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LESSON 93 Rooted 20 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble C.M. reviews conclusions of Principal Secretaries/Secretaries meeting
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LESSON  93

Rooted 20 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

 

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

 

LESSON  93 Rooted 20 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

I.
KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.069.than.html

AN 3.69 

PTS: A i 201

Mula Sutta: Roots

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2005–2010

“Monks, there are these three roots of what is unskillful. Which three? Greed is a root of what is unskillful, aversion is a root of what is unskillful, delusion is a root of what is unskillful.

“Greed itself is unskillful. Whatever a greedy person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is unskillful. Whatever suffering a greedy person — his mind overcome with greed, his mind consumed — wrongly inflicts on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is unskillful. Thus it is that many evil, unskillful qualities/events — born of greed, caused by greed, originated through greed, conditioned by greed — come into play.

“Aversion itself is unskillful. Whatever an aversive person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is unskillful. Whatever suffering an aversive person — his mind overcome with aversion, his mind consumed — wrongly inflicts on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is unskillful. Thus it is that many evil, unskillful qualities — born of aversion, caused by aversion, originated through aversion, conditioned by aversion — come into play.

“Delusion itself is unskillful. Whatever a deluded person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is unskillful. Whatever suffering a deluded person — his mind overcome with delusion, his mind consumed — wrongly inflicts on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is unskillful. Thus it is that many evil, unskillful qualities — born of delusion, caused by delusion, originated through delusion, conditioned by delusion — come into play.

“And a person like this is called one who speaks at the wrong time, speaks what is unfactual, speaks what is irrelevant, speaks contrary to the Dhamma, speaks contrary to the Vinaya. Why…? Because of having wrongly inflicted suffering on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power.’ When told what is factual, he denies it and doesn’t acknowledge it. When told what is unfactual, he doesn’t make an ardent effort to untangle it [to see], ‘This is unfactual. This is baseless.’ That’s why a person like this is called one who speaks at the wrong time, speaks what is unfactual, speaks what is irrelevant, speaks contrary to the Dhamma, speaks contrary to the Vinaya.

“A person like this — his mind overcome with evil, unskillful qualities born of greed… born of aversion… born of delusion, his mind consumed — dwells in suffering right in the here-&-now — feeling threatened, turbulent, feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, can expect a bad destination.

“Just as a sal tree, a birch, or an aspen, when smothered & surrounded by three parasitic vines, falls into misfortune, falls into disaster, falls into misfortune & disaster, in the same way, a person like this — his mind overcome with evil, unskillful qualities born of greed… born of aversion… born of delusion, his mind consumed — dwells in suffering right in the here-&-now — feeling threatened, turbulent, feverish — and at the break-up of the body, after death, can expect a bad destination.

“These are the three roots of what is unskillful.

“Now, there are these three roots of what is skillful. Which three? Lack of greed is a root of what is skillful, lack of aversion is a root of what is skillful, lack of delusion is a root of what is skillful.

“Lack of greed itself is skillful. Whatever an ungreedy person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is skillful. Whatever suffering an ungreedy person — his mind not overcome with greed, his mind not consumed — does not wrongly inflict on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is skillful. Thus it is that many skillful qualities — born of lack of greed, caused by lack of greed, originated through lack of greed, conditioned by lack of greed — come into play.

“Lack of aversion itself is skillful…

“Lack of delusion itself is skillful. Whatever an undeluded person fabricates by means of body, speech, or intellect, that too is skillful. Whatever suffering an undeluded person — his mind not overcome with delusion, his mind not consumed — does not wrongly inflict on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power,’ that too is skillful. Thus it is that many skillful qualities — born of lack of delusion, caused by lack of delusion, originated through lack of delusion, conditioned by lack of delusion — come into play.

“And a person like this is called one who speaks at the right time, speaks what is factual, speaks what is relevant, speaks in line with the Dhamma, speaks in line with the Vinaya. Why…? Because of not having wrongly inflicted suffering on another person through beating or imprisonment or confiscation or placing blame or banishment, [with the thought,] ‘I have power. I want power.’ When told what is factual, he acknowledges it and does not deny it. When told what is unfactual, he makes an ardent effort to untangle it [to see], ‘This is unfactual. This is baseless.’ That’s why a person like this is called one who speaks at the right time, speaks what is factual, speaks what is relevant, speaks in line with the Dhamma, speaks in line with the Vinaya.

“In a person like this, evil, unskillful qualities born of greed… born of aversion… born of delusion have been abandoned, their root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising. He dwells in ease right in the here-&-now — feeling unthreatened, placid, unfeverish — and is unbound right in the here-&-now.

“Just as if there were a sal tree, a birch, or an aspen, smothered & surrounded by three parasitic vines. A man would come along, carrying a spade & a basket. He would cut the vines at the root and, having cut them at the root, would dig around them. Having dug around them, he would pull them out, even down to the rootlets. He would cut the stalks of the vines. Having cut them, he would slice them into splinters. Having sliced them into splinters, he would pound them into bits. Having pounded them into bits, he would dry them in the wind & sun. Having dried them in the wind & sun, he would burn them in a fire. Having burned them in a fire, he would reduce them to powdered ash. Having reduced them to powdered ash, he would winnow them before a high wind or let them be washed away in a swift-flowing stream. In that way the parasitic vines would have their root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising.

“In the same way, in a person like this, evil, unskillful qualities born of greed… born of aversion… born of delusion have been abandoned, their root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising. He dwells in ease right in the here-&-now — feeling unthreatened, placid, unfeverish — and is unbound right in the here-&-now.

“These are the three roots of what is skillful.”

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.134.than.html

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an10/an10.058.than.html

AN 10.58 

PTS: A v 106

Mula Sutta: Rooted

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2004–2010

“Monks, if those who have gone forth in other sects ask you, ‘In what are all phenomena rooted? What is their coming into play? What is their origination? What is their meeting place? What is their presiding state? What is their governing principle? What is their surpassing state? What is their heartwood? Where do they gain a footing? What is their final end?’: On being asked this by those who have gone forth in other sects, how would you answer?”

“For us, lord, the teachings have the Blessed One as their root, their guide, & their arbitrator. It would be good if the Blessed One himself would explicate the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the monks will remember it.”

“In that case, monks, listen & pay close attention. I will speak.”

“As you say, lord,” the monks responded.

The Blessed One said, “Monks, if those who have gone forth in other sects ask you, ‘In what are all phenomena rooted? What is their coming into play? What is their origination? What is their meeting place? What is their presiding state? What is their governing principle? What is their surpassing state? What is their heartwood? Where do they gain a footing? What is their final end?’: On being asked this by those who have gone forth in other sects, this is how you should answer them:

“‘All phenomena are rooted in desire.[1]

“‘All phenomena come into play through attention.

“‘All phenomena have contact as their origination.

“‘All phenomena have feeling as their meeting place.

“‘All phenomena have concentration as their presiding state.

“‘All phenomena have mindfulness as their governing principle.

“‘All phenomena have discernment as their surpassing state.

“‘All phenomena have release as their heartwood.

“‘All phenomena gain their footing in the deathless.

“‘All phenomena have Unbinding as their final end.’

“On being asked this by those who have gone forth in other sects, this is how you should answer.”

Note

1.

According to the Commentary to AN 8.83 (which covers the first eight of the ten questions given here), “all phenomena” (sabbe dhamma) here means the five aggregates. These are rooted in desire, it says, because the desire to act (and thus create kamma) is what underlies their existence. The Commentary’s interpretation here seems to be an expansion on MN 109, in which the five clinging-aggregates are said to be rooted in desire, an assertion echoed in SN 42.11, which states that suffering & stress are rooted in desire. Here, all the aggregates — whether affected by clinging or not — are said to be rooted in desire.

The Commentary goes on to say that the statement, “All phenomena are rooted in desire,” deals exclusively with worldly phenomena, whereas the remaining statements about all phenomena cover both worldly and transcendent phenomena. There seems less reason to follow the Commentary’s first assertion here, in that the noble eightfold path, when brought to maturity, counts as transcendent, and it is obviously rooted in a skillful form of desire.

As for the transcendent in its ultimate form, the phrase “all phenomena” as used in this sutta does not cover Unbinding, as Unbinding is not rooted in anything and, as the final statement indicates, it constitutes the final end of all phenomena. Thus this sutta would seem to belong to the group of suttas that would not classify Unbinding as a phenomenon. (On this question, see the note to AN 3.134.)

See also: MN 1.

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/soma/wheel021.html

The Removal of Distracting Thoughts

(Vitakka-Santhana Sutta)

translated by

Soma Thera

© 1994–2010

Contents

·         The Removal of Distracting Thoughts

·         The Commentary, With Marginal Notes from the Subcommentary

·         Notes

The Removal of Distracting Thoughts   

Thus have I heard. At one time the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s Pleasance. The Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying, “Bhikkhus,” and they replied to him saying, “Reverend Sir.” The Blessed One spoke as follows:

“Five things should be reflected on from time to time, by the bhikkhu who is intent on the higher consciousness. What five?

When evil unskillful thoughts connected with desire, hate, and delusion arise in a bhikkhu through reflection on an adventitious object, he should, (in order to get rid of that), reflect on a different object which is connected with skill. Then the evil unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Like an experienced carpenter or carpenter’s apprentice, striking hard at, pushing out, and getting rid of a coarse peg with a fine one, should the bhikkhu in order to get rid of the adventitious object, reflect on a different object which is connected with skill. Then the evil unskillful thoughts connected with desire, hate and delusion are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

If the evil unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu, who in order to get rid of an adventitious object reflects on a different object which is connected with skill, he should ponder on the disadvantages of unskillful thoughts thus: Truly these thoughts of mine are unskillful, blameworthy, and productive of misery. Then the evil unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Like a well-dressed young man or woman who feels horrified, humiliated and disgusted because of the carcass of a snake, dog, or human that is hung round his or her neck, should the bhikkhu in whom unskillful thoughts continue to arise in spite of his reflection on the object which is connected with skill, ponder on the disadvantages of unskillful thoughts thus: Truly, these thoughts of mine are unskillful, blameworthy, and productive of misery. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

If evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu who ponders on their disadvantageousness, he should in regard to them, endeavor to be without attention and reflection. Then the evil unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Like a keen-eyed man shutting his eyes and looking away from some direction in order to avoid seeing visible objects come within sight, should the bhikkhu in whom evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in spite of his pondering on their disadvantageousness, endeavor to be without attention and reflection as regards them. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

If evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu in spite of his endeavor to be without attention and reflection as regards evil, unskillful thoughts, he should reflect on the removal of the (thought) source of those unskillful thoughts. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Just as a man finding no reason for walking fast, walks slowly; finding no reason for walking slowly, stands; finding no reason for sitting down, lies down, and thus getting rid of a posture rather uncalm resorts to a restful posture, just so should the bhikkhu in whom evil, unskillful thoughts arise, in spite of his endeavor to be without attention and reflection regarding them, reflect on the removal of the (thought) source of those unskillful thoughts. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

If evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu in spite of his reflection on the removal of a source of unskillful thoughts, he should with clenched teeth and the tongue pressing on the palate, restrain, subdue and beat down the (evil) mind by the (good) mind. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts connected with desire, hate and delusion are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

Like a strong man holding a weaker man by the head or shoulders and restraining, subduing and beating him down, should the bhikkhu in whom evil, unskillful thoughts continue to arise in spite of his reflection on the source of unskillful thoughts, restrain, subdue and beat down the (evil) mind by the (good) mind, with clenched teeth and the tongue pressing on the palate. Then the evil, unskillful thoughts connected with desire, hate and delusion are eliminated; they disappear. By their elimination, the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated, just within (his subject of meditation).

When, indeed, bhikkhus, evil unskillful thoughts due to reflection on an adventitious object are eliminated, when they disappear, and the mind stands firm, settles down, becomes unified and concentrated just within (his subject of meditation), through his reflection on an object connected with skill, through his pondering on the disadvantages of unskillful thoughts, his endeavoring to be without attentiveness and reflection as regards those thoughts or through his restraining, subduing, and beating down of the evil mind by the good mind with clenched teeth and tongue pressing on the palate, that bhikkhu is called a master of the paths along which thoughts travel. The thought he wants to think, that, he thinks; the thought he does not want to think, that, he does not think. He has cut down craving, removed the fetter, rightly mastered pride, and made an end of suffering.”

The Blessed One said this, and the bhikkhus glad at heart, approved of his words.

The Commentary to the Discourse on the Removal of Distracting Thoughts   

With Marginal Notes from the Subcommentary

[1] Thus have I heard: evam me sutam. This Discourse on the Removal of Distracting Thoughts (Vitakka santhana sutta) was heard by me in this way.

“Me” refers to the Elder Ananda who recited the Discourse-collection (Sutta Pitaka) of the Pali canon at the first Council of purified ones (arahantas) held at Rajagaha after the passing away of the Buddha.

By the bhikkhu who is intent on the higher consciousness: adhicittam anuyuttena bhikkhuna. Consciousness connected with the practice of the ten courses of skillful action (dasa kusala kamma patha) is referred to here as just (wholesome) consciousness (cittameva). Superior to that (merely wholesome consciousness) is the consciousness of the eight absorptions become a basis for the development of insight (vipassana padakam atthasamapatti cittam). This (superior) consciousness is the higher consciousness.

 [2] Consciousness connected with the practice of the ten courses of skillful action is just an example of what is not meant here by the term higher consciousness. Consciousness of the ten courses of skillful action is just consciousness not forming a part of things supernormal(uttarimanussadhamma).

Consciousness of the eight absorptions that has become a basis for the development of insight, is meant here by “higher consciousness.”

Some (dwellers of the Abhayagiri vihara at Anuradhapura) say that the consciousness associated with insight, is the higher consciousness(vipassanaya sampayuttam adhicittan’ti keci).

By one who is intent on (anuyuttena) means: by one who is diligently occupied with(yutta payuttena).

This bhikkhu is not intent on the higher consciousness the while he is going forth, sitting-mat in hand, to a place near a tree in a jungle thicket, at the bottom of a hill, or on a slope, with the thought, “I shall do the recluse’s duty.” He is also not intent on that, when removing grass and leaves for the sitting place, with hands or feet. When, however, having sat down, after washing his hands and feet, he remains with legs crossed, having taken up his preliminary subject of meditation, he is indeed intent on the higher consciousness.

“Intent on” means: intent on producing the yet unarisen higher things and zealously developing to completion the higher things that have already arisen.

“The preliminary subject of meditation” (mula kammatihana) is the subject of meditation the bhikkhu is fostering (parihariya kammatthana).

“When… he remains… having taken up” means: when having taken up the preliminary subject of meditation, he remains applying himself to it (or when having taken up the preliminary subject he applies himself to the development of it).

Though full absorption is not reached through the meditation he is still one intent on the higher consciousness.

Things: nimittani are practical methods — reasonable ways (karanani).

From time to time: kalena kalam means: on different occasions (samaye samaye).

Is not the subject of meditation to be reflected on always, without putting it aside even for a moment? Why did the Blessed One say “from time to time”?

There are thirty-eight subjects classified in the text (paliyam). By the bhikkhu who having selected one of these, one which appeals to him, and is seated there is no reflection on these five things (nimittani) so long as imperfections (upakkilesa) do not appear.

When an imperfection appears, the danger should be driven away by means of these things.

Pointing out this the Blessed One said: “From time to time…”

The opinion of the objector is as follows: Because it is said “by him who is intent on the higher consciousness (adhicittam anuyuttena)” and as the term “intent on the higher consciousness” means: “diligently applying oneself to the meditation without a break” is it not the fact that the Blessed One began his exposition with the words, “these five things should be reflected on from time to time,” in order to point out the method of driving out danger to the meditation that progresses?

The other stated that there are thirty-eight subjects of meditation in the text, and so forth, in order to point out that the Master said, “From time to time” because these five things have to be reflected on at the proper time for the purpose of purifying the mind of the beginner devoted to inner culture when sometimes imperfections of meditation (bhavana upakkilesa) arise in him.

Connected with desire: chandupasamhita means associated with desire, associated with lust (ragasampayutta). The field (khetta) and the object(arammana) of these three obsessive thoughts should be known.

The eight kinds of consciousness associated with greed are the field of obsessive thoughts connected with desire.

The two kinds of consciousness associated with hatred are the field of obsessive thoughts connected with hate.

Even the twelve kinds of unwholesome consciousness are the field of obsessive thoughts connected with delusion. The two kinds of consciousness combining with scepsis and restlessness, indeed are equally the field of these obsessive thoughts connected with delusion.

To even all three kinds of obsessive thought, just living beings and inanimate things are the object, since these obsessive thoughts come into being in regard to living beings and inanimate things viewed unimpartially by way of liking and disliking them.

Living beings and inanimate things are unimpartially viewed by way of liking and disliking when the dear and the not dear are unequally seen, are wrongly seen.

Viewing unimpartially (asamapekkhanam) is the laying hold of an object with unsystematic attention through looking in ignorantly in a worldly way (gehasita anna upekkha vasena arammanassa ayoniso gahanam).

He should… reflect on a different object which is connected with skill: aññam nimittam manasikatabbam kusalupasamhitam means: an object different from the adventitious object, and one which is connected with skill, should be reflected on.

Here the explanation of the term “different object” is as follows: When a thought connected with desire for living beings, arises, the development of the idea of the unlovely (asubha bhavana) is a different object, and when a thought connected on with desire for inanimate things arises, the reflection on impermanence (anicca manasikara) is a different object.

When a thought connected with hate towards living beings arises, the development of the idea of friendliness (metta bhavana) is a different object and when a thought connected with hate for inanimate things arises, the reflection on the modes of materiality (dhatu manasikara) is a different object.

Wheresoever, a thought connected with delusion concerning living beings or things arises, the fivefold reliance associated with the doctrine (pañca dhammupanissayo) is the different object.

An object different from the adventitious object: tato nimittato aññam nimittam. A different, new object separate from the cause for the arising of unskillful thought connected with desire, hate and delusion(tatchandupasamhitadi akusala vitakkuppatti karanato).

One which is connected with skill: kusala nimittotam. The cause for the proceeding of states of consciousness that is with skill.

Should be reflected on: manasikatabbam. Should be placed in the mind, should be thought upon as a meditation, or should go in the mind-flux (citte thapetabbam).

The unlovely (asubahma) is indeed the unlovely object (asubha nimittam).

When greed arises in regard to living beings with thoughts like the following: “This one’s hands are beautiful,” “This one’s feet are beautiful,” one should think by way of the unlovely thus: To what are you attached? Are you attached to the hair of the head, the hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin… or urine? [This refers to the thirty-two parts of the body.]

This body (attabhava) held up by three hundred bones, bound with nine hundred nerve strings, plastered over with nine hundred lumps of flesh, wrapped completely in a wet skin, covered with the color of the cuticle (chavi ragena), drips filth from the nine open sores and the ninety-nine thousand pores of the hairs of the body. It is filled with a collection of bones, is bad-smelling, contemptible, repellent, and is the sum of the thirty-two parts. There is neither essence nor excellence in it. To one who thinks thus of the unlovely (nature of the body), the greed connected with living beings is cast out. Therefore the different object is the thinking on the object(nimitta) which produces greed, by way of the meditation on the unlovely (nature of the body).

When there is greed for inanimate things like bowls and robes it is cast out through reflection of two kinds of bringing about detachment for inanimate things, namely those on ownerlessness and temporariness, taught in the section of the enlightenment factors (bojjhanga) in the commentary to the Satipatthana Sutta. Therefore the thinking on the object (which produces greed), by way of the reflection of impermanence is the different object.

Reflection… on ownerlessness and temporariness; this bowl gradually ends up as broken pieces, having changed color, became old, developed cracks and holes or having smashed up; this robe, having faded, worn out will have to be thrown away with the end of a stick, after it is used as a rag to wipe the feet with. If these had an owner, he would prevent them from being destroyed. In this manner should the reflection on ownerlessness be done. And the reflection on temporariness should be done with the thought that these cannot last long, that these are of brief duration.

When there is hatred towards living beings, friendliness should be developed as taught in the discourse on the Overcoming of Ill-will (aghata vinaya), the instruction with the Parable of the Saw (kakacupamovada), and the like. In one developing friendliness, hatred vanishes. Therefore the development of friendliness for the object (which produces anger) is the different object.

The discourse on the Overcoming of Ill-will in the Anguttara Nikaya is as follows:

“Bhikkhus, these are the five ways of overcoming ill-will. Whenever ill-will is arisen in a bhikkhu it should altogether be overcome. What are the five?

“Should ill-will arise at any time, in a person, friendliness should be developed in him… compassion should be developed in him… equanimity should be developed in him… the state of being without mindfulness and reflection (in regard to the object producing hate) should be developed in him… Thus should ill-will be overcome in that person. Indeed, these are five ways of overcoming ill-will. Wherever it is arisen in a bhikkhu, it should be overcome entirely.”

(”Instruction on the Parable of the Saw” is Discourse No. 21 of the Majjhima Nikaya)

“And the like”: similes like that of the firebrand from funeral pyre (unclean, untouchable).

“Friendliness should be developed having overcome hate in the manner taught in the above mentioned teachings.

Further, when one gets angry with the stump (of a tree), a thorn, grass or leaves one should ask oneself: With whom are you angry? Or who is it that is angry? Is it the earth-element or the water-element? To one who reflects on the elements(dhatumanasikara) anger in regard to inanimate things vanishes. Therefore the reflection of the elements of the object (internal or external — the thinker or the thought which produces anger) is the different object.

When however, delusion appears, in any circumstances, there should be dependence on reliance on or the resorting to five things (five expedient things). They are as follows:

The practice of living under the guidance of a teacher.

The work of learning the doctrine.

The work of inquiring into the meaning of doctrines learned.

The act of listening to the doctrine at suitable times.

The work of inquiring into what are and what are not causes.

Through dependence on these five things or through resorting to these five expedients the element of delusion (moha dhatu)[3] is eliminated.

In this way also a bhikkhu’s delusion is eliminated; When he, while learning too, becomes energetic through the thought: The teacher punishes him who does not learn at the proper time, him who does not recite well and him who does not recite at all.

In this way also, a bhikkhu’s delusion is eliminated: When he, while inquiring from esteemed and respected bhikkhus, after going into their presence: “Reverend Sir, how is this? What does this mean?” dispels doubts.

In this way also, a bhikkhu’s delusion is eliminated: When to him the meaning of various passages becomes clear while listening carefully to the doctrine, after going to a place where the doctrine is expounded to the public.

In this way also, a bhikkhu’s delusion is eliminated: While he becomes expert in discerning the cause of a thing from what is not its cause saying thus: “This is the reason for this; this not the reason.”

Further, unskillful thoughts are surely eliminated in one practicing by any one of the thirty-eight subjects of meditation; but the lust, hatred and delusion which are eliminated by their direct opposites, by what is contrary to them, namely these five objects (or practical methods) are thoroughly eliminated.

It is like this; a fire may surely be put out after its being struck with firebrands, earth and branches, but when it is extinguished with water which is directly opposed to it, it is extinguished well. In the same way the lust, hatred and delusion which is eliminated with these five objects (pañca nimittani, mentioned at the beginning of the discourse) are eliminated well. Therefore, it should be understood, were these stated.

Becomes energetic (yatta patiyatto). The bhikkhu who is possessed of the desire for things like the asking of permission to go to the village becomes energetic (yatto) and active (sajjito).

The meaning of various passages becomes clear (tesu tesu thanesu attho pakato hoti) = to one listening to the doctrine the meaning of different passages explained becomes clear with the comprehension thus: “Here, virtue is expounded, here concentration, here wisdom.”

Expert in discerning the cause of a thing from what is not its cause(Thanathana vinicchaye cheko) by knowing for instance that the eye, visible object, light and so forth are the reasons for eye-consciousness and not for ear-consciousness.

Connected with skill (kusalupasamhitam). Dependent on skill, become a condition of skill.

Just within (ajjhattikam eva). Just inside the pasture (gocarajjhattikam eva), that is, just within the resort, the subject-of-meditation of the bhikkhu devoted to the higher consciousness.

Carpenter (palagandho) = joiner (vaddhaki).

With a fine peg (sukhumaya aniyam). A peg of heartwood, finer than some peg one wishes to take out (or draw out) of a board (yam anim niharitukamo hoti, tato sukhumataraya saradaru aniya).

Coarse peg (olarikam anim). An incongruous peg in a board or plank of sandalwood or of a heartwood (of sandal) (candana phalake va sara phalake va akotitam visamanim).

In a board (or plank) of… heartwood (sarapha-lake) = in a plank of sandal heartwood (candanamaye saraphalake).

An incongruous peg (visamanim) = a peg standing incompatibly there, in a board or plank of sandalwood (visamakarena tattha thitam anim).

The mind of the bhikkhu intent on the higher consciousness is like the plank of sandal heartwood; the unskillful thoughts are like the incongruous peg: the skillful object of meditation on things such as the unlovely which is different from the object producing unskillfulness is like the fine peg. The removal of unskillful objects such as the meditation on the unlovely is like the removal of the coarse with the fine peg.

If the yogin who, like a person shocked by the carcass slung round his neck by an enemy who has brought it (paccatthikena anetva kanthe baddhena), thinks wisely, by himself, of these unskillful thoughts as blamable and productive of suffering, in many ways, the unskillful thoughts are eliminated in him.

 In many ways (iminapi iminapi karanena). These thoughts are blamable and productive of suffering in many ways, because of their being produced through unskillfulness (akosallasambhuta-taya); of their being opposed to skill(kusalapatipakkha-taya) of their unhealthiness through being afflicted with the disease of sense-desire called worldliness (gehasita-rogena sarogataya); of their being subject to the censure of the wise (viññugarahitabbataya); because of their loathsomeness (jigucchataya); because of the unpleasantness of their results (anitthaphalataya) and because of their nature of bringing about no satisfaction (nirassadasamvattaniyataya).

But he who is unable to think wisely by himself should see his teacher and tell the teacher about the troubles (in meditation). Or he should see his preceptor, a respected fellow-bhikkhu or the chief of the order for the same purpose. Or he should ring the bell (or strike the gong), assemble even the order of bhikkhus and inform the order of the troubles (in meditation). For, at a meeting of many persons, there surely will be one learned man who will explain to him who is troubled: “Thus should the disadvantages of these thoughts be understood,” or he will check these thoughts of the person troubled in meditation) with the talk that is intended for the removal of desire for the body (kayavicchandaniya katha) and so forth.

Should endeavor to be without attention and reflection (asati amanasikaro apajjitabbo). Those unskillful thoughts should just not be remembered, not be dwelt upon. One should be occupied with something else.

Just as a man who does not want to see a certain object, shuts his eyes, just so should the bhikkhu in whom an unskillful thought arises, while he is meditating on the subject of meditation to which he resorts repeatedly (mulakammatthana)occupy himself with something else. By doing that his unskillful thought is eliminated. When that unskillful thought is eliminated he should again sit down to meditate on the subject-of-meditation he is keeping to, preliminary object of meditation to which he repeatedly resorts (mula kammatthana).

If the unskillful thought is not eliminated he should recite aloud some composition of doctrinal explanation he knows by heart. If when being occupied with something else in this way, too, it is not eliminated, he should take out from his bag a manual, if he has one, in Which the virtues of the Buddha and the Doctrine are written and by reading it occupy himself with something else.

If by that, too, it is not eliminated, he should take out of the bag such things like the pair of fire-sticks and by turning his attention to them, saying, “This is the upper fire-stick, this is the lower,” and so forth occupy himself with something else.

If by that, too, it is not eliminated he should, having taken out the receptacle(sipatikam), by contemplating the requisites thus: “This is the awl; this is the pair of scissors; this is the nail-cutter; this is the needle,” occupy himself with something else.

If by that, too, it is not eliminated, he should occupy himself with something else by darning the worn-out parts of the robe. So long as the unskillful thought is not eliminated, he should by doing various skillful actions occupy himself with something else. When it is eliminated he should again sit down to meditate on the subject he is keeping to, (the preliminary object to which he resorts repeatedly).

Composition of doctrinal explanation (dhammakatha pabandha) = a composition helpful to the subject-of-meditation (kammathanassa upakaro dhamma katha pabandho).

Manual (muttipotthako, lit: fist-book, a hand-book). A book carried about and which is about the size of the fist (hand).

By contemplating (samaññamentena) = by concentrating (samaññaharantena).

But building work (erecting new buildings and repairing of old ones etc.) should not be begun. Why? Because when the unskillful thought is destroyed there will be no time for reflection on the subject-of-meditation. But wise ones of old (paranaka pandita) destroyed unskillful thought having done building work too (nava kammani pana na patthapetabbam; kasma? vitakke pacchine kammatthanamanasikarassa okaso na hoti).

(There will be) no time (okaso na hoti) because of the making complete (or bringing to completion) of what is begun (araddhassa pariyosapetabbato). The bringing to an end of what is begun or not beginning (not starting some new work) is the counsel of the elder (araddhassa antagamanam anarabbho va’ti theravado)

This is a story connected with building activity. The preceptor (upajjhaya) of Tissa, the novice, it is said, was staying at the great monastery of the city of Tissa(Tissamahavihara; in South-east Ceylon).

“Reverend Sir,” said the novice to the preceptor, “I am dissatisfied.” Then the elder said to the novice: “Water for bathing is scarce, in this monastery. Take me to Cittalapabbata (Cittala Hill).” The novice did that. There (at Cittalapabbata) the Thera told him: “This monastery is very largely property made over to the use of the Order as a whole (sanghiko). Make me personal dwelling place.”

“Good, Reverend Sir,” said the novice. He began to do three things at once. The learning of the Samyutta Nikaya from the beginning; the clearing of a cave on a hill and work on the preliminary stage of practice on the meditation on fire (tejokasina parikamma), and reached absorption in the subject-of-meditation, learned the Samyutta Nikaya to the end, and finished clearing the cave. Having done all, he informed the preceptor about the completion of the tasks. The preceptor said: “Novice, it was done by you with difficulty. Today you yourself first stay there.”

The novice, while staying that night in the cave (he had cleared), having obtained suitable weather conditions, developed insight, reached arahantship and passed away, just there (tattheva parinibbayi).

Having taken his bones (dhatuyo), they (the people) built a shrine. To this day that shrine is known as the shrine of the elder Tissa (Tissattheracetiyanti paññayati).

While exerting himself in clearing the cave just to check unskillful thoughts, in reciting the Samyutta Nikaya and in the practice of the preparatory part of the meditation on the fire-device for doing the work that precedes the function of seeing the truth through Streamwinning, he accumulated the merit of the three kinds of skillful action of body, speech and mind.

The elder said: “Water for bathing is scarce in this monastery. Take me to Cittalapabbata” having known the novice’s latent tendency (to good) and his particular meditation-device. Therefore, everything was effected according to his intention (Thero tassa asayam kasinañca savisesam janitva imasmim vihareti adim avoca. Tenasa yathadhippayam sabbam sampaditam).

This is called the section dealing with “non-attention” on account of the explanation in it of the manner of checking the flow of unskillful thoughts by not attending to them (asati pabbam nama asatiya vitakka niggahana vibhavanato).

He again said: “If evil unskillful thoughts continue to arise in a bhikkhu” and so forth in order to set forth the section of “inquiry into the source of the unskillful thoughts”(vitakka mula bheda pabbam).

The section of inquiry into the source of the unskillful thoughts is the making clear of the source of the source of unskillful thoughts (vitakka mulassa tammulassa ca bheda vibhavanam).

He should reflect on the removal of the thought source of those unskillful thoughts (vitakka sankhara santhanam manasikatabbam).

What is forming is formation (sankharoti ti sankharo), condition (paccayo), cause(karanam), source (mulam), is the meaning (attho). That state in which there is stopping or ending is stopping or ending (santitthati ettha ti santhanam). (Removal is the stopping or ending of a thing in the sense of getting rid of it).

This is stated: What is the cause of this unskillful thought? What is its condition? By what reason has it arisen? Thinking thus, the source of the unskillful thoughts and the source of the unskillful thoughts and the source of the source should be reflected on by the yogin.

Just as if, bhikkhus, a man should walk fast, and then to him it should occur thus: “But why do I walk fast? Now, let me walk slowly.” And as if, then, he should walk slowly and it should occur to him thus: “Why do I walk slowly? Now let me stand.” (Seyyathapi bhikkhave puriso sigham gaccheyya tassa evamassa kinnukho aham sigham gacchami yannunaham sanikam gaccheyyanti so sanikam gaccheyya, tassa evamassa kinnu kho aham sanikam gaccheyya, tassa evamassa kinnu kho aham sanikam gacchami yannunaham tittheyyanti). (The above is paraphrased in the translation of the discourse as follows: “Just as a man finding no reason for walking fast walks slowly: finding no reason for walking slowly, stands”).s

“But why do I walk slowly”: He thinks thus: What profit is there to me by this fast walking? I shall walk slowly.

“And as if, then, he should walk slowly”; as if he, having thought in the foregoing way, should walk slowly. This is the method of explanation throughout (this simile).

The man’s walking fast is comparable to the bhikkhu’s entry into the state of unskillful thinking; the walking slowly, to the cutting off of unskillful thought-conduct(vitakka cara);[4] the standing, to the descent of the subject-of-meditation into the bhikkhu’s mind, with the cutting off of unskillful thought-conduct; the sitting down to the attainment of arahantship through the development of insight; the lying down, to passing the day in the attainment of the fruit that has Nibbana for its object.

In him, who goes to (find) the source, and the source of that source, of unskillful thoughts questioning himself thus: “Possessed of what cause, due to what condition, are the unskillful thoughts?” there is a slackening of unskillful thoughts. (Owing to an access of energy), when the slackening of unskillful thought conduct reaches its highest point, unskillful thoughts are entirely dissolved (vitakka sabbaso nirujjhanti).

What produces unskillful thoughts is the source of unskillful thought (vitakkam sankharoti vitakka sankharo). It is the condition for unskillful thoughts (vitakka paccayo), (and that condition is) unwise reflection (even) on the sensuously favorable etc., taking them as lovely etc. (subha nimittadisu pi subhadina ayoniso manasikaro.)

The state, indeed, by which the production of unskillful thoughts ends is called (the ending or) the removal of the source of unskillful thought (so pana vitakka sankharo santitthati etta’ti vitakka sankhara sanihanam). The source of unskillful thought is the delusion of perceiving unlovely things and so forth as lovely and so forth (asubhe subhanti adi sañña-vipallaso). Therefore it is said: the source, and the source of that source, should be reflected on (tenaha vitakkana malañca mulamulañca manasikatabbam).

In him who goes to (find) the source of unskillful thoughts (vitakkanam mulam gacchantassa) = in him who goes along the domain of knowledge, by way of investigation, to the root of wrong thoughts, to the cause of their arising (upaparikkhana vasena miccha vitakkanam mulam, uppati karanam nanagatiya gacchantassa).

There is a slackening of unskillful thought-conduct (vitakka caro sithilo hoti).In him who knows according to reality, unskillful thoughts do not continuously proceed, as in the time before he knew truly (yathavato janantassa pubbe viya abhinham nappavattanti).

When the slackening of unskillful thought-conduct reaches its highest point (tasmin sithilibhute matthakam gacchante), through arriving at a stable state, gradually (anukkamena thirabhavappattiya).

Unskillful thoughts are entirely dissolved (vitakka sabbaso nirujjhanti). Even all wrong thoughts go, do not assail one or owing to the completion of the meditation are eliminated without remainder (miccha vitakka sabbe pi gacchanti na samudacaranti bhavana paripuriya va anavasesa pahiyanti).

The meaning should be brought out through the “Daddabha birth-story.”

It is said that a ripe vilva fruit having been cut off from its stalk, fell close to the ear of a hare which was asleep at the foot of the vilva tree. Getting up on hearing that noise, it thought: “The earth is being destroyed,” and fled. The other beasts which were in front of him, fled, too, seeing the hare’s flight.

At that time the Bodhisatta was a lion and he thought: “The earth is destroyed at the end of an eon (kappavinase). “In the interval (between the beginning and the end of an eon) there is no destruction of the earth. Now, let me after going from source to source (mula mulam gantva) find out (anuvijjeyyam).

The lion questioned each animal separately beginning with the elephant. When he came to the hare, he asked: “Dear, did you see the earth being destroyed?” The hare: “Yes, lord.” The lion: “Come, friend, show.” The hare: “I am not able, sire.” Saying, “Hey, come; don’t fear.” the lion using gentle speech alternately with firm speech (taddha mudukena) took the hare along with him.

The hare standing not far from the vilva tree said: “May there be blessing to thee! In that place in which I stayed, it echoed. I do not know why it echoed.”

The Bodhisatta told the hare: “You stay here,” and went up to the tree. He saw where the hare had lain, saw the ripe (fallen) vilva fruit and looking upwards saw the fruit-stalk from which the fruit had fallen and concluded as follows: “This hare whilst lying asleep here got the idea that the earth was being destroyed when he heard the sound of the fruit that fell near his ear.” Then he questioned the hare to see if the facts he had found out were true. The hare said: “Yes, lord,” confirming the lion’s conclusions. The lion, thereupon, uttered this stanza:

“The hare ran, after the echoing sound of the vilva fruit that fell;

“Having listened to the hare’s words, the army of frightened beasts ran.”

After that the Bodhisatta comforted the beasts saying: “Don’t fear.”

Thus unskillful thoughts are eliminated in him who goes (investigating things) from source to source.

It is said that beneath the place where the hare was sleeping there was a huge rat hole — a big excavation made by rats — and that the fruit falling on the ground above it caused a loud sound (tassa kira sasakassa hettha mahamusikahi khata mahavatam ahosi; tenassa patena maha saddo ahosi).

With the repetition of the words, “If evil unskillful thoughts continue to arise,” the Master points out to the bhikkhu who fails to check the unskillful thoughts according to the instruction in the section of inquiring into the source of unskillful thoughts, another method.

With clenched teeth (datehi dantam adhaya): with the upper teeth placed on the lower.

The mind by the mind (cetasa cittam). The unskillful state of mind should be checked by the skillful state of mind.

Strong man (balava puriso). Just as if a brawny man — a person with great physical strength — should, having caught hold of a weaker one by head or body, restrain, subdue and beat down that weaker person — make him wearied, exhausted and to faint — just so, should the unskillful thoughts be checked by the bhikkhu who wrestles with the unskillful thoughts having overcome them saying, “Who are you and who am I,” and after whipping up great energy saying, “Let the flesh and blood of this body dry up; let skin sinews and bones remain.” To point out the foregoing meaning, the Master gave the simile of the strong man.

 By the skillful state of mind (kusala cittena) = by means of the mind associated with right thinking (balava samma sankappa sampayuttena).

The unskillful state of mind (akusala cittam) = the unskillful state of mind with such things like sensual thought (kama vitakka sahitam).

Should be checked (abhinigganhitabbam). Should after overcoming be checked thus: in such a way that in the future no unskillful thoughts assail the bhikkhu. The state of the non-arising of things should be produced is the meaning(yatha tassa ayatim samudacaro na hoti evam abhibhavitva niggahetabbam anuppatti-dhammata apadetabba ti attho).

When, indeed, Bhikkhu (yato kho bhikkhave). This is called the division of summing up (pariyadanabhajaniyam nama). The meaning of the phrase is even clear (utthana-mattameva).[5]

The division of that which was pointed out from the beginning thus: “Five things should be reflected on from time to time, by the bhikkhu who is intent on the higher consciousness,” by way of the (taking up completely) summing up of the time of reflection of his object mentioned in the passage.

As a teacher of archery[6] having taught the art of the five weapons to a prince come from a foreign country spurs him on thus: “Go and take up the rulership of your country,” after showing him what ought to be done with the five weapons thus: “If robbers meet you on the way, use the bow; if that is destroyed or broken, use the spear, the sword… and go (free).” And having done this, having gone to his own country taken up the rulership, the prince enjoys the fortune of sovereignty.

If to the bhikkhu who is intent on the higher consciousness objects productive of unskillfulness (akusalanimitta) arise during his meditation he, having established himself in the instruction of the section of the “different object” (añña nimitta pabba)and checked those unskillful thoughts will reach saintship after developing insight; unable to do it in that way, he will do it by the instruction of the section on disadvantages (adinava pabba); unable to do it in that way he will do it in that way too, by the instruction of the section of searching the cause (mula bheda pabba):unable to do it in that way too, by the instruction of the section of restraining(abhinigganhana pabba) he will develop insight and reach saintship.

He is called a master of the paths taken by the turns of thought (vasi vitakka pariyaya pathesu). He is called one who is expert of control in the paths taken by the turns of thoughts, one who is conversant with the art of control in the paths taken by the turns of thought (vitakka carapathesu cinnavasi pagunavasi ti vuccati).

The thought he will intend (to think) (yam vitakkam akankhissati). This was said to show his expertness of control. Formerly he was not able to think as he wanted and thought what he did not want to think about. Now, owing to his expertness in the control of thought, he is able to think as he wishes. Therefore it was said: The thoughts he will want to think, those thoughts he will think. The thoughts he will not want to think, those thoughts he will not think.

He has cut off craving (acchejji tanhan’ti). This and the rest should be understood as taught in the Sabbasava Suttanta Commentary.

Notes   

1.

The Commentarial passages are translated from the Venerable Buddhaghosa’sPapañcasudani, the commentary to the Majjhima Nikaya.

2.

Indented passages are “marginal” notes taken from the subcommentary to the Majjhima Nikaya.

3.

Moha dhatu is just moha ( — Tika). It is just a variation for metrical reasons.

4.

Might also be translated as “unskillful thought movement” or “unskillful mental behavior or conduct.”

5.

The commentary to the Sabbasava Sutta, Majjhima Nikaya No. 2, has the following comment on yata kho bhikkhave: The to of yoto is gen., in the sense Yatho kho yassa kho” (of whom). That is said (by the commentator). But the ancient teachers explain it by “in which time,” when or what time (yamhi kale).

6.

Satthacariyo’ti dhanubhadacriya ( — Tika) — a master of weapons is a teacher of the knowledge of archery.

Publisher’s note

The Buddhist Publication Society is an approved charity dedicated to making known the Teaching of the Buddha, which has a vital message for people of all creeds.

Founded in 1958, the BPS has published a wide variety of books and booklets covering a great range of topics. Its publications include accurate annotated translations of the Buddha’s discourses, standard reference works, as well as original contemporary expositions of Buddhist thought and practice. These works present Buddhism as it truly is — a dynamic force which has influenced receptive minds for the past 2500 years and is still as relevant today as it was when it first arose.

Buddhist Publication Society
P.O. Box 61
54, Sangharaja Mawatha
Kandy, Sri Lanka

http://www.ripl.or.kr/Archives/Literature/e004.htm

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THE PROCEDURE OF PARITTA


1. ARADHANA

   (a) Vipattipatibahaya
        Sabbasampattisiddhiya
        Sabbadukkhavinasaya
        Parittam brutha mangalam

   (b) Vipattipatibahaya
        Sabbasampattisiddhiya
        Sabbabhayaninasaya
        Parittam brutha mangalam

   (c) Vipattipatibahaya
        Sabbasampattisiddhiya
        Sabbarogavinasaya
        Parittam brutha mangalam

2. ANUSASANA

[In the language of the listeners]

3. (a) NAMASKARA

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammasambuddhassa!

    (b) SARANAGAMANA

Buddham saranam gacchami.
Dhammam saranam gacchami.
Sangham saranam gacchami.

Dutiyampi Buddham saranam gacchami.
Dutiyampi Dhammam saranam gacchami.
Dutiyampi Sangham saranam gacchami.

Tatiyampi Buddham saranam gacchami.
Tatiyampi Dhammam saranam gacchami.
Tatiyampi Sangham saranam gacchami.

   (c) PANCASILA

(1) Panatipata veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.
(2) Adinnadana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.
(3) Kamesu micchacara veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.
(4) Musavada veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.
(5) Sura-meraya-majja-pamadatthana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami.

4. DEVARADHANA

Samanta cakkavalesu
Atragacchantu devata
Saddhammam munirajassa
Sunantu saggamokkhadam

5. DECLARATION OF THE TIME TO HEAR THE PARITTAS

Parittassavanakalo ayam bhadanta. [Three times]

6. NAMASKARA

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammasambuddhassa!

7. Iti pi so Bhagava araham sammasambuddho, vijjacaranasampanno, sugato, lokavidu, 
    anuttaro purisadammasarathi, sattha devamanussanam, Buddho, Bhagava ti.

8. Svakkhato Bhagavata dhammo, sanditthiko, akaliko, ehipassiko, opanayiko,
    paccattam veditabbo vinnuhi ti.

9. Supatipanno Bhagavato savakasangho, ujupatipanno Bhagavato savakasangho, 
    nayapatipanno Bhagavato savakasangho, samicipatipanno Bhagavato savakasangho,
    yadidam cattari purisayugani atthapurisa-puggala esa Bhagavato savakasangho,
    ahuneyyo, pahuneyyo, dakkhineyyo, anjalikaraniyo anuttaram punnakkhettam lokassa ti.

10. BLESSING

Etena saccavajjena patu tam ratanattayam. [Three times]

11. THE FIRST BUDDHA WORD

Anekajati samsaram,
Sandhavissam, anibbisam
Gahakarakam’gavesanto;
Dukkha jati punnappunam.
Gahakaraka, dittho’si
Puna geham na kahasi;
Sabba te phasuka bhagga,
Gahakutam visankhitam;
Visankharagatam cittam,
Tanhanam khayam-ajjhaga.

12. PATICCASAMUPPADA

Avijjapaccaya sankhara, sankharapaccaya vinnanam, vinnanapaccaya
namarupam, namarupapaccaya salayatanam, salayatanapaccaya phasso,
phassapaccaya, vedana, vedanapaccaya tanha, tanhapaccaya
upadanam, upadanapaccaya bhavo, bhavapaccaya jati, jatipaccaya
jaramaranam, sokapari devadukkha domanass’upayasa sambhavanti.
Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti. Avijjayatveva
asesaviraganirodha sankharanirodho sankharanirodha, vinnananirodho,
vinnananirodha, namarupanirodho, namarupanirodha salayatananirodho,
salayatananirodha phassanirodho, phassanirodha vedana nirodho,
vedananirodha tanhanirodho, tanhanirodha upadananirodho,
upadananirodha bhavanirodho bhavanirodha jatinirodho,
jatinirodha jaramaranam sokaparidevadukkhadomanass’upayasa
nirujjhanti. Evam etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandassa nirodho hoti.

13. JAYAMANGALAGATHA

1. Bahum sahassam-abhinimmita sayudham tam
    Girimekhalam uditaghora sasenamaram
    Danadidhammavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

2. Maratirekam-abhiyujjhita sabbarattim
    Ghorampanalavakamakkha-m-athaddhayakkham
    Khantisudantavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

3. Nalagirim gajavaram atimattabhutam
    Davaggicakkam-asaniva, sudarunam tam
    Mettambusekavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

4. Ukkhittakhaggam-atihatthasudarunam tam
    Dhavam tiyojanapathan’gulimalavantam
    Iddhibhi sankhatamano jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

5. Katvana kattham-udaram iva gabbhiniya
    Cincaya dutthavacanam janakayamajjhe
    Santena somavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

6. Saccam vihaya matisaccakavadaketum
    Vadabhiropitamanam atiandhabhutam
    Pannapadipajalito jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

7. Nandopanandabhujagam vibudham mahiddhim
    puttena therabhujagena damapayanto
    iddh’upadesavidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

8. Duggahaditthibhujagena sudatthahattham
    Brahmam viduddhijuti middhibakabhidhanam
    Nanagadena vidhina jitava munindo
    Tam tejasa bhavatu te jayamangalani.

9. Etapi buddhajayamangala atthagatha
    Yo vacako dinadine sarate matandi
    Hitvana neka vividhani c’upaddavani
    Mokkham sukham adigameyya naro sapanno.

[Sometimes the following request for protection from evil is recited here or at the end of the three suttas.]

(a) Yandunnimittam avamangalanca,
     Yo camanapo sakunassa saddo,
     Papaggaho dussupinam akantam,
     Buddhanubhavena vinasamentu.

(b) Yandunnimittam avamangalanca,
     Yo camanapo sakunassa saddo,
     Papaggaho dussupinam akantam,
     Dhammanubhavena vinasamentu.

(c) Yandunnimittam avamangalanca,
     Yo camanapo sakunassa saddo,
     Papaggaho dussupinam akantam,
     Sanghanubhavena vinasamentu.

14. WISH FOR AUSPICES

1. Bhavatu sabbamangalam,
    Rakkhantu sabbadevata,
    Sabba Buddhanubhavena
    Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

2. Bhavatu sabbamangalam,
    Rakkhantu sabbadevata,
    Sabba Dhammanubhavena
    Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

3. Bhavatu sabbamangalam,
    Rakkhantu sabbadevata,
    Sabba Sanghanubhavena
    Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

15. (a) REQUEST FOR PROTECTION FROM EVIL

Nakkhattayakkhabhutanam,
Papaggaha nivarana,
Parittassanubhavena
Hantu tesam upaddave. [Three times]

       (b) FIXATION OF THE THREE PROTECTION

Sabbe Buddha balappatta
Paccekananca yam balam,
Arahantananca tejena,
Rakkham bandhama sabbaso.

16. RECITAL OF THE THREE SUTTAS

(a) Mahamangala sutta
(b) Ratana sutta
(c) Karaniyametta sutta

[Each Sutta is followed by ‘Etena saccavajjena patu tam ratanattayam.’ (Three times)]

17. MAHAJAYAMANGALAGATHA

1. Mahakaruniko natho hitaya sabbapaninam,
    Puretva param’sabba patto sambodhimuttamam
    Etena saccavajjena hotu te jayamangalam,

2. Jayanto bodhiya mule sakyanam nandivaddhano,
    Evam tuyham jayo hotu jayassu jayamangalam.

3. Sakkatva Buddharatanam, osadham uttamam varam,
    Hitam devamanussanam, Buddhatejena sotthina,
    Nassantu’paddavasabbe dukkha vupasamentu te.

4. Sakkatva Dhammaratanam osadham uttamam varam
    Parilahu pasamanam, Dhammatejena sotthina
    Nassantu’paddava sabbe bhaya vupasamentu te.

5. Sakkatva Sangharatanam, osadham uttamam varam
    Ahuneyyam pahuneyyam, Sanghatejena sotthina
    Nassantu’paddava sabbe roga vupasamentu te.

6. Yam kin ci ratanam loke, vijjati vividha puthu,
    Ratanam Buddhasamam natthi, tasma sotthi bhavantu te.

7. Yam kin ci ratanam loke, vijjati vividha puthu,
    Ratanam Dhammasamam natthi, tasma sotthi bhavantu te.

8. Yam kin ci ratanam loke, vijjhati vividha puthu,
    Ratanam Sanghasamam natthi, tasma sotthi bhavantu te.

9. Natthi me saranam annam,
    Buddho me saranam varam,
    Etena saccavajjena, hotu te jayamangalam.

10. Natthi me saranam annam,
      Dhammo me saranam varam,
      Etena saccavajjena, hotu te jayamangalam.

11. Natthi me saranam annam,
      Sangho me saranam varam,
      Etena saccavajjena, hotu te jaaaaaaayamangalam.

12. Sabb’itiyo vivajjantu, sabbarogo vinassatu,
      Ma te bhavatvantarayo sukhi dighayukho bhava.

13. Bhavatu sabbamangalam,
      Rakkhantu sabbadevata;
      Sabba Buddhanubhavena
      Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

14. Bhavatu sabbamangalam
      Rakkhantu sabbadevata;
      Sabba Dhammanubhavena
      Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

15. Bhavatu sabbamangalam
      Rakkhantu, sabbadevata
      Sabba Sanghanubhavena
      Sada sotthi bhavantu te.

16. Nakkhattayakkabhutanam,
      Papaggahanivarana,
      Parittassanubhavena
      Hantu tesam upaddave.




THE PROCEDURE OF PARITTA

1. INVITATION

(a) For the warding off of danger
     For the accomplishment of all happiness
     For the destruction of all suffering
     Please speak the auspicious protection.

(b) For the warding off of danger
     For the accomplishment of all happiness
     For the destruction of all fear
     Please speak the auspicious protection.

(c) For the warding off of danger
     For the accomplishment of all happiness
     For the destruction of all illness
     Please speak the auspicious protection.

2. ADVISORY SPEECH TO THE LISTENERS

[By an elder monk]

3. (a) HOMAGE TO THE LORD

Homage to the Lord, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened One!

     (b) TAKING THE REFUGES

I go to the Buddha (the Enlightened One) for refuge.
I go to the Dhamma (the Doctrine) fro refuge.
I go to the Sangha (the Assembly of monks) for refuge.

For the second time I go to the Buddha for refuge.
For the second time I go to the Dhamma for refuge.
For the second time I go to the Sangha for refuge.

For the third time I go to the Buddha for refuge.
For the third time I go to the Dhamma for refuge.
For the third time I go to the Sangha for refuge.

[Note: ‘I go to the Buddha for refuge’ should be interpreted as ‘I take refuge in the Buddha’ etc.]

     (c) THE FIVE PRECEPTS

(1) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from killing.
(2) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from stealing.
(3) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from committing adultery.
(4) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from speaking falsehood.
(5) I take upon myself the precept (of) abstaining from fermented or distilled liquor and intoxicants 
     (of any sort) and places of indolence (such as gambling, betting etc.)

4. INVOCATION TO THE DEVAS

In the universe in their entirety
Let the deities come here;
The good doctrine of the king of sages
Which gives heaven and release (i.e. Nibbana),
let them hear.

5. DECLARATION OF THE TIME TO HEAR THE PROTECTIONS

This is the time to listen to the protections. [Three times]

6. HOMAGE (TO THE LORD)

Homage to the Lord, the Worthy One, the Perfectly Enlightened One!

7. Thus, that Lord [i.e. the Exalted One, the Buddha] is worthy, completely and fully enlightened, is possessed of knowledge and conduct, well-gone [i.e. well-farer], knower of the world, unsurpassed, charioteer of tameable men, teacher of devas men, the enlightened, the Exalted.

8. The Dhamma has been well preached by the Lord is visible immediate, has the quality of come - O - see [i.e. open to all] leads [to Nibbana] (and) should be understood individually by the wise.

9. The multitude of disciples of the Lord [i.e. the Exalted One] has well followed [the teaching of the Buddha]; The multitude of disciples of the Lord has followed the straight path; the multitude of disciples of the Lord has walked in the right [i.e. methodical] path; The multitude of disciples of the Lord is correct in life; viz. The four pairs of men [and] the eight individual human characters; this is the multitude of the disciples of the Lord. [That is] worthy of sacrifice [i.e. venerable], worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings [and] worthy of being worshipped with palms joined together. [It] is the unsurpassed field of merit of the world.

10. BLESSING

On account of this true word may the three jewels protect you.[Three times]

11. THE FIRST BUDDHA WORD

Through many a birth in transmigration,
I ran through, not finding
The builder of the house, searching (for him);
Suffering (was) birth again and again.
O builder of house, thou art seen (now),
Thou shall not make a house again;
All they ribs are broken,
The ridge pole is destroyed;
The mind is divested of all material things,
The extinction of craving is attained.

12. HAPPENING BY WAY OF CAUSE OR DEPENDENT ORIGINATION

Through ignorance (arise) synergies (or dimly conscious elements), through synergies (arise) cognition (or thinking substance), through cognition (arise) individuality (or mind and body i.e. animated organism), through individuality (arise) the six sense spheres, contact, through contact (arise) feeling, through feeling (arise) craving (or thirst for life), through craving (arise) grasping (or clinging to existence), through grasping (arise) renewed existence, through renewed existence (arise) birth (or rebirth conception), through birth arise old age and death, grief, lamentation, sorrow (or bodily suffering), distress and unrest. Thus is the arising of this complete aggregate of suffering. Through the extinction of ignorance with no residue and dispassion, indeed the extinction of the synergies (happen), through the extinction of the synergies the extinction of cognition (happens), through the extinction of cognition the extinction of individuality (happens), through the extinction of individuality the extinction of the six sense spheres (happens), through the extinction of six sense spheres the extinction of contact (happens), through the extinction of contact the extinction of craving the extinction of grasping (happens), through the extinction of grasping the extinction of renewed existence (happens), through the extinction of birth old age and death, grief, lamentation, sorrow, distress and unrest become extinct. Thus is (or happens) the extinction of the complete aggregate of suffering.

13. STANZAS OF THE VICTORIOUS AUSPICES

1. With a thousand arms and created weapons that
    (Elephant) Girimekhala with Mara, risen with fierceness
                     together with his army,
    Through righteous means, such as generosity, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

2. More than (even) Mara contending all night through,
    Indeed, the fierce and obdurate yakkha alavaka,
    Through forbearance, the well trained method, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

3. Nalagiri the great elephant fully drunk,
    Like a circle of jungle-fire, that one, terrible like a thunderbolt,
    Through means of sprinkling the water of loving kindness,
                 the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

4. Holding up (his) sword with lifted hand that very fierce,
    That Angulimala running the distance of three leagues,
    Through psychic power with conditioned mind, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

5. Forming (i.e. enlarging) her belly with firewood like unto
                  a pregnant woman
    The corrupt words of Cinca in the midst of people,
    Through quiet means with calmness, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

6. Giving up truth, that Saccaka, hankering after
               arguments as though like a banner
    Fixing his mind on arguments fully blinded (to truth)
    Shining with the lamp of wisdom, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

7. The naga Nandopananda very wise and of great psychic power
    Causing to be tamed by His son the elder who is like a naga,
    Through the method of psychic power and advice, the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

8. With his hand much bitten by the naga namely wrong views,
    The brahma named Baka of clear sheen and psychic power,
    Through the method of the medicine of knowledge,
                 the Lord of Sages won.
    Through that power may there be victorious auspices to you.

9. And these eight Buddha stanzas of victorious auspices,
    He who recites daily and remembers without sloth,
    Giving up various (troubles) and dangers,
    That wise man would attain the happiness of release.

[Sometimes the following request for protection from evil is recited here or at the end of the three suttas.]

(a) Whatever bad portent and what is inauspicious,
     Whatever unpleasant noise of a bird,
     (Whatever) evil planet (and) a bad dream unpleasant,
     Let them (all) come to naught through the power of the Buddha.

(b) Whatever bad portent and what is inauspicious,
     Whatever unpleasant noise of a bird,
     (Whatever) evil planet (and) a bad dream unpleasant,
     Let them (all) come to naught through the power of the Dhamma.

(c) Whatever bad portent and what is inauspicious,
     Whatever unpleasant noise of a bird,
     (Whatever) evil planet (and) a bad dream unpleasant,
     Let them (all) come to naught through the power of the Sangha.

14. WISH FOR AUSPICES

1. May there be all the auspices,
    May all the deities Protect (you);
    By the power of all the Buddhas
    May there be blessing to you.

2. May there be all the auspices,
    May all the deities Protect (you);
    By the power of all the Dhamma
    May there be blessing to you.

3. May there be all the auspices,
    May all the deities Protect (you);
    By the power of all the Sangha
    May there be blessing to you.

15. (a) REQUEST FOR PROTECTION FROM EVIL

Of asterisms, yakkhas and demi-gods,
For the warding off of evil planets,
Through the power of the protections
May their dangers come to destruction. [Three times]

      (b) FIXATION OF THE THREE PROTECTION

All Buddhas are powerful,
Whatever power there is of the Silent Buddhas,
               [through their powers]
And through the power of the Arahants,
We fix the protection in all respects.

16. RECITAL OF THE THREE SUTTAS

(a) Mahamangala sutta
(b) Ratana sutta
(c) Karaniyametta sutta

[Each Sutta is followed by ‘On account of this true word may the three jewels protect you. (Three times)]

17. THE STANZAS RELATING TO THE GREAT AND VICTORIOUS AUSPICES

1. The Protector full of compassion for the benefit
                of all living beings,
    Having completed all the perfections has reached
                the most noble complete enlightenment.
    On account of that word of truth may there be
                or victorious auspice to you.

2. Conquering at the foot of the Bodhi tree (is) the
                 Increaser of joy to the Sakyas.
    Thus may there be victory to you may you be victorious,
                 may there be a victorious auspice (to you).

3. Having respected the jewel of the Buddha, the best
                and noble medicine,
    The beneficial of devas and human beings, through the blessing
                which is the power of the Buddha.
    May all your misfortunes be nullified (and) your fears appease.

4. Having respected the jewel of the Dhamma the best
               and noble medicine,
    The alleviator of distress, through the blessing
               which is the power of the Dhamma,
    May all your misfortunes be nullified (and) your fears appease.

5. Having respected the jewel of the Sangha, the best
               and noble medicine,
    Worthy of sacrifice (and) worthy of hospitality, through the blessing
               which is the power of the Sangha, (and)
    May all your misfortunes be nullified, may your maladies appease.

6. Whatever jewel there is in the world (which) is
               seen separately in diverse ways.
    There is no jewel equal to the Buddha, therefore
               may there be a blessing to you.

7. Whatever jewel there is in the world (which) is
              seen separately in diverse ways.
    There is no jewel equal to the Dhamma, therefore
              may there be a blessing to you.

8. Whatever jewel there is in the world (which) is
              seen separately in diverse ways.
    There is no jewel equal to the Sangha, therefore
              may there be a blessing to you.

9. I have no other refuge, the Buddha is
              my highest refuge;
    On account of that truth, may there be a
              victorious auspice to you.

10. I have no other refuge, the Dhamma is
                my highest refuge;
      On account of that truth, may there be a
                victorious auspice to you.

11. I have no other refuge, the Sangha is
                my highest refuge;
      On account of that truth, may there be a
               victorious auspice to you.

12. May all calamities be avoided; may all illness
              be destroyed,
      May there be no dangers to you, may you be a
              long-liver.

13. May all auspices be to you, may all the deities
              protect you;
      Through the power of all the Buddhas may there
              be happiness always to you.

14. May all auspices be to you, may all the deities
              protect you;
      Through the power of all the Dhamma may there
              be happiness always to you.

15. May all auspices be to you, may all the deities
              protect you;
      Through the power of all the Sangha may there
              be happiness always to you.

16. Of asterisms demons bhutas[1]
                   Through warding off of evil planets,
      Through the power of this protection
                    may misfortunes caused by them be destroyed.


Notes:

1) non-human beings of the deva category who live next to the earth (above) and in the lowest devaloka, namely catumaharajika, the world of the four kings.[Return to Text]




Updated: 5 January 2002 
Copyright 2002 The Research Institute for Pali Literature

[Return to Contents]

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.

Hon

ble C.M. reviews conclusions of Principal Secretaries/Secretaries meeting

Lucknow: 19 November 2010

The Uttar Pradesh Hon

ble Chief Minister Ms. Mayawati ji has

directed the officers to ensure proper arrangements for fertilisers,

seeds and other agriculture inputs for farmers for sowing of Rabi

crops. If farmers faced any difficulty regarding the availability of

fertilisers and seeds for Rabi season, then stringent action would

be taken against the concerning officers, she warned and said that

interests of farmers are the top most priority of the State

Government.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister gave these directives when the

Cabinet Secretary Mr. Shashank Shekhar Singh, Chief Secretary

Mr. Atul Kumar Gupta and Additional Cabinet Secretary Mr.

Netram apprised her of the conclusions of Principal

Secretaries/Secretaries review meeting held at Yojana Bhawan

today. She directed the officers to complete the de-silting works of

canals and run these canals according to roster, so that farmers

could get proper water for irrigation. Directing the officers to

speed up the implementation of development works and public

welfare programmes, she said that all schemes should be

completed in fixed time limit in qualitative manner.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister said with a view to double the

income of the farmers, special efforts should be made for poultry,

pig farming and dairy development. She said that parameters

should be fixed finally to estimate the increase in the income of

farmers. She said that vaccination of cattle should be speeded up.

Expressing concern over the fall in level of ground water, she said

that efforts for recharging of ground water were not enough. This

work should be speeded up and improved immediately.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister also directed the officers that

amount for the beneficiaries of Uttar Pradesh Mukhyamantri

Mahamaya Garib Arthik Madad Yojana should be transferred in

their bank accounts immediately. Directing the officers for

speeding up the construction works under Manyawar Sri

Kanshiram Ji Shahri Garib Avas Yojana, she said that verification

2

for beneficiaries of Savitri Bai Phule Balika Shiksha Madad Yojana

and distribution of money and cycles to them should be completed

by the month of December next at all costs.

Expressing pleasure over the progress of expenditure under

Special Component Plan (SCP), the Hon

ble Chief Minister directed

the officers that such progress should be maintained in future also.

She directed the officers to complete the works regarding fees

subsidy for SC/ST and students of other categories. She made it

clear that any sort of corruption would not be tolerated in the

implementation of Child Nutrition Project.

Keeping in view the welfare of workers, the Hon

ble Chief

Minister directed the officers to implement the labour laws

seriously and take effective action to solve labour disputes. She

said that stern punishment would be given, if any slackness was

found in this regard. She also directed the officers to solve the

problems of entrepreneurs and dispose off investment proposals in

fixed time limit. She also directed the officers to make Jan Sewa

Kendras more effective with a view to providing better facilities to

citizens under e-governance.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister said that functioning of sports

colleges being run by Sports Department should be improved and

review of the department works should be made on the basis of

medals won by the players of the State in National Competitions.

She also directed to improve the astro-turf of Lucknow Sports

College.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister said the State Government was

committed to improve education qualitatively. Reiterating the

commitment of her government to conduct board examinations

without copying, she said that stringent action would be taken on

irregularities found in selection of examination centres. She also

emphasised on the presence of teachers in schools.

The Hon

ble Chief Minister while reviewing the development

works of cities said that laying of sewer lines should be speeded up

without disturbance in transport. She also directed the officers to

supervise the availability of medicines in government hospitals

paying special attention towards cleanliness. She also directed the

officers to run the buses of Transport Corporation according to the

numbers fixed for the purpose.



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