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11/01/08
The Pali Canon-Bhikkhu Pesala An Exposition of the Dhammacakka Sutta-Your backstage pass-Thou Shalt Not Cut this Tree-In the second phase that will be held from November 1 to December 31, the party will organise similar demonstrations in all Vidhan Sabha segments.-This Kannada Rajyothsava Day is Special because Classical Language Status has been declared. Centre grants Classical Language Status to Telugu, Kannada. All the Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath all over the world are happy.
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Posted by: @ 6:39 am


The Pali Canon 

The
Pali Canon is the complete scripture collection of the
Theravada school. As such, it is the only set of scriptures
preserved in the language of its composition. It is
called the Tipitaka

or “Three Baskets” because it includes the
Vinaya Pitaka or “Basket of Discipline,”
the Sutta Pitaka or “Basket of Discourses,”
and the Abhidhamma Pitaka or “Basket of
Higher Teachings”.

Chart of Tipitaka

http://www.bodhgayanews.net/pali.htm
http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.aimwell.org/Books/a_Cakka.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.aimwell.org/Books/Pesala/Dhammacakka/dhammacakka.html&h=287&w=287&sz=5&tbnid=75xOXKHyGGIJ::&tbnh=115&tbnw=115&prev=/images%3Fq%3DAll%2Bthe%2BSuttas%2Bof%2BVinaya%2BPitaka%2Bwith%2Bpictures&hl=en&usg=__1B-bzV7zRhk3e3cGO6CyrOAntAo=&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=2&ct=image&cd=1

Bhikkhu Pesala

An Exposition of the Dhammacakka Sutta

Wheel of the Dhamma © Christine Fitzmaurice

This
discourse is found in the Samyuttanikāya, Mahāvagga, Saccasamyutta —
the Great Chapter of the Book of Kindred Sayings, in the collection of
sayings on the Truths.

It
is also found in the narrative of the Vinaya Mahāvagga,
Pañcavaggiyakathā — the Great Chapter of the Vinaya Pitaka in the story
of the group of five ascetics who attended on the bodhisatta for six
years during his practice of asceticism.

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    Dhammacakka SuttaRecited by monks of Wat Metta (2.9Mb)

    Dhammacakka SuttaRecited by Sayādaw U Sobhita (4Mb)

 

 

The Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta

The full title is the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, but it is widely known as the Dhammacakka Sutta.

After
attaining Enlightenment the Buddha was at first reluctant to teach the
Dhamma that he had realised. He considered, “This Dhamma is profound
and goes against the flow of sensual desire; most people are strongly
attached to and immersed in sensual pleasures.” However, he reasoned
that some were not too strongly attached, and were already searching
for truth. They would be able to understand it.

First
he thought to teach it to Ālāra Kālāma, who had taught him meditation
to attain the realm of infinite consciousness, but devas told him that
Ālāra had passed away only last week; and he realised this was true by
his own direct knowledge.

Next
he thought about teaching Uddaka Rāmaputta, who had taught him
meditation to attain the realm of neither perception nor
non-perception, but devas told him that Uddaka had passed away the
previous night; and he realised this was true by his own direct
knowledge.

So
he decided to teach the Dhamma first to the five ascetics who
accompanied him while he was practising self-mortification. So he went
to the deer park at the Sages’ Grove near Benares, where they were
staying.

The
Buddha was alone after his enlightenment. There was no one to tell him
where the ascetics were staying, but on the night of his enlightenment
he had attained the divine eye by means of which one can see things at
a great distance. The Dhammacakka Sutta begins as follows:

    “Evam
    me suttam — Ekam samayam Bhagavā Bārānasiyam viharati Isipatane
    Migadāye. Tatra kho Bhagavā pañcavaggiye bhikkhū āmantesi:”

    “Thus

    have I heard — At one time the Blessed One was staying at the deer park
    in the Sage’s Grove. Then the Blessed One addressed the group of five
    ascetics:”

The
Buddha was not yet staying at Isipatana, but had only just arrived
after a journey of ten or eleven days on foot from Bodhgāya, a distance
of about 144 miles. Seeing him coming, the five ascetics agreed not to
greet him, or offer him water or a seat, because in their view he had
reverted to a life of comfort and abandoned the struggle for
enlightenment. Their view was that enlightenment could only be attained
by self-mortification — by punishing the body to remove attachment.
However, when he approached they could not adhere to their agreement,
so they greeted him, fetched water for washing the feet, and offered
him a seat.

The
Buddha stated plainly that he had attained enlightenment and urged them
to listen to him, but they were skeptical. Only when the Buddha
reminded them of his total honesty during their long association did
their hearts become open to listen. Then he began by saying:

    “Dveme,
    bhikkhave, antā pabbajitena na sevitabbā. Katame dve? Yo cāyam kāmesu
    kāmasukhallikānuyogo hīno gammo pothujjaniko anariyo anatthasamhito, yo
    cāyam attakilamathānuyogo dukkho anariyo anatthasamhito. Ete kho,
    bhikkhave, ubho ante anupagamma majjhimā patipadā Tathāgatena
    abhisambuddhā cakkhukarani ñānakarani upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya
    nibbānāya samvattati.”

    “These
    two extremes, monks, should not be followed by one gone forth. Which
    two? Sensual indulgence, which is low, vulgar, worldly, ignoble, and
    unprofitable; and self-mortification, which is painful, ignoble, and
    unprofitable. Avoiding these two extremes, monks, the Tathāgata has
    discovered the Middle Path that produces vision and knowledge, and
    leads to tranquillity, higher knowledge, enlightenment, and nibbāna.”

The
Buddha was fully conscious of the view that the five ascetics held.
They had been living in the forest practising austerity much longer
than him. They were the astrologers who predicted at his birth that he
would become either a Buddha or a World Turning Monarch (Cakkavatti).
One of them, Kondañña, had predicted certainly that he would become a
Fully Enlightened Buddha. Believing firmly in their knowledge of
astrology, they had renounced the world twenty-nine years before him,
thirty-five years ago, to await his renunciation. They hoped to be the
first to benefit from his teaching, and were disappointed when they
thought he had given up the struggle. Evidently, they had lost
confidence in their own astrology.

So
the Buddha began by denouncing indulgence in sensual pleasures, which
they believed was incompatible with higher knowledge. Only then did he
denounce self-mortification — which they practised — as painful,
ignoble, and unprofitable. He then stated that by avoiding these two
extremes he had discovered the Middle Path that produces knowledge and
vision, and leads to tranquillity, higher knowledge, enlightenment, and
nibbāna.

Now
they were eager to hear this teaching. They had abandoned sensual
pleasures thirty-five years ago, and had practised self-mortification
ever since then without any beneficial result worth mentioning. They
had no doubt had a hard time, living in the forest all those years with
scanty food and shelter, without the company of relatives. All of them
were now over fifty years old.

    “Katamā
    ca sā, bhikkhave, majjhimā patipadā Tathāgatena abhisambuddhā
    cakkhukaranī ñānakaranī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya
    samvattati? Ayameva ariyo atthangiko maggo, seyyathidam: sammāditthi
    sammāsankappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammā-ājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati
    sammāsamādhi. Ayam kho sā, bhikkhave, majjhimā patipadā Tathāgatena
    abhisambuddhā cakkhukaranī ñānakaranī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya
    nibbānāya samvattati.”

    “And
    what, monks, is the Middle Path that produces vision and knowledge, and
    leads to tranquillity, higher knowledge, enlightenment, and nibbāna? It
    is this noble eightfold path itself, namely: right view, right thought,
    right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right
    mindfulness, and right concentration. The Tathāgata, monks, has
    discovered the Middle Path that produces vision and knowledge, and
    leads to tranquillity, higher knowledge, enlightenment, and nibbāna.”

The
Buddha only mentioned the eight path factors in brief, without
explaining their meaning in detail. The ascetics must have already been
familiar with basic moral conduct, and the proper livelihood for a
recluse, but it is not said whether they had learnt from the bodhisatta
how to attain the jhānas. He had mastered them all under Ālāra and
Uddaka. Having realised that they did not lead to enlightenment,
perhaps he did not teach them to the five ascetics, since they were
searching for a different path. Without even the enjoyment of jhānic
bliss, the ascetics must have had a tough time staying in the forest —
they could not have been lazy and addicted to sensual pleasures.

After simply listing the factors of the eightfold path, the Buddha went on to explain the four noble truths.

    “Idam
    kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkham ariyasaccam: jātipi dukkhā, jarāpi dukkhā,
    byādhipi dukkho, maranampi dukkham, appiyehi sampayogo dukkho, piyehi
    vippayogo dukkho, yampiccham na labhati tampi dukkham: samkhittena
    pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.”

    “This,
    monks, is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is
    suffering, disease is suffering, death is suffering, association with
    the unloved is suffering, separation from the loved is suffering, not
    getting what one wants is suffering, in brief the five aggregates of
    grasping are suffering.”

    “Idam
    kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccam: yāyam tanhā
    ponobbhavikā, nandirāgasahagatā tatratatrābhinandinī, seyyathidam:
    kāmatanhā, bhavatanhā, vibhavatanhā.”

    “This,
    monks, is the noble truth of the cause of suffering: this craving that
    leads to repeated becoming, taking delight now here, now there, namely:
    craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence, and craving for
    non-existence.”

Learned
monks explain craving for non-existence as the craving that arises
dependent on the belief that this very life is the only one. It is not
the wish to commit suicide, but the wish to enjoy life to the full,
without having to worry about the consequences of one’s actions. If one
does not believe in a future existence after death, what reason is
there not to enjoy oneself as much as possible? “Eat, drink, and be
merry, for tomorrow we may die” is a common maxim that many ignorant
people live by. Not seeing that rebirth follows death as surely as
Monday morning follows the weekend, people try their utmost to enjoy
sensual pleasures, regardless of the effect on their health,
reputation, and spiritual life.

    “Idam
    kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodham ariyasaccam: yo tassāyeva tanhāya
    asesavirāganirodho cāgo patinissaggo mutti anālayo.”

    “This,
    monks, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: the cessation
    of craving without any remainder, giving it up, renouncing it, and
    complete freedom from it.”

We
can all restrain our desires for a while, if we know that we can
indulge in them as much as we like later. However, this is not
renunciation at all, but only restraint. To renounce something means we
must fully understand the disadvantages of attachment to it, and then
give it up.

Every
smoker knows very well that cigarettes cause lung cancer, heart
disease, etc., yet they are not able to give up smoking. When they
rightly understand the suffering involved in smoking they will
certainly give it up. It is the same with sensual pleasures. We remain
attached to them as long as we do not realise their disadvantages.
Attachment to views also causes suffering, but people relinquish their
views with great difficulty.

    “Idam
    kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhagāminī patipadā ariyasaccam: ayameva
    ariyo atthangiko maggo, seyyathidam: sammāditthi sammāsankappo
    sammāvācā sammākammanto sammā-ājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati
    sammāsamādhi.”

    “This,
    monks, is the noble truth of the way leading the cessation of
    suffering: this noble eightfold path itself, namely: right view, right
    thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort,
    right mindfulness, and right concentration.”

The
noble eightfold path is often taught in the order: morality,
concentration, and wisdom, beginning with right action, speech, and
livelihood, since morality is the foundation of spiritual development.
However, here the Buddha began with right view because the five
ascetics were already well established in morality, but did not have
right view. Because their view was wrong, everything else was wrong
too, so they could attain no benefit from their wrong efforts.

All
Buddhists should strive to establish right view. There are two
conditions for the arising of right view: the utterance of another, and
systematic attention. The utterance of another may also be found by
reading books. Systematic attention, or wise attention is essential. If
we are not open-minded when reading or listening to others, we will not
understand anything, because our wisdom is obscured by attachment to
our own opinions.

If
we are intelligent and open-minded, we will be able to reason wisely
and accept whatever is right, while rejecting anything that is false.
Then our view will gradually be straightened out until it is completely
in conformity with the Buddha’s teaching. When we have acquired mundane
right view, or gained confidence in the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha, we
will surely strive to attain nibbāna, the end of suffering. Those who
do not practise meditation, have not yet acquired even mundane right
view. Supramundane right view can be gained only by attaining the path
of a Stream-winner.

The
Buddha then went on to explain the three aspects of each of the four
truths, regarding which the insight, wisdom, vision, and light arose
that had never arisen before. The same phrase is used repeatedly
regarding each of the twelve aspects, so I have summarised the
translation. For each of the four truths, the second and third aspects
are different.

    “‘Idam
    dukkham ariyasaccan’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
    cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko
    udapādi. ‘Tam kho panidam dukkham ariyasaccam pariññeyyan’ti me,
    bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi,
    paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi. ‘Tam kho panidam dukkham
    ariyasaccam pariññātan’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
    cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko
    udapādi.”

    “Insight,
    knowledge, wisdom, vision, light arose regarding things not seen before
    that ‘This is the noble truth of suffering.’ ‘This noble truth of
    suffering should be [thoroughly] understood.’ ‘This noble truth of
    suffering has been understood.’”

    ‘Idam
    dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccan’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu
    dhammesu cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi,
    āloko udapādi. ‘Tam kho panidam dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccam
    pahātabban’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum
    udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
    ‘Tam kho panidam dukkhasamudayam ariyasaccam pahīnan’ti me, bhikkhave,
    pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā
    udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.”

    “Insight,
    knowledge, wisdom, vision, light arose regarding things not seen before
    that ‘This is the noble truth of the cause of suffering.’ ‘This noble
    truth of the cause of suffering should be abandoned.’ ‘This noble truth
    of the cause of suffering has been abandoned.’”

    ‘Idam
    dukkhanirodham ariyasaccan’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu
    dhammesu cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi,
    āloko udapādi. ‘Tam kho panidam dukkhanirodham ariyasaccam
    sacchikātabban’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum
    udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
    ‘Tam kho panidam dukkhanirodham ariyasaccam sacchikatan’ti me,
    bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi,
    paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.”

    “Insight,
    knowledge, wisdom, vision, light arose regarding things not seen before
    that ‘This is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering.’ ‘This
    noble truth of the cessation of suffering should be realised.’ ‘This
    noble truth of the cessation of suffering has been realised.’”

    ‘Idam
    dukkhanirodhagāminī patipadā ariyasaccan’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe
    ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā udapādi,
    vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi. Tam kho panidam dukkhanirodhagāminī
    patipadā ariyasaccam bhāvetabban’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu
    dhammesu cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi,
    āloko udapādi. ‘Tam kho panidam dukkhanirodhagāminī patipadā
    ariyasaccam bhāvitan’ti me, bhikkhave, pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu
    cakkhum udapādi, ñānam udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko
    udapādi.”

    “Insight,
    knowledge, wisdom, vision, light arose regarding things not seen before
    that ‘This is the noble truth of the path to the end of suffering.’
    ‘This noble truth of the path to the end of suffering should be
    developed.’ ‘This noble truth of the path to the end of suffering has
    been developed.’”

So
suffering should be thoroughly understood, craving should be abandoned,
nibbāna should be realised, and the path should be developed. The
Buddha had done this fully and completely, so he could boldly claim to
be fully enlightened. We must develop the path until we also realise
the end of suffering.

There
is huge difference between understanding theoretically and realising
practically. No one needs to be told that pain, disease, old age, not
getting what one wants, etc., are suffering — it is obvious. However,
our understanding is not right understanding, nor clear understanding.
If it was right understanding we would already be arahants, without any
mental defilements such as greed, anger, envy, conceit, pride,
delusion. Just by hearing about the four noble truths and thinking over
them a bit, do we become enlightened? Not at all. Therefore, morality
has to be perfected, concentration has to be deepened, mindfulness has
to be firmly established, effort has to be roused up and made vigorous,
thoughts have to be turned away from worldly desires. Only then can we
gain the right view that can penetrate suffering properly. When the
suffering of conditioned existence is clearly understood, we will
definitely want to be liberated from it. No one wants to be liberated
from happiness — they want to enjoy it as much as possible, but sensual
enjoyment is just suffering concealed by delusion.

The Buddha continued by explaining that as long as
he had not fully understood, abandoned, realised, and developed these four truths, he did not claim to be enlightened.

    “Yāvakīvañca
    me, bhikkhave, imesu catūsu ariyasaccesu evam tiparivattam dvādasākāram
    yathābhūtam ñānadassanam na suvisuddham ahosi, neva tāvāham, bhikkhave,
    sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamanabrāhmaniyā pajāya
    sadevamanussāya ‘Anuttaram sammāsambodhim abhisambuddho’ti
    paccaññāsim.”

    “As
    long, monks, as my knowledge of these four noble truths in three
    aspects and twelve ways was not completely pure, I did not, monks,
    claim incomparable full enlightenment in the world with its maras,
    brahmas, recluses and brahmins, with its gods and men.”

    “Yato
    ca kho me, bhikkhave, imesu catūsu ariyasaccesu evam tiparivattam
    dvādasākāram yathābhūtam ñānadassanam suvisuddham ahosi, athāham,
    bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamanabrāhmaniyā pajāya
    sadevamanussāya ‘Anuttaram sammāsambodhim abhisambuddho’ti
    paccaññāsim.”

    “But
    when, monks, my knowledge of these four noble truths in three aspects
    and twelve ways was completely pure, I did claim, monks, the
    incomparable full enlightenment in the world with its maras, brahmas,
    recluses and brahmins, with its gods and men.”

    Ñānañca pana me dassanam udapādi: ‘Akuppā me vimutti, ayamantimā jāti, natthidāni punabbhavo’”ti.

    “Then
    knowledge and vision arose in me: “Irreversible is my liberation, this
    is my final birth, there will be no more further existence.”

    Idamavoca Bhagavā. Attamanā pañcavaggiyā bhikkhū Bhagavato bhāsitam abhinandunti.

    This is what the Blessed One said. The group of five monks rejoiced exceedingly in what the Blessed One had said.

    Imasmiñca
    pana veyyākaranasmim bhaññamāne Āyasmato Kondaññassa virajam vītamalam
    dhammacakkhum udapādi: ‘Yam kiñci samudayadhammam, sabbam tam
    nirodhadhamman’ti.

    When
    this discourse had been given, the spotless, stainless eye of Dhamma
    arose in the Venerable Kondañña: “Whatever arises, all that passes
    away.”

This
means that Venerable Kondañña realised nibbāna and attained the path of
Stream-winning. His insight presumably developed gradually as he
listened to the discourse, culminating in enlightenment just as the
Blessed One finished speaking. None of the other four ascetics gained
enlightenment at that time, but they must have gained firm faith in the
Blessed One for they took up the rains retreat with him the following
day and all began to practise meditation diligently. At the end of the
three-months rains retreat, all five monks gained arahantship, on
listening to the discourse on not-self — the Anattalakkhana Sutta.

    Pavattite
    ca pana Bhagavatā Dhammacakke, Bhummā devā saddamanussāvesum: ‘Etam
    Bhagavatā Bārānasiyam Isipatane Migadāye anuttaram Dhammacakkam
    pavattitam appativattiyam samanena vā brāhmanena vā devena vā mārena vā
    brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin’ti.

    When
    the wheel of the Dhamma had been set rolling by the Blessed One, the
    earthbound devas declared in one voice: “The incomparable wheel of
    Dhamma has been set rolling by the Blessed One in the deer park, at the
    Sage’s resort near Benares, and it cannot be turned back by any
    recluse, brahmin, deva, mara, brahma, or by anyone in the world.”

    Bhummānam
    devānam saddam sutvā, Cātumahārājikā devā saddamanussāvesum: ‘Etam
    Bhagavatā Bārānasiyam Isipatane Migadāye anuttaram Dhammacakkam
    pavattitam, appativattiyam samanena vā brāhmanena vā devena vā mārena
    vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin’ti.

    Having
    heard the earthbound devas, the devas of the Four Great Kings declared
    in one voice: “The incomparable wheel of Dhamma has been set rolling by
    the Blessed One in the deer park, at the Sage’s resort near Benares,
    and it cannot be turned back by any recluse, brahmin, deva, mara,
    brahma, or by anyone in the world.”

    Cātumahārājikānam
    devānam saddam sutvā, Tāvatimsā devā saddamanussāvesum: ‘Etam Bhagavatā
    Bārānasiyam Isipatane Migadāye anuttaram Dhammacakkam pavattitam,
    appativattiyam samanena vā brāhmanena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā
    vā kenaci vā lokasmin’ti.

    Having
    heard the devas of the Four Great Kings, the devas of the Thirty-three
    declared in one voice: “The incomparable wheel of Dhamma has been set
    rolling by the Blessed One in the deer park, at the Sage’s resort near
    Benares, and it cannot be turned back by any recluse, brahmin, deva,
    mara, brahma, or by anyone in the world.”

    Tāvatimsānam
    devānam saddamsutvā, Yāmā devā saddamanussāvesum: ‘Etam Bhagavatā
    Bārānasiyam Isipatane Migadāye anuttaram Dhammacakkam pavattitam,
    appativattiyam samanena vā brāhmanena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā
    vā kenaci vā lokasmin’ti.

    Having heard the devas of the Thirty-three, the Yāmā devas declared in one voice …

    Yāmānam
    devānam saddamsutvā, Tusitā devā saddamanussāvesum: ‘Etam Bhagavatā
    Bārānasiyam Isipatane Migadāye anuttaram Dhammacakkam pavattitam,
    appativattiyam samanena vā brāhmanena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā
    vā kenaci vā lokasmin’ti.

    Having heard the Yāmā devas, the Tusita devas declared in one voice …

    Tusitānam
    devānam saddam sutvā, Nimmānaratī devā saddamanussāvesum: ‘Etam
    Bhagavatā Bārānasiyam Isipatane Migadāye anuttaram Dhammacakkam
    pavattitam, appativattiyam samanena vā brāhmanena vā devena vā mārena
    vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin’ti.

    Having heard the Tusita devas, the devas who delight in creating declared in one voice …

    Nimmānaratīnam
    devānamsaddamsutvā, Paranimmitavasavattī devā saddamanussāvesum: ‘Etam
    Bhagavatā Bārānasiyam Isipatane Migadāye anuttaram Dhammacakkam
    pavattitam, appativattiyam samanena vā brāhmanena vā devena vā mārena
    vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin’ti.

    Having
    heard the devas who delight in creating, the devas who delight in creations declared in one voice …

    Paranimmitavasavattīnam
    devānam saddam sutvā, Brahmakāyikā devā saddamanussāvesum: ‘Etam
    Bhagavatā Bārānasiyam Isipatane Migadāye anuttaram Dhammacakkam
    pavattitam appativattiyam samanena vā brāhmanena vā devena vā mārena vā
    brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin’ti.

    Having heard the devas who delight in creations, the Brahmās declared in one voice …

    Itiha
    tena khanena (tena layena) tena muhuttena yāva brahmalokā saddo
    abbhuggacchi. Ayañca dasasahassilokadhātu sankampi sampakampi
    sampavedhi, appamāno ca ulāro obhāso loke pāturahosi atikkamma devānam
    devānubhāvanti.

    Thus,
    at that very moment, at that very instant the sound reached up to the
    brahmā realms, and this ten-thousandfold world system trembled, and
    heaved, and shook, and an incomparable radiance arose in the world,
    even surpassing the radiance of all the deities.

Many
people doubt the existence of devas and brahmās, and few people claim
to have seen them, but it hard to rule out their existence given the
overwhelming evidence in such important discourses as the Dhammacakka
Sutta, Sakkapañha Sutta, Mangala Sutta, Brahmājala Sutta, Tevijja
Sutta, and many others.

The
Tevijja Sutta explains the way to reach the Brahmā realm. In this
discourse the Buddha ridicules the brahmins who cannot even point out
the way to reach the sun and moon, which they can see, let alone the
way to reach Brahmā, whom they cannot see. He goes on to show the way
to meet Brahmā through the practice of the four Brahmāvihāras. It is
therefore obvious that the Buddha did know the way to the Brahmā realm
and could go there whenever he wished to.

There
are so many discourses about things beyond common human knowledge, that
it becomes quite irrational to dismiss them all. If one rejects all the
discourses that make any mention of psychic powers, devas, brahmās,
heavenly realms, spirits, and hell, there will be very few discourses
left. One would have to assume that the Buddha only gave about one
discourse for each year of his ministry, which is absurd.

One
could dismiss many of the magical events in the commentaries as mere
embellishment, but the Pali texts themselves contain copious evidence
for the existence of devas and brahmās. The Brahmin Sangārava, a
student of the three Vedas, who spoke contemptuously of the Buddha as
“A bald-headed recluse,” asks the Buddha directly in the Sangārava
Sutta (Majjhimanikāya, Sutta 100), “Are there gods?”

The Buddha replied, “It is known to me to be the case that there are gods.”

When
Sangārava tries to cast doubt on the Buddha’s answer, the Buddha said,
“Bhāradvāja, when one is asked, ‘Are there gods?’ whether one answers,
‘There are gods,’ or ‘It is known to me to be the case [that there are
gods],’ a wise man can draw the definite conclusion that there are
gods.”

The
Buddha knew by his own direct knowledge that there were gods. He had
given countless discourses to them, so he was known as
‘Satthadevāmanussānam’ — teacher of gods and men. He was not simply
repeating a widely held belief, that is why he replied to Sangārava in
the way that he did. Had he simply stated, “Yes, there are gods”
Sangārava would have thought that he was simply repeating the
conventional belief.

Whenever
we read a Sutta, we should bear in mind the circumstances under which
it was given, and to whom it was given. We should read the introduction
to a discourse carefully; it is recorded because it is relevant to the
answer that the Buddha gives. We should also remember that the Buddha
had the power to read the minds of others, so he knew the real motive
behind their question, and whether they would be able to understand his
answer.

Because
I have no such powers, when people ask me a question I tend to take it
at face value. It is only later that I may realise the questioner
really meant to ask something else. For example, one person asked me
how to deal with anger, so I told her how to contemplate anger [in
oneself] using the insight method of bare awareness.

However,
what she really meant to ask was, “How do you deal with aggression [in
others]?” This is quite a different question. One should practise
loving-kindness to deal with hostility and aggression. If one uses the
method of bare awareness, the situation may get worse because the
aggessive person is not getting any attention.

The
Buddha was the perfect diplomat. He knew exactly what to say to arouse
faith in others if it was at all possible. Once he was described as a
magician who used his magic to convert the followers of others.

The Dhammacakka Sutta ends as follows:

    Atha
    kho Bhagavā imam udānam udānesi: ‘Aññāsi vata bho Kondañño, aññāsi vata
    bho Kondañño’”ti. Iti hidam Āyasmato Kondaññassa ‘Aññāsikondañño’ tveva
    nāmam ahosīti.

    Then
    the Blessed One made this joyful utterance: “Venerable Kondañña has
    understood. Venerable Kondañña has understood.” Thus Venerable Kondañña
    became known as ‘Kondañña the Wise.’

The
commentary adds that millions of brahmās and countless devas also
realised nibbāna while listening to the Dhammacakka Sutta. The
discourse was given at sunset, when both the sun and moon were visible
in the sky. Sātagiri, one of the devas who was present, did not gain
realisation of the Dhamma because his thoughts wandered to his friend,
Hemavata, who was absent. Therefore, when listening to or reading a
religious discourse one should give it one’s undivided attention. The
Dhamma is very profound, if it could be understood easily we would all
be enlightened by now. The bodhisatta had to sit for the whole night in
meditation (about twelve hours) without moving from his seat, to gain
enlightenment, after six years of experimenting with wrong methods. Of
the five ascetics, who had all been living far from sensual indulgence
for thirty-five years, only one gained realisation immediately on
listening to the Dhammacakka Sutta. The other four had to practise
meditation for several days before gaining the first path and its
fruition.

Hemavata
told his friend about the discourse and brought him to see the Buddha.
The Buddha taught them the Hemavata Sutta later the same night. That
was the second discourse of the Buddha. Overhearing the conversation of
the two devas, a young lady who was expecting a baby, gained faith in
the Buddha and attained nibbāna. Thus, she become the first enlightened
lay disciple of the Buddha before even meeting him. The Hemavata Sutta
can be found in the Uragavagga, the first chapter of the Suttanipāta.

All
over Burma there are “Dhammacakka Sutta Reciting Societies” whose sole
purpose is to memorise and recite this discourse just for the joy of
doing so. Learning the original Pali by heart is very useful. Though
one does not understand the meaning at first, gradually the meaning of
each word becomes crystal clear.

To
listen with reverence to the recitation of Suttas, even without
comprehending the meaning, is of spiritual value. When one’s knowledge
becomes mature, one can speak with authority on the Suttas that one has
memorised by heart. All Buddhist lay people should commit to memory at
least one or two important discourses such as the Mettā Sutta, on
loving kindness, and the Mangala Sutta, on blessings. The Mangala Sutta
is especially valuable for lay people. Wishing to know about auspicious
signs that tell of future happiness, a certain deity approached the
Buddha and sought his advice. The Buddha enumerated thirty-eight moral
virtues that give happiness in the future. The Singāla Sutta from the
Dïghanikāya should also be studied, though it is too long to memorise,
because it contains very useful advice for lay people on how to live a
successful and happy life in accordance with Dhamma.

Though
the Dhammacakka Sutta is quite long, it is not at all difficult to
learn as it contains many repetitive phrases. Recitation of texts that
one has learnt by heart is recommended by the Buddha as a method to
overcome sloth and brighten the mind. Recitation is an easy way to
focus the mind on the Dhamma, though one should, of course, know the
meaning too.

Learn
this Dhammacakka Sutta by heart and study the meaning in detail. The
entire Pāli text is included above in bold text, each paragraph being
followed by its translation.

Link to Pali PageNotes on Pronunciation

  • Vowels with a macron accent — ā, ī, and ū — are double the length of normal vowels.
  • The consonant ‘va’ is pronounced like ‘wa’.
  • The
    ‘m ‘with a dot, which usually comes at the end of a word is pronounced
    as ‘ng’ in sing. So too is the n with a dot above, which precedes ‘g’
    or ‘k’ as in atthangiko.
  • The n tilde ‘ñ’ is pronounced as ‘ny’ in canyon or as ‘ñ’ in the Spanish word mañana.
  • ‘Ph’ is pronounced like the first ‘ph’ in tophography, never as ‘f’ like the second ‘ph’.
  • Both
    halves of double consonants should be pronounced: e.g. ‘kka’ in cakka
    should be pronounced as ‘ck-ca’ in black-cat, not as ‘ck’ in backache.
  • ‘C’ is always pronounced as ‘ch’, never as ‘k’ or ‘s’.
Image:Ashoka2.jpg
Ashoka Maurya
Map of the Maurya Empire under Ashoka's rule.


Map of the Maurya Empire under Ashoka’s rule.

The Sanchi stupa in Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh established by emperor Ashoka in the third century BC.


The Sanchi stupa in Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh established by emperor Ashoka in the third century BC.
Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edicts of Ashoka (238 BC), in Brahmi, sandstones. British Museum.
Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edicts of Ashoka (238 BC), in Brahmi, sandstones. British Museum.
The Ashoka Chakra, featured on the flag of the Republic of India
Silver punch-mark coins of the Mauryan empire, bear Buddhist symbols such as the Dharmacakra, the elephant (previous form of the Buddha), the tree under which enlightenment happened, and the burial mound where the Buddha died (obverse). 3rd century BC.


Silver punch-mark coins of
the Mauryan empire, bear Buddhist symbols such as the Dharmacakra,
the elephant (previous form of the Buddha), the tree under which
enlightenment happened, and the burial mound where the Buddha died
(obverse). 3rd century BC.
Distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka and Ashokan territorial limits.




Greek Late Archaic style capital from Patna (Pataliputra), thought to correspond to the reign of Ashoka, 3rd century BC, Patna Museum (click image for references).
Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar - Afghan National Museum. (Click image for translation).

Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar - Afghan National Museum. (Click image for translation).

Ashokan Pillar at Vaishali


Ashokan Pillar at Vaishali
This is the famous original sandstone sculpted Lion Capital of Ashoka preserved at Sarnath Museum which was originally erected around 250 BCE atop an Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath. The angle from which this picture has been taken, minus the inverted bell-shaped lotus flower, has been adopted as the National Emblem of India showing the Horse on the left and the Bull on the right of the Ashoka Chakra in the circular base on which the four Indian lions are standing back to back. On the far side there is an Elephant and a Lion instead. The wheel

Symbol- BSP -Bahujan Samaj Party, India
BSP -Bahujan Samaj Party, India
Honb’le Km. Mayawati


Dear All,
 
The attack on the migrant workers from north India by raj
thackeray and his goons is misconceived as attack on north Indians
which it is not. All the people who have been attacked and targeted by
thackeray are Adi-Mulnivasi Bahujans - SCs/STs and OBCs(Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa,that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath). If thackeray
wanted to attack the north Indians for stealing the jobs of Marathi
people then he would have first attacked the large number of north
Indians who are working in big corporates, running their own
businesses, working in bollywood, working at higher posts in government
and semi government organizations. But he did nothing of that sort.
Instead the goons of sena and raj thackeray are attackeing the poor and
helpless north Indian SC/ST/OBCs who have come to Mumbai for doing
small time jobs. In fact most of the jobs these poor bahujans from
north India do are not really stolen from the marathi youth. The real
jobs that are stolen from the Marathi Bahujans are actually occupied by
north Indian bramhin(Invaders from Central Asia)-banias(Who have accepted to be the second rate souls after the Invaders from the Central Asia who claim to be the first rate souls).
Therefore Raj thackeray is dishonest when he says he is fighting
for marathi youth. Thackeray wants Marathi youth to take up the small
time jobs like rikshawala, milkwala, bhelpuriwala, taxiwala, etc. done
by our bahujan brothers from north India instead of the high profile
jobs done by north Indian bramhin baniyas in Mumbai, this means that
raj thackeray is enemy of Marathi youth and especially Bahujan Marathi
youth. Raj thackeray will never be punished because he is acting in the
interest of bramhin bania parties like congress and bjp.
 
It needs a strong Adi-Mulnivasi Bahujan(Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa,that is, the Great Prabuddha Bharath) leader ( the Obama of India )
like BSP supremo and UP CM Behen Mayawati to show criminal thackeray
his place in jail.
 

Jayant S. Ramteke

“JAYANT RAMTEKE”

Kannada Language

Kannada is
the state language of Karnataka, one of the four southern states in India
. It is also one
of the official languages of the Republic
of India. It is written
using the Kannada script. Kannada is almost as old as Tamil, the truest of the
Dravidian family.

Dravidian language, the
official language of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is spoken by more than
33 million people in Karnataka; an additional 11 million Indians may speak it
as a second language. The earliest inscriptional records in Kannada are from
the 6th century. Kannada script is closely akin to Telugu script in origin.
Like other major Dravidian languages, Kannada has a number of regional and
social dialects and marked distinctions between formal and informal usage.

kannada Channel





History of the Kannada language:


Kannada is a south Indian language spoken in Karnataka state of India.Kannada
is originated from the Dravidian Language. Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam are the
other South Indian Languages originated from Dravidian Language. Kannada and
Telugu have almost the same script. Kannada as a language has undergone
modifications since BCs. It can be classified into four types:

  • Purva Halegannada (from the beginning till 10th
    Century)
  • Halegannada (from 10th Century to 12th Century)
  • Nadugannada (from 12th Century to 15th Century)
  • Hosagannada (from 15th Century)

.

Kannada Channel:


Kannada Channel has links
to various informative websites for News
, Magazines,
Kannada Radio, Kannada Portals, Bollywood Movies and Music.

Phrases:

English

Kannada

 I Nanu

He Avanu

 She Avalu

You Neenu

Mother Thaayi/amma

Father Appa/thandhen

What is your name? Ninna hesarenu?/ Ninna hesaru yenu?

 How are you? Hegiddhiya?/ Neenu heghiddhiya?

 

This Kannada Rajyothsava Day is Special because Classical
Language Status has been declared. Centre grants Classical Language Status to
Telugu, Kannada. All the Original Inhabitants of Jambudvipa, that is, the Great
Prabuddha Bharath all over the world are happy.

 

EXPLORE THE KANNADA WORLD

 

More than 2600 years ago, The Exalted, Blessed, Noble and the
Awakened Mighty Great Mind with Full Awareness spoke Prakrit, Brahmi, PaLi for
Peace Welfare and Happiness of all Sentient and Non-Sentient Beings.

Sangam period

Amongst the
South Indian Languages, there is written data available for Tamil, Kannada and
Telugu languages
.

In Kannada, the first shaashana is
the 450 A.D. Halmidi shaashana. Ancient books like Vaddaaraadhane (800),
Kaviraja Marga (850) are also available.

450 B.C.
paaNini’s “aShTaadhaayi” has a reference to a “karnaadhaka”
gOtra

 

250 B.C. King Ashoka’s shaashana
has a reference to name called “isila” which is said to be Kannada
origin.

80 B.C. In the
Prakrit shaashana of Madhavpur-Vadagavi, the word “NaaTapati” is a
word of Kannada origin

150 A.D. Ancient
Greek historian Ptolemy’s book “Pappyrus” Kannada towns
“kalligere”, “baadaami”, “mudugal” find mention.

There is an
abundance of Kannada in many Prakrit shaashanas:

a.      
Words “nagipa”, “saMkapa” found in the 100 B.C.Prakrit
shaashana have a Kannada form

b.      
Usage of words like “manaaLi” originates in the union of two Kannada
words “mun” + “paLLi”

c.       
Kannada towns have been named in constructs like “saMbalIva oora
vaasinO”

d.      
“mooDaaNa” a word used in different languages to represent the
Eastern direction is of Kannada origin

150 A.D. In the Prakrit book “gaathaa saptashati”
written by Haala Raja, Kannada words like “tIr”, “tuppa”,
“peTTu”, “poTTu” have been used.

250 A.D. On the Pallava Prakrit
shaashana of Hire Hadagali’s Shivaskandavarman, Kannada word “kOTe”
transforms into “koTTa”

250 A.D. In the Tamil mega tome
“shilappadikaaraM” written by Ilango Adi, there is reference to
Kannada in the form of the ! word “karunaaDagar”

350 A.D. In the
Chandravalli Prakrit shaasana, words of Kannada origin like
“punaaTa”, “puNaDa” have been used.

250 A.D. In one more Prakrit shaasana found in
Malavalli,

Kannada towns like “vEgooraM” (bEgooru),
“kundamuchchaMDi” find reference
.

In the recent 2003 Harvard
publication “Early Tamil Epigraphy” authored by Iravatam Mahadev has
important substance in the current discussion. This publication provides a new
direction and paradigms to the question of Kannada’s antiquity. It extends the
antiquity of Kannada to older times than presently known. It also presents a
new thought that Tamil came under the Kannada influence in the years of B.C.
timeframe. Some Tamil shaasana’s beginning in the 3rd century B.C. shows a
marked Kannada influence.

In the 1-3 B.C.
Tamil shaashanas, words of Kannada influence “nalliyooraa”,
kavuDi”, “posil” have been introduced. The use of the vowel
“a” as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil, its usage is available
in Kannada. Kannada words like “gouDi-gavuDi” transform into Tamil’s
“kavuDi” for lack of the usage of “Ghosha
svana” in Tamil. That is the reason Kannada’s “gavuDi” becomes
“kavuDi” in Tamil. “posil” (Kannada “hosilu”) is
another Kannada word that got added into Tamil. Colloquial Tamil uses this word
as “vaayil
“.

In the 1 A.D.
Tamil shaasana, there is a personal reference to “ayjayya” which is
of Kannada origin. In another 3 A.D. Tamil shaasana, there is usage of the
words “oppanappa vIran”. The influence of Kannada’s usage of
“appa” to add respect to a person’s name is evident here.
“taayviru” is another word of Kannada influence in another 4 A.D.
Tamil shaasana. We can keep growing this list citing many such examples of
Kannada’s influence on Tamil during the B.C.-A.D. times.

Kannada’s
influence on ancient Tamil as depicted by the language of these shaasana’s is
of historical importance. There are no written data available in Kannada from
the times when these Tamil records show a marked Kannada influence. Moreover,
there have been no findings/ discussions of this face of Tamil till now, that
of a deep Kannada influence on it.

In the ambit of
the current discussion in the country about “Classical Languages”,
this influence of the influence of Kannada on ancient Tamil is of significance.
In the Central Government’s announcement of “Tamil Language literature is
of antiquity. It has grown independent of the influence of other languages’
literature. This is the reason that Tamil is being accorded the ‘Classical
language’ tag”, these findings have shown the weak foundation on which the
announcement was made. It has also shown the similar antiqueness of Kannada and
the influence it had on Tamil to make it what it is now. These Tamil shaasanas
have extended the horizons of understanding of ancient Karnataka’s language,
and socio-religious culture.

The next natural
question is that of the delay of about 500 years between the difference in the
appearance of the Kannada v/s the Tamil written records. These originate in the
political and administrative spheres of those times: the regions of the current
Karnataka and Andhra were then still under the influence of the Mauryas and
Shaatavaahanas, whereas, Tamil regions enjoyed independence of usage in
administration and writing. The Cheras, Cholas, Pantiyas, Satiya Putra
Adiyamanas adopted Tamil.
The Jainas,
Buddhist monks adopted the Brahmi font to the Tamil sound/ language.

Karanataka and
Andhra were under the Sanskrit deference. Many Prakrit languages were in
circulation since 6 B.C. in the Northern parts of India:
The Jains, and Buddhist monks learnt these languages
and wrote and taught in these Prakrit/ Pali languages
. In the south, they first adopted, used and taught
in Tamil since there was patronage for that language in the Tamil regions.
There was no opportunity for Kannada to gain such currency under the influence
of the Northern rulers. Such political reasons delayed the emergence of Kannada
into the literal mainstream for about 500 years. Kannada finally started its
independent emergence under the rule of the Kadambas and the Gangas. With such
political and administrative patronage, Kannada literature really blossomed
under the Badami Chalukyas.

The summary of
this discussion is enunciated in the following points:

1. Kannada came
into its independent existence from the proto-Dravidian language in the 6 B.C.
timeframe.

2. In about 3-4
B.C. Kannada was already in use by the common people.

3. In 3 B.C.
Kannada influenced the Indo-Aryan languages like Prakrit.

4. In the 2-1
B.C. timeframe, Kannada also influenced the Dravidian language Tamil.

5. There are
socio-political reasons for the 500 year delay of the emergence of Kannada in
shaasanas when compared to Tamil shaasanas. That does not mean Kannada at that
time did not have its own language, script and literature.

6. The reasons
for and against the emergence of Kannada were political: The Banavasi Kadambas
were the first to use Kannada as the second administrative language. Badami
Chalukyas were the first to use Kannada as a primary administrative language
granting it patronage of being the official language and the language of the
state. After that, Kannada has not looked back!

Storyof Kannadiga , kannada
and Karnataka

Glimpses of Kannada History and Greatness

Origin
of Rastrakuta

The Rashtrakuta Dynasty was a royal Indian dynasty ruling large
parts of southern, central and northern India between the sixth and the
thirteenth centuries. During this period they ruled as several closely related,
but individual clans. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a seventh
century copper plate grant that mentions their rule from Manpur in the Malwa
region of modern Madhya Pradesh. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same
period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur which is modern
Elichpur in Maharashtra and the rulers of
Kannauj.

The clan that ruled from Elichpur was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas and
during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on
to build an impressive empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as
its base. This clan came to be known as the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising
to power in South India in 753. Period between
the eight and the tenth centuries, saw a tripartite struggle for the resources
of the rich Gangetic plains, each of these three empires annexing the seat of
power at Kannauj for short periods of time. At their peak the Rashtrakutas of
Manyakheta ruled a vast empire stretching from the Ganga
River and Yamuna
River doab in the north to Cape Comorin in the south.

During their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed important works
in Kannada and Sanskrit. Amoghavarsha I was the most famous king of this
dynasty and wrote Kavirajamarga, a landmark literary work in the Kannada
language. The finest examples of which are seen in the Kailasanath Temple at
Ellora and the sculptures of Elephanta Caves in modern Maharashtra as well as
in the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in
modern Karnataka, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The origin of Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic. These issues
pertain to the origins of the earliest ancestors of the Rashtrakutas during the
time of Emperor Ashoka in the second century BCE, and the connection between
the several Rashtrakuta dynasties that ruled small kingdoms in northern and
central India and the Deccan between the sixth and seventh centuries. The
relationship of these medieval Rashtrakutas to the most famous later dynasty,
the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta (present day Malkhed in the Gulbarga district,
Karnataka state), who ruled between the eighth and tenth centuries has also
been debated


Punjab origin
The appearance of the terms Rathika, Ristika (Rashtrika) or Lathika
in conjunction with the
terms Kambhoja and Gandhara in some Ashokan inscriptions of 2nd century BCE
from Mansera and Shahbazgarhi in North Western Frontier Province (present day
Pakisthan), Girnar (Saurashtra) and Dhavali (Kalinga) and the use of the
epithet “Ratta” in many later inscriptions has prompted a claim that
the earliest Rashtrakutas were descendants of the Arattas, natives of the
Punjab region from the time of Mahabharata who later migrated south and set up
kingdoms there, while another theory points more generally to north western
regions of India. Based on this theory, the Arattas may have become natives of
the Deccan having arrived there during the
early centuries of the first millennium. But this is a far fetched theory
having no proof.

Maharastra origin
Term Rishtika used together with Petenika in the Ashokan
inscriptions implied they were hereditary ruling clans from modern Maharashtra
region and the term “Ratta” implied Maharatta ruling families from
modern Maharashtra region. But this has been
rejected on the basis that from ancient books such as Dipavamsha and Mahavamsha
in Pali language it is known the term Maharatta and not Rashtrika has been used
to signify hereditary ruling clans from modern Maharashtra region and the terms
Rashtrika and Petenika appear to be two different displaced ruling tribes.


Marathi or Telugu origin
The argument that the Rashtrakutas were either Marathi speaking
Marathas or Telugu speaking Reddies in origin has been rejected. Reddy’s in
that time period had not come into martial prominence even in the Telugu
speaking regions of Andhra, being largely an agrarian soceity of cultivators
who only much later (in the 14th century - 15th century) came to control
regions in the Krishna - Rajamundry districts. The Rashtrakuta period did not
produce any Marathi inscriptions or literature (with the exception of a 981 CE
Shravanabelagola inscription which some historians argue was inscribed later).
Hence Marathi as the language of the Rashtrakutas, it is claimed, is not an
acceptable argument

Rajputs
The Rashtrakutas emerged before the term “Rajput” came to
be used as a community. The emergence of Rajputs in Rajasthan and Gujarat coincides with the arrival of the Rashtrakutas
and Chalukyas in the region. So it is just a coincidence

kannadiga origin

  1. Ruling clans called Rathis and
    Maharathis were in power in parts of present day Karnataka as well in the
    early centuries of the Christian era, which is known inscriptions from the
    region and further proven by the discovery of lead coins from the middle
    of 3rd century bearing Sadakana Kalalaya Maharathi in the heart of modern
    Karnataka region near Chitradurga. In the face of these facts it is
    claimed it can no longer be maintained that the Rathi and Maharathi
    families were confined only to present day Maharashtra.
    There is sufficient inscriptional evidence that several Maharathi families
    were related to Kannadiga families by marriage and they were naga
    worshippers, a form of worship very popular in the Mysore region.
  2. The epithet Ratta, it is a Kannada
    word from which the word Rashtrakuta has been derived. The use of the word
    Rattagudlu (meaning an office) has been found in inscriptions from present
    day Andhra Pradesh dated prior to the 8th century indicating it was a
    South Indian word. From the Deoli plates and Karhad records it is clear
    prince called Ratta and his son was called Rashtrakuta. Thus Rashtrakutas
    were of Kannada origin. It is also said the term Rashtra means
    “kingdom” and Kuta means “lofty” or Rashtra means
    state and Kuta means chieftain.
  3. Another epithet used in
    inscriptions of Amoghavarsha I was Lattalura Puravaradhiswara. It referes
    to their original home Lattalur, modern day Latur in Maharashtra
    state, bordering Karnataka. This area was predominantly Kannada speaking
    based on surviving vestiges of place names, inscriptions and cultural
    relics. So Latta is a Prakrit variation of Ratta and hence Rattana-ur
    became Lattana-ur and finally Lattalur.
  4. Connections between the medieval
    Rashtrakuta families to the imperial family of Manyakheta, It is clear
    that only the family members ruling from Elichpur (Berar or modern Amravati district, modern Maharashtra)
    had names that were very similar to the names of Kings of the Manyakheta
    dynasty. From the Tivarkhed and Multhai inscriptions it is clear that the
    kings of this family were Durgaraja, Govindaraja, Svamikaraja and
    Nannaraja. These names closely resemble the names of Manyakheta kings or
    their extended family, the name Govindaraja appearing multiple times among
    the Manyakheta line. These names also appear in the Gujarat
    line of Rashtrakutas whose family ties
    with the Manyakheta family is well known.
  5. Princes and princesses of the
    Rashtrakuta family used pure Kannada names such as Kambarasa, Asagavve,
    Revakka and Abbalabbe as their personal names indicating that they were
    native Kannadigas. It has been pointed out that princesses of family
    lineage belonging to Gujarat signed their
    royal edicts in Kannada even in their Sanskrit inscriptions. Some examples
    of this are the Navsari and Baroda plates
    of Karka I and the Baroda
    plates of his son Dhruva II. It has been attested by a scholar that the Gujarat Rashtrakuta princes signed their
    inscriptions in the language of their native home and the race they
    belonged to. It is well known that the Gujarat
    line of Rashtrakutas were from the same family as the Manyakheta line. It
    is argued that if the Rashtrakutas were originally a Marathi speaking
    family, then the Gujarat Rashtrakutas would not have
    signed their inscriptions in Kannada language and that too in far away Gujarat.
  6. While the linguistic leanings of
    the early Rashtrakutas has caused considerable debate, the history and
    language of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta has been free of such
    confusion. It is clear from inscriptions, coinage and prolific literature
    that the court of these
    Rashtrakutas was multi-lingual, used Sanskrit and Kannada as their
    administrative languages and encouraged literature in Sanskrit and
    Kannada. As such, from the Kavirajamarga of 9th century, it is known that
    Kannada was popular from Kaveri
    river up to the Godavari river, an area covering large territory in modern
    Maharashtra.
  7. The Rashtrakuta inscriptions call
    them the vanquishers of the Karnatabala, a sobriquet used to refer to the
    near invincibility of the Chalukyas of Badami. This however it should not
    be construed to mean that the Rashtrakutas themselves were not Kannadigas.
    Their patronage and love of the Kannada language is apparent in that most
    of their inscriptions
    within modern Karnataka are in Kannada, while their inscriptions outside
    of modern Karnataka tended to be in Sanskrit. An inscription in classical
    Kannada of King Krishna III has also been found as far away as Jabalpur in
    modern Madhya Pradesh which further supports the view of their affinity to
    the language kannada.

So Rastrakutas are kannadiga origin

 

NOW is all that You Have

 

LANGUAGE


The medium of instruction will be English. However if students having read the
material in English would like to answer in Kannada can opt for this also.

Mahabodhi
Buddhist Open University! This is an opportunity to study and practice the
noble teachings of the
The Exalted, Blessed, Noble
and the Awakened Mighty Great Mind with Full Awareness

to bring happiness and peace in your life apart from development of your
knowledge.



Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita who
founded the Maha Bodhi Society and its sister organizations and who has been
rendering yeomen services to humanity since 50 years is the founder of this
University. It was his cherished dream to provide a systematic Buddhist
education as widely as possible. MBOU is the result of his efforts and research
in this field. He was a member of the Editorial Board of the Sixth Buddhist
synod (Chattha Sangayana) in Rangoon,
which brought out a complete edition of the Pali Tipitaka. Since then, he has
conducted many Dhamma and Pali courses, meditation courses and written numerous
books and translations of Buddhist texts. They have been published all over the
world, including some German, Portuguese, Korean and Chinese translations. He
has been editing and publishing English monthly magazine DHAMMA for the last
three decades.

THE AIMS
1.    To conduct Buddhist Study programs through correspondence
courses in a non-formal and cost-effective ways.
2.    To prepare candidates for three types of courses and award
diplomas and degrees in Buddhist Studies in an official convocation ceremony on
the Buddha Jayanti day.
3.    To present Buddhist teachings in a comprehensive and
practical way. Practice of Buddhist meditation and moral precepts called Panca
sila will be taught as an integral part of these courses
The courses are knowledge and practice oriented and not specifically for
employment. Interested people after completing the course can take up
Dhammacari programs or organize Dhamma study circles.

The university is located at the Maha Bodhi Society premises in Bangalore. A team of
dedicated workers is managing the administration and other departments.

THE COURSES
1.    DBS – Diploma in Buddhist Studies – Part I, II – 2 years
2.    BBS – Bachelor in Buddhist Studies – Part I, II, III – 3
years

The academic year will be from June to April the following year. For the year
2006-2007 DBS Part I and BBS Part I will be offered. Then these courses will be
further upgraded year by year.  



SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIAL
Candidates are supplied with printed materials. Each text book is in
interactive self instructional style and under different heads to facilitate
easy reading and learning.

CONTINUOUS EVALUATION THROUGH ASSIGNMENTS
Assignments form an integral part of the university’s system of appraising
candidate’s performance. The students are required to submit the assignments as
per the questionnaire sent to them. The assignments are returned after
evaluation and giving adequate feedback to students. Hence it acts as a
powerful learning device.

PRACTICAL SESSIONS
Since practice of meditation is part and parcel of the course candidates should
try to practice at their places. In Bangalore
every Sunday mornings meditation and talks are conducted where the candidates
can freely participate.

PROJECT WORK
The university insists on candidates to prepare a project report based on their
study and practice in real-life situations as well as experiences based on
research.

EXAMINATIONS
At the end of the course annual examination will be conducted over
correspondence

PROGRAMME
DELIVERY
The university has adopted a multimedia style of education that comprises
self-learning print material, lessons through internet, personal contact
sessions in a place where there are adequate number of candidates (comprising
lectures, seminars and counseling, audio, visual components etc), practical
sessions, assignments and real life-related /research oriented project work.

EVALUATION
Students’ performance is evaluated on a continuous basis - 25% through
assignments and at the term-end  75% through examinations. The minimum
passing marks will be 45 in each paper.



LANGUAGE



The
medium of instruction will be English. However if students having read the
material in English would like to answer in Kannada can opt for this also.

COURSE SYLLABUS
1st year Diploma
Paper 1 -  
1.    The Buddhahood Ideal
2.    The Bodhisatta Ideal and Paramis – Spiritual   
     Perfections (Jatakas)

Paper 2
1.    The historical Buddha Gotama – Birth to   
         Enlightenment

Paper 3
1. The Buddha’s Core Teachings
Paper 1
1.    Historical details of the spread of Buddhism till the
final decease of the Buddha – Mahaparinibbana

Paper 2
Expansion on the Core Teachings
1.    Four noble Truths
2.    Noble Eightfold Path
Paper 3
1.    Law of Moral Causation
2.    Kamma and Rebirth
3.    Nature of Nibbana, Enlightenment
2nd Year BA
Paper 1
1.    The ideals of the Buddhist Monasticism – Vinaya
2.    Monastic Rules of Conduct both for monks and nuns
3.    Background stories of rules
4. Rules of conduct for the lay community

Paper 2
1.    The relation between Buddhist laity and holy order
2.    The six Buddhist Synods and the role of the Holy order

Paper 3
An outline of the Tipitaka
3rd Year BA
Paper 1
1.    Analysis of the Dhamma by way of Navanga Buddhasasana,
Navanga Anupubbikatha
2.    The Dhamma viewed variously such as Middle Path,
visuddhimaggo, Ekayanamaggo etc

Paper 2.
Basic Teachings of the Abhidhamma
1.    Two truths
2.    Buddhism viewed from the stand points of these truths
3.    Paramattha Dhamma
i.    Citta
ii.    Cetasika
iii.    Rupa
iv.    Nibbana
4.    Buddhist psychology
5.    Psychological Ethics and Philosophy

Paper 3
1.    Buddhist Social Dimension – Applied Buddhism
2.    Buddhist science and human development
3.    Buddhist meditation as a psycho therapy and health care
measure
4.    Buddhist civilization and culture and their impacts
        on human history

Apart from the text books provided candidates are advised to read more books.
For information on books please contact Buddha Vacana Trust, 14, Kalidasa Road,
Gandhinagar, Bangalore-9. Many books are available for sale as well as for free
distribution.
We also advice to subscribe English monthly DHAMMA which carries interesting
articles, published by the Maha Bodhi Society, Bangalore.

For more texts on Buddhism please visit:
 www.mahabodhi.info

FEES
Admission and Registration fees
DBS courses  -  Rs.120 per year
BBS courses  -  Rs.150 per year

The Course Fees
DBS courses - Rs.500 per year  ( US $ 20 for overseas candidates)
BBS courses – Rs.750 per year (US $ 25 for overseas candidates)
 The payment should be made by cheque or DD or MO in the name of MAHABODHI
BUDDHIST OPEN UNIVERSITY, Bangalore, payable at Bangalore. or with information
to our office transfer money to our account  at
 Mahabodhi Buddhist Open University
A/c No.353102010008915
Union Bank of india,

Gandhinagar, Bangalore-560009

The last date for the receipt of filled up application form is 30th June 2006.
Address for Correspondence
Mahabodhi Buddhist Open University (MBOU)
14/1, 6th Cross, Gandhinagar, Bangalore-560009
Tel: 080-22250684
Fax: 080-22264438
Email: mbou@mahabodhi.infoThis email address is being
protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it

Web: www.mahabodhi.info

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