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LESSON 99 Aggañña Sutta 27 11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY-GOOD GOVERNANCE-Kanpur police on Facebook-Pay attention to your scam-ridden party, Mayawati tells Sonia
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LESSON  99 Aggañña Sutta 27  11 2010 FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas

Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:

The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided  into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!               DHAMMA (MEDITATE)!              SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM           IS            POWER

Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :

Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit

As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.


The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

§  Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

Kindly watch the video on:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cLZzPoLjqwM

BCI-family, wishes from Vitthal Umap Ji

Thank you, Mr Chaitanya Bhandare, for your emal and the YouTube.
 
Vithalji Umap passed away singing. He had been singing praises of Babasaheb and Lord Buddha, till death. According to Buddhist teaching, he would have a rebirth befitting his noble samsaric life.
 
I am sorry, I didn’t have an opportunity to listen to him and his songs in person. I am thankful to friends like Chaitanya who have brought his songs alive electronically.
 
With much metta,
 
Lakshman 

No words to describe the pain I am feeling with this news.


The mountain-shattering voice of Hon. Umap ji (for me ‘Umap kaka’) will keep on inspiring millions of us forever.

Here is a small clip to have a ‘darshan’ of this diamond:
 

With Metta,
Sunil Bodhi
 

Dear All

Great Namo Buddhay & Jay-Bhim

Oxford university has published a book THE MAKERS OF THE UNIVERSE, In which they enlist 100 people who gave remarkable contribution to the world over the period of 10,000 yrs in entire UNIVERSE, In this list 1st name is “GOUTAM BUDDHA” and 4th is “Dr. B.R. Ambedakr” for the their principle of “equality” which is the universal solution for the today’s burning world. My sincere tribute to both of them.

With Metta

Satyajit


KAMMA

REBIRTH

AWAKEN-NESS

BUDDHA

THUS COME ONE

DHAMMA

II.
ARHAT

FOUR HOLY TRUTHS

EIGHTFOLD PATH

TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING

BODHISATTVA

PARAMITA

SIX PARAMITAS

III.

SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH

TEN DHARMA REALMS

FIVE SKANDHAS

EIGHTEEN REALMS

FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS

IV.

MEDITATION

MINDFULNESS

FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS

LOTUS POSTURE

SAMADHI

CHAN SCHOOL

FOUR JHANAS

FOUR FORMLESS REALMS

V.

FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE

MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED

PURE LAND

BUDDHA RECITATION

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS

EMPTINESS

VI.

DEMON

LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism

Level II: Buddhist Studies

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer

Level IV: Once - Returner

Level V: Non-Returner
Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,

astronomy,

alchemy,

and

anatomy

Philosophy and Comparative Religions;

Historical Studies;

International Relations and Peace Studies;

Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;

Languages and Literature;

and Ecology and Environmental Studies

Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University

Course Programs:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism_and_evolution

Buddhism and evolution

As no major principles of Buddhism contradict it, many Buddhists tacitly accept the theory of evolution.[1] Questions about the eternity or infinity of the universe at large are counted among the 14 unanswerable questions which the Buddha maintained were counterproductive areas of speculation.[2] As such, many Buddhists do not think about these kinds of questions as particularly meaningful or helpful from a religious perspective.[3] One does not need to know the origin of life, nor agree with the Buddha’s position on scientific topics, in order to achieve awakenment.

Anagarika Dharmapala once stated that “the theory of evolution was one of the ancient teachings of the Buddha.”[4]

In the Majjhima Nikaya, a potential follower asks the Buddha for an answer to the problem of cosmogony:

“Suppose someone was hit by a poisoned arrow and his friends and relatives found a doctor able to remove the arrow. If this man were to say, ‘I will not have this arrow taken out until I know whether the person who had shot it was a priest, a prince or a merchant, his name and his family. I will not have it taken out until I know what kind of bow was used and whether the arrowhead was an ordinary one or an iron one.’ That person would die before all these things are ever known to him.”[2]

The Buddha argued that there is no apparent rational necessity for the existence of a creator god because everything ultimately is created by mind.[2] Belief in a creator is not necessarily addressed by a religion based on phenomenology, and Buddhism is generally accepting of modern scientific theories about the formation of the universe. This can be argued either from the standpoint that it simply does not matter, or from an interpretation of the Agañña Sutta favoring the notion that it describes the basic concept of evolution.[5]

Aggañña Sutta

In the Aggañña Sutta, found in the Pali Canon, the Buddha does appear to give a highly detailed answer to this issue. The Buddha, speaking to the monk Vasettha, a former Brahmin, states the following:

‘There comes a time, Vasettha, when, sooner or later after a long period this world contracts. At a time of contraction, beings are mostly born in the Abhassara Brahma world. And there they dwell, mind-made, feeding on delight, self luminous, moving through the air, glorious—and they stay like that for a very long time. But sooner or later, after a very long period, this world begins to expand again. At a time of expansion, the beings from the Abhassara Brahma world, having passed away from there, are mostly reborn in this world. Here they dwell, mind-made, feeding on delight, self-luminous, moving through the air, glorious— and they stay like that for a very long time.

At that period, Vasettha, there was just one mass of water, and all was darkness, blinding darkness. Neither moon nor sun appeared, no constellations or stars appeared, night and day were not yet distinguished, nor months and fortnights, nor years and seasons; there was no male and female, beings being reckoned just as beings. And sooner or later, after a very long period of time, savory earth spread itself over the waters where those beings were. It looked just like the skin that forms itself over hot milk as it cools. It was endowed with color, smell, and taste. It was the color of fine ghee or butter and it was very sweet, like pure wild honey.[6]

Because the Buddha seems to present a model of cosmology wherein the universe expands and contracts over extremely long periods of time, this description has been found by some to be consistent with the expanding universe model and Big Bang.[7] The Buddha seems to be saying here that the universe expands outward, reaches a stabilising point, and then reverts its motion back toward a central point resulting in its destruction, this process again to be repeated infinitely. Throughout this expanding and contracting process, the objects found within the universe undergo periods of development and change over a long stretch of time, according to the environment in which they find themselves. Following this passage above, the Buddha goes on to say that the “beings” he described in this paragraph become attached to an earthlike planet, get reborn there, and remain there for the duration of the life. As a consequence of this, physical characteristics change and evolutionary changes takes place. This is often interpreted as a very rough theory of evolution. Furthermore, the Aggañña Sutta presents water as pre-existent to earthlike planets, with the planet forming with water and the life moving from the water onto the earth. The Buddha does not talk about a specific earth, but about earthlike planets in general.

The Aggañña Sutta does raise an issue about the importance of the question; if the Buddha regards the answer as meaningless, why would he give a teaching on it? And if he does not regard the answer as meaningless, why did he not provide it to another person who asked? One of the answers could be that he gave the teaching to people who had a very fixed idea of the existence of the universe or tried to explain the creation seen on a relative level. The Buddha likened his teaching to a doctor’s medicine to cure a patient’s suffering. The medicine must be of the right content and right amount to the right patient at the right time. As such, there is no absolute truth as there is no single, absolute cure-all medicine fitting all patients

References

1.    ^ Religious Differences on the Question of Evolution

2.    ^ a b c Buddha’s Wisdom and Compassion

3.    ^ Four reasons Buddhists can love evolution

4.    ^ Buddhism and Science: Probing the Boundaries of Faith and Reason by Dr. Martin J. Verhoeven. Religion East and West, Issue 1, June 2001, pp. 77-97

5.    ^ Williams, Paul (2004). Buddhism. Routledge. pp. 102. ISBN 0415332281.

6.    ^ Aggañña Sutta

7.    ^ Beginnings and Endings: The Buddhist Mythos of the Arising and Passing Away of the World by James J. Hughes Ph.D. Buddhist Perceptions of Desirable Societies in the Future: Papers prepared for the United Nations University, eds. Sulak Sivaraksa et al. IRCD: Bangkok, Thailand. 1993

8.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agga%C3%B1%C3%B1a_Sutta

Aggañña Sutta

Aggañña Sutta is the 27th Sutta of Digha Nikaya collections. The sutta describes a discourse imparted from the Buddha to two brahmins, Bharadvaja and Vasettha, who left their family and caste to become monks. The two brahmins are insulted and maligned by their own caste for their intention to become member of Sangha. Buddha explains that caste and lineage can not be compared to the achievement of morality practice and the Dhamma, as anyone from the four castes can become a monk and reached the state of Arahant. Then, he explains about the beginning of the Earth, and the birth of social order and its structure, including the castes. The Buddha emphasizes the message of universality in Dhamma and how Dhamma is the best of all things

The beginning

The Sutta begins when the Buddha is staying in Savatthi, in the temple donated by Visakkha, the Mother of Migara. At that time, two brahmins, Bharadvaja and Vasettha are training with the Monks (bhikkhu) and aim to be a member of Sangha. As usual in the evening, the Buddha raises from his meditation and strolls in the open yard nearby his dwelling. Vasettha sees his Teacher strolling, and he tells his friend, Bharadvaja, and suggests to meet Buddha to see if they can hear a Dhamma exposition from the Buddha.

They both approach the Buddha and after some formal properieties, the Buddha asks the two if they received insults and denigration when they left their caste and layman’s life in order to join the order of Sangha. Vasettha and Bharadvaja answer that they did receive a ‘flood of insults’. They say that the other Brahmins maintain that the Brahmin caste is the best, as the Brahmins are of high social status and authority, pure-bred, have radiant complexion, born from the mouth of God Brahma, unlike the other lower castes. So, by the opinion of the other Brahmins, how can Vasettha and Bharadvaja leave this good caste and status, thus join together with fraudulent ascetics with shaven heads from other castes, lower in status as they are born from the feet of Brahma.

To this remark, Buddha tell them that the Brahmins have indeed forgotten about their past if they said such things. The fact is that the women in Brahmin caste can get pregnant, give birth, and take care of their children. But the Brahmins still speak that they are born from the Mouth of God Brahma and other (castes) are born from Brahma’s feet. Thus the Brahmin’s words are untrue. Buddha speaks that the Brahmins are not speaking truthfully and they will reap a bad result from their own deeds.

The Buddha then elaborates that if any of the caste does the following deeds: killing, taking anything which is not given, take part in sexual misconduct, lying, slandering, speaking rough words or nonsense, greedy, cruel, and practise wrong beliefs (miccha ditthi); people would still see that they do negative deeds and therefore are not worthy of respect. They will even get into trouble from their own deeds, whatever their caste (Brahmin, Khattiya, Vessa, and Sudda) might be.

While those who refrain themselves from: killing, taking anything which is not given, do sexual misconduct, lying, slandering, speaking rough words or nonsense, being greedy, cruel, and practising wrong beliefs (miccha ditthi); will be seen by people as positive and will earn respect from the people and the wise ones. They would be profiting from their deeds, no matter what their caste might be.

Logically, as the four castes can do either the negative (demerit) or positive (merit) deeds, so will the wise reject the statement that only the Brahmins is the best of caste. Why? Because anyone from the four castes if they left the worldly affairs and became a monk, and due to their discipline and struggle, they become arahant, people who conquered their mind’s stains, have done whatever what must be done, have relieved themselves from burden, have broken the bondage of birth, achieved freedom, freed due to achieved knowledge, then he is the best among others based on Truth (Dhamma).

The Buddha quoted, “Dhamma is the best thing for people In this life and the next as well.”

Further, Buddha proves that Dhamma is indeed the best thing of all things in life. He took an example of King Pasenadi of Kosala Kingdom, who has now conquered the Sakyans. The Sakyans revere, praise, and serve him with respect.

But, towards the Buddha, who came from Sakyan people, King Pasenadi reveres, praises, and serves the Buddha with utmost respect. Even the monarch thinks like this: “The Shramana Gotama had perfect birth, while I am not perfect. The Shramana Gotama is mighty, while I am weak. The Shramana Gotama inspired awe and respect, while I do not. The Shramana Gotama is vastly influential and charming, while I only possess small influence.” As even the King respects Dhamma, revers Dhamma, obeys Dhamma, therefore he bows and praises the Tathagatha.

The Buddha then advises Vasettha that whoever has strong, deep rooted, and established belief in the Tathagatha, he can declare that he is the child of Bhagavan, born from the mouth of Dhamma, created from Dhamma, and the heir of Dhamma. Because the titles of the Tathagatha are: The Body of Dhamma, The Body of Brahma, the Manifestation of Dhamma, and the Manifestation of Brahma.

The Beginning of Life on Earth

In the second part of the Sutta, Buddha tells the story of how the human beings came to dwell on Earth.

The Buddha told that sooner or later, after a very long time, there would be a time when the world shrinks. As the universe shrinks, many of its inhabitants would die. Of these deceased creatures, some were born again (due to good karma) in the Heavenly realm of Abbhasara (Lucid Light). There, they floated for a very - very long time, as a bodiless, radiating extreme light. They don’t eat or drink, as they nourish themselves from pure spiritual joy.

Then, after some very long time, when the World began to expand again, many of these Abbhasara creatures were born to the newly formed Earth. They floated above and around the Earth. At this time, there were not yet seen the Moon and the Sun, there were not yet Night and Day, there were not yet names and identity or female or male. The creatures were only known for creatures.

At that period, Vasettha, there was just one mass of water, and all was darkness, blinding darkness…. And sooner or later, after a very long period of time, savory earth spread itself over the waters where those beings were. It looked just like the skin that forms itself over hot milk as it cools. It was endowed with color, smell, and taste. It was the color of fine ghee or heated butter and it was very sweet, like pure wild honey (1)

Some of the creatures of light (the Abbhasaras) who had curiosity and a greedy nature began to dive and taste the savory Earth’s substance. At that moment, the creature found out that it tasted so delicious. Thus, greed started to seep in and it ate the substance voraciously, greedily, thus calling also its comrades (who were flying above and on earth) to join in the feast. Not long afterwards, the creatures began to eat so greedily and due to the huge amount of the mud substance, they could feed on it for a very long time.

As they ate and ate, their luminous body began to be coated by the mud substance, formed a coarser body, then suddenly, the sun and moon were seen, so were the stars, and also Night and Day began on Earth. The logical explanation of this was that the creatures were the self-luminating, so blinding and luminating that they didn’t notice the Sun. The Earth was covered in their light. So, when the materialization took place, the light faded inside their newly conceived ‘body’ of mud and thus the night and day became apparent to them. Then, as the night and day became apparent, season and years also appeared.

Their body was still coarse and roughly shaped. Thus, after a very long time, the mud-like substance began to exhaust. Then, mushroom-like plants began to grow so fast that it replaced the mud-like ocean. The creatures began to devour them as well, and they found it also so delicious as sweet honey and milk. Their body hardened more and details began to turn finer.

After another very long time, the mushrooms also began to exhaust, replaced by cassava or turnip-class plants. They also began to devour it night and day, and thus they began to notice differences amongst them. As the changes of their bodies varied with one another, the concept of difference arose. The beautiful and the ugly concept was born. The beautiful scorns the ugly and they became arrogant of their appearance.

Then, after the turnips, the earth was grown with rice plants. The first rice plants were without husk and kernels. The sweet and honey-like rice flourished seeds abundantly. The people consumed them for a very long time. But there are people who became greedy and lazy. They took more rice than they needed for one day’s meals. They began to take two, four, eight, and sixteen days’ of rice reserves as they were too lazy to take rice everyday. Owing to this, many other creatures began to store and hoard the rice. The generation time for rice plants became slower and slower. Usually, it took only one night for the plant to grow and be ready to be consumed, but by the karmic power, the plant began to grow slower and slower. Also the rice grew in kernel and husks, scattered, of which the creatures must work, nurse, maintain, harvest, and cook them to obtain the white rice.

By this time, the body of the creatures had been finely evolved. There was already the distinction between male and female. The man became preoccupied with women and vice versa. Then, as they were deeply attracted to one another, passion and desire aroused, and they engaged in sexual relationships. The people who saw a couple engaged in sexual activity scolded them, and usually the couple were forbidden from entering the village for a certain period of time. Owing to this, the indulgent couples built closed dwellings where they indulged in sexual activity.

The Birth of Social Order and Castes

In the third part, the Buddha explained about the origin of Castes, their titles, and their order in the society system which were still rigidly effective in Buddha’s time.

The Khattiya Caste (Rulers)

The rice plants, as mentioned earlier, began to grow in separate plots and people began to divide lands and tend each other’s cluster of rice fief. They became preoccupied in tending their own field. Then, as the evil and greed were aroused, there were people who begin stealing others’ crops. At first, the others only warned the culprit and the culprit promised that he would never repeat it again. But when it was repeated several times, the people began punishing him with fist, stones, and then sticks. That is the origin of punishment forms. Then, people began to think that they were too busy to heed every crime and abuse that happened in their society. They grieved on the rising of evil amongst their people. But most of their time had already been invested in tending their fief. So, they appointed someone to rectify what is right and what is wrong, give warnings to those who need it, give punishment to those who deserve it, and in return, they will give him a share of their rice. So, they went to the fairest, ablest, most likeable, and most intelligent person and appointed him to do the judging and passing out sentences on the reward of a share of rice. The appointed person thus agreed and the people bestowed upon him the title : ‘Maha-Sammata’ meaning: The People’s Choice. Then, they bestowed also the second title: ‘Khattiya’ meaning the ‘Lord of the Rice Field’, and finally the third title: ‘Raja’ which means ‘Who gladdens people with Dhamma (or Truth)’. This order was created by the people’s wish and need, based on the Dhamma and not from others. The Buddha stated again that Dhamma is indeed the best of all things.

The Brahmin Caste

Then, amongst the people, some of them begin to think like this: “Evil deeds have risen amongst us, such as: theft, lies, murders, sexual abuses, punishment, and banishment. Now let us set aside evil, unuseful, and impolite things.” The word Brahmins came, as it meant: “They who put aside Evil and unwholesome things” (1). They set up retreats and huts in the forests and meditated there. They came to the city at morning and evening only to gather food and after finishing gathering food, they returned to their huts and meditations. People noticed this and ‘Those who meditated’ were called ‘Jhayanti’ or ‘Jhayaka’.

There are other people, who can’t meditate or dwell in huts in the forest. So, they settled in the cities, did not meditate, but compiled books. The people called them ‘Ajjhayaka’ which meant ‘They who don’t meditate’. At first the Ajjhayaka were viewed lower than Jhayaka but in the Buddha’s time, the Ajjhayaka had been viewed higher in status than the Jhayakas.

The Vessa (Traders) and the Sudda (Hunters)

Among the people who had settled and had family, some began to adopt various trades.

The remainder of these people preferred the work of hunting. The Sudda caste came from the word ‘Sudda’ which means: ‘They Are Base Who Live By The Chase’ [1].

All of the castes, from Brahmin, Khattiya, Vessa, and Sudda originated from these people, and not from others; in accordance to the Dhamma and not by others.

The Ascetics

But from the four clans, there were people who were not satisfied with their living, left their home and became celibate ascetics. These are the origin of the fifth caste formed from all the four castes’ people who left their lay life and became an ascetic.

Buddha’s Conclusion

The Buddha then concluded his discourse to Vasettha and Bharadvaja: (Due to the governance of Dhamma which became the root of all castes and people) anyone, from any the caste, who did demerit and wrong doings, lived a bad life of speech, thoughts, views, and wrong doings, they would end up after their death, in the realm of sufferings, hell, loss, and torture.

But anyone, from any caste, who did merit and good deeds, lived a good life of speech, thoughts, and deeds; had the right view, after their death, they would end in the realm of happiness and heaven.

Anyone, from any caste, who did both merit and demerit, lived a good and bad life of speech, thoughts, and deeds; had either a right or a bad view, after their death, they could end in the realm of suffering or the realm of joy.

Anyone, from any caste, who lived a life of disciplined deeds, speeches, thoughts, who had trained and developed himself in the seven factors of Awakenment, then he would attain the eradication from the (stains/dust/dirt/filth) of mind in this current life.

Anyone, from four castes, who became a bhikku (Monk), arahant, who had eradicated stains of Mind, had done what must be done, had relieved himself from burden, who had attained freedom, who had broken the bondage of birth, who had been freed due to knowledge; then they would be declared as the best from all of them, in accordance to the Truth (Dharma) and not from the basis of not Truth (adhamma).

The Buddha quoted, “Dhamma is the best thing for people In this life and the next as well.”

The Buddha quoted the verses of Brahma Sandakumara: “The Khattiya is the best among those who maintain their lineage; He with knowledge and conduct is best of gods and men. then, the Buddha asserted that the verse is indeed true, according to the Dhamma, profitable, and true.

The Khattiya’s best among those who value clan; He with knowledge and conduct is best of gods and men.

Thus the discourse ended with Vasettha and Bharadvaja rejoiceing in hearing the words of Buddha.

Digging deeper on the Sutta

While the story of the world’s beginning is considered a myth, on the other hand, the buddhist doctrine requires a constant sceptical approach, where one must see and prove it before one believes it (ehipassiko). However, the profound insight of the Buddha in two major fields: science (cosmology) and social structure’s origin indeed was revolutionary in his era.

On the science part, Buddha implied the theory of the Evolution of Universe, where it is said to shrink and then expand in repeated cycles.

While on the social science part, the Buddha’s words implied the equality of origin in the human race, whether by their sex, appearance, or by other categories which were founded later based on physiological differences. Buddha also emphasized that the social structure is formed voluntarily, based on righteousness and necessity, not based on Divine Forces as some theories stated.

The Monarchy is also formed voluntarily, and the people elect the most righteous and capable person, which implied the Democracy concept. The Monarch accepts a ’share of rice’ as his reward to rectify the social order, which is the origin of voluntary reward which evolves into the taxation concept. However, the Buddha states that the Monarch is regarded worthy not because of his divine right but due to his righteousness in deeds. [2]

The Buddha’s message was clear, however, that the best thing in the world is Truth (Dhamma) and everything is created, measured, and valued based on Truth and not from something other.

According to Richard Gombrich, the sutta gives strong evidence that it was conceived entirely as a satire of brahminical claims regarding the divine nature of the caste system, showing that it is nothing but a humanconvention.[1][2] In this text, the Buddha also pokes fun at the Vedic “Hymn of the Cosmic Man” and etymologizes “reciter of the Veda” so as to make it mean “non-meditator” instead.[3]

[edit]Notes

1.    ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, page 85: [1].

2.    ^ David J. Kalupahana, Mūlamadhyamakakārikā of Nāgārjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. Reprint by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1991, page 61: [2]

3.    ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, page 82-85.

[edit]External links

§  Agganna Sutta Translation

§  Agganna Sutta’s Society Theory

GOOD GOVERNANCE

Kanpur police on Facebook

KANPUR: In an attempt to make themselves easily accessible to the public, police in this Uttar Pradesh district have opened an account on popular social networking site Facebook.

“The main objective behind opening the account is to generate a direct medium of communication with the public. The exercise is aimed at facilitating better communication between police and the public,” Kanpur range Deputy Inspector General (DIG) M. Ashok Jain told reporters in city, some 80 km from Lucknow.

“With the help of the account we will also be able to know about the public feedback, which in turn will immensely help us improve our functioning,” said Jain, who has opened the Facebook account on behalf of the Kanpur police.

Senior police officials say sketches and photographs of wanted criminals would also be posted in the Kanpur Police Facebook page.

“The objective behind it is simple. Once the photos are posted, people will get to know about the wanted criminals and would approach us if they see them. It will help us nabbing the criminals also,” a senior police official said.

Jain has issued special instructions for reviewing the Facebook account on a daily basis.

“Whenever I get time, I visit the Facebook account that has been created around a week ago. However, I have instructed the officials to ensure the Facebook page is visited at least four-five times daily,” said Jain.

Pay attention to your scam-ridden party, Mayawati tells Sonia

Lucknow, Nov 26 – Sonia Gandhi should pay attention to her own party that was ‘full of scams’, Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati said Friday while hitting out at the Congress president for her remarks on ‘rampant corruption’ in the state.

In a statement issued a day after Gandhi’s rally in Allahabad, Mayawati lashed out at her for sweeping remarks against the working of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) government in Uttar Pradesh.

‘It is high time Sonia Gandhi started paying attention to her own party that is full of scams. Let her put her own house in order before pointing fingers at us,’ Mayawati said.

‘The nation is today paying the price for corruption at all levels in the UPA (United Progressive Alliance) government,’ she alleged, and added that ‘there are more skeletons to tumble out of the cupboard’.

Taking strong exception to Gandhi’s charge about ‘misappropriation’ and ‘pilferage’ of funds released by the central government for various development schemes, Mayawati said: ‘The truth is that that the Congress-led UPA government has not been giving us the required funds.

‘Soon after the formation of our government in 2007, we had sought a special financial package of Rs.80,000 crore for the overall development of Uttar Pradesh’s most backward Bundelhand and Purvanchal regions but not a penny was given by the centre so far.’

She gave several other examples of the financial demands pending with the union government.

Alleging ’step-motherly treatment’ by the central government, the chief minister claimed: ‘As against the state’s total dues of Rs.34,083 crore, the centre had yet to release anything beyond Rs.16,414 crore.’

She also blamed New Delhi for deliberately holding back its clearance for an international airport near Greater Noida. Besides, she accused the Manmohan Singh government for delaying allocation of coal blocks that was adversely affecting power generation in the state.

 

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