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11/22/08
Vinaya Pitaka-Part Two: The Robe-cloth Chapter -Sutta Pitaka Ogha-tarana Sutta Crossing over the Flood -Abhidhamma Practice Step by Step-Food for the Heart-Buddha’s own words on Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation Teacher of the Devas-I. Introduction -Mayawati’s magic Will work in M.P.
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Part Two: The Robe-cloth Chapter [go up]

11. When a bhikkhunī is asking
for a heavy cloth, one worth four “bronzes” at most may be asked for.
If she asks for more than that, it is to be forfeited and confessed.
(§•)

12. When a bhikkhunī is asking
for a light cloth, one worth two and a half “bronzes” at most may be
asked for. If she asks for more than that, it is to be forfeited and
confessed. (§•)

13 [1].
When a bhikkhunī has finished her robe and the frame is destroyed (her
kathina privileges are in abeyance), she is to keep extra robe-cloth
ten days at most. Beyond that, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

14 [2].
When a bhikkhunī has finished her robe and the frame is destroyed (her
kathina privileges are in abeyance): If she dwells apart from (any of)
her five robes even for one night — unless authorized by the bhikkhunīs
— it is to be forfeited and confessed.

15 [3].
When a bhikkhunī has finished her robe and the frame is destroyed (her
kathina privileges are in abeyance): Should out-of-season robe-cloth
accrue to her, she may accept it if she so desires. Having accepted it,
she is to make it up immediately (into a cloth requisite). But should
it not be enough, she may lay it aside for a month at most if she has
an expectation for filling the lack. If she should keep it beyond that,
even when she has an expectation (for further cloth), it is to be
forfeited and confessed.

16 [6].
Should any bhikkhunī ask for robe-cloth from a man or woman householder
unrelated to her, except at the proper occasion, it is to be forfeited
and confessed. Here the proper occasion is this: The bhikkhunī’s robe
has been snatched away or destroyed. This is the proper occasion here.

17 [7].
If that unrelated man or woman householder presents the bhikkhunī with
many robes (pieces of robe-cloth), she is to accept at most (enough
for) an upper and a lower robe. If she accepts more than that, it is to
be forfeited and confessed.

18 [8].
In case a man or woman householder unrelated (to the bhikkhunī)
prepares a robe fund for the sake of a bhikkhunī, thinking. “Having
purchased a robe with this robe fund, I will clothe the bhikkhunī named
so-and-so with a robe:” If the bhikkhunī, not previously invited,
approaching (the householder) should make a stipulation with regard to
the robe, saying, “It would be good indeed, sir, if you clothed me
(with a robe), having purchased a robe of such-and-such a sort with
this robe fund” — out of a desire for something fine — it is to be
forfeited and confessed.

19 [9].
In case two householders — men or women — unrelated (to the bhikkhunī)
prepare separate robe funds for the sake of a bhikkhunī, thinking,
“Having purchased separate robes with these separate robe funds of
ours, we will clothe the bhikkhunī named so-and-so with robes”: If the
bhikkhunī, not previously invited, approaching (them) should make a
stipulation with regard to the robe, saying, “It would be good indeed,
sirs, if you clothed me (with a robe), having purchased a robe of
such-and-such a sort with these separate robe funds, the two (funds)
together for one (robe)” — out of a desire for something fine — it is
to be forfeited and confessed.

20 [10].
In case a king, a royal official, a brahman, or a householder sends a
robe fund for the sake of a bhikkhunī via a messenger, (saying,)
“Having purchased a robe with this robe fund, clothe the bhikkhunī
named so-and-so with a robe”: If the messenger, approaching the
bhikkhunī, should say, “This is a robe fund being delivered for the
sake of the lady. May the lady accept this robe fund,” then the
bhikkhunī is to tell the messenger: “We do not accept robe funds, my
friend. We accept robes (robe-cloth) as are proper according to season.”

If the messenger should say to the bhikkhunī, “Does the lady have a
steward?” then, bhikkhunīs, if the bhikkhunī desires a robe, she may
indicate a steward — either a monastery attendant or a lay follower —
(saying,) “That, sir, is the bhikkhunīs’ steward.”

If the messenger, having instructed the steward and going to the
bhikkhunī, should say, “I have instructed the steward the lady
indicated. May the lady go (to her) and she will clothe you with a robe
in season,” then the bhikkhunī, desiring a robe and approaching the
steward, may prompt and remind her two or three times, “I have need of
a robe.” Should (the steward) produce the robe after being prompted and
reminded two or three times, that is good.

If she should not produce the robe, (the bhikkhunī) should stand in
silence four times, five times, six times at most for that purpose.
Should (the steward) produce the robe after (the bhikkhunī) has stood
in silence for the purpose four, five, six times at most, that is good.

If she should not produce the robe (at that point), should she then
produce the robe after (the bhikkhunī) has endeavored further than
that, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

If she should not produce (the robe), then the bhikkhunī herself
should go to the place from which the robe fund was brought, or a
messenger should be sent (to say), “The robe fund that you, venerable
sirs, sent for the sake of the bhikkhunī has given no benefit to the
bhikkhunī at all. May the you be united with what is yours. May what is
yours not be lost.” This is the proper course here.

Sutta Pitaka in Cronological order


Ogha-tarana Sutta
Crossing over the Flood

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s
monastery. Then a certain devata, in the far extreme of the night, her
extreme radiance lighting up the entirety of Jeta’s Grove, went to the
Blessed One. On arrival, having bowed down to him, she stood to one
side. As she was standing there, she said to him, “Tell me, dear sir,
how you crossed over the flood.”

“I crossed over the flood without pushing forward, without staying in place.”1

“But how, dear sir, did you cross over the flood without pushing forward, without staying in place?”

“When I pushed forward, I was whirled about. When I stayed in place,
I sank. And so I crossed over the flood without pushing forward,
without staying in place.”

[The devata:]

At long last I see
a brahman, totally unbound,
who without pushing forward,
without staying in place,
has crossed over
the entanglements
of the world.

That is what the devata said. The Teacher approved. Realizing that
“The Teacher has approved of me,” she bowed down to him,
circumambulated him — keeping him to her right — and then vanished
right there.

Abhidhamma Practice Step by Step
Food for the Heart

Introduction [go up]

One of the most notable features of Venerable Ajahn Chah’s teaching
was the emphasis he gave to the Sangha, the monastic order, and its use
as a vehicle for Dhamma practice. This is not to deny his unique gift
for teaching lay people, which enabled him to communicate brilliantly
with people from all walks of life, be they simple farmers or
University professors. But the results he obtained with teaching and
creating solid Sangha communities are plainly visible in the many
monasteries which grew up around him, both within Thailand and, later,
in England, Australia, Europe and elsewhere. Ajahn Chah foresaw the
necessity of establishing the Sangha in the West if long-term results
were to be realized.

This book is a collection of talks he gave to the monastic
communities in Thailand. They are exhortations given to the communities
of bhikkhus, or Buddhist monks, at his own monastery, Wat Ba
Pong, and some of its branches. This fact should be born in mind by the
lay reader. These talks are not intended to, and indeed cannot, serve
as an introduction to Buddhism and meditation practice. They are
monastic teachings, addressed primarily to the lifestyle and problems
particular to that situation. A knowledge of the basics of Buddhism on
the part of the listener was assumed. Many of the talks will thus seem
strange and even daunting to the lay reader, with their emphasis on
conformity and renunciation.

For the lay reader, then, it is essential to bear in mind the
environment within which these talks were given — the rugged, austere,
poverty-stricken North-East corner of Thailand, birth place of most of
Thailand’s great meditation teachers and almost its entire forest
monastic tradition. The people of the North-East are honed by this
environment to a rugged simplicity and gentle patience which make them
ideal candidates for the forest monk’s lifestyle. Within this
environment, in small halls dimly lit by paraffin lamps, surrounded by
the assembly of monks, Ajahn Chah gave his teachings.

Exhortations by the master occurred typically at the end of the
fortnightly recitation of the Patimokkha, the monks’ code of
discipline. Their content would be decided by the current situation —
slackness in the practice, confusion about the rules, or just plain
“unawakenment.” In a lifestyle characterized by simplicity and
contentment with little, complacency is an ongoing tendency, so that
talks for arousing diligent effort were a regular occurrence
.

The talks themselves are spontaneous reflections and exhortations
rather than systematic teachings as most Westerners would know them.
The listener was required to give full attention in the present moment
and to reflect back on his own practice accordingly, rather than to
memorize the teachings by rote or analyze them in terms of logic. In
this way he could become aware of his own shortcomings and learn how to
best put into effect the skillful means offered by the teacher.

Although meant primarily for a monastic resident — be one a monk,
nun or novice — the interested lay reader will no doubt obtain many
insights into Buddhist practice from this book. At the very least there
are the numerous anecdotes of the Venerable Ajahn’s own practice which
abound throughout the book; these can be read simply as biographical
material or as instruction for mind training.

From the contents of this book, it will be seen that the training of
the mind is not, as many believe, simply a matter of sitting with the

eyes closed or perfecting a meditation technique, but is, as Ajahn Chah
would say, a great renunciation.

Buddha’s own words on Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation

Teacher of the Devas

I.
Introduction

In the canonical formula for contemplation of the Buddha, nine
epithets of the Awakened One are mentioned. One of these, likely to be
overlooked, is sattha devamanussanam, “teacher of gods and
humans.” The present essay focuses on one aspect of this epithet: the
Buddha’s role as teacher of the devas or gods. In the pages to follow
we will carefully consider the instructions and techniques he used when
teaching beings of divine stature. If we study these teachings we will
gain deeper understanding of how we should purify our own minds, and by
studying the responses of the gods we can find models for our own
behavior in relation to the Master and his teaching.

Many religious leaders consider themselves prophets whose authority
stems from an Almighty God, but as our epithet implies, the Buddha’s
relationship to divinity was very different. He instructed deities, as
well as humans, on how to end all suffering (dukkha) by
eradicating ignorance and other unwholesome states. The gods came to
the Buddha to request instruction and clarification, to support his
Sasana or Dispensation, to praise his incomparable qualities, and to
pay homage at his feet. Devas and brahmas are often mentioned
throughout the Pali canon. They regularly manifest themselves on the
human plane and participate in many episodes of the Buddha’s career.
Some of these higher beings are foolish, some exceedingly wise; some
are barely distinguishable from well-off people, others are extremely
powerful, long-lived, and magnificent. The multiple connections between
the Buddha and beings of the higher planes can inspire meditators to
develop the Noble Eightfold Path that leads to the end of suffering.

This essay will explore: (1) the Buddha’s direct instructions to
devas and how they can help human meditators practice the Dhamma; (2)
how devas, out of gratitude and faith, honor the Buddha and support his
Dispensation; and (3) the process of attaining liberation for devas,
brahmas, and humans.

The Buddhist universe consists of thirty-one planes of existence
(see chart below). Every being lives on one or another of these planes.
After death all beings, except the arahants, will be reborn in a realm
and under circumstances that accords with their kamma — their
volitional actions of body, speech, and mind made in that existence or
in any previous one. We will often refer to this chart to indicate
where, in the cosmic hierarchy, the deities we meet come from.



Mayawati’s magic Will work in M.P.

GWALIOR: Now  in the outgoing
230-member Madhya Pradesh Assembly, the Bahujan Samaj Party hopes to
make a comeback by recreating the Uttar Pradesh magic of reaching out
to all sections ahead of the November 27 elections.

Keen on testing the efficacy of its social engineering outside U.P.,
the BSP has fielded candidates across the State, distributing ticket to
both the upper castes and other caste and communities.

The Gwalior-Chambal region, which runs along Uttar Pradesh, is being
seen one of the testing grounds in the Hindi-speaking belt. There, the
BSP fielded nine Brahmins and six Thakurs. Among them is veteran
Balendu Shukla, who served as Minister in the previous Congress
governments.


Congress, BJP flayed

Speakers at Ms. Mayawati’s rally here on Saturday did not hide their
disappointment with the ruling BJP and the Congress. Leading the charge
was Mr. Shukla and he was supported by U.P. Minister Fateh Bahadur
Singh, son of the former Congress Chief Minister, Bir Bahadur Singh.

On her part, the BSP supremo said she had written to the Centre on
several occasions suggesting that reservation be provided on economic
criteria and promised the gathering that she would implement it when
the party came to power in New Delhi.

As Surendra Singh Tomar, candidate in Gwalior, sees it, the BSP is emerging as the most potent force in the region.





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Vinayapitaka-Part One: The Bowl Chapter -Introduction to the First Discourse The Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta -Abhidhamma And Practice-Jumbo’s circus-1,300 Independents join poll fray in Madhya Pradesh-Rabi acreage up in all crops barring wheat -
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 3:04 am


Part One: The Bowl Chapter [go up]

1. Should any bhikkhunī make a bowl-hoard (have more than one bowl in her possession), it is to be forfeited and confessed. [See Bhikkhus’ NP 21]

2. Should any bhikkhunī, having
determined an out-of-season cloth to be an in-season cloth, distribute
it, it is to be forfeited and confessed. (§¶¨•) 2

3. Should any bhikkhunī, having
exchanged robe-cloth with another bhikkhunī, later say to her, “Here,
lady. This is your robe-cloth. Bring me that robe-cloth of mine. What
was yours is still yours. What was mine is still mine. Bring me that
one of mine. Take yours back,” and then snatch it back or have it
snatched back, it is to be forfeited and confessed. [See Bhikkhus’ NP 5]

4. Should any bhikkhunī, having
had one thing requested, (then send it back and) have another thing
requested, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

5. Should any bhikkhunī, having
had one thing bought, (then send it back and) have another thing
bought, it is to be forfeited and confessed.

6. Should any bhikkhunī, using a
fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one purpose for a
Community, have something else bought, it is to be forfeited and
confessed. (§•)

7. Should any bhikkhunī, having
herself asked for a fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one
purpose for a Community, use it to have something else bought, it is to
be forfeited and confessed. (§•) 3

8. Should any bhikkhunī, using a
fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one purpose for a group,
have something else bought, it is to be forfeited and confessed. (§•)

9. Should any bhikkhunī, having
herself asked for a fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to one
purpose for a group, use it to have something else bought, it is to be
forfeited and confessed. (§•)

10. Should any bhikkhunī,
having herself asked for a fund intended for one purpose, dedicated to
one purpose for an individual, use it to have something else bought, it
is to be forfeited and confessed. (§•)


Introduction to the First Discourse
The Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta

Samyutta Nikaya LVI, 11

by Narada Maha Thera

Reprinted from BuddhaSasana, with gratitude.

“The best of paths is the Eightfold Path. The
best of Truths are the four Sayings. Non-attachment is the best of
states. The best of bipeds is the Seeing One.”

– The Dhammapada

Ancient India was noted for distinguished philosophers and religious
teachers who held diverse views with regard to life and its goal.
Brahmajala Sutta of the Digha Nikaya mentions sixty-two varieties of
philosophical theories that prevailed in the time of the Buddha.

One extreme view that was diametrically opposed to all current
religious beliefs was the nihilistic teaching of the materialists who
were also termed Carvakas after the name of the founder.

According to ancient materialism which, in Pali and Samskrit, was
known as Lokayata, man is annihilated after death, leaving behind him
whatever force generated by him. In their opinion death is the end of
all. This present world alone is real. “Eat, drink, and be merry, for
death comes to all,” appears to be the ideal of their system. “Virtue”,
they say, “is a delusion and enjoyment is the only reality. Religion is
a foolish aberration, a mental disease. There was a distrust of
everything good, high, pure and compassionate. Their theory stands for
sensualism and selfishness and the gross affirmation of the loud will.
There is no need to control passion and instinct, since they are the
nature’s legacy to men.”

Another extreme view was that emancipation was possible only by
leading a life of strict asceticism. This was purely a religious
doctrine firmly held by the ascetics of the highest order. The five
monks that attended on the Bodhisatta, during His struggle for
Enlightenment, tenaciously adhered to this belief.

In accordance with this view the Buddha, too, before His
Enlightenment subjected Himself to all forms of austerity. After an
extraordinary struggle for six years He realized the utter futility of
self-mortification. Consequently, He changed His unsuccessful hard
course and adopted a middle way. His favourite disciples thus lost
confidence in Him and deserted Him, saying — “The ascetic Gotama had
become luxurious, had ceased from striving, and had returned to a life
of comfort.” Their unexpected desertion was definitely a material loss
to Him as they ministered to all His needs. Nevertheless, He was not
discouraged. The iron-willed Bodhisatta must have probably felt happy
for being left alone. With unabated enthusiasm and with restored energy
He persistently strove until He attained Enlightenment, the object of
His life.

Precisely two months after His Enlightenment on the Asalha (July)
full moon day the Buddha delivered His first discourse to the five
monks that attended on Him.

Dhammacakka is the name given to this first discourse of the Buddha.
It is frequently represented as meaning “The Kingdom of Truth.” “The
Kingdom of Righteousness.” “The Wheel of Truth.” According to the
commentators Dhamma here means wisdom or knowledge, and Cakka means
founding or establishment. Dhammacakka therefore means the founding or
establishment of wisdom. Dhammacakkappavattana means The Exposition of
the Establishment of Wisdom. Dhamma may also be interpreted as Truth,
and cakka as wheel. Dhammacakkappavattana would therefore mean — The
Turning or The Establishment of the Wheel of Truth.

In this most important discourse the Buddha expounds the Middle Path
which He Himself discovered and which forms the essence of His new
teaching. He opened the discourse by exhorting the five monks who
believed in strict asceticism to avoid the extremes of self-indulgence
and self-mortification as both do not lead to perfect Peace and
Enlightenment. The former retards one’s spiritual progress, the latter
weakens one’s intellect. He criticized both views as He realized by
personal experience their futility and enunciated the most practicable,
rational and beneficial path, which alone leads to perfect purity and
absolute Deliverance.

This discourse was expounded by the Buddha while He was residing at the Deer Park in Isipatana near Benares.

The intellectual five monks who were closely associated with the
Buddha for six years were the only human beings that were present to
hear the sermon. Books state that many invisible beings such as Devas
and Brahmas also took advantage of the golden opportunity of listening
to the sermon. As Buddhists believe in the existence of realms other
than this world, inhabited by beings with subtle bodies imperceptible
to the physical eye, possibly many Devas and Brahmas were also present
on this great occasion. Nevertheless, it is clear that the Buddha was
directly addressing the five monks and the discourse was intended
mainly for them.

At the outset the Buddha cautioned them to avoid the two extremes. His actual words were: — “There are two extremes (anta) which should not be resorted to by a recluse (pabbajitena),”
Special emphasis was laid on the two terms “anta” which means end or
extreme and “pabbajita” which means one who has renounced the world.

One extreme, in the Buddha’s own words, was the constant attachment to sensual pleasures (kamasukhallikanuyoga). The Buddha described this extreme as base, vulgar, worldly, ignoble, and profitless.

This should not be misunderstood to mean that the Buddha expects all
His followers to give up material pleasures and retire to a forest
without enjoying this life. The Buddha was not so narrow minded.

Whatever the deluded sensualist may feel about it, to the
dispassionate thinker the enjoyment of sensual pleasures is distinctly
short-lived, never completely satisfying, and results in unpleasant
reactions. Speaking of wordly happiness, the Buddha says that the
acquisition of wealth and the enjoyment of possessions are two sources
of pleasure for a layman. An understanding recluse would not however
seek delight in the pursuit of these fleeting pleasures. To the
surprise of the average man he might shun them. What constitutes
pleasure to the former is a source of alarm to the latter to whom
renunciation alone is pleasure.

The other extreme is the constant addiction to self-mortification (attakilamathanuyoga).
Commenting on this extreme, which is not practised by the ordinary man,
the Buddha remarks that it is painful, ignoble, and profitless. Unlike
the first extreme this is not described as base, worldly, and vulgar.
The selection of these three terms is very striking. As a rule it is
the sincere recluse who has renounced his attachment to sensual
pleasures that resorts to this painful method, mainly with the object
of gaining his deliverance from the ills of life. The Buddha, who has
had painful experience of this profitless course, describes it as
useless. It only multiplies suffering instead of diminishing it.

The Buddhas and Arahants are described as Ariyas meaning Nobles.
Anariya (ignoble) may therefore be construed as not characteristic of
the Buddha and Arahants who are free from passions. Attha means the
ultimate Good, which for a Buddhist is Nibbana, the complete
emancipation from suffering. Therefore anatthasamhita may be construed as not conducive to ultimate Good.

The Buddha at first cleared the issues and removed the false notions
of His hearers. When their troubled minds became pliable and receptive
the Buddha related His personal experience with regard to these two
extremes.

The Buddha says that He (the Tathagata), realizing the error of both
these two extremes, followed a middle path. This new path or way was
discovered by Himself. The Buddha termed His new system Majjhima Patipada
– the Middle Way. To persuade His disciples to give heed to His new
path He spoke of its various blessings. Unlike the two diametrically
opposite extremes this middle path produces spiritual insight and
intellectual wisdom to see things as they truly are. When the insight
is clarified and the intellect is sharpened everything is a seen in its
true perspective.

Furthermore, unlike the first extreme which stimulates passions,
this Middle Way leads to the subjugation of passions which results in
Peace. Above all it leads to the attaintment of the four supramundane
Paths of Sainthood, to the understanding of the four Noble Truths, and
finally to the realization of the ultimate Goal, Nibbana.

Now, what is the Middle Way? The Buddha replies: It is the Noble
Eightfold Path. The eight factors are then enumerated in the discourse.

The first factor is Right Understanding, the keynote of Buddhism.
The Buddha started with Right Understanding in order to clear the
doubts of the monks and guide them on the right way. Right
Understanding deals with the knowledge of oneself as one really is; it
leads to Right Thoughts of non-attachment or renunciation
(nekkhammasamkappa), loving-kindness (avyapada samkappa), and
harmlessness (avihimsa samhappa), which are opposed to selfishness,
illwill, and cruelty respectively. Right Thoughts result in Right
Speech, Right Action, and Right Livelihood, which three factors perfect
one’s morality. The sixth factor is Right Effort which deals with the
elimination of evil states and the development of good states in
oneself. This self-purification is best done by a careful
introspection, for which Right Mindfulness, the seventh factor, is
essential. Effort, combined with Mindfulness, produces Right
Concentration or one-pointedness of the mind, the eighth factor. A
one-pointed mind resembles a polished mirror where everything is
clearly reflected with no distortion.

Prefacing the discourse with the two extremes and His newly
discovered Middle Way, the Buddha expounded the Four Noble Truths in
detail.

Sacca is the Pali term for Truth which means that which is. Its Samskrit equivalent is satya
which denotes an incontrovertible fact. The Buddha enunciates four such
Truths, the foundations of His teaching, which are associated with the
so-called being. Hence His doctrine is homocentric, opposed to
theocentric religions. It is introvert and not extrovert. Whether the
Buddha arises or not these Truths exist, and it is a Buddha that
reveals them to the deluded world. They do not and cannot change with
time, because they are eternal truths. The Buddha was not indebted to
anyone for His realization of them, as He Himself remarked in this
discourse thus: “With regard to things unheard before, there arose in
me the eye, the knowledge, the wisdom, the insight and the light.”
These words are very significant because they testify to the
originality of His new Teaching. Hence there is no justification in the
statement that Buddhism is a natural outgrowth of Hinduism, although it
is true that there are some fundamental doctrines common to both
systems.

These Truths are in Pali termed Ariya Saccani. They are so called because they were discovered by the Greatest Ariya, that is, one who is far removed from passions.

The First Noble Truth deals with dukkha which, for need of a
better English equivalent, is inappropriately rendered by suffering or
sorrow. As a feeling dukkha means that which is difficult to be
endured. As an abstract truth dukkha is used in the sense of
contemptible (du) emptiness (kha). The world rests on suffering –
hence it is contemptible. It is devoid of any reality — hence it is
empty or void. Dukkha therefore means contemptible void.

Average men are only surface-seers. An Ariya sees things as they truly are.

To an Ariya all life is suffering and he finds no real happiness in
this world which deceives mankind with illusory pleasures. Material
happiness is merely the gratification of some desire.

All are subject to birth (jati) and consequently to decay (jara), disease (vyadhi) and finally to death (marana). No one is exempt from these four causes of suffering.

Wish unfulfilled is also suffering. As a rule one does not wish to
be associated with things or persons one detests nor does one wish to
be separated from things or persons one likes. One’s cherished desires
are not however always gratified. At times what one least expects or
what one least desires is thrust on oneself. Such unexpected unpleasant
circumstances become so intolerable and painful that weak ignorant
people are compelled to commit suicide as if such an act would solve
the problem.

Real happiness is found within, and is not to be defined in terms of
wealth, power, honours or conquests. If such worldly possessions are
forcibly or unjustly obtained, or are misdirected or even viewed with
attachment, they become a source of pain and sorrow for the possessors.

Normally the enjoyment of sensual pleasures is the highest and only
happiness of the average person. There is no doubt some momentary
happiness in the anticipation, gratification, and retrospection of such
fleeting material pleasures, but they are illusory and temporary.
According to the Buddha non-attachment (viragata) or the transcending
of material pleasures is a greater bliss.

In brief this composite body (pancupadanakkhandha) itself is a cause of suffering.

There are three kinds of craving. The first is the grossest form of
craving, which is simple attachment to all sensual pleasures (kamatanha). The second is attachment to existence (bhavatanha). The third is attachment to non-existence (vibhavatanha).
According to the commentaries the last two kinds of craving are
attachment to sensual pleasures connected with the belief of Eternalism
(sassataditthi) and that which is connected with the belief of Nihilism (ucchedaditthi).
Bhavatanha may also be interpreted as attachment to Realms of Form and
vibhavatanha, as attachment to Formless Realms since Ruparaga and
Aruparaga are treated as two Fetters (samyojanas).

This craving is a powerful mental force latent in all, and is the
chief cause of most of the ills of life. It is this craving, gross or
subtle, that leads to repeated births in Samsara and that which makes
one cling to all forms of life.

The grossest forms of craving are attenuated on attaining Sakadagami, the second stage of Sainthood, and are eradicated on attaining Anagami, the third stage of Sainthood. The subtle forms of craving are eradicated on attaining Arahantship.

Right understanding of the First Noble Truth leads to the eradication (pahatabba)
of craving. The Second Noble Truth thus deals with the mental attitude
of the ordinary man towards the external objects of sense.

The Third Noble Truth is that there is a complete cessation of
suffering which is Nibbana, the ultimate goal of Buddhists. It can be
achieved in this life itself by the total eradication of all forms of
craving.

This Nibbana is to be comprehended (sacchikatabba) by the mental eye by renouncing all attachment to the external world.

This First Truth of suffering which depends on this so called being
and various aspects of life, is to be carefully perceived, analysed and
examined (parinneyya). This examination leads to a proper understanding of oneself as one really is.

The cause of this suffering is craving or attachment (tanha). This is the Second Noble Truth.

The Dhammapada states: “From craving springs grief, from craving
springs fear; For him who is wholly free from craving, there is no
grief, much less fear.” (verse 216).

Craving, the Buddha says, leads to repeated births (ponobhavika).
This Pali term is very noteworthy as there are some scholars who state
that the Buddha did not teach the doctrine of rebirth. This Second
Truth indirectly deals with the past, present and future births.

This Third Noble Truth has to be realized by developing (bhavetabba) the Noble Eightfold Path (ariyatthangika magga). This unique path is the only straight way to Nibbana. This is the Fourth Noble Truth.

Expounding the Four Truths in various ways, the Buddha concluded the
discourse with the forcible words: “As long, O Bhikkhus, as the
absolute true intuitive knowledge regarding these Four Noble Truths
under their three aspects and twelve modes was not perfectly clear to
me, so long I did not acknowledge that I had gained the incomparable
Supreme Enlightenment.

“When the absolute true intuitive knowledge regarding these Truths
became perfectly clear to me, then only did I acknowledge that I had
gained the incomparable Supreme Enlightenment (anuttara sammasambodhi).”

“And there arose in me the knowledge and insight: Unshakable is the
deliverance of my mind, this is my last birth, and now there is no
existence again.”

At the end of the discourse Kondanna, the senior of the five
disciples, understood the Dhamma and, attaining the first stage of
Sainthood, realized that whatever is subject to origination all that is
subject to cessation — Yam kinci samudayadhammam sabbam tam nirodhadhammam.

When the Buddha expounded the discourse of the Dhammacakka, the
earth-bound deities exclaimed: “This excellent Dhammacakka, which could
not be expounded by any ascetic, priest, god, Mara or Brahma in this
world, has been expounded by the Exalted One at the Deer Park, in
Isipatana, near Benares.”

Hearing this, Devas and Brahmas of all the other planes also raised the same joyous cry.

A radiant light, surpassing the effulgence of the gods, appeared in the world.

The light of the Dhamma illumined the whole world, and brought peace and happiness to all beings.

Abhidhamma And Practice

By Nina van Gorkom

What
is the cause of all misery and sorrow in the world?  We read in the
‘Kindred Sayings’ (Vol. I, Ch. III, iii, par. 3,  The World) that
King Pasenadi asked the Buddha:

 ‘How many kinds of
things, lord, that happen in the world, make for trouble, for suffering,
for distress?’

 The Buddha answered:

  ‘Three things, sire, happen
of that nature.  What are the three?  Greed, hate, and delusion;-
these three make for trouble, for suffering, for distress.’

 In the Buddha’s time defilements
were the cause of all sorrow and suffering and this is also true for today. 
It is true for all times.  Only those who are perfected have no sorrow
and suffering.

 The Buddha taught the solution
to all problem: the eradication of all unwholesomeness through the development
of right understanding; right understanding of all phenomena of our life.

 Is the eradication of our defilements
really the solution to all problems in the world?  Is it not a selfish
attitude to be solely occupied with the eradication of one’s own defilements,
and even more, is it possible to eradicate defilements?

 We cannot eradicate the defilements
of others, “we” cannot even eradicate our own defilements.  But when
right understanding has been developed, it is right understanding which
can gradually eradicate defilements.  But this may take many lives.

 At this moment we are full
of ignorance as to the phenomena of our live.  We usually seek only
ourselves and we serve our own interests.  How could we then really
serve other people?  Detachment from ‘self’ is only possible through
right understanding of the phenomena of our life.  Through right understanding
there will be less unwholesomeness in life and more wholesomeness, such
as loving-kindness and compassion.  Thus, the development of right
understanding should be our first aim.

 The Buddha taught that all
phenomena which arise, fall away immediately, they are impermanent. 
What is impermanent cannot be true happiness and thus it is ‘suffering’
(dukkha),  Phenomena are not self, and they do not belong to a self,
they are ‘not-self’ (anatta).  At this moment we have wrong view of
reality.  We do not see things as they are: impermanent, ‘suffering’
and not self.  We believe that we see the impermanence of things,
but we have only theoretical understanding of impermanence.  In reality
we do not experience the arising and falling away of phenomena as it occurs
now, and at each moment.

 Our body is impermanent, but
we are so attached to it.  We all see a change in the body after some
time, when we become older, but in reality our body changes each moment
of our life. What we take for ‘our body’ are only different physical phenomena
which arise and then fall away immediately.

 We are so attached to our mind,
our ‘soul’, our ambitions, our pleasures.  But what we take for our
mind, our soul, are in reality many different mental phenomena which change
all the time.  We are attached to the idea of ‘my mind’, but where
is it?  Is it thinking?  But thinking is never the same, we think
now of this, now of that.  There is thinking now, but it is always
changing.  Is feeling something which lasts?  Feeling is sometimes
pleasant, sometimes unpleasant, and sometimes there is indifferent feeling. 
Each moment feeling is different.  There is no mind, there are only
ever-changing mental phenomena which do not belong to a self.  The
Buddha taught us to develop right understanding of all the changing phenomena
in our daily life and this is the essence of his teachings.  Thus
we can gradually become detached from the self and develop more wholesomeness.

 We come to know the Buddha’s
teachings through the ‘Three Collections’ of The Vinaya (Book of Discipline
for the monks), the Suttanta and the Abhidhamma.  The Abhidhamma teaches
us in detail about all mental phenomena and physical phenomena.  The
Abhidhamma teaches us in detail about all wholesome moments of consciousness
and all unwholesome moments of consciousness, and is this not valuable? 
If we do not know about the moments of consciousness how could we develop
wholesomeness?  Often we take for wholesome what is actually not wholesome. 
For example, we think that there is unselfish love while there is actually
attachment to people.  The study of the Abhidhamma can help us to
develop more understanding of the different moments of consciousness.

 We may wonder whether a precise
knowledge of the phenomena of life is necessary.  Does this not make
our life unnecessarily complicated?  The Abhidhamma teaches about
realities.  The different moments of consciousness change so rapidly
and they are all different.  We cannot catch them, but the study of
the different moments of consciousness which occur will help us to develop
right understanding of our life.

 We believe that a self exists,
sees, hears and thinks, we believe that a self lives and dies.  We
believe that other people exist.  This is a wrong view of reality. 
What we take for self are only ever-changing phenomena.  In reality
there is no ‘I”, no ‘he’.  We spend our life dreaming about things
which do not exist.  Our wrong view causes us suffering.  We
have expectations about ourselves and others and if these do not come true
we suffer from frustrations.  We are afraid of death and we do not
know what will happen to the ‘self’ after we have died.  It would
be a great gain if we could see our life as it really is—only changing
phenomena.  Then we could face with right understanding old age, sickness
and death.

 The Abhidhamma teaches us that
all phenomena in ourselves and around 


ourselves are only two kinds of
realities:

 Mental phenomena, or nama,

 Physical phenomena, or rupa.

 Nama experiences or knows something,
rupa does not know anything.

 What we take for self or person
are only changing phenomena, nama and rupa.  But, we may wonder, is
the world not full of people, animals and things?  We see them, we
touch them, we live with them.  If we see them as only changing phenomena,
namas and rupas, does this vision estrange us from the world, from our
fellow men?

 When we think about old age,
sickness and death, we will understand that life, that all people, are
impermanent.  But there is impermanence at each moment, each phenomena
which arises falls away immediately.  This does not mean that these
phenomena are not real.  Love is real, but it falls away immediately,
and it does not belong to a self who could be master of it.  We can
have the intention to be kind, but we cannot force ourselves to kindness. 
When things are not the way we want them to be we may become angry, in
spite of ourselves, as we say.  This shows us that phenomena are anatta,
not self.  Anger is real, but it falls away immediately.  Love,
hate, wisdom, generosity, all these things are real, but there is no self
which could not be mater of them, they are anatta.

 Does not everybody have his
own personality?  There is nothing lasting in a man, not even what
we call his character.  There are ever changing moments of consciousness
which arise and fall away.  There is only one moment of consciousness
(citta) at a time, and it falls away immediately after it has arisen, but
it is succeeded by a next moment.  Thus our whole life is like a chain
of moments of consciousness.  Each moment of consciousness which falls
away conditions the next moment of consciousness and thus it is possible
that our good and bad moments today condition our inclinations in the future. 
Generosity today or anger today conditions generosity or anger in the future. 
A moment of right understanding now conditions right understanding in the
future, and thus it is possible to develop wisdom.  Although each
moment falls away we can still speak of an ‘accumulation’ of experiences
in each moment of consciousness, and we can call this character. 
But we should not forget that the mental phenomena we call character do
not last and that they do not belong to a self.

 We do not become estranged
from life and from our fellowmen when we see both ourselves and others
as nama and rupa which are impermanent and not self.  We would rather
that there is no impermanence, no death, but that is not possible. 
It is better to know the truth about life than to mislead ourselves with
regard to the truth.  When there is less clinging to the concept of
self we will be able to act with more unselfishness and thus we can be
of more help to others and we can perform our duties with more wholesomeness.

 In reality there are only nama
and rupa which are impermanent and not self.  Nama experiences or
knows something, rupa does not know anything.  Seeing, hearing, thinking,
love, hate, these are all experiences, they are namas.  Sound, hardness
or softness are rupas, they do not experience anything.  Both nama
and rupa are realities which we experience time and again, they are real
for everybody.  We do not have to name them in order to experience
them; They can be directly experienced when they present themselves, at
this moment.

 We see and hear the whole day,
but we know so little about these realities.  Seeing is an experience
through the eyes and it is different from thinking of what we see. 
Hearing is an experience through the ears and it is different from thinking
of what we hear.  Since the different moments of consciousness succeed
one another so rapidly we believe that we can see and hear or see and think
all at the same time.  However, there is only one moment of consciousness
at a time which experiences one object and then falls away immediately.

 We are attached to all namas
and rupas.  We are, for example, attached to seeing and to what we
see, but what is actually seeing and what is visible object?  We should
know seeing and visible object as they are.  We think that we are
a person but seeing sees only what appears through the eyes: the visible. 
A person could not contact the eye-sense.  When we pay attention to
the shape and form of something there is no seeing, but thinking. 
Thinking of a person is another moment of consciousness which cannot occur
at the same time as seeing.

 At first we may find it strange
that seeing only sees visible object and not a person.  We find it
strange because we actually cling to the concept of a person who exists,
who stays, at least for some time,  But this is not the truth.

 When we look at what we call
a ‘person’, seeing sees only what is visible, visible object. Visible object
is not a person, it is a kind of rupa which falls away immediately, although
we do not realize it.  At the moment of seeing only visible object
is experienced, no other reality such as solidity.  It is true that
the rupa which is visible object does not arisen alone, it arises together
with other rupas such as solidity and temperature.  Visible object
could not arise if there were no solidity and other rupas arising together
with it.  However, only one reality can be known at a time; it can
be known when it appears through the appropriated doorway.  Realities
can be experienced one at a time through eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body-sense
and mind, through these six doors.  The moment of consciousness which
experiences visible object does not experience sound or hardness (solidity). 
When we touch what we call a ‘human-body’ hardness may appear through the
body-sense.  The hardness which is experienced is not a body, it is
only hardness, a rupa which is experienced through the body-sense and it
falls away again, although we do not realize it.  Since we always
cling to the concept of a person or the human body we fail to see them
as different elements which do not stay, even for a second.  We are
always attached to people and to self and this causes us sorrow.

 We do not only cling to the
concept of a person but also to the concepts of things such as a house
or a tree and we believe that they exist, that they can stay.  In
reality there are only different elements which arise and fall away. 
Our life is actually one moment of consciousness which experiences one
object and this moment falls away immediately.  Then another moment
arises.  The object which is experienced does not stay either, it
falls away.

 The development of a more precise
knowledge of realities which appear one at a time is the only way to gradually
eliminate ignorance and wrong view about them.  If we learn to be
aware of the characteristic of visible object when it appears we will know
that it is only a rupa appearing through the eye-sense, not a person. 
If there can be awareness of hardness when it appears we will know that
it is only a rupa appearing through the body-sense, not a person or a thing. 
We should not try to avoid thinking of people or things, thinking is a
reality, it arises.  However, we should know that the concepts which
are object of our thinking are not realities; they are different from nama
and rupa which can be experienced one at a time through the appropriate
doorways.  We form up concepts because of a combination of many different
experiences which we remember. 

 Nama and rupa are ‘ultimate
realities’, paramattha dhammas; they are realities which can be directly
experienced by everybody, without there being the need to think about them. 
We do not have to think of sound or hardness in order to experience them. 
They are real for everybody and they can be experienced when they appear. 
Person, animal, tree or house are not paramattha dhammas, they are concepts.

 We may find it difficult to
accept that nama and rupa are realities and that concepts such as people,
animals and things are not realities.  Gradually we may be able to
prove to ourselves that life is actually one moment of experiencing one
object through one of the six doors.  Thus, life is nama and rupa
which arise because of conditions and fall away again.  Time and again
there are objects impinging on the different doorways.  When there
is a pleasant object attachment is bound to arise, and when there is an
unpleasant object, aversion.  Defilements have been accumulated and
they can arise at any time so long as they have not been eradicated. 
Defilements are nama which arise because of conditions.  When there
is no right understanding of nama and rupa we will only have a superficial
knowledge of both ourselves and others.  We will have a wrong understanding
of cause and effect in life.  Don’t we blame others for our own unhappiness? 
The real cause of unhappiness is within ourselves.  Right understanding
of the different namas and rupas which appear is the only way to have less
defilements and thus to have less sorrow in life.

 Namas and rupas can experienced
now.  There are seeing and hearing time and again but we may never
have been aware of them.  Still, it is necessary to know them as they
are.  Seeing is not thinking.  Seeing sees and it does not think. 
When we close our eyes we may think of many things but we cannot see. 
When we open our eyes something appears which did not appear when our eyes
were closed.  There is seeing, and seeing sees visible object. 
Seeing does not see a man or a tree.

 The development of insight
is a kind of study of nama and rupa through the direct experience of them. 
Namas and rupas which appear one at a time should be ‘studied’ with mindfulness,
but each moment of study is extremely short, since mindfulness does not
last, it falls away.  However, gradually a clearer understanding of
realities can be accumulated.  Nama and rupa are the objects of the
‘study with mindfulness’, not people, animals or things.  Whenever
we are there are in reality only nama and rupa, such as seeing, hearing,
the visible object, sound or hardness.  Instead of clinging to them
or having aversion towards them we can know them as they are.  When
we realize that our life is actually only nama and rupa which arise because
there are conditions for their arising, we can become more patient, even
in difficult situations.

 Mindfulness (sati) is nama
which arises with a wholesome moment of consciousness.  We cannot
induce mindfulness whenever we want it, but it can arise when there are
the appropriate conditions.  All namas and rupas in our life arise
only when there are the appropriate conditions, not because of our will. 
The condition for right mindfulness is intellectual understanding of what
nama and rupa are: realities which appear through the six doorways. 
Nama and rupa which appear now – thus, realities, not ideas - are the objects
about which right understanding should be developed.  When we read
in the Buddhist scriptures time and again about the realities which appear
through the six doors or we listen to talks about nama and rupa, and we
understand what we read or what we hear, then the intellectual understanding
can condition the arising of mindfulness.  Even one moment of mindfulness
is valuable because it can condition another moment later on and thus right
understanding can grow.  The development of insight is the highest
form of wholesomeness, it is the only way to eradicate attacment, aversion
and ignorance.

 Mindfulness of the nama or
rupa which appears now is the way to develop insight.  When one believes
that one does all one’s actions in a day with thoughtfulness but there
is no awareness of  nama and rupa, it is not the development of insight. 
When one, for example, follows what one’s hands and feet are doing in a
day one does not learn anything about nama and rupa, about what is real,
about impermanence.

 In the development of insight
we do everything as usual, but in our daily life there can be mindfulness
of a nama or a rupa, a moment of ‘study with mindfulness’, study through
the practice.  When my husband takes my hand, there is, as we say,
a ‘human contact’.  What are the realities?  There is attachment
and this is real, we do not have to try to suppress it.  There can,
in a very natural way, be study with mindfulness of a nama or a rupa. 
What appears through the body-sense?  Not a person, not my husband. 
Heat or cold, hardness or softness can appear through the body-sense. 
We do not have to think about it, it can be directly experienced. 
Through mindfulness we can prove that no person is experienced through
the body-sense, that a person does not exist.  There is no person,
only different namas and rupas appearing one at a time, and they do not
stay.  Clinging to people brings sorrow; eventually I will have to
take leave from my husband, nothing is permanent.  Through the development
of insight, clinging to the concept of a person who exists can be eradicated.

 When there is more right understanding
of nama and rupa we will have a different view of the events of our life. 
We like to make plans but often things do not happen the way we would like
them to.  Our good and bad deeds (kamma) are the causes in our life
which bring their results in the form of pleasant and unpleasant experiences. 
When we understand that our life is nama and rupa which arise because of
their own conditions, not because of our will, we will be less attached
to pleasant results and less inclined to blame others for unpleasant things
we experience.  There are only nama and rupa and we are not master
of them.  Through the development of insight we will become more patient,
we will have more loving-kindness and compassion.  Thus, the development
of insight is to the benefit of other people as well.



 

 

 Appendix

The Paramattha Dhammas

 According to the teaching of
the Buddha there exist certain realities which constitute the realness
of the phenomena of life and there are concepts which are just thoughts,
ideas, figmentations, illusions, etc., with which we concern ourselves
most of the day.  The purpose of this appendix is to list and briefly
explain the realities (paramattha dhammas).  The term ‘paramattha
dhammas’ means absolute realities.  That is, these realities exist
and there are no other realities.

 The paramattha dhammas are
divided first into two kinds.  There are mental phenomena (or mentality)
known as ‘nama’ in the Pali language and there are physical phenomena (or
materiality) known as ‘rupa’ in Pali.  Nama has the function of experiencing
something while rupa cannot experience anything.  That is, it is through
mentality that we experience things and it is both mental phenomena and
material phenomena that is experienced.  So there are two kinds of
realities:

1. nama (mentality)

2. rupa (materiality)

The paramattha dhammas can be further
divided in four ways:

1. citta (a moment of consciousness
or a moment of experience),


2. cetasika (mental factors accompanying
consciousness), 


3. rupa (material phenomena)

4. nibbana (the unconditioned reality)

 The first three of these four
realities are called conditioned.  That is because they all arise
from causes, they are all conditioned by other occurences.  The fourth
type, nibbana, is the unconditioned reality.  It is not caused by
any other thing.  It does not arise and it does not cease.  All
the other realities arise and cease continuously, so they do not last. 
Our lives consist of phenomena which are constantly arising and ceasing. 
So we cannot hold onto, own or keep anything in reality.

 Of the four-way division of
realities, citta, cetasika and nibbana are types of nama (mentality) and
the fourth, rupa, is materiality.

 The paramattha dhamma can be
further divided by way of the five types of aggregates or groups (khandhas)
into which they fall.  These five khandhans are the aggregates of
our daily existence.  All conditioned namas and rupas can be classified
under the five khandhas:-

1. rupa-khandha- which is all material/physical
phenomena,


2. vedana-khandha – which is feeling
(vedana),


3. sanna-khandha – which is perception
or memory (sanna),


4. sankhara-khandha – which is fifty
mental factors (cetasikas),


5. vinnana-khandha – which is all
the types of cittas.

 The first of the group of aggregates
is known as rupa-khandha and consists of all the material elements of existence. 
For example, hardness, temperature, pressure, color, smell, taste are all
types of rupa-khandha.  All aspects of the body can be classified
under rupa.

 The second is vedana-khandha. 
This comprises several types of feeling, viz., pleasant feeling, unpleasant
feeling and indifferent feeling.  Feeling is a mental factor (cetasika). 
There are also two other types of feeling, the pleasant bodily feeling
and unpleasant bodily feeling.  The first three are mental feeling
and the last two are bodily feelings.

 The third is sanna-khandha. 
Sanna is the mental factor (cetasika) known as memory or perception. 
Sanna marks the object of experience so that it can be recognized now and
in the future.

 The fourth is sankhara-khandha.
This comprises the other fifty cetasikas which arise with the moment of
experience (citta).  (See ‘cetasikas’ enumerated later).

 The fifth is ’vinnana-khandha. 
This comprises all types of moments of experience (citta).  All types
of citta are classified under this khandha.

 The khandhas are called the
‘groups of grasping’.  This means that we cling to, or grasp at these
aggregates as belonging to a self.  As long as we take them for self
we do not understand them as they really are, just paramattha dhammas,
just conditioned realities.

 Citta is the first of the four
types of paramattha dhammas.  It is also the fifth group of aggregates. 
The word ‘citta’ is derived from the root ‘cit’, to think.  Citta
is that which is the chief in experiencing an object.  There are many
different types of citta.  They are divided four ways according to
whether it is –

1. consciousness pertaining to the
sense sphere (kamavacara citta),


2. consciousness pertaining to the
form sphere (rupavacara citta),


3. consciousness pertaining to the
formless sphere (arupavacara citta),


4. supramundane consciousness (lokuttara
citta).

 The four categories of consciousness
are classified according to whether they are wholesome or skillful (kusala
citta), unwholesome or unskilful (akusala citta), the result of deeds (kamma)
in the past (vipaka citta) or neutral consciousness with on effect (kiriya
citta).

 There are

  1) in the sensuous sphere
54 types of consciousness,


  2) in the form sphere 15
types of consciousnes,


  3) in the formless sphere
12 types of consciousness,


  4) in the supramundane 8
types of consciousness.

 This total 89 types of consciousness
in all (see later; citta can be also classed as 121 different types).

 In the sensuous sphere there
12 types of akusala citta (unwholesome consciousness) that have roots:-

a.) cittas rooted in attachment (i.e.
with their base or foundation in attachment):


1. citta, unprompted connected with
wrong view accompanied by pleasant feeling.


2. Citta, prompted connected with
wrong view accompanied by pleasant feeling.


3. Citta, unprompted not connected
with wrong view accompanied by pleasant feeling.


4. Citta, prompted not connected
with wrong view accompanied by pleasant feeling.


5. Citta, unprompted  connected
with wrong view accompanied by indifferent feeling.


6. Citta, prompted  connected
with wrong view accompanied by indifferent feeling.


7. Citta, unprompted not connected 
with wrong view accompanied by indifferent feeling.


8. Citta, prompted not connected
with wrong view accompanied by indifferent feeling.

b.) cittas rooted in ill – will or
aversion:


9. Citta, unprompted  accompanied
by unpleasant feeling, connected with ill-will.


10. Citta, prompted  accompanied
by unpleasant feeling, connected with ill-will.

c.) cittas rooted in delusion or
ignorance:


11. citta, connected with doubt
accompanied by indifferent feeling.


12. Citta, connected with restlessness
accompanied by indifferent feeling.


 

There are 18 types of rootless consciousness:-

a.) cittas which are unwholesome
results:


1. body-consciousness accompanied
by unpleasant feeling.


2. Ear-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


3. nose-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


4. tongue-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


5. eye-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


6. receiving-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


7. investigation-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.

b.) cittas which are wholesome results:

8. body-consciousness accompanied
by pleasant feeling.


9. Ear-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


10. nose-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


11. tongue-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


12. eye-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


13. receiving-consciousness accompanied
by indifferent feeling.


14. investigation-consciousness
accompanied by indifferent feeling.


15. investigation-consciousness
accompanied by pleasant feeling.

c.) functional (kiriya) cittas:

16. five sense-door adverting consciousness
accompanied by indifferent feeling.


17. mind-door adverting consciousness
accompanied by pleasant feeling.


18. Smile-producing consciousness
(of an arahant) accompanied by pleasant feeling.


 

 There are 24 types of beautiful
(sobhana) cittas of the sensuous sphere:-

a.) cittas which are wholesome consciousness
(kusala):


1. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


2. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


3. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


4. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


5. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


6. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


7. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


8. citta, prompted dissociated with
wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.

b.) cittas which are wholesome result
(kusala vipaka):


9. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


10. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


11. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


12.citta, prompted dissociated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


13. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


14. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


15. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


16. citta, prompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.

c.) citas which are neutral (kiriya)
:


17. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


18. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


19. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


20. citta, prompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by pleasant feeling.


21. citta, unprompted associated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


22. citta, prompted associated with
wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


23. citta, unprompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


24. citta, prompted dissociated
with wisdom accompanied by indifferent feeling.


 

 There are 15 types of form
sphere consciousness (rupavacara citta) of the meditative absorptions:-

a.) cittas which are wholesome consciousness:

1. first jhana citta with initial
application, sustained application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


2. Second jhana citta with sustained
application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


3. Third jhana citta with joy, happiness
and one- pointedness.


4. Fourth jhana citta with happiness
and one-pointedness.


5. Fifth jhana citta with equanimity
and one-pointedness.

b.) cittas which are resultant consciousness:

6.  first jhana  resultant
citta with initial application, sustained application, joy, happiness and
one-pointedness.


7. Second jhana resultant citta
with sustained application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


8. Third jhana resultant citta with
joy, happiness and one- pointedness.


9. Fourth jhana resultant citta
with happiness and one-pointedness.


10. Fifth jhana resultant citta
with equanimity and one-pointedness.

c.) cittas which are neutral (kiriya)
consciousness:


11. first jhana kiriya citta with
initial application, sustained application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


12. Second jhana kiriya citta with
sustained application, joy, happiness and one-pointedness.


13. Third jhana kiriya citta with
joy, happiness and one- pointedness.


14. Fourth jhana kiriya citta with
happiness and one-pointedness.


15. Fifth jhana kiriya citta with
equanimity and one-pointedness.


 

 There are 12 types of formless
sphere consciousness (arupavacara citta) of the higher meditative absorptions:-

a.) cittas which are wholesome consciousness:

1. jhana citta dwelling on the ‘Infinity
of Space’.


2. Jhana citta dwelling on the ‘infinity
of Consciousness’.


3. Jhana citta dwelling on ‘Nothingness’.

4. Jhana citta dwelling on ‘Neither
Perception nor non-perception’.

b.) cittas which are resultant consciousness:

5.  resultant jhana citta dwelling
on the ‘Infinity of Space’.


6.  Resultant jhana citta dwelling
on the ‘infinity of Consciousness’.


7. Resultant jhana citta dwelling
on ‘Nothingness’.


8. Resultant jhana citta dwelling
on ‘Neither Perception nor non-perception’.

c.) cittas which are functional (kiriya)
consciousness:


9. kiriya jhana citta dwelling on
the ‘Infinity of Space’.


10. Kiriya jhana citta dwelling
on the ‘infinity of Consciousness’.


11. Kiriya jhana citta dwelling
on ‘Nothingness’.


12. Kiriya jhana citta dwelling
on ‘Neither Perception nor non-perception’.


 

 There are 8 types of supramundane
consciousness (lokuttara citta).  These are the cittas of one who
is experiencing the unconditioned reality, nibbana:-

a.) cittas which are supramundane
path consciousness (maggacitta):


1. sotapanna path consciousness.

2. sakadagami path consciousness.

3. anagami path consciousness.

4. arahatta path consciousness.

b.) cittas which are resultant supramundane
consciousness (phalacitta):


5. sotapanna fruit consciousness.

6. sakadagami fruit consciousness.

7. anagami fruit consciousness.

8. arahatta fruit consciousness.

 

 Thus there are 89 different
types of citta which can be experienced-12 unwholesome cittas, 21 wholesome
cittas, 36 resultant cittas and 20 functional cittas.  In the sensuous
sphere there are 54 types of citta, in the form sphere 15 types, in the
formless sphere 12 types and in the supramundane sphere 8 types.

 These different classes of
cittas can also be divided into 121 types according to if the cittas of
the path and fruit of Sotapanna consciousness, Sakadagami consciousness,
Anagami consciousness and Arahatta consciousness are accompanied by the
jhana factors of the first, second, third, fourth and fifth jhana. 
Thus there are 16 additional types of maggacitta and 16 additional types
of phalacitta.


 The mental factors (cetasikas)
which accompany moments of citta are of 52 different kinds.  Of these
52, they are subdivided according to their natures into seven classes.

 First there are the 7 universals
(sabbacittasadharana).  They accompany every single moment of citta
and thus are called universals:

1. contact (phassa)

2. feeling (vedana)

3. perception (sanna)

4. volition or intention (cetana)

5. one-pointedness (ekaggata)

6. phychic-life (jivitindriya)

7. attention (manasikara)

 

 Then there are the 6 particular
cetasikas, so called because they associate with only particular types
of consciousness.  They associate with either the wholesome or unwholesome
cittas.  They are called pakinnaka in Pali.

1. initial application (vitakka)

2. sustained application (vicara)

3. determination (adhimokkha)

4. effort (viriya)

5. interest (piti)

6. desire-to-do (chanda)

 

 Next are the 14 unwholesome
cetasikas (akusala cetasikas).  They make up all the akusala moments
of consciousness.

1. ignorance (moha)

2. lack of moral shame (ahirika)

3. lack of fear of unwholesomeness
(anotthappa)


4. restlessness (uddhacca)

5. attachment (lobbha)

6. wrong view (ditthi)

7. conceit (mana)

8. aversion (dosa)

9. envy (issa)

10. stinginess (macchriya)

11. regret (kukkucca)

12. sloth (thina)

13. torpor (middha)

14. doubt (vicikiccha)

 

 Next are the 19 beautiful cetasikas
(sobhanasadharana) so called because they are common to all morally beautiful
moments of consciousness.

1. confidence (saddha)

2. mindfulness (sati)

3. moral shame (hiri)

4. fear of unwholesomeness (ottappa)

5. disinterestedness (alobha)

6. amity (adosa)

7. equanimity (tatramajjhattata)

8. composure of mental states (kayapassadhi)

9. composure of mind (cittapassanhi)

10. lightness of mental states (kaya-lahuta)

11. lightness of mind (citta-lahuta)

12. pliancy of mental states (kaya-muduta)

13. pliancy of mind (citta-muduta)

14. adaptability of mental states
(kaya-kammannata)


15. adaptability of mind (citta-kammannuata)

16. proficiency of mental states
(kaya-pagunnata)


17. proficiency of mind (citta-pagunnata)

18. rectitude of mental states (kaya-ujukata)

19. rectitude of mind (citta-ujukata).

 There are the 3 abstinences
(virati cetasikas):


20. right speech (samma vaca)

21. right action (samma kammanta)

22. right livelihood (samma ajiva)

 

 The two cetasikas called the
illimitables (appamanna), so called because their objects are without limit:

23. compassion (karuna)

24. sympathetic joy (mudita).

 

 And finally the last sobhana
cetasika:


25. wisdom (panna).

 

 Thus there are 25 morally beautiful
cetasikas (sobhana cetasikas) arising in various combinations in the wholesome
states of consciousness.  And a total of 52 different cetasikas that
can arise in groups with the citta.

 We now come to the classification
of matter.  Rupa or material phenomena consists of 8 basic constituents
which compose all matter.  These are known as the ‘eightfold group’
(suddhtthaka-kalapa)  These consist of the four great elements (mahabhuta)
and four more derived form them (upadaya-rupa).

1. solidity (pathavi)

2. cohesion (apo)

3. temperature (tejo)

4. motion (vayo)

and the derivatives:

5. color (vanna)

6. smell (ghandha)

7. taste (rasa)

8. nutriment (oja).

 There are a further 20 types
of matter, all of which are also dirived rupas:


9. eye organ (cakkhu)

10. ear organ (sota)

11. nose organ (ghana)

12. tongue organ (jivha)

13. body organ (kaya)

14. male and female characteristic
– 2 rupas (bhava-rupas)


15. heart base (hadayavatthu)

16. material life-principle (rupa-jivita)

17. space (pariccheda)

18. bodily intimation (kaya-vinnatti)

19. speech intimation (vaci-vinnatti)

20. sound (sadda)

21. lightness (lahuta)

22. plasticity (muduta)

23. adaptability (kammannata)

24. growth (upacaya)

25. continuity (santati)

26. decay (jarata)

27. impermanence (aniccata)

 

 These are all the different
types of rupa.  The fourteenth type, male and female characteristic,
is of two types which makes a total of 28 rupas.

 Thus concludes the appendix
containing the classification of the varieties of nama and rupa (mental
phenomena and material phenomena).  There are 89 (or 121) types of
consciousness, 52 different mental factors and 28 types of matter. 
The Buddha explained that these are the sum total of conditioned realities. 
There is one type of unconditioned reality and that is called nibbana (in
Sanskrit, nirvana).  Nibbana is described as the ‘deathless’, the
‘cool’, the ‘incomparable’, the ‘peaceful’.  It is the end of craving,
the goal of the Buddha’s teachings.

SUGGESTED  FURTHER READING LIST

ABHIDHAMMA READING;

Abhidhamma For the Beginner, E.G.
Baptist, Colombo, 1959,


The Path of Purification, Buddhaghosa,
(trans. Bhikkhu Nanamoli), Buddhist Publication Society, 


 Kandy, 1975.

Abhidhamm in Daily Life, Nina van
Gorkom, Dhamma Study Group, Bangkok, 1975.


Manual of Abhidhamma, Narada Thera,
B.P.S., Kandy, 1975.


Guide Through the Abhidhamma Pitaka,
Nyanatiloka, B.P.S., Kandy, 1971.

ANTHOLOGIES AND TRANSLATIONS;

The Lion’s Roar, David Maurice,
Doubleday, N.Y.


The Dhammapada, Narada Thera, Vajiranrama,
Colombo, 1972.


Note: There are many translations
available of the Dhammapada, this can be recommended as one of the betther
ones.


Buddhism in Translation, H.C. Warren,
Atheneum, N.Y., 1976.

GENERAL READING;

The life of the Buddha, Bhikkhu
Nanamoli, B.P.S., Kandy, 1972.


The Buddha and His Teachings, Narada
Thera, Vajirarama, Colombo, 1973.


Path to Deliverance, Nyanantiloka,
Bauddha Sahitya Sobha, Colombo, 1974.


The Buddha’s Ancient Path, Piyadassi
Thera, B.P.S., Kandy, 1974.


What The Buddha Taught, Walpole
Rahula, Grove Press, N.Y., 1974.


Answering Dhamma Questions, Sujin
Boriharnwanaket, D.S.G., Adelaide, 1977.


Buddhism in Daily life, Nina van
Gorkom, D.S.G., Bangkok, 1977.


Pilgrimage in Sri Lanka, Nina van
Gorkom, D.S.G. Bangkok, 1977.


 

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Jumbo’s circus

Mayawati has begun her journey to Race Course road with a 590-seat step
Mayawati has begun her journey to Race Course road with a 590-seat step
On
any given day, Kanwar Singh Tanwar, a Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
candidate for the Delhi Assembly, can be spotted moving around his
constituency.  Tanwar last week chose to feel the wind in his face as he
rode an elephant on his way to file his nomination for the Chhattarpur
assembly seat in the capital.

The richest MLA aspirant’s caparisoned
elephant won eyeballs and brought traffic to a halt on Chhattarpur’s
potholed roads. But his party has let loose the elephant—the BSP’s
electoral symbol—into the wilds of north Indian politics.

The
BSP is contesting all 590 seats at stake in Delhi, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh as a dry run for Mayawati’s planned march to
Race Course Road next year. Five years ago, it contested 387 seats and
won only six but Mayawati believes she and the BSP have come a long way
since last year’s landslide victory in Uttar Pradesh.

Mayawati
kicked off her poll campaign in Madhya Pradesh with an election rally
at Khandwa during the week. In Delhi, the party was the first to
announce candidates for all the seats. “Winning seats in the Delhi
polls is important as a message will spread across the country ahead of
Lok Sabha polls that Mayawatiji is prime minister material,” says BSP
Delhi President Brahm Singh Bidhuri.

The ambitions may be
national, but the issues remain local. “Price rise, complete statehood
demand, basic amenities such as bijli, sadak, paani and unauthorised
colonies are among the issues the BSP would be raising during the
elections,” Bidhuri says.

Not even die-hard BSP optimists think the party can win a handful of
seats, if any, but its USP is the spoiler’s role of poaching from the
traditional votebank of the Congress—Original Inhabitaants of Jambudvipa, that is the Great Prabuddha Bharath, Muslims and people hailing
from eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

It can effectively dent the chances of Congress candidates in nearly a
dozen constituencies. In another 18 constituencies where 20 per cent of
the voters are SCs, the BSP is again a threat to the Grand Old Party.
To gain cross-caste acceptance, as it did in Uttar Pradesh last year,
the party has given 51 tickets to Brahmins, Gujjars, Jats, Vaishyas,
Muslims, Khatris, Yadavs, Kshatriyas and Sikhs.

The elections will
also put to test, albeit in a smaller way, the big ticket alliance
between the Left and Mayawati. It will show how far Team Maya can go
beyond the photo-ops with an impressive line-up and mark a nation-wide
presence.

The BSP has now grown beyond Uttar Pradesh into a
party that is capable of upsetting other parties in at least 10 states
including Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Punjab in next
year’s Lok Sabha polls.

Its aim is to bag all 80 seats UP in
the General Elections. In the Uttar Pradesh assembly elections, it won
206 of the 403 seats. It led in 55 of the state’s 80 parliamentary
segments and the Mayawati camp believes that the party can do similarly
well in all the 80 seats outside the state.

The ongoing
elections will gauge if the Maya-Marx friendship can walk the talk. The
Red brigade has called upon its cadre to vote for BSP candidates in all
constituencies where Left candidates are not contesting.

The party also fears
that due to its alliance with the BSP, it will end up losing its
residual cadre to the bigger partner.

In the
2003 assembly polls, the BSP got 7.26 per cent of the vote share in
Madhya Pradesh as against 6.3 per cent five years earlier.


The
reason for its electoral breakthroughs in Madhya Pradesh and
Chhattisgarh lay in its successful social engineering even before the
recent wooing of the upper castes in Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan, the
party will contest all 200 assembly seats and all prominent castes have
found equal representation.

It is symptomatic of the nature of the
party’s leadership that the BSP remains the only party not to have
released it own poll manifesto. “The performance of Mayawati Government
in Uttar Pradesh is our manifesto,” says a party functionary. The BSP
is looking for flashes of recognition in its journey to Race Course
Road.

1,300 Independents join poll fray in Madhya Pradesh

BHOPAL: Though independent legislators
hardly influence Madhya Pradesh
politics
, more than 1,300 independent candidates
have entered the fray.

Three Baskets Study Circle political pundits say there is a possibility that Bahujan Samaj party
would hit the magic figure of 116 in the 230-member assembly.

While the Congress and the BJP are contesting 228 seats
each, the BSP has fielded candidates in all the 230 constituencies, the
Samajwadi Party 225 seats and the BJS 215 seats.



“If the Congress
faces the threat of the BSP cutting into its vote share, the BJP is up for a
similar situation from the BJS, which accentuates the possibility of no single
party getting an absolute majority”.
.

Rabi acreage up in all crops barring wheat



Our Bureau

New Delhi, Nov. 21 With winter steadily setting in, farmers have already sown almost a third of the normal area under rabi.

According to the Agriculture Ministry’s latest Crop Weather Watch
Report, released here on Friday, wheat planting has so far been done on
83.78 lakh hectares (lh), which is marginally lower than the 84.99 lh
covered during the same period last year.

While acreage has gone up in Haryana (from 17.50 lh to 18 lh),
Gujarat (1.90 to 2.96), Rajasthan (1.57 to 4.84) and Karnataka (1.80 to
1.91), it is trailing behind in Punjab (22.70 to 21.45), Madhya Pradesh
(15.78 to 15.24), Uttar Pradesh (14.49 to 12.13) and Maharashtra (3.21
to 3.14).

The normal time for sowing wheat is from mid-November to mid-December.

In case of planting after mid-December, the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research (ICAR) has estimated average per hectare yields
to drop from 4.5 tonnes to 3.6 tonnes in North-West India (Punjab,
Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh), from 4.3 to 3.7 tonnes in central
India (Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat), and from 3.8 to 3.1 tonnes
in Eastern UP-Bihar.

The yields could go down still further in these regions to 2.8
tonnes, 2.6 tonnes and 2.4 tonnes, respectively if sowing takes place
after late-December. “With minimum temperatures slated to fall over
North-West and adjoining central India, much of the area will be
covered within the next couple of weeks,” Ministry officials said.

Meanwhile, in most other crops, there has been a significant jump in
acreages – be it jowar, maize and barley or oilseeds (rapeseed-mustard,
sunflower and groundnut) and pulses (gram, lentil and peas).



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