attainment Concentration’ (appanaasamaadhi), which is the concentration present in the four Absorptions (jhaana). These Absorptions are mental states beyond the reach of the fivefold sense-activity, attainable only in solitude and by unremitting perseverance in the practice of concentration. In these states all activity of the five senses is suspended. No visual or audible impressions arise at such a time, no bodily feeling is felt. But, although all outer sense-impressions have ceased, yet the mind remains active, perfectly alert, fully awake.

The attainment of these Absorptions, however, is not a requisite for the realization of the four Supermundane Paths of Holiness; and neither Neighborhood-Concentration nor Attainment-Concentration, as such, possesses the power of conferring entry to the four Supermundane Paths: hence they really have no power to free one permanently from evil things. The realization of the Four Supermundane Paths is possible only at the moment of deep `Insight’ (vipassanaa) into the Impermanency (aniccataa), Miserable Nature (dukkhataa) and Impersonality (anattataa) of this whole phenomenal process of existence. This Insight, again, is attainable only during Neighborhood-Concentration, not during Attainment Concentration.

He who has realized one or other of the Four Supermundane Paths without ever having attained the Absorptions, is called Sukkha-vipassaka, or Suddhavipassanaa-yaanika, i.e. `one who has taken merely Insight (vipassanaa) as his vehicle’. He, however, who, after cultivating the Absorptions, has reached one of the Supermundane Paths is called Saniathayaanika, or `one who has taken Tranquillity (samatha) as his vehicle (yaana)’.

For samatha and vipassanaa see Fund IV. and B. Diet.

The Four Absorptions



Detached from sensual objects, detached from evil things, the disciple enters into the first Absorption, which is accompanied by Thought Conception and Discursive Thinking, is born of detachment, and filled with Rapture and Happiness.

This is the first of the Absorptions belonging to the Fine-Material Sphere (rupaavacarajjhaana). It is attained when, through the strength of concentration, the fivefold sense activity is temporarily suspended, and the five Hindrances are likewise eliminated.

See B. Dict.: kasina, nimitta, samaadhi.

M. 43

This first Absorption is free from five things, and five things are present. When the disciple enters the first Absorption, there have vanished (the five Hindrances): Lust, Ill-Will, Torpor and Sloth, Restlessness and Mental Worry, Doubts; and there are present: Thought Conception (vitakka), Discursive Thinking (vicaara), Rapture (piiti), Happiness (sukha), Concentration (citt’ekaggataa = samaadhi).

These five mental factors present in the first Absorption, are called Factors (or Constituents) of Absorption (jhaananga). Vitakka (initial formation of an abstract thought) and vicaara (discursive thinking, rumination) are called `verbal functions’ (vaci-sankhaara) of the mind; hence they are something secondary compared with consciousness.

In Visuddhi-Magga, vitakka is compared with the taking hold of a pot, and vicaara with the wiping of it. In the first Absorption both are present, but are exclusively focussed on the subject of meditation, vicaara being here not discursive, but of an `exploring’ nature. Both are entirely absent in the following Absorptions.

And further: after the subsiding of Thought-Conception and Discursive Thinking, and by the gaining of inner tranquillity and oneness of mind, he enters into a state free from Thought-Conception and Discursive Thinking, the second Absorption, which is born of concentration (samaadhi), and filled with Rapture (piti) and Happiness (sukha).

In the second Absorption, there are three Factors of Absorption: Rapture, Happiness, and Concentration.

And further: after the fading away of Rapture, he dwells in equanimity, mindful, with clear awareness: and he experiences in his own person that feeling of which the Noble Ones say: `Happy lives he who is equanimous and mindful’-thus he enters the third Absorption.

In the third Absorption there are two Factors of Absorption: equanimous Happiness (upekkhaa-sukha) and Concentration (citt’ekaggataa).

And further: after the giving up of pleasure and pain, and through the disappearance of previous joy and grief, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain, into the fourth Absorption, which is purified by equanimity and mindfulness.

In the fourth Absorption there are two Factors of Absorp-tion: Concentration and Equanimity (upekkhaa).

In Visuddhi-magga forty subjects of meditation (kamma.t.thaana) are enumerated and treated in detail. By their successful practice the following Absorptions may be attained:

All four Absorptions. through Mindfulness of Breathing (see Vis. M. VIII. 3), the ten Kasina-exercises (Vis. M. IV, V. and B. Dict.); the contemplation of Equanimity (upekkhaa), being the practice of the fourth Brahma-vihaara (Vis. M. IX. 4).

The first three Absorptions: through the development of Loving-Kindness (mettaa), Compassion (karunaa) and Sympathetic Joy (muditaa), being the practice of the first three Brahma-vihaaras (Vis. M. IX. 1-3,).

The first Absorption: through the ten Contemplations of Impurity (asubha-bhaavanaa; i.e. the Cemetery Contemplations, which are ten according to the enumeration in Vis. M. VI); the contemplation of the Body (i.e. the 32 parts of the body; Vis. M. VIII, 2); `Neighborhood-Concentration’ (upacaara-samaadhi): through the Recollections on Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, on Morality, Liberality, Heavenly Beings, Peace (=Nibbaana) and death (Vis. M. VI. VII); the Contemplation on the Loathsomeness of Food (Vis. M. XI. I); the Analysis of the Four Elements (Vis. M. IX. 2).

The four Immaterial Absorptions (aruupa-jjhaana or aaruppa), which are based on the fourth Absorption, are produced by meditating on their respective objects from which they derive their names; Sphere of Unbounded Space, of Unbounded Consciousness, of Nothingness, and of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception.

The entire object of concentration and meditation is treated in Vis M. III-XIII; see also Fund. IV.

8. XXII. 5

Develop your concentration: for he who has concentration, understands things according to their reality. And what are these things? The arising and passing away of corporeality, of feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness.

M. 149

Thus, these five Groups of Existence must be wisely penetrated; Ignorance and Craving must be wisely abandoned; Tranquillity (samatha) and Insight (vipassanaa) must be wisely developed.


This is the Middle Path which the Perfect One has discovered, which makes one both to see and to know, and which leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to Nibbaana.

Dhp. 275

“And following upon this path, you will put an end to suffering.

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Jhaanas-Stream-enterer-The definition (with similes)-[First jhana]
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The definition (with similes)

[First jhana]

“There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful qualities — enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal.

Just as if a skilled bathman or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and knead it together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that his ball of bath powder — saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and without — would nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk permeates, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal…

What is Sotapanna, Stream Entry?

February 10, 2004

By the contemplative recluse monk Sotapanna Jhanananda (Jeffrey S, Brooks)

(copyright 2004 all rights reserved)

I have read a wide range of dogma, concepts and beliefs regarding the Buddha’s idea behind Stream-Entry (Sotapanna). After reading the three published volumes of the Nikayas (Discourses of the Buddha), the Digha, Majjhima, and Samyutta Nikayas, I can say the Buddha considered anyone who actually lived the Noble Eightfold Path had in fact entered the stream. The stream, according to him was the Noble Eightfold Path. To understand what the Noble Eightfold Path is, I would suggest you read the Nikayas (the discourses of the Buddha).

One will find an excellent suite of discourses of the Buddha on the very topic of Stream-Entry in the Samyutta Nikaya in Chapter XI, 55 Sotapattisamyutta, pages 1788 to 1837 in the Samyutta Nikaya, translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi, published by Wisdom Publishing, Boston, 2000.

Samyutta Nikaya, Chapter XI, 55 Sotapattisamyutta
I Bamboo Gate
“At Savatthi the Blessed One said this:”

2 Grounded

“(Monks), a noble disciple who possesses four things is a stream-enterer, no longer bound to the nether world…with enlightenment as (his/her) destinationÉ” “What four? …confirmed confidence in the Buddha…dhamma…sangha…possesses virtues dear to the noble ones, unbroken…leading to (absorption)” (page 1789).

3 Dighavu

“Therefore, Dighavu, established upon these four factors of stream-entry, you should develop further six things that partake of true knowledge. Here Dighavu, dwell contemplating impermanence in all formations, perceiving suffering in what is impermanent, perceiving non self in what is suffering, perceiving abandonment, perceiving fading away, perceiving cessation. It is in such a way that you should train yourself” (page 1791).

5 Sariputta

“Then the Venerable Sariputta approached the Blessed One…the Blessed One then said to him, “What now, Sariputta, is a factor for stream-entry?”
Sariputta said, “Association with superior persons (enlightened ones)…hear the true dhamma…careful attention…practice in accordance with the Dhamma…(are) factor(s) for stream-entry.”
The Blessed One asked, “What now, Sariputta, is the stream?”
Sariputta said, “This Noble Eightfold Path, venerable sir, is the stream; that is right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right (absorption).”
The Blessed One asked, “What now, Sariputta, is a stream-enterer?”
Sariputta said, “One who possesses this Noble Eightfold Path, venerable sir, is called a stream-enterer…” (pages 1792-93).

Additional instructions to householders were offered to the Chamberlains:

6 The Chamberlains

(In addition to confidence in the Buddha, dhamma and sangha a house holder also had…”He dwells at home with a mind devoid of the stains of stinginess, freely generous, open-handed, delighting in relinquishment, one devoted to charity, delighting in giving and sharing…Moreover, whatever there is in your family that is suitable for giving, all that you share unreservedly among those who are virtuous and of good character.” (pages 1795-96).

7 The People of the Bamboo Gate

(Thus) “when householders…possess these seven good qualities (following the Noble Eightfold Path and Precepts) and these four desirable states (confidence in the 3 gems plus virtues leading to absorption)…(one) could declare “I am one finished with hell…I am a stream-enterer, no longer bound to the nether world, fixed in destiny, with enlightenment as my destination” (pages 1798-99).

8 The Brick Hall

The Blessed One said, “Ananda, I will teach you a philosophical exposition called the “Mirror of the Dhamma,” equipped with which a noble disciple…could declare him (her) self “I am finished with hell…I am a stream-enterer, no longer bound to the nether world, fixed in destiny, with enlightenment as my destination.” It is “a noble disciple possesses confirmed confidence in the Buddha…in the Dhamma…in the Sangha…possesses virtues dear to the noble ones, unbroken…leading to (absorption)” (page 1800).
40 (10) Nandiya
“…not content with that confirmed confidence in the Buddha, he (she) makes further effort for solitude by day and for seclusion by night. When he (she) dwells diligently, gladness is born. When he (she) is gladdened, (bliss/piiti) is born. When the mind is uplifted by (bliss/piiti), body becomes tranquil. One tranquil in body experiences happiness. The mind of one who is happy becomes (absorbed). When the mind is (absorbed), phenomena become manifest. Because phenomena becomes manifest, he (she) is reckoned as one who dwells diligently.”
54 (4) Ill
“Then Mahanama the Sakyan approached the Blessed One…and asked, ‘I have not heard (from) …the Blessed One how a lay follower who is ill…should be exhorted by another…follower.’”
After a long sequence going through the 4 basic requirements of stream entry, as well as all of the absorption states, then he concludes with:
“If he says, “My mind has been withdrawn from the Brahma world; I have directed my mind to the cessation of identity.” Then, Mahanama, I say there is no difference between a lay follower who is thus liberated in mind and a monk who has been liberated in mind for a hundred years, that is, between one liberation and another.”

Thus in conclusion we can say the Buddha considered anyone who actually lived the Noble Eightfold Path had in fact entered the stream. The stream, according to him was the Noble Eightfold Path. To understand what the Noble Eightfold Path is, I would suggest you read the Nikayas (the discourses of the Buddha). Internet Explorer


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[Second jhana]

“Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation — internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure.

Just like a lake with spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from east, west, north, or south, and with the skies periodically supplying abundant showers, so that the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake would permeate and pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being no part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of composure…

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Jhaanas- Non-returner-Anāgāmī
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Jhaanas- Non-returner

[Third jhana]

“And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains in equanimity, is mindful & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.’ He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture.

Just as in a blue-, white-, or red-lotus pond, there may be some of the blue, white, or red lotuses which, born and growing in the water, stay immersed in the water and flourish without standing up out of the water, so that they are permeated and pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water from their roots to their tips, and nothing of those blue, white, or red lotuses would be unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture…

the ‘Non-Returner’, is a noble disciple (ariya-puggala) on the 3rd stage of holiness.

There are 5 classes of Non-Returners, as it is said (e.g. Pug. 42-46):

“A being, through the disappearing of the 5 lower fetters (samyojana), reappears in a higher world (amongst the devas of the Pure Abodes, suddhāvāsa), and without returning from that world (into the sensuous sphere) he there reaches Nibbāna.

(1) “He may, immediately after appearing there (in the Pure Abodes) or without having gone beyond half of the life-time, attain the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who reaches Nibbāna within the first half of the life’ (antarā-parinibbāyī).

(2) “Or, whilst living beyond half of the lifetime, or at the moment of death, he attains the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who reaches Nibbāna after crossing half the life-time’ (upahacca-parinibbāyī).

(3) “Or, with exertion he attains the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who reaches Nibbāna with exertion’ (sasankhāra-parinibbāyī).

(4) “Or, without exertion he attains the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who reaches Nibbāna without exertion’ (asankhāra-parinibbāyī).

(5) “Or, after vanishing from the heaven of the Aviha-gods (s. suddhāvāsa), he appears in the heaven of the unworried (atappa) gods. After vanishing from there he appears in the heaven of the clearly-visible (sudassa) gods, from there in the heaven of the clear-visioned (sudassī) gods, from there in the heaven of the highest (akanittha) gods. There he attains the holy path for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called ‘one who passes up-stream to the highest gods’ (uddhamsota-akanittha-gāmī).”


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[Fourth jhana]

“And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and stress — as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness, so that there is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.

Just as if a man were sitting wrapped from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating his body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.”

What is the cause of anger
and how can one manage anger
so as not to harm others and oneself?
“Knowing that the other person is angry,
one who remains mindful and calm
acts for his own best interest
and for the other’s interest, too.
Samyutta Nikaya I, 162

Question - What is the cause of anger? What can we do to ensure that we manage our anger so that we do not hurt ourselves or others whilst working towards the total elimination of anger?

Answer - The cause of anger is craving or grasping and our belief in a self. On the surface this may not be very apparent. Most Buddhists are aware that intense craving leads to attachment and greed. However, intense craving also leads to ill-will, anger and hatred.

Just as strong attachment and greed arises because we seek our own happiness, ill-will and anger arise because we seek our own happiness. Just as we crave to hold on to happy sensations that form strong bonds which lead to greed, we crave to set aside unhappy situations or unpleasant sensations. And when we cannot set them aside or avoid them, we feel ill-will, anger and hatred. We also feel ill-will and anger when our happiness is taken away or thwarted. The stronger the craving, the greater will be the suffering resulting from ill-will and anger.

Anger is a normal emotion that all human beings feel, like sorrow and happiness. The emotion of anger is felt from the time one is born. How many of you have seen a little baby turn red and cry with his little face twisted with anger? How many have witnessed a two-year-old throw a temper tantrum? They are too young to have learned this behaviour from others. And yet it is obvious that they are experiencing intense anger. It is also obvious that they have not learned to manage their anger. Because of their young age they are often excused the temper tantrum.

Unfortunately, many adults too have never learned to manage their anger. And so, just like the two-year-old, when they are angry they throw a tantrum.

Maybe not in quite the same way as the two-year-old, but in a manner that is not acceptable for an adult - in a manner that is harmful to self and to others.
Reminding us that anger harms us more than it does those on whom anger is directed the Buddha advises against anger as follows:

“The person possessed of anger; discoloured,
Does not have sound sleep.
Even when experiencing the beneficial
He mistakes it as mischief.
Then he harms another
By thought, speech and deed
As result, he will suffer.
Loss of property (fines or punishment).
Crazed by wrath he behaves thus
That invites ill-repute.
His relatives, friends and acquaintance
Shun him, for his temper - hot.
Anger fathers misfortune
Anger maddens one’s mind
It is a danger that rises from within
But man realizes it not.
The angered knows not what is right
Nor does he see what really is
Surrounded by darkness he dwells
Who now does anger defeat?
Captivated and maddened by anger
He does what is unwholesome with ease
But in time when anger is spent
Regrets he, as one burnt by flames.”

Anguttara Nikaya

As the cause of anger is craving, one often finds that intense anger is felt towards those we love the most. As such it is most important that we learn how to manage our anger so as not to hurt the people we love. One should not assume that those we love will accept and excuse our inappropriate behaviour. Even if they do not tell us how they feel, one can be sure that over time they will not love or respect us for such behaviour.

What we are going to learn today are some techniques to help us manage this anger, and over time, some techniques which will help us to reduce and possibly eliminate anger. We will illustrate these concepts with two stories that occurred at the time of the Buddha.

The first story is an incident that occurred with Visakha, the Buddha’s chief female benefactor. One day she had come to the Buddha for solace as she was angered at some unfair taxes that had been levied on a gift she had mailed. Visakha had mailed a parcel to some relatives and the border guards had charged an unreasonably high levy on the goods. Visakha had complained to the king, but due to pressures of state affairs, he had ignored her complaint. Annoyed and angry, Visakha visited the Buddha for solace. The Buddha calmed her mind by saying:

“Painful is all subjection.
Blissful is complete control.
People are troubled by common concerns,
Hard to escape are the bonds (of craving).”

These words of wisdom from the Buddha helped Visakha put this minor irritation in perspective. The Buddha’s advice is as valid today as it was 2500 years ago. So strong are the bonds of craving and attachment that often we are angered and affected by small issues, many of which are outside our control and trivial when compared to other issues of greater consequence that afflict mankind.

Visakha, as she was only a Sotapanna, felt anger. She managed her anger by not lashing out and hurting anyone. She then went to the Buddha for support. Listening to the Buddha she realized very quickly that this was something outside her control and something that was not of great consequence. This helped to calm her mind.

The second story is about Sariputta, the Buddha’s chief male disciple. A group of men were praising the noble qualities of the elder when a young Brahmin challenged them saying the reason Sariputta had never shown anger was because he had never been provoked. To prove that Sariputta, like others, would resort to anger, he walked up behind the elder and dealt him a resounding blow. Sariputta said “what was that?” and then, without even turning around to find who had hit him, continued walking. The Brahmin was overcome with guilt and shame at his conduct. Falling on his knees he begged pardon and told Sariputta how he had hit him to provoke anger. Sariputta then forgave the Brahmin. The Brahmin, not satisfied with a verbal pardon, asked Sariputta to come to his home for the noonday meal to show that he bore no malice towards him. Sariputta accepted the invitation.

After the meal, as Sariputta was leaving, he saw that a mob of angry supporters had gathered with sticks and stones to punish the Brahmin. They had witnessed the Brahmin’s treatment of the elder whom they loved and respected. Sariputta asked them what the commotion was about. When informed he asked, ‘Whom did the Brahmin strike, you or me?” On being told that it was the Elder whom the Brahmin had struck, he dispersed the angry crowd by saying, “I have pardoned him. What cause is there for anger when I, whom he struck, feels none.”

Sariputta, being an Arahanth, had eradicated all craving and as such felt no anger. The only way we cannot feel anger is by destroying craving. As such it is only an Arahanth who will be completely free of anger. Since none of us are Arahanths we should not put ourselves down or feel guilty when we feel anger. We should, however, ensure that we manage it so that we do not hurt others.

And so we have our long-term goal and our short-term goal. The long-term goal of eliminating anger and the short-term goal of managing anger. Our long-term goal will be reached only through the practice of morality - infinite compassion to all living beings and meditation. Meditation on loving kindness, awareness of breathing (Anapansati) and insight (Vipassana). Over time, all of these will help reduce and finally eliminate anger. As we are aware of the purpose of meditation in relation to the Buddhist goal of Nibbana, we will concentrate on the short-term goal of anger management whilst keeping in mind the importance of eradicating the craving which leads to anger, which is the Buddhist goal.

It must be stressed, however, that meditation also helps in the short- term goal of anger management, as meditation teaches you:

compassion and loving kindness,
to be more aware of your feeling,
to reflect before you speak or act.
The Buddha encourages anger management as follows:
“He abused me, he ill-treated me
He defeated me, he robbed me.
Releasing such thoughts
Banishes hatred for all times.”

Dhammapada 4

“Repay not the angry with anger
And you will win the battle hard to win.
He who acknowledges the other’s anger
While maintaining peace mindfully,
Has worked for the well-being of both
Himself and the other.”

Samyutta Nikaya

“Everybody loves himself
Life is dear to all
Feeling for others as for yourself
One should refrain from harming others.”
“By not retaliating in anger
At one who gets angry
One wins the battle
That is hard to win.”

Samyutta Nikaya

As meditation helps anger management, we will relate back to meditation periodically throughout this lesson.

When we are in a situation which causes us unhappiness or distress we go through many different emotions. Especially if the incident is one that is outside our control and of significant importance. According to Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, when faced with grave personal loss we go through five stages - denial, anger, depression, bargaining and finally acceptance.

Denial because at first you don’t want to believe that this is true,
Anger because you feel hurt that this should happen to you,
Depression when you feel that nothing can be done about it,
Bargaining when you start to look for alternatives or opportunities to minimise or overcome the hurt and, finally,
Acceptance when you start to heal.

At times one may go through these very quickly. At times it may take months. At times one may go to acceptance and then relapse back to denial. These emotions are often felt when there is major personal loss. It could be an unexpected death, a job loss or a sudden diagnosis of a terminal illness. Academics say that it is normal for everybody to go through these stages. These feelings are not just unique to you. However, the anger felt at such times needs to be managed because if one cannot get past this stage in a reasonable time it could lead to hatred, long-term depression and emotional problems. If we can understand that everybody goes through these stages and that this situation is outside our control, we may, on our own, be able to manage it with time through acceptance and support from good friends. Some, however, may need professional help.

The majority of us, however, get angry because of day-to-day events and day-to-day stresses. What can we do to manage anger in these situations that occur daily? Anger manifests in two ways. Sometimes anger arises spontaneously, flares up, and then is spent. Sometimes anger flares up, then one holds the anger for days, weeks and maybe even for months. This is very dangerous as anger that is not managed can build to hatred. Both manifestations, which sometimes overlap, cause suffering to self and others. How do we manage this anger that we all feel so no one gets hurt? How do we ensure that anger does not escalate to hatred?

First we try to identify where anger starts, and secondly we identify where we hold anger. This may not be easy to do and at times you may need help from a loved one. What is your first sign of anger? Is it the clenching of your palms, the grinding of your teeth or is it your flushed face? Secondly, where do you hold the anger? Whilst there are some who blow over with anger, some retain it for days. Do you retain anger in the head with migraine headaches and thoughts that go on and on, in the chest with this consuming, burning heat, or in the stomach where it manifests as ulcers?

We begin by observing how we first express anger. Is it by yelling out hurtful words, throwing things, hitting, crying or running away? Or do we suppress our anger and hold on to it? Examine yourself and try to observe and know yourself.

In other words, with mindfulness we try to be aware of all our feelings and sensations at times of anger. Once you have identified the first external symptom of anger and consciously try to feel these sensations you will be able to identify when anger arises. Over time you will know and recognize the first signs of anger and suppressed anger. Mindfulness and insight meditation will help you very quickly to identify the first signs of anger. Being able to identify the first signs of anger, you can now start strategies to cope with or manage anger.

Anger that is held is more damaging in the long run as it can build to hatred. Unchecked, it can lead to unwholesome thoughts, speech and action, with grave consequences. As such, we will begin with some strategies for anger that has been held onto. The following have helped others:

Calm discussion with person (sometimes this may be through letters)
Self care (do something special for yourself)
Deep breathing
Reading a book
Listening to soft music
Talking to a friend (support)
Reading or listening to the Dhamma
Daily meditation on compassion, mindfulness and insight
Add to this list by reflecting on what works for you. Incidently, these strategies also help to reduce spontaneous anger by reducing stress and promoting general well-being so that trivial things don’t result in anger.
Some strategies for dealing with spontaneous anger are:
Taking time out (walk out of the situation)
Practising deep listening
Reflecting before you speak
Developing compassion and kindness to other’s needs, frailties and differences .
Looking at the other point of view
Slowing down (cutting down on stressful commitments)
Daily meditation on compassion, mindfulness and insight
Add to this list by reflecting on what works for you. The majority of us express anger in words, and so we will concentrate on words that will heal and reduce conflict as opposed to words that will hurt and escalate conflict. The Buddha has advised us to speak words that instil confidence and cause happiness, hope and joy. If we are mindful of our precepts we can, over time, move towards refraining from words that hurt, cause disharmony and suffering. With effort we can move towards words that being hope, joy, peace and harmony.
Some words and action you should avoid using when you are angry are:

Words of accusation
Old history
Personal traits
Pointing fingers
Hurtful words such as:
You are stupid
You are dumb
You are selfish
You are vicious
You are cruel
and definitive words such as:
You always…
You never…
Instead, learn to express anger by sharing how you feel and how the other person’s actions or words affect you. The following expressions will help to defuse anger without escalating anger. “I feel (insert specific feeling) when you (insert specific act). Instead I would like/ prefer (inserts specific preference).”
For example, the statements: “I feel hurt when you accuse me of lying. I would prefer that you hear my side of the story before you pass judgement”, defuses anger. Compare this with “You always call me a liar. You never believe what I say. I might as well lie to you. What is the use of telling the truth when you will never believe me anyway?” The first approach defuses anger and helps the situation, whereas the second escalates anger.
Reflect on the advice the Buddha gave Visaka. The following reflection when meditating on loving kindness may also be helpful.

“May I develop the equanimity
to accept things I cannot change,
The courage to change things I can
and the wisdom to know the difference.”

It is normal to feel annoyed when something unpleasant occurs. First, reflect on the issue and the magnitude of the action that has offended you. Is it really that important? If not, let it go. Do not let it escalate to anger, especially if the offender is a loved one. Instead, reflect on the positive things that the person has done for you. Also reflect as to whether this action is within your control. What is the use of getting angry and annoyed if you have lost your job and if there is nothing you can do to get your job back? Instead, spend your energy on changing or coping with the situation. Negotiate a severance package, ask for retraining, or look for other opportunities.

Remember that anger is your worst enemy. Anger harms you more than it does the person towards whom the anger is directed. The law of kamma operates despite the ignorance of man. Intentional actions by thought, word and deed will follow you and fruit at the opportune time. If you are a person who acts on anger through hitting and becoming abusive you need professional help. Spousal and child abuse is against the law. One must recognize that abuse can be both physical and through continuous harsh and threatening speech. Both leave scars. Often it is the mental scars that are harder to heal. They leave long-term emotional problems. Does your family love and respect you or are they afraid of you? One needs to earn love and respect. It cannot be got through fear. In fact, according to the Buddha’s teachings, continuous harsh words will result in aversion and ill-will in the mind of the recipient. Unchecked, aversion and ill-will in the mind of the recipient will lead to anger and hatred. And while you can change yourself and manage your own anger, you have no control over the minds of others:

The Buddha’s advice for anger management is boundless compassion and loving kindness through mental development. The Buddha said:
“Anger is never appeased by anger
Anger is appeased by loving kindness.
This is an eternal truth.”

Dhammapada 5

The Buddha encouraged others to destroy anger and hatred through loving kindness by describing the bliss of those who have conquered anger. He said:
“Truly we dwell in happiness,
as we do not hate, while others hate.
Amidst those who are filled with hatred
we live appeased,
free of hatred.”

Dhammapada 197

Statistics show that often persons are angry and abusive with their loved ones. The very same act performed by an acquaintance does not lead to anger. Most people with effort manage their anger in the workplace in order to appear professional, but vent at their loved ones. And yet it is those we love that we should treat with most tenderness. The damage done by anger cannot be measured. Reflecting on the following story may help to motivate anger management.

There was a little boy who had a bad temper. His father gave him a bag of nails and told him that every time he lost his temper, to hammer a nail in the back fence. The first day the boy had driven 37 nails into the fence. Then it gradually dwindled down. He discovered it was easier to manage his temper than to drive those nails into the fence. Finally the day came when the boy didn’t lose his temper at all. He told his father about it and the father suggested that the boy now pull out one nail for each day that he was able to manage his temper. The days passed and the young boy was finally able to tell his father that all the nails were gone. The father took his son by the hand and led him to the fence. He said, “You have done well, my son, but look at the holes in the fence. The fence will never be the same.”

When we say things in anger, we leave a scar just like this one. You can put a knife in a man and draw it out. It won’t matter how many times you say I’m sorry, the wound is still there. A verbal wound is as bad as a physical one. In fact it can be worse, for mental abuse takes longer to heal. Family and friends are like very rare jewels. They make us smile and encourage us to succeed. They lend an ear, they share a word of praise, and they always want to open their hearts to us to help us when we are hurt. Don’t scar your family and friends. Learn to manage your anger.

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