LESSON 78 EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES 03 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
Just as treasures are uncovered from the earth, so virtue appears from good deeds, and wisdom appears from a pure and peaceful mind. To walk safely through the maze of human life, one needs the light of wisdom and the guidance of virtue. - Buddha
BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!
WISDOM IS POWER
Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss
COMPUTER IS AN ENTERTAINMENT INSTRUMENT!
TO BE MOST APPROPRIATE!
Using such an instrument
The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :
Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit
As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.
The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.
§ Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches
Level I: Introduction to Buddhism
Level II: Buddhist Studies
Level III: Stream-Enterer
Level IV: Once - Returner
Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat
Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in
Philosophy and Comparative Religions;
International Relations and Peace Studies;
Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;
Languages and Literature;
and Ecology and Environmental Studies
1) eye-consciousness or seeing, 2) ear-consciousness or hearing, 3) nose-consciousness or smelling, 4) tongue-consciousness or tasting, 5) body-consciousness or tactile feeling, 6) mind-consciousness or cognition, 7) , the defiling mind-consciousness which is the faculty of mind, and , or storehouse, consciousness.
Consciousness is used exclusively in the sense of distinction-making activities of the mind, which include both the making of the distinctions and the distinctions made. Conscious awareness and what is normally unconscious are both considered aspects of consciousness in the Buddhist sense of the word.
The Consciousness-Only School describes the mind as a system of seven active consciousnesses () which all develop out of the eighth, or storehouse, consciousness. The latter is passive and contains the potentials, or “seeds” (), for the development and activity of the first seven consciousnesses. The seventh consciousness acts as a communication link between the eighth consciousness and the first six consciousnesses. It contains the sense of self, of ego individuality, with which it defiles the communications to the first six consciousnesses. The sixth consciousness is a perceptual and cognitive processing center, while the first five consciousnesses are the perceptual awarenesses of eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body.
Formal division is made among these seven consciousnesses after their emanation from the eighth, but division is totally based upon mental distinction. The eight are still basically “one”. To use a simple analogy, let us think of a room with seven light-bulbs. You flick on the light switch and seven distinct lights shine. Turn the switch off and the lights disappear. Yet there is just one electric current; the electrical source is comparable to the storehouse consciousness, or, as it is understood after the transformation of consciousness, to the enlightened mind.
The system for describing the eight consciousnesses, and the mental dharmas () which arise out of them and are dependent upon them, was developed as an important part of a pragmatic psychology of mind. The system can be used to describe, in a manner that is accurate and practical, both mental functioning and the specific techniques employed on the Path to the enlightenment that is Buddhahood. It provides a way to account for mental processes without recourse to the notions of a real, permanent self () or of real, permanent external (and also internal) objects (dharmas). All actual and potential realms of experience are shown to be contained within the transformations of consciousness and appear as manifestations of the distinction-making mind.
Nevertheless, because of our attachment to and belief in the reality of self and the reality of the “objects” () which we perceive and understand to be the external world, the true nature of ourselves and the world is obscured so that we are unaware of it.
“I. The Eye Consciousness. We say that eyes see, but it’s not actually the eyes themselves that see. It is the eye consciousness which sees. II. The Ear Consciousness. We say the ears can hear, but if you sliced off your ears and laid them aside, would they be able to hear of themselves? If you gouged out your eyes and set them aside, would they be able to see? Could you say, ‘I’m not going to the movies, but I’ll send my eyes along, and they can take in the show?’ Obviously not. The eyes cannot see by themselves. It is the eye consciousness which does the seeing. And where does the eye consciousness come from? From the mind–the Mind King. The same is true for all the other consciousnesses as well. III. The Nose Consciousness, IV. The Tongue Consciousness, V. The Body Consciousness, And VI. The Mind Consciousness. . . .
“The mind consciousness, the sixth or ‘intellectual’ consciousness, is not really the mind, properly speaking. The sixth consciousness is the function of the mind whose substance is the seventh consciousness, the Manas Consciousness, also called the ‘transmitting’ consciousness or the ‘defiling’ consciousness. It is the substance of the mind. It continually transmits the functions of the sixth consciousness to the eighth consciousness, The Alaya Consciousness. The eighth consciousness is called the , which means ’storehouse’, because it stores all information transmitted to it by the seventh. . . .” (HD 31-32)
“The human mind is an ever-spinning whirlpool in which mental activities never cease. There are four stages of production, dwelling, change, and decay in thought after thought. Often the seventh consciousness is described as a sea in which the currents of thought surge and seethe; meanwhile, the eighth consciousness is likened to a sea in which the apparent movement of waves has subsided, but underlying the placid surface is an uninterrupted rush of mental activity. The seventh consciousness is the ‘transmitting’ consciousness’; it relays sensory information from the sixth consciousness to the eighth (the Storehouse or Alaya Consciousness) and from the eighth back to the sixth and so forth. It takes for a self that which basically is devoid of a self. Because of a fixation to a false reckoning, thought movements rage on without stop. The wave patterns within the seventh consciousness are more apparent and forceful, whereas the movements of the eighth consciousness are still and imperceptible. Within the eighth consciousness are stored the seeds of all habit energies and impressions from beginningless time, and there are very subtle
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Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.
C.M. takes historical decision to benefit about 40 lakh cane farmers of State Unprecedented increase of Rs. 40 per quintal in cane purchase price
Lucknow: 02 November 2010
An important decision was taken in favour of the 40 lakh cane
growers of the State at a Cabinet meeting presided over by the Uttar
Pradesh Chief Minister Hon’ble Ms. Mayawati ji here today. For the current
crushing season, an increase of Rs. 40 per quintal has been effected in the
cane purchase price. It is a historical increase so far.
According to the decision taken by the Cabinet, the cane purchase
price for advance variety of sugar cane has been fixed at Rs. 210 per
quintal, for general variety at Rs. 205 per quintal and for late variety it
would be Rs. 200 per quintal for crushing season 2010-11.
The Hon’ble Chief Minister ji, at the meeting, said that if any dispute
arose in this regard, then an amicable solution should be arrived at with
the consent of the farmers. She said that the DMs of the cane growing
districts had been directed that they should interact with the Cane
Development Societies of their respective districts and also with the
representatives of the Sugar Mills to ensure that the farmers got some
more encouragement and facilities in addition to the State advisory price
with the consent of societies and mills.
Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that the State Government decided to
announce State advisory price in the interests of the farmers so that they
could be stopped from falling into the hands of money lenders. She said
that the crushing of the sugar cane should be started by the mills in a
timely manner so that the fields of the farmers could be vacated in time for
the sowing of wheat. It would help in increasing the rabi crop and the
farmers would get some additional income. She said that the cane price
(FRP) announced by the Government of India was inadequate and it was
natural that the farmers were agitated. Keeping in view the negative
attitude of the Central Government towards the farmers, her government
decided to fix the State advisory price for the cane farmers to watch their
It is worth mentioning that on the directives of the Hon’ble Chief
Minister ji, a committee was set up under the Chairmanship of the State
Chief Secretary for fixing the State advisory cane price (SAP) for the
crushing season 2010-11. The committee held discussions with the
representatives of the cane farmers and representatives of the sugar
industry, agriculture economists and various State and Central institutions
related with sugar cane and sugar, to fix the SAP for sugar cane. The
committee after serious deliberations proposed remunerative prices for
various varieties of sugar cane and requested Hon’ble Chief Minister ji to
take a decision in this regard.
It is notable that the Government of India had fixed FRP of Rs.
139.12 per quintal for sugar cane having a recovery of 9.5 per cent for the
current crushing season 2010-11. She said that during the last season the
average recovery of sugar mills of the State stood act 9.1 per cent. On this
basis, the FRP announced by the Government of India for the current
season was estimated at Rs. 133.26 per quintal.
The Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that the State Government, before
announcing the FRP, had kept in mind the cost of the sugar cane
production, support price of alternative crops of sugar cane, cost of sugar
production and selling price of sugar and its co-products. She said that her
government was sensitive towards the problems of cane growers and it had
full knowledge of their problems.
The Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that it was the result of the
sensitivity of her government in ensuring adequate and remunerative
prices of sugar cane to the cane growers of the State that during the
crushing season 2009-10, the sugar mills made an unprecedented increase
of Rs. 25 per quintal in various varieties of sugar cane in addition to the
SAP. She said that keeping in mind the resentment of the cane growers
and to protect their interests, the State Government imposed ban on the
transportation of raw sugar imported from foreign countries through
railway racks and also on its processing during the last crushing season.
Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that she had requested the Centre to
reconsider FRP system and to give priority to the interests of the farmers
and owing to it, the Central Government amended its FRP system. She said
that considering the situation emerged at that time and also the demand of
the cane growers, the State Government ensured payment of some more
amount in addition to the SAP with the mutual consent of the sugar mills to
encourage the cane growers.
The Hon’ble Chief Minister ji said that the cane crop played an
important role in the prosperity and development of the farmers. The sugar
industry affected the lives of the people of the State from various angles.
She said that the committee headed by the Chief Secretary had been
formed to listen to the views of all the sides involved with the cane crop in
an impartial manner and the same gave proper recommendation to the
State Government after listening to all the sides.
Hon’ble Chief Minister launches U.P. Mukhyamantri Mahamaya Garib Arthik Madad Yojana
50 per cent beneficiaries of this scheme will belong to SC/ST
All poor people deprived from benefit of BPL, Antyodaya, old age pension, physically handicapped pension and widow pension to get Rs. 300 per month
31 lakh poor people to be benefited in first phase
Lucknow: 01 November 2010
The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms. Mayawati ji
launched U.P. Mukhyamantri Mahamaya Garib Arthik Madad
Yojana in the State by giving approval letter to woman head of the
family of 10 beneficiaries’ families of Lucknow district selected
under the scheme. The Chief Minister also handed over the passbooks
to them having deposit of Rs. 1800 as six monthly
instalments into their accounts. She directed the concerning
officers that no poor person should be left under this scheme.
Under the first phase of this scheme, 31 lakh poor people will be
benefited. The remaining families would be benefited during the
next phase of this scheme. Under this scheme, at least 50 per cent
of beneficiaries would belong to scheduled castes/scheduled tribes.
It may be mentioned that this scheme was to be launched by
the Hon’ble Chief Minister on October 01 last, but due to
panchayat polls, it has been postponed for one month and the
scheme is being started today on November 01, 2010. Owing to
by-elections in Lakhimpur Kheri and Etah and enforcement of
model code of conduct, the beneficiaries of this scheme belonging
to these districts would get the amount transferred in their
accounts after the end of model code of conduct.
On the occasion of launching this scheme, the Hon’ble Chief
Minister distributed pass-books to 10 beneficiaries- Smt. Ramkali,
Smt. Asha Devi, Smt. Rani Devi, Smt. Sumirata, Smt.
Rameshwari, Smt. Zaharunnisa, Smt. Phoolmati, Smt. Kanti, Smt.
Jagrani, Smt. Shashi of Lucknow district. Addressing the function,
Hon’ble Ms. Mayawati ji said that the State Government had
implemented this scheme from today through its own resources
with a view to directly benefiting the poor people of the State.
Under the first phase of this scheme, about 31 lakh poor families
would be directly benefited and the remaining poor families would
be benefited during the next phase of this scheme. The
arrangement had been made to select mainly the woman head of
the family as the beneficiary of this scheme with a view to women
Hon’ble Chief Minister said that her government’s efforts
were to fulfil the daily needs of every poor family up to some
extent through this scheme by providing cash amount of Rs. 300
per month. She said that Government of India had fixed the
number of around 1.07 crore families subsisting below poverty line
in the state to provide food grains on cheaper rates so far, while
the number of BPL people is much more than one crore in the
State which has become clear from different Government data.
Hon’ble Chief Minister said that from the efforts of her
government it had become clear that the central government had
overlooked the poor by not increasing the number of BPL
beneficiaries. She further said that the Central Government
provides less than Rs. 300 as assistance to BPL card holders while
giving food grains at cheaper rates. She said that if the State
Government could benefit all the BPL families living in the State
despite its limited resources, then no help to poor families owing
to lack of money as told by the Central Government is most
Hon’ble Chief Minister said that when her Government
announced U.P. Mukhyamantri Mahamaya Garib Arthik Madad
Yojana, then Central Government woke up from the slumber and
now it has been forced to include more poor people through the
proposed Food Security Bill. More than that, owing to
implementation of this scheme to benefit poor directly, it would
become necessary for all the Governments in the country to
benefit poor people economically in direct manner and in this way
poor of the country would be benefited. She said that when her
absolute majority government was formed in May 2007, she had
resolved to prepare an effective scheme to remove the difficulties
of all the poor people of the State and benefit them directly.
Referring to an intensive survey of BPL card holders made by
the State Government in 2007-08, the Hon’ble Chief Minister said
from this survey, it emerged that a large number of poor families
were left in the State from inclusion in BPL list and she at her own
level made written request several times to the Central
Government to provide wheat and rice at cheaper rates to such
lakhs of BPL families. But, the Central Government clearly denied
the increase in BPL numbers and rejected the requests made by
her government in this regard. She said that her government had
no option, but to start Uttar Pradesh Mukhyamantri Mahamaya
Garib Arthik Madad Yojana, besides several other welfare schemes
through its own resources by making some savings from other
Hon’ble Chief Minister said that directives had been given by
the State Government to hold open meetings in every gram sabha
for the selection of beneficiaries for effective and transparent
implementation of this important scheme. The presence of
SDM/District level officers in these meetings had been made
compulsory. More than that, list of such selected persons was
published in every Gram Sabha and opportunity was given to
people to raise objections regarding this list within a month. After
listening and examining these objections, the District Magistrate
finalised the list of beneficiaries in concerning districts.
Hon’ble Chief Minister said that her government had taken
several steps to fulfil the aspirations of all the sections of Sarv
Samaj on the basis of“Sarvjan Hitay, Sarvjan Sukhay” in every
matter. Priority had been given to especially, dalits, exploited,
backwards, religious minorities, women and poor people of upper
castes. She lauded the efforts of government and administrative
officers for the implementation of this scheme.
On this occasion, the Chief Secretary Mr. Atul Kumar Gupta
welcomed the guests and assured the Hon’ble Chief Minister that
this scheme would be implemented with full transparency in
effective manner according to her expectations. Additional Cabinet
Secretary Mr. Net Ram expressed his gratitude towards the
Several Ministers, MPs, MLAs were present, besides the
Cabinet Secretary Mr. Shashank Shekhar Singh and other senior