Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice Universitu 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
April 2011
M T W T F S S
« Mar   May »
 123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
252627282930  
04/06/11
220 LESSON 07 04 2011 Ariyapariyesana Sutta The Noble Search The Longer Discourse to Saccaka Kathavatthu Sutta: Topics of Conversation 1and 2 Sambodhi Sutta Self awakening Mogharaja manava puccha Mogharaja s QuestionFREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org -Buddha As a Leader-POLITICS is SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANC-[The Buddhist Circle] Uttar Pradesh, the Land of Lord Buddha: Towards Transformation like Samrat Ashoka-EVOICE OF SARVAJAN LUCKYLEAKS-[The Buddhist Circle] IIT-JEE Preparation Private Coaching for our student.
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 11:08 pm

         220 LESSON 07 04 2011 Ariyapariyesana Sutta The Noble Search The Longer Discourse to Saccaka Kathavatthu Sutta: Topics of Conversation 1and 2 Sambodhi Sutta Self awakening Mogharaja manava puccha Mogharaja s QuestionFREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter  to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org -Buddha As a Leader-POLITICS is SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANC-[The Buddhist Circle] Uttar Pradesh, the Land of Lord Buddha: Towards Transformation like Samrat Ashoka-EVOICE OF SARVAJAN LUCKYLEAKS-[The Buddhist Circle] IIT-JEE Preparation Private Coaching for our student.  

Dove-02-june.gif (38556 bytes) THE BUDDHISTrevolving globe

ONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER

LESSON 
220

COURSE PROGRAM

 

Ariyapariyesana
Sutta: The Noble Search

Translator’s Introduction

Some
scholars have suggested that, of the many autobiographical accounts of the
Buddha’s Awakening presented in the Pali canon, this is the earliest. From that
assumption, they have further suggested that because this account does not
mention the four noble truths, either in connection with the Awakening or with
the Buddha’s instructions to his first disciples, the four noble truths must
have been a later doctrine.

There is little reason, however,
to accept these suggestions. To begin with, the sutta does not recount the
Buddha’s period of austerities prior to his Awakening, nor does it tell of how
the group of five monks attended to him during that period and later left him
when he abandoned his austerities, and yet toward the end of the sutta the
Buddha alludes to those two incidents in a way indicating that he assumes them
to be familiar to his listeners. Thus, if anything, the accounts that do
explicitly relate those events — such as the one in MN
36
 — would seem to be earlier.

Secondly,
the lack of reference to the four noble truths does not indicate that they were
not actually involved in the Awakening or the first sermon. As is always the
case in the Buddha’s autobiographical accounts in the Canon, this account is
designed to convey a lesson, and the lesson is clearly articulated toward the
beginning of the sutta: the difference between noble search and ignoble search.
The account then illustrates the Buddha’s own noble search and his later
teaching career in the terms introduced by the lesson: the search for the
“unborn, aging-less, illness-less, deathless, sorrow-less, undefiled,
unexcelled rest from the yoke: Unbinding.” In particular, all the events
mentioned in the account revolve around the issue of the Deathless: the
discovery of the Deathless, the teaching of the Deathless, and the Buddha’s success
in helping others to attain the Deathless. Had the lesson of the sutta
concerned the four noble truths, they would probably have been mentioned in the
account. Thus there seems little reason to regard this sutta as
“proof” that the four noble truths were a later teaching.

Nevertheless,
this sutta offers many excellent lessons in the Dhamma, in addition to
mentioning a few incidents in the Buddha’s life that are found nowhere else in
the Sutta Pitaka.

I have heard that on one occasion
the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Jeta’s Grove,Anathapindika’s monastery. Then early in the morning,
having put on his robes and carrying his bowl & outer robe, he went into
Savatthi for alms. Then a large number of monks went to Ven.
Ananda
 and said,
“It has been a long time, friend Ananda, since we have heard a Dhamma talk
in the Blessed One’s presence. It would be good if we could get to hear a
Dhamma talk in the Blessed One’s presence.”

“In that case, venerable
ones, go to the hermitage of Rammaka the brahman. Perhaps you will get to hear a
Dhamma talk in the Blessed One’s presence.”

“As
you say, friend,” the monks replied to Ven. Ananda and left.

Then the Blessed One, having gone
for alms, after his meal, on returning from his alms round, said to Ven.
Ananda, “Ananda, let’s go to the Eastern Park, the palace of Migara’s mother, for the day’s abiding.”

“As
you say, lord,” Ven. Ananda replied to the Blessed One.

So
the Blessed One, together with Ven. Ananda, went to the Eastern Park, the palace
of Migara’s mother, for the day’s abiding. Then in the evening, emerging from
seclusion, he said to Ven. Ananda, “Ananda, let’s go to the Eastern
Gatehouse to bathe our limbs.”

“As
you say, lord,” Ven. Ananda replied to the Blessed One.

So
the Blessed One, together with Ven. Ananda, went to the Eastern Gatehouse to
bathe his limbs. Having bathed his limbs at the Eastern Gatehouse, coming out
of the water, he stood in his lower robe, drying his limbs. Then Ven. Ananda
said to him, “Lord, the hermitage of Rammaka the brahman is not far away.
Pleasing is the hermitage of Rammaka the brahman. Delightful is the hermitage
of Rammaka the brahman. It would be good if the Blessed One went to the
hermitage of Rammaka the brahman out of sympathy.” The Blessed One
acquiesced through silence.

So
the Blessed One went to the hermitage of Rammaka the brahman. Now at that time
a large number of monks had gathered in the hermitage of Rammaka the brahman
for a Dhamma discussion. The Blessed One stood outside the door waiting for the
discussion to end. On knowing that the discussion had ended, clearing his
throat, he tapped at the door. The monks opened the door for him. Entering the
hermitage of Rammaka the brahman, the Blessed One sat down on a seat made ready.
As he was sitting there, he addressed the monks: “For what discussion are
you gathered together here? In the midst of what discussion have you been
interrupted?”

“Lord,
our interrupted Dhamma discussion was about the Blessed One himself, and then
the Blessed One arrived.”

“Good, monks. It’s fitting
that you, as sons of good families who have gone forth out of faith from home
to the homeless life, should gather for Dhamma discussion. When you have
gathered you have two duties: either Dhamma discussion or noble silence. [1]

“Monks, there are these two searches: ignoble search &
noble search. And what is ignoble search? There is the case where a person,
being subject himself to birth, seeks [happiness in] what is likewise subject
to birth. Being subject himself to aging… illness… death… sorrow…
defilement, he seeks [happiness in] what is likewise subject to illness…
death… sorrow… defilement.

“And
what may be said to be subject to birth? Spouses & children are subject to
birth. Men & women slaves… goats & sheep… fowl & pigs…
elephants, cattle, horses, & mares… gold & silver are subject to
birth. Subject to birth are these acquisitions, and one who is tied to them,
infatuated with them, who has totally fallen for them, being subject to birth,
seeks what is likewise subject to birth.

“And what may be said to be subject
to aging… illness… death… sorrow… defilement? Spouses & children…
men & women slaves… goats & sheep… fowl & pigs… elephants,
cattle, horses, & mares… gold & silver [2] are
subject to aging… illness… death… sorrow… defilement. Subject to
aging… illness… death… sorrow… defilement are these acquisitions, and
one who is tied to them, infatuated with them, who has totally fallen for them,
being subject to birth, seeks what is likewise subject to aging… illness…
death… sorrow… defilement. This is ignoble search.

“And
what is the noble search? There is the case where a person, himself being
subject to birth, seeing the drawbacks of birth, seeks the unborn, unexcelled
rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Himself being subject to aging… illness…
death… sorrow… defilement, seeing the drawbacks of aging… illness…
death… sorrow… defilement, seeks the aging-less, illness-less, deathless,
sorrow-less, undefiled, unexcelled rest from the yoke: Unbinding. This is the
noble search.

“I,
too, monks, before my Awakening, when I was an unawakened bodhisatta, being
subject myself to birth, sought what was likewise subject to birth. Being subject
myself to aging… illness… death… sorrow… defilement, I sought
[happiness in] what was likewise subject to illness… death… sorrow…
defilement. The thought occurred to me, ‘Why do I, being subject myself to
birth, seek what is likewise subject to birth? Being subject myself to aging…
illness… death… sorrow… defilement, why do I seek what is likewise
subject to illness… death… sorrow… defilement? What if I, being subject
myself to birth, seeing the drawbacks of birth, were to seek the unborn,
unexcelled rest from the yoke: Unbinding? What if I, being subject myself to
aging… illness… death… sorrow… defilement, seeing the drawbacks of
aging… illness… death… sorrow… defilement, were to seek the aging-less,
illness-less, deathless, sorrow-less,, unexcelled rest from the yoke:
Unbinding?’

“So,
at a later time, while still young, a black-haired young man endowed with the
blessings of youth in the first stage of life — and while my parents,
unwilling, were crying with tears streaming down their faces — I shaved off my
hair & beard, put on the ochre robe and went forth from the home life into
homelessness.

“Having thus gone forth in
search of what might be skillful, seeking the unexcelled state of sublime
peace, I went to Alara Kalama and,
on arrival, said to him: ‘Friend Kalama, I want to practice in this doctrine
& discipline.’

“When
this was said, he replied to me, ‘You may stay here, my friend. This doctrine
is such that a wise person can soon enter & dwell in his own teacher’s
knowledge, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.’

“It
was not long before I quickly learned the doctrine. As far as mere lip-reciting
& repetition, I could speak the words of knowledge, the words of the
elders, and I could affirm that I knew & saw — I, along with others.

“I
thought: ‘It isn’t through mere conviction alone that Alara Kalama declares,
“I have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having realized it for myself
through direct knowledge.” Certainly he dwells knowing & seeing this
Dhamma.’ So I went to him and said, ‘To what extent do you declare that you
have entered & dwell in this Dhamma?’ When this was said, he declared the
dimension of nothingness.

“I
thought: ‘Not only does Alara Kalama have conviction, persistence, mindfulness,
concentration, & discernment. I, too, have conviction, persistence,
mindfulness, concentration, & discernment. What if I were to endeavor to
realize for myself the Dhamma that Alara Kalama declares he has entered &
dwells in, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.’ So it was
not long before I quickly entered & dwelled in that Dhamma, having realized
it for myself through direct knowledge. I went to him and said, ‘Friend Kalama,
is this the extent to which you have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having
realized it for yourself through direct knowledge?’

“‘Yes,
my friend…’

“‘This,
friend, is the extent to which I, too, have entered & dwell in this Dhamma,
having realized it for myself through direct knowledge.’

“‘It
is a gain for us, my friend, a great gain for us, that we have such a companion
in the holy life. So the Dhamma I declare I have entered & dwell in, having
realized it for myself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma you declare you
have entered & dwell in, having realized it for yourself through direct
knowledge. And the Dhamma you declare you have entered & dwell in, having
realized it for yourself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma I declare I
have entered & dwell in, having realized it for myself through direct
knowledge. The Dhamma I know is the Dhamma you know; the Dhamma you know is the
Dhamma I know. As I am, so are you; as you are, so am I. Come friend, let us
now lead this community together.’

“In
this way did Alara Kalama, my teacher, place me, his pupil, on the same level
with himself and pay me great honor. But the thought occurred to me, ‘This
Dhamma leads not to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to stilling,
to direct knowledge, to Awakening, nor to Unbinding, but only to reappearance in
the dimension of nothingness.’ So, dissatisfied with that Dhamma, I left.

“In search of what might be
skillful, seeking the unexcelled state of sublime peace, I went toUddaka Ramaputta and,
on arrival, said to him: ‘Friend Uddaka, I want to practice in this doctrine
& discipline.’

“When
this was said, he replied to me, ‘You may stay here, my friend. This doctrine
is such that a wise person can soon enter & dwell in his own teacher’s
knowledge, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.’

“It
was not long before I quickly learned the doctrine. As far as mere lip-reciting
& repetition, I could speak the words of knowledge, the words of the
elders, and I could affirm that I knew & saw — I, along with others.

“I
thought: ‘It wasn’t through mere conviction alone that Rama declared, “I
have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having realized it for myself through
direct knowledge.” Certainly he dwelled knowing & seeing this Dhamma.’
So I went to Uddaka and said, ‘To what extent did Rama declare that he had
entered & dwelled in this Dhamma?’ When this was said, Uddaka declared the
dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.

“I
thought: ‘Not only did Rama have conviction, persistence, mindfulness,
concentration, & discernment. I, too, have conviction, persistence,
mindfulness, concentration, & discernment. What if I were to endeavor to
realize for myself the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered & dwelled in,
having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.’ So it was not long
before I quickly entered & dwelled in that Dhamma, having realized it for
myself through direct knowledge. I went to Uddaka and said, ‘Friend Uddaka, is
this the extent to which Rama entered & dwelled in this Dhamma, having
realized it for himself through direct knowledge?’

“‘Yes,
my friend…’

“‘This,
friend, is the extent to which I, too, have entered & dwell in this Dhamma,
having realized it for myself through direct knowledge.’

“‘It
is a gain for us, my friend, a great gain for us, that we have such a companion
in the holy life. So the Dhamma Rama declared he entered & dwelled in,
having realized it for himself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma you
declare you have entered & dwell in, having realized it for yourself
through direct knowledge. And the Dhamma you declare you have entered &
dwell in, having realized it for yourself through direct knowledge, is the
Dhamma Rama declared he entered & dwelled in, having realized it for
himself through direct knowledge. The Dhamma he knew is the Dhamma you know;
the Dhamma you know is the Dhamma he knew. As he was, so are you; as you are,
so was he. Come friend, lead this community.’

“In
this way did Uddaka Ramaputta, my companion in the holy life, place me in the
position of teacher and pay me great honor. But the thought occurred to me,
‘This Dhamma leads not to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to
stilling, to direct knowledge, to Awakening, nor to Unbinding, but only to reappearance
in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.’ So, dissatisfied
with that Dhamma, I left.

“In search of what might be
skillful, seeking the unexcelled state of sublime peace, I wandered by stages
in the Magadhan country and
came to the military town of Uruvela. There I saw some delightful countryside, with
an inspiring forest grove, a clear-flowing river with fine, delightful banks,
and villages for alms-going on all sides. The thought occurred to me: ‘How
delightful is this countryside, with its inspiring forest grove, clear-flowing
river with fine, delightful banks, and villages for alms-going on all sides.
This is just right for the exertion of a clansman intent on exertion.’ So I sat
down right there, thinking, ‘This is just right for exertion.’

“Then,
monks, being subject myself to birth, seeing the drawbacks of birth, seeking
the unborn, unexcelled rest from the yoke, Unbinding, I reached the unborn,
unexcelled rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Being subject myself to aging… illness…
death… sorrow… defilement, seeing the drawbacks of aging… illness…
death… sorrow… defilement, seeking the aging-less, illness-less, deathless,
sorrow-less, unexcelled rest from the yoke, Unbinding, I reached the
aging-less, illness-less, deathless, sorrow-less, unexcelled rest from the
yoke: Unbinding. Knowledge & vision arose in me: ‘Unprovoked is my release.
This is the last birth. There is now no further becoming.’

“Then the thought occurred to
me, ‘This Dhamma that I have attained is deep, hard to see, hard to realize,
peaceful, refined, beyond the scope of conjecture, subtle, to-be-experienced by
the wise. [3] But
this generation delights in attachment, is excited by attachment, enjoys
attachment. For a generation delighting in attachment, excited by attachment,
enjoying attachment, this/that conditionality & dependent co-arising are
hard to see. This state, too, is hard to see: the resolution of all
fabrications, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the ending of craving;
dispassion; cessation; Unbinding. And if I were to teach the Dhamma and others
would not understand me, that would be tiresome for me, troublesome for me.’

“Just
then these verses, unspoken in the past, unheard before, occurred to me:

 

‘Enough
now with teaching

what

only
with difficulty

I
reached.

This
Dhamma is not easily realized

by
those overcome

with
aversion & passion.

 

What
is abstruse, subtle,

deep,

hard
to see,

going
against the flow —

those
delighting in passion,

cloaked
in the mass of darkness,

won’t
see.’

“As
I reflected thus, my mind inclined to dwelling at ease, not to teaching the
Dhamma.

“Then Brahma Sahampati, having known with his own awareness
the line of thinking in my awareness, thought: ‘The world is lost! The world is
destroyed! The mind of the Tathagata, the Arahant, the Rightly Self-awakened
One inclines to dwelling at ease, not to teaching the Dhamma!’ Then, just as a
strong man might extend his flexed arm or flex his extended arm, Brahma
Sahampati disappeared from the Brahma-world and reappeared in front of me.
Arranging his upper robe over one shoulder, he knelt down with his right knee
on the ground, saluted me with his hands before his heart, and said to me:
‘Lord, let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma! Let the One-Well-Gone teach the
Dhamma! There are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away
because they do not hear the Dhamma. There will be those who will understand
the Dhamma.’

“That
is what Brahma Sahampati said. Having said that, he further said this:

 

‘In
the past

there
appeared among the Magadhans

an
impure Dhamma

devised
by the stained.

Throw
open the door to the Deathless!

Let
them hear the Dhamma

realized
by the Stainless One!

 

Just
as one standing on a rocky crag

might
see people

all
around below,

So, O
wise

one,
with all-around vision,

ascend
the palace

fashioned
of Dhamma.

Free
from sorrow, behold the people

submerged
in sorrow,

oppressed
by birth & aging.

 

Rise
up, hero, victor in
battle
!

O
Teacher, wander without debt in the world.

Teach
the Dhamma, O Blessed One:

There
will be those who will understand.’

“Then, having understood
Brahma’s invitation, out of compassion for beings, I surveyed the world with
the eye of an Awakened One. As I did so, I saw beings with little dust in their
eyes and those with much, those with keen faculties and those with dull, those
with good attributes and those with bad, those easy to teach and those hard,
some of them seeing disgrace & danger in the other world. Just as in a pond of blue or
red or white lotuses
, some lotuses — born & growing in the water
— might flourish while immersed in the water, without rising up from the water;
some might stand at an even level with the water; while some might rise up from
the water and stand without being smeared by the water — so too, surveying the
world with the eye of an Awakened One, I saw beings with little dust in their
eyes and those with much, those with keen faculties and those with dull, those
with good attributes and those with bad, those easy to teach and those hard,
some of them seeing disgrace & danger in the other world.

“Having
seen this, I answered Brahma Sahampati in verse:

 

‘Open
are the doors to the Deathless

to
those with ears.

Let
them show their conviction.

Perceiving
trouble, O Brahma,

I did
not tell people

the
refined,

sublime
Dhamma.’

“Then
Brahma Sahampati, thinking, ‘The Blessed One has given his consent to teach the
Dhamma,’ bowed down to me and, circling me on the right, disappeared right
there.

“Then
the thought occurred to me, ‘To whom should I teach the Dhamma first? Who will
quickly understand this Dhamma?’ Then the thought occurred to me, ‘This Alara
Kalama is wise, competent, intelligent. He has long had little dust in his
eyes. What if I were to teach him the Dhamma first? He will quickly understand
this Dhamma.’ Then devas came to me and said, ‘Lord, Alara Kalama died seven
days ago.’ And knowledge & vision arose within me: ‘Alara Kalama died seven
days ago.’ The thought occurred to me, ‘A great loss has Alara Kalama suffered.
If he had heard this Dhamma, he would have quickly understood it.’

“Then
the thought occurred to me, ‘To whom should I teach the Dhamma first? Who will
quickly understand this Dhamma?’ Then the thought occurred to me, ‘This Uddaka
Ramaputta is wise, competent, intelligent. He has long had little dust in his
eyes. What if I were to teach him the Dhamma first? He will quickly understand
this Dhamma.’ Then devas came to me and said, ‘Lord, Uddaka Ramaputta died last
night.’ And knowledge & vision arose within me: ‘Uddaka Ramaputta died last
night.’ The thought occurred to me, ‘A great loss has Uddaka Ramaputta
suffered. If he had heard this Dhamma, he would have quickly understood it.’

“Then the thought occurred to
me, ‘To whom should I teach the Dhamma first? Who will quickly understand this
Dhamma?’ Then the thought occurred to me, ‘They were very helpful to me, the
group of five monks who attended to me when I was resolute in exertion. What if
I were to teach them the Dhamma first?’ Then the thought occurred to me, ‘Where
are the group of five monks staying now?’ And with the divine eye, purified
& surpassing the human, I saw that they were staying near Varanasi in
the Deer Park at Isipatana.

“Then, having stayed at
Uruvela as long as I liked, I set out to wander by stages to Varanasi.Upaka the Ajivaka saw
me on the road between Gaya and
the (place of) Awakening, and on seeing me said to me, ‘Clear, my friend, are
your faculties. Pure your complexion, and bright. On whose account have you
gone forth? Who is your teacher? In whose Dhamma do you delight?’

“When
this was said, I replied to Upaka the Ajivaka in verses:

 

‘All-vanquishing,

all-knowing
am I,

with
regard to all things,

unadhering.

All-abandoning,

released
in the ending of craving:

having
fully known on my own,

to
whom should I point as my teacher? [4]

 

I
have no teacher,

and
one like me can’t be found.

In
the world with its devas,

I
have no counterpart.

 

For I
am an arahant in the world;

I,
the unexcelled teacher.

I,
alone, am rightly self-awakened.

Cooled
am I,             unbound.

 

To
set rolling the wheel of Dhamma

I go
to the city of Kasi.

In a
world become blind,

I
beat the drum of the Deathless.’

“‘From your claims, my friend, you must
be an infinite conqueror.’

 

‘Conquerors
are those like me

who
have reached fermentations’ end.

I’ve
conquered evil qualities,

and
so, Upaka, I’m a conqueror.’

“When
this was said, Upaka said, ‘May it be so, my friend,’ and — shaking his head,
taking a side-road — he left.

“Then,
wandering by stages, I arrived at Varanasi, at the Deer Park in Isipatana, to
where the group of five monks were staying. From afar they saw me coming and,
on seeing me, made a pact with one another, (saying,) ‘Friends, here comes
Gotama the contemplative: living luxuriously, straying from his exertion,
backsliding into abundance. He doesn’t deserve to be bowed down to, to be
greeted by standing up, or to have his robe & bowl received. Still, a seat
should be set out; if he wants to, he can sit down.’ But as I approached, they
were unable to keep to their pact. One, standing up to greet me, received my
robe & bowl. Another spread out a seat. Another set out water for washing
my feet. However, they addressed me by name and as ‘friend.’

“So
I said to them, ‘Don’t address the Tathagata  by name and as
“friend.” The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, rightly
self-awakened. Lend ear, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I will
instruct you. I will teach you the Dhamma. Practicing as instructed, you will
in no long time reach & remain in the supreme goal of the holy life for
which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing &
realizing it for yourselves in the here & now.’

“When
this was said, the group of five monks replied to me, ‘By that practice, that
conduct, that performance of austerities you did not attain any superior human
states, any distinction in knowledge & vision worthy of a noble one. So how
can you now — living luxuriously, straying from your exertion, backsliding into
abundance — have attained any superior human states, any distinction in
knowledge & vision worthy of a noble one?’

“When
this was said, I replied to them, ‘The Tathagata, monks, is not living
luxuriously, has not strayed from his exertion, has not backslid into
abundance. The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one, rightly self-awakened. Lend
ear, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I will instruct you. I will
teach you the Dhamma. Practicing as instructed, you will in no long time reach
& remain in the supreme goal of the holy life for which clansmen rightly go
forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for yourselves in
the here & now.’

A
second time… A third time, the group of five monks said to me, ‘By that
practice, that conduct, that performance of austerities you did not attain any
superior human states, any distinction in knowledge & vision worthy of a
noble one. So how can you now — living luxuriously, straying from your
exertion, backsliding into abundance — have attained any superior human states,
any distinction in knowledge & vision worthy of a noble one?’

“When
this was said, I replied to the group of five monks, ‘Do you recall my ever
having spoken in this way before?’

“‘No,
lord.’

“‘The
Tathagata, monks, is not living luxuriously, has not strayed from his exertion,
has not backslid into abundance. The Tathagata, friends, is a worthy one,
rightly self-awakened. Lend ear, friends: the Deathless has been attained. I
will instruct you. I will teach you the Dhamma. Practicing as instructed, you
will in no long time reach & remain in the supreme goal of the holy life
for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing &
realizing it for yourselves in the here & now.’

“And
so I was able to convince them. I would teach two monks while three went for
alms, and we six lived off what the three brought back from their alms round.
Then I would teach three monks while two went for alms, and we six lived off
what the two brought back from their alms round. Then the group of five monks —
thus exhorted, thus instructed by me — being subject themselves to birth,
seeing the drawbacks of birth, seeking the unborn, unexcelled rest from the
yoke, Unbinding, reached the unborn, unexcelled rest from the yoke: Unbinding.
Being subject themselves to aging… illness… death… sorrow… defilement,
seeing the drawbacks of aging… illness… death… sorrow… defilement,
seeking the aging-less, illness-less, deathless, sorrow-less, unexcelled rest from
the yoke, Unbinding, they reached the aging-less, illness-less, deathless,
sorrow-less, unexcelled rest from the yoke: Unbinding. Knowledge & vision
arose in them: ‘Unprovoked is our release. This is the last birth. There is now
no further becoming.’

“Monks, there are these five strings of sensuality. Which five? Forms
cognizable via the eye — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering
desire, enticing. Sounds cognizable via the ear — agreeable, pleasing,
charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. Aromas cognizable via the nose
— agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. Tastes
cognizable via the tongue — agreeable, pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering
desire, enticing. Tactile sensations cognizable via the body — agreeable,
pleasing, charming, endearing, fostering desire, enticing. These are the five
strings of sensuality.

“And any priests or
contemplatives tied to these five strings of sensuality — infatuated with them,
having totally fallen for them, consuming them without seeing their drawbacks
or discerning the escape from them — should be known as having met with
misfortune, having met with ruin; Mara can
do with them as he will. Just as if a wild deer were to lie bound on a heap of snares:
it should be known as having met with misfortune, having met with ruin; the
hunter can do with it as he will. When the hunter comes, it won’t get away as
it would like. In the same way, any priests or contemplatives tied to these
five strings of sensuality — infatuated with them, having totally fallen for
them, consuming them without seeing their drawbacks or discerning the escape
from them — should be known as having met with misfortune, having met with
ruin; Mara can do with them as he will.

“But
any priests or contemplatives not tied to these five strings of sensuality —
uninfatuated with them, having not totally fallen for them, consuming them
seeing their drawbacks and discerning the escape from them — should be known as
not having met with misfortune, not having met with ruin; Mara cannot do with
them as he will. Just as if a wild deer were to lie unbound on a heap of
snares: it should be known as not having met with misfortune, not having met
with ruin; the hunter cannot do with it as he will. When the hunter comes, it
will get away as it would like. In the same way, any priests or contemplatives
not tied to these five strings of sensuality — uninfatuated with them, having
not totally fallen for them, consuming them seeing their drawbacks and
discerning the escape from them — should be known as not having met with
misfortune, not having met with ruin; Mara cannot do with them as he will.

“Suppose that a wild deer is
living in wilderness glen. Carefree it walks, carefree it stands, carefree it
sits, carefree it lies down. Why is that? Because it has gone beyond the
hunter’s range. [5] In
the same way, a monk — quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures, withdrawn from
unskillful qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture &
pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought &
evaluation. This monk is said to have blinded Mara. Trackless, he has destroyed
Mara’s vision and has become invisible to the Evil One. [6]

“Then
again the monk, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations,
enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of
composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation
— internal assurance. This monk is said to have blinded Mara. Trackless, he has
destroyed Mara’s vision and has become invisible to the Evil One.

“Then
again the monk, with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful,
& alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the
third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous & mindful, he has
a pleasant abiding.’ This monk is said to have blinded Mara. Trackless, he has
destroyed Mara’s vision and has become invisible to the Evil One.

“Then
again the monk, with the abandoning of pleasure & stress — as with the
earlier disappearance of elation & distress — enters & remains in the
fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain.
This monk is said to have blinded Mara. Trackless, he has destroyed Mara’s
vision and has become invisible to the Evil One.

“Then
again the monk, with the complete transcending of perceptions of [physical]
form, with the disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding
perceptions of diversity, [perceiving,] ‘Infinite space,’ enters & remains
in the dimension of the infinitude of space. This monk is said to have blinded
Mara. Trackless, he has destroyed Mara’s vision and has become invisible to the
Evil One.

“Then
again the monk, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the
infinitude of space, [perceiving,] ‘Infinite consciousness,’ enters &
remains in the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. This monk is said
to have blinded Mara. Trackless, he has destroyed Mara’s vision and has become
invisible to the Evil One.

“Then
again the monk, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the
infinitude of consciousness, [perceiving,] ‘There is nothing,’ enters &
remains in the dimension of nothingness. This monk is said to have blinded
Mara. Trackless, he has destroyed Mara’s vision and has become invisible to the
Evil One.

“Then
again the monk, with the complete transcending of the dimension of nothingness,
enters & remains in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.
This monk is said to have blinded Mara. Trackless, he has destroyed Mara’s
vision and has become invisible to the Evil One.

“Then
again the monk, with the complete transcending of the dimension of neither
perception nor non-perception, enters & remains in the cessation of
perception & feeling. And, having seen [that] with discernment, his mental
fermentations are completely ended. This monk is said to have blinded Mara.
Trackless, he has destroyed Mara’s vision and has become invisible to the Evil
One. Having crossed over, he is unattached in the world. Carefree he walks,
carefree he stands, carefree he sits, carefree he lies down. Why is that?
Because he has gone beyond the Evil One’s range.”

That
is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed
One’s words.

Maha-Saccaka
Sutta: The Longer Discourse to Saccaka

I have heard that on one occasion
the Blessed One was staying in Vesali, at the Gabled Hall in the Great Forest. And on
that occasion he had finished dressing in the morning and was carrying his bowl
and outer robe, planning to enter Vesali for alms.

Then
Saccaka, a Nigantha (Jain), while walking and wandering around to exercise his
legs, went to the Gabled Hall in the Great Forest. Ven. Ananda saw him coming
from afar and, on seeing him, said to the Blessed One, “Venerable sir,
here comes Saccaka the Nigantha: a debater, a shrewd talker, assumed by many to
be a saint. He is intent on the disparagement of the Buddha, the disparagement
of the Dhamma, the disparagement of the Sangha. It would be good if the Blessed
One would sit down for a moment, out of sympathy (for him).” So the
blessed One sat down on a prepared seat. Then Saccaka the Nigantha went to the
Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side.

As
he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, “There are, Master
Gotama, some brahmans & contemplatives who live committed to the
development of the body but not to the development of the mind. They are
touched by bodily painful feeling. It has happened in the past that when one
(of them) was touched by bodily painful feeling, his thighs would grow rigid,
his heart would burst, hot blood would gush from his mouth, he would go mad,
out of his mind. His mind was thus subservient to his body and fell under the
power of the body. Why was that? A lack of development of the mind.

“Then
there are some brahmans & contemplatives who live committed to the
development of the mind but not to the development of the body. They are
touched by mental painful feeling. It has happened in the past that when one
(of them) was touched by mental painful feeling, his thighs would grow rigid,
his heart would burst, hot blood would gush from his mouth, he would go mad,
out of his mind. His body was thus subservient to his mind and fell under the
power of the mind. Why was that? A lack of development of the body. The thought
has occurred to me that the disciples of Gotama the contemplative live
committed to the development of the mind but not to the development of the
body.”

“But
what have you learned, Aggivessana, about the development of the body?”

“There are, for example,
Nanda Vaccha, Kisa Sankicca, and Makkhali Gosala. They are a cloth-less[1] ascetics, rejecting conventions,
licking their hands, not coming when called, not staying when asked. They don’t
consent to food brought to them or food dedicated to them or to an invitation
to a meal. They accept nothing from the mouth of a pot or from the mouth of a
bowl. They accept nothing from across a threshold, across a stick, across a
pestle, from two eating together, from a pregnant woman, from a nursing woman,
from a woman living with a man, from where it is announced that food is to be
distributed, from where a dog is waiting or flies are buzzing. They take no
fish or meat. They drink no liquor, wine, or fermented drink. They limit
themselves to one house & one morsel a day, or two houses & two
morsels… seven houses & seven morsels. They live on one saucerful a day,
two… seven saucerfuls a day. They take food once a day, once every two
days… once every seven days, and so on up to a fortnight, devoted to
regulating their intake of food.”

“But,
Aggivessana, do they survive just on that?”

“No,
Master Gotama. Sometimes they eat outstanding staple foods, chew on outstanding
non-staple foods, taste outstanding delicacies, and drink outstanding drinks.
They rescue the body & its strength, fortify it, and fatten it.”

“What
they earlier abandoned, Aggivessana, they later gather up. This is how there is
decrease & increase of the body. But what have you learned, Aggivessana,
about the development of the mind?”

Yet
Saccaka the Nigantha, when asked by the Blessed One about the development of
the mind, was unable to respond.

Then
the Blessed One said to Saccaka, “The ones you described just now as
developed in the development of the body: That is not legitimate development of
the body in the discipline of the noble ones. As you don’t understand the
development of the body, from where would you understand the development of the
mind? Nevertheless, as to how one is undeveloped in body and undeveloped in
mind, and developed in body and developed in mind, listen and pay close
attention. I will speak.”

“As
you say, Master Gotama,” Saccaka responded.

The
Blessed One said, “And how is one undeveloped in body and undeveloped in
mind? There is the case where a pleasant feeling arises in an uneducated
run-of-the-mill person. On being touched by the pleasant feeling, he becomes
impassioned with pleasure, and is reduced to being impassioned with pleasure.
His pleasant feeling ceases. With the cessation of the pleasant feeling there
arises a painful feeling. On being touched with the painful feeling, he
sorrows, grieves, & laments, beats his breast, becomes distraught. When
that pleasant feeling had arisen in him, it invaded his mind and remained
because of his lack of development of the body. When that painful feeling had
arisen in him, it invaded his mind and remained because of his lack of
development of the mind. This is how one is undeveloped in body and undeveloped
in mind.

“And
how is one developed in body and developed in mind? There is the case where a
pleasant feeling arises in a well-educated disciple of the noble ones. On being
touched by the pleasant feeling, he doesn’t become impassioned with pleasure,
and is not reduced to being impassioned with pleasure. His pleasant feeling
ceases. With the cessation of the pleasant feeling there arises a painful
feeling. On being touched with the painful feeling, he doesn’t sorrow, grieve,
or lament, beat his breast or becomes distraught. When that pleasant feeling
had arisen in him, it didn’t invade his mind and remain because of his
development of the body. When that painful feeling had arisen in him, it didn’t
invade his mind and remain because of his development of the mind. This is how
one is developed in body and developed in mind.”

“I
have confidence in Master Gotama that Master Gotama is developed in body and
developed in mind.”

“Well, Aggivessana, you are
certainly being rude and presumptuously speaking your words, but nevertheless I
will respond to you.[2] Ever since I shaved my hair & beard, put
on the ochre robe, and went forth from the home life into homelessness, it has
not been possible for a pleasant feeling that has arisen to invade my mind and
remain, or for a painful feeling that has arisen to invade my mind and
remain.”

“But perhaps there has never
arisen in Master Gotama the sort of pleasant feeling that, having arisen, would
invade the mind and remain. Perhaps there has never arisen in Master Gotama the
sort of painful feeling that, having arisen, would invade the mind and
remain.”[3]

“Why wouldn’t it have,
Aggivessana? Before my Awakening, when I was still an unawakened Bodhisatta,
the thought occurred to me: ‘Household life is confining, a dusty path. Life gone
forth is the open air. It isn’t easy, living in a home, to practice the holy
life totally perfect, totally pure, a polished shell. What if I, having shaved
off my hair & beard and putting on the ochre robe, were to go forth from
the household life into homelessness?’

“So
at a later time, when I was still young, black-haired, endowed with the
blessings of youth in the first stage of life, having shaved off my hair &
beard — though my parents wished otherwise and were grieving with tears on
their faces — I put on the ochre robe and went forth from the home life into
homelessness.

“Having gone forth in search
of what might be skillful, seeking the unexcelled state of sublime peace, I
went to Alara Kalama and, on arrival, said to him: ‘Friend
Kalama, I want to practice in this doctrine & discipline.’

“When
this was said, he replied to me, ‘You may stay here, my friend. This doctrine
is such that a wise person can soon enter & dwell in his own teacher’s
knowledge, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.’

“It
was not long before I quickly learned the doctrine. As far as mere lip-reciting
& repetition, I could speak the words of knowledge, the words of the
elders, and I could affirm that I knew & saw — I, along with others.

“I
thought: ‘It isn’t through mere conviction alone that Alara Kalama declares,
“I have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having realized it for myself
through direct knowledge.” Certainly he dwells knowing & seeing this
Dhamma.’ So I went to him and said, ‘To what extent do you declare that you
have entered & dwell in this Dhamma?’ When this was said, he declared the
dimension of nothingness.

“I
thought: ‘Not only does Alara Kalama have conviction, persistence, mindfulness,
concentration, & discernment. I, too, have conviction, persistence,
mindfulness, concentration, & discernment. What if I were to endeavor to
realize for myself the Dhamma that Alara Kalama declares he has entered &
dwells in, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.’ So it was
not long before I quickly entered & dwelled in that Dhamma, having realized
it for myself through direct knowledge. I went to him and said, ‘Friend Kalama,
is this the extent to which you have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having
realized it for yourself through direct knowledge?’

“‘Yes,
my friend…’

“‘This,
friend, is the extent to which I, too, have entered & dwell in this Dhamma,
having realized it for myself through direct knowledge.’

“‘It
is a gain for us, my friend, a great gain for us, that we have such a companion
in the holy life. So the Dhamma I declare I have entered & dwell in, having
realized it for myself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma you declare you
have entered & dwell in, having realized it for yourself through direct
knowledge. And the Dhamma you declare you have entered & dwell in, having
realized it for yourself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma I declare I
have entered & dwell in, having realized it for myself through direct
knowledge. The Dhamma I know is the Dhamma you know; the Dhamma you know is the
Dhamma I know. As I am, so are you; as you are, so am I. Come friend, let us
now lead this community together.’

“In
this way did Alara Kalama, my teacher, place me, his pupil, on the same level
with himself and pay me great honor. But the thought occurred to me, ‘This
Dhamma leads not to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to stilling,
to direct knowledge, to Awakening, nor to Unbinding, but only to reappearance
in the dimension of nothingness.’ So, dissatisfied with that Dhamma, I left.

“In search of what might be
skillful, seeking the unexcelled state of sublime peace, I went toUddaka Ramaputta and,
on arrival, said to him: ‘Friend Uddaka, I want to practice in this doctrine
& discipline.’

“When
this was said, he replied to me, ‘You may stay here, my friend. This doctrine
is such that a wise person can soon enter & dwell in his own teacher’s
knowledge, having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.’

“It
was not long before I quickly learned
the doctrine. As far as mere lip-reciting & repetition, I could speak the
words of knowledge, the words of the elders, and I could affirm that I knew
& saw — I, along with others.

“I
thought: ‘It wasn’t through mere conviction alone that Rama declared, “I
have entered & dwell in this Dhamma, having realized it for myself through
direct knowledge.” Certainly he dwelled knowing & seeing this Dhamma.’
So I went to Uddaka and said, ‘To what extent did Rama declare that he had
entered & dwelled in this Dhamma?’ When this was said, Uddaka declared the
dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.

“I
thought: ‘Not only did Rama have conviction, persistence, mindfulness,
concentration, & discernment. I, too, have conviction, persistence,
mindfulness, concentration, & discernment. What if I were to endeavor to
realize for myself the Dhamma that Rama declared he entered & dwelled in,
having realized it for himself through direct knowledge.’ So it was not long
before I quickly entered & dwelled in that Dhamma, having realized it for
myself through direct knowledge. I went to Uddaka and said, ‘Friend Uddaka, is
this the extent to which Rama entered & dwelled in this Dhamma, having
realized it for himself through direct knowledge?’

“‘Yes,
my friend…’

“‘This,
friend, is the extent to which I, too, have entered & dwell in this Dhamma,
having realized it for myself through direct knowledge.’

“‘It
is a gain for us, my friend, a great gain for us, that we have such a companion
in the holy life. So the Dhamma Rama declared he entered & dwelled in,
having realized it for himself through direct knowledge, is the Dhamma you
declare you have entered & dwell in, having realized it for yourself
through direct knowledge. And the Dhamma you declare you have entered &
dwell in, having realized it for yourself through direct knowledge, is the
Dhamma Rama declared he entered & dwelled in, having realized it for
himself through direct knowledge. The Dhamma he knew is the Dhamma you know;
the Dhamma you know is the Dhamma he knew. As he was, so are you; as you are,
so was he. Come friend, lead this community.’

“In
this way did Uddaka Ramaputta, my companion in the holy life, place me in the
position of teacher and pay me great honor. But the thought occurred to me,
‘This Dhamma leads not to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to
stilling, to direct knowledge, to Awakening, nor to Unbinding, but only to
reappearance in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.’ So,
dissatisfied with that Dhamma, I left.

“In
search of what might be skillful, seeking the unexcelled state of sublime
peace, I wandered by stages in the Magadhan country and came to the military
town of Uruvela. There I saw some delightful countryside, with an inspiring
forest grove, a clear-flowing river with fine, delightful banks, and villages
for alms-going on all sides. The thought occurred to me: ‘How delightful is
this countryside, with its inspiring forest grove, clear-flowing river with
fine, delightful banks, and villages for alms-going on all sides. This is just
right for the striving of a clansman intent on striving.’ So I sat down right
there, thinking, ‘This is just right for striving.’

“Then these three similes —
spontaneous, never before heard — appeared to me. Supposethere were a
wet, sappy piece of timber lying in the water, and a man were to come along
with an upper fire-stick, thinking, ‘I’ll light a fire. I’ll produce heat.’ Now
what do you think? Would he be able to light a fire and produce heat by rubbing
the upper fire-stick in the wet, sappy timber lying in the water?”

“No,
Master Gotama. Why is that? Because the timber is wet & sappy, and besides
it is lying in the water. Eventually the man would reap only his share of
weariness & disappointment.”

“So
it is with any priest or contemplative who does not live withdrawn from
sensuality in body & mind, and whose desire, infatuation, urge, thirst,
& fever for sensuality is not relinquished & stilled within him:
Whether or not he feels painful, racking, piercing feelings due to his striving
[for Awakening], he is incapable of knowledge, vision, & unexcelled self-awakening.
This was the first simile — spontaneous, never before heard — that appeared to
me.

“Then
a second simile — spontaneous, never before heard — appeared to me. Suppose
there were a wet, sappy piece of timber lying on land far from water, and a man
were to come along with an upper fire-stick, thinking, ‘I’ll light a fire. I’ll
produce heat.’ Now what do you think? Would he be able to light a fire and
produce heat by rubbing the upper fire-stick in the wet, sappy timber lying on
land far from water?”

“No,
Master Gotama. Why is that? Because the timber is wet & sappy, even though
it is lying on land far from water. Eventually the man would reap only his
share of weariness & disappointment.”

“So
it is with any priest or contemplative who lives withdrawn from sensuality in
body only, but whose desire, infatuation, urge, thirst, & fever for
sensuality is not relinquished & stilled within him: Whether or not he
feels painful, racking, piercing feelings due to his striving, he is incapable
of knowledge, vision, & unexcelled self-awakening. This was the second
simile — spontaneous, never before heard — that appeared to me.

“Then
a third simile — spontaneous, never before heard — appeared to me. Suppose
there were a dry, sapless piece of timber lying on land far from water, and a
man were to come along with an upper fire-stick, thinking, ‘I’ll light a fire.
I’ll produce heat.’ Now what do you think? Would he be able to light a fire and
produce heat by rubbing the upper fire-stick in the dry, sapless timber lying
on land?”

“Yes,
Master Gotama. Why is that? Because the timber is dry & sapless, and
besides it is lying on land far from water.”

“So
it is with any priest or contemplative who lives withdrawn from sensuality in
body & mind, and whose desire, infatuation, urge, thirst, & fever for
sensuality is relinquished & stilled within him: Whether or not he feels
painful, racking, piercing feelings due to his striving, he is capable of
knowledge, vision, & unexcelled self-awakening. This was the third simile —
spontaneous, never before heard — that appeared to me.

“I
thought: ‘Suppose that I, clenching my teeth and pressing my tongue against the
roof of my mouth, were to beat down, constrain, & crush my mind with my
awareness.’ So, clenching my teeth and pressing my tongue against the roof of
my mouth, I beat down, constrained, & crushed my mind with my awareness.
Just as a strong man, seizing a weaker man by the head or the throat or the
shoulders, would beat him down, constrain, & crush him, in the same way I
beat down, constrained, & crushed my mind with my awareness. As I did so,
sweat poured from my armpits. And although tireless persistence was aroused in
me, and unmuddled mindfulness established, my body was aroused & uncalm
because of the painful exertion. But the painful feeling that arose in this way
did not invade my mind or remain.

“I thought: ‘Suppose I were
to become absorbed in the trance of non-breathing.’ So I stopped the in-breaths
& out-breaths in my nose & mouth. As I did so, there was a loud roaring
of winds coming out my earholes, just like the
loud roar of winds coming out of a smith’s bellows… So I stopped the
in-breaths & out-breaths in my nose & mouth & ears. As I did so,
extreme forces sliced through my head, just as if a
strong man were slicing my head open with a sharp sword… Extreme pains arose
in my head, just as if a
strong man were tightening a turban made of tough leather straps around my
head… Extreme forces carved up my stomach cavity, just as if a
butcher or his apprentice were to carve up the stomach cavity of an ox… There
was an extreme burning in my body, just as if two strong men, grabbing a weaker
man by the arms, were to roast & broil him over a pit of hot embers. And
although tireless persistence was aroused in me, and unmuddled mindfulness
established, my body was aroused & uncalm because of the painful exertion.
But the painful feeling that arose in this way did not invade my mind or
remain.

“Devas,
on seeing me, said, ‘Gotama the contemplative is dead.’ Other devas said, ‘He isn’t
dead, he’s dying.’ Others said, ‘He’s neither dead nor dying, he’s an arahant,
for this is the way arahants live.’

“I
thought: ‘Suppose I were to practice going altogether without food.’ Then devas
came to me and said, ‘Dear sir, please don’t practice going altogether without
food. If you go altogether without food, we’ll infuse divine nourishment in
through your pores, and you will survive on that.’ I thought, ‘If I were to
claim to be completely fasting while these devas are infusing divine nourishment
in through my pores, I would be lying.’ So I dismissed them, saying, ‘Enough.’

“I
thought: ‘Suppose I were to take only a little food at a time, only a handful
at a time of bean soup, lentil soup, vetch soup, or pea soup.’ So I took only a
little food at a time, only a handful at a time of bean soup, lentil soup,
vetch soup, or pea soup. My body became extremely emaciated. Simply from my
eating so little, my limbs became like the jointed segments of vine stems or
bamboo stems… My backside became like a camel’s hoof… My spine stood out
like a string of beads… My ribs jutted out like the jutting rafters of an
old, run-down barn… The gleam of my eyes appeared to be sunk deep in my eye
sockets like the gleam of water deep in a well… My scalp shriveled &
withered like a green bitter gourd, shriveled & withered in the heat &
the wind… The skin of my belly became so stuck to my spine that when I
thought of touching my belly, I grabbed hold of my spine as well; and when I
thought of touching my spine, I grabbed hold of the skin of my belly as well…
If I urinated or defecated, I fell over on my face right there… Simply from
my eating so little, if I tried to ease my body by rubbing my limbs with my
hands, the hair — rotted at its roots — fell from my body as I rubbed, simply
from eating so little.

“People
on seeing me would say, ‘Gotama the contemplative is black.’ Other people would
say, ‘Gotama the contemplative isn’t black, he’s brown.’ Others would say,
‘Gotama the contemplative is neither black nor brown, he’s golden-skinned.’ So
much had the clear, bright color of my skin deteriorated, simply from eating so
little.

“I
thought: ‘Whatever priests or contemplatives in the past have felt painful,
racking, piercing feelings due to their striving, this is the utmost. None have
been greater than this. Whatever priests or contemplatives in the future will
feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to their striving, this is the
utmost. None will be greater than this. Whatever priests or contemplatives in
the present are feeling painful, racking, piercing feelings due to their
striving, this is the utmost. None is greater than this. But with this racking
practice of austerities I haven’t attained any superior human state, any
distinction in knowledge or vision worthy of the noble ones. Could there be
another path to Awakening?’

“I
thought: ‘I recall once, when my father the Sakyan was working, and I was
sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple tree, then — quite secluded from
sensuality, secluded from unskillful mental qualities — I entered &
remained in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from seclusion,
accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. Could that be the path to
Awakening?’ Then following on that memory came the realization: ‘That is the
path to Awakening.’ I thought: ‘So why am I afraid of that pleasure that has
nothing to do with sensuality, nothing to do with unskillful mental qualities?’
I thought: ‘I am no longer afraid of that pleasure that has nothing to do with
sensuality, nothing to do with unskillful mental qualities, but that pleasure
is not easy to achieve with a body so extremely emaciated. Suppose I were to
take some solid food: some rice & porridge.’ So I took some solid food:
some rice & porridge. Now five monks had been attending on me, thinking,
‘If Gotama, our contemplative, achieves some higher state, he will tell us.’
But when they saw me taking some solid food — some rice & porridge — they
were disgusted and left me, thinking, ‘Gotama the contemplative is living luxuriously.
He has abandoned his exertion and is backsliding into abundance.’

“So
when I had taken solid food and regained strength, then — quite secluded from
sensuality, secluded from unskillful mental qualities, I entered & remained
in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from seclusion, accompanied by
directed thought & evaluation. But the pleasant feeling that arose in this
way did not invade my mind or remain. With the stilling of directed thoughts
& evaluations, I entered & remained in the second jhana: rapture &
pleasure born of concentration, unification of awareness free from directed
thought & evaluation — internal assurance. But the pleasant feeling that
arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain. With the fading of rapture
I remained equanimous, mindful, & alert, and sensed pleasure with the body.
I entered & remained in the third jhana, of which the noble ones declare,
‘Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ But the pleasant feeling
that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain. With the abandoning of
pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation &
distress — I entered & remained in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity
& mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. But the pleasant feeling that
arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain.

“When
the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of
defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I
directed it to the knowledge of recollecting my past lives. I recollected my
manifold past lives, i.e., one birth, two…five, ten…fifty, a hundred, a
thousand, a hundred thousand, many eons of cosmic contraction, many eons of
cosmic expansion, many eons of cosmic contraction & expansion: ‘There I had
such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food,
such my experience of pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing
away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged
to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of
pleasure & pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I
re-arose here.’ Thus I remembered my manifold past lives in their modes &
details.

“This
was the first knowledge I attained in the first watch of the night. Ignorance
was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose — as
happens in one who is heedful, ardent, & resolute. But the pleasant feeling
that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain.

“When
the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of
defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I
directed it to the knowledge of the passing away & reappearance of beings.
I saw — by means of the divine eye, purified & surpassing the human —
beings passing away & re-appearing, and I discerned how they are inferior
& superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate & unfortunate in accordance
with their kamma: ‘These beings — who were endowed with bad conduct of body,
speech, & mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views and undertook
actions under the influence of wrong views — with the break-up of the body,
after death, have re-appeared in the plane of deprivation, the bad destination,
the lower realms, in hell. But these beings — who were endowed with good
conduct of body, speech & mind, who did not revile the noble ones, who held
right views and undertook actions under the influence of right views — with the
break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the good destinations, in
the heavenly world.’ Thus — by means of the divine eye, purified &
surpassing the human — I saw beings passing away & re-appearing, and I
discerned how they are inferior & superior, beautiful & ugly, fortunate
& unfortunate in accordance with their kamma.

“This
was the second knowledge I attained in the second watch of the night. Ignorance
was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose — as
happens in one who is heedful, ardent, & resolute. But the pleasant feeling
that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain.

“When
the mind was thus concentrated, purified, bright, unblemished, rid of
defilement, pliant, malleable, steady, & attained to imperturbability, I
directed it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. I
discerned, as it was actually present, that ‘This is stress… This is the
origination of stress… This is the cessation of stress… This is the way
leading to the cessation of stress… These are fermentations… This is the
origination of fermentations… This is the cessation of fermentations… This
is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.’ My heart, thus knowing,
thus seeing, was released from the fermentation of sensuality, released from
the fermentation of becoming, released from the fermentation of ignorance. With
release, there was the knowledge, ‘Released.’ I discerned that ‘Birth is ended,
the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this
world.’

“This
was the third knowledge I attained in the third watch of the night. Ignorance
was destroyed; knowledge arose; darkness was destroyed; light arose — as
happens in one who is heedful, ardent, & resolute. But the pleasant feeling
that arose in this way did not invade my mind or remain.

“I
recall having taught the Dhamma to an assembly of many hundreds, and yet each
one of them assumes of me, ‘Gotama the contemplative is teaching the Dhamma
attacking just me,’ but it shouldn’t be seen in that way. The Tathagata rightly
teaches them the Dhamma simply for the purpose of giving knowledge. At the end
of that very talk I steady the mind inwardly, settle it, concentrate it, and
unify it in the same theme of concentration as before, in which I almost
constantly dwell.”

“That
is credible for the Master Gotama, as would be the case for one who is worthy
& rightly self-awakened. But does the Master Gotama recall sleeping during
the day?”

“I
recall, Aggivessana, in the last month of the hot season, after the meal,
returning from my almsround, setting out my outer robe folded in four, lying
down on my right side, and falling asleep while mindful & alert.”

“There
are some brahmans & contemplatives, Master Gotama, who would call that
dwelling in delusion.”

“It’s
not to that extent that one is deluded or undeluded, Aggivessana. As to how one
is deluded or undeluded, listen and pay close attention. I will speak.”

“As
you say, Master Gotama,” Saccaka responded.

The
Blessed One said: “In whomever the fermentations that defile, that lead to
renewed becoming, that give trouble, that ripen in stress, and lead to future
birth, aging, & death are not abandoned: Him I call deluded. For it is from
not abandoning the fermentations that one is deluded. In whomever the
fermentations that defile, that lead to renewed becoming, that give trouble,
that ripen in stress, and lead to future birth, aging, & death are abandoned: Him I call undeluded. For
it is from abandoning the fermentations that one is undeluded. In the
Tathagata, Aggivessana, the fermentations that defile, that lead to renewed becoming,
that give trouble, that ripen in stress, and lead to future birth, aging, &
death have been abandoned, their root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump,
deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future arising. Just
as a palmyra cut off at the crown is incapable of further growth, in the same
way in the Tathagata the fermentations that defile, that lead to renewed
becoming, that give trouble, that ripen in stress, and lead to future birth,
aging, & death have been abandoned, their root destroyed, made like a
palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of existence, not destined for future
arising.”

When
this was said, Saccaka the Nigantha said to the Blessed One: “It’s
amazing, Master Gotama. It’s astounding — that when Master Gotama is addressed
rudely again & again, is assailed by presumptuous courses of speech, the
color of his skin brightens, the color of his face clears, as would be the case
with one who is worthy and rightly self-awakened. I recall engaging Purana
Kassapa in debate. He, when engaged in debate by me, spoke evasively and led
the discussion astray, displayed irritation, aversion, & peevishness. But
when Master Gotama is addressed rudely again & again, is assailed by
presumptuous courses of speech, the color of his skin brightens, the color of
his face clears, as would be the case with one who is worthy and rightly
self-awakened. I recall engaging Makkhali Gosala… Ajita Kesakambala…
Pakudha Kaccayana…Sañjaya Velatthaputta… Nigantha Nataputa in debate. He,
when engaged in debate by me, spoke evasively and led the discussion astray,
displayed irritation, aversion, & peevishness. But when Master Gotama is
addressed rudely again & again, is assailed by presumptuous courses of
speech, the color of his skin brightens, the color of his face clears, as would
be the case with one who is worthy and rightly self-awakened.

“And
now, Master Gotama, I am going. Many are my duties, many my
responsibilities.”

“Then
do, Aggivessana, what you think it is now time to do.”

So Saccaka the Nigantha,
delighting in & approving of the Blessed One’s words, got up from his seat
and left.[4]

Kathavatthu
Sutta: Topics of Conversation (1)

translated
from the Pali by

Thanissaro
Bhikkhu

© 1997–2011

I have heard that on one occasion
the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi at
Jeta’s Grove,Anathapindika’s
monastery. Now at that time a large number of monks, after the meal, on
returning from their alms round, had gathered at the meeting hall and were
engaged in many kinds of bestial topics of conversation: conversation about
kings, robbers, & ministers of state; armies, alarms, & battles; food
& drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, & scents; relatives; vehicles;
villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women & heroes; the gossip of the
street & the well; tales of the dead; tales of diversity, the creation of
the world & of the sea; talk of whether things exist or not.

Then
the Blessed One, emerging from his seclusion in the late afternoon, went to the
meeting hall and, on arrival, sat down on a seat made ready. As he was sitting
there, he addressed the monks: “For what topic of conversation are you
gathered together here? In the midst of what topic of conversation have you
been interrupted?”

“Just
now, lord, after the meal, on returning from our alms round, we gathered at the
meeting hall and got engaged in many kinds of bestial topics of conversation:
conversation about kings, robbers, & ministers of state; armies, alarms,
& battles; food & drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, & scents;
relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women &
heroes; the gossip of the street & the well; tales of the dead; tales of
diversity, the creation of the world & of the sea; talk of whether things
exist or not.”

“It
isn’t right, monks, that sons of good families, on having gone forth out of
faith from home to the homeless life, should get engaged in such topics of
conversation, i.e., conversation about kings, robbers, & ministers of
state… talk of whether things exist or not.

There are these
ten topics of [proper] conversation. Which ten? Talk on modesty, on
contentment, on seclusion, on non-entanglement, on arousing persistence, on
virtue, on concentration, on discernment, on release, and on the knowledge
& vision of release. These are the ten topics of conversation. If you were to
engage repeatedly in these ten topics of conversation, you would outshine even
the sun & moon, so mighty, so powerful — to say nothing of the wanderers of
other sects.”

 

Kathavatthu
Sutta: Topics of Conversation (2)

I have heard that on one occasion
the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi at
Jeta’s Grove,Anathapindika’s monastery. Now at that time a large number
of monks, after the meal, on returning from their alms round, had gathered at
the meeting hall and were engaged in many kinds of bestial topics of conversation:
conversation about kings, robbers, & ministers of state; armies, alarms,
& battles; food & drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, & scents;
relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women &
heroes; the gossip of the street & the well; tales of the dead; tales of
diversity, the creation of the world & of the sea; talk of whether things
exist or not.

Then
the Blessed One, emerging from his seclusion in the late afternoon, went to the
meeting hall and, on arrival, sat down on a seat made ready. As he was sitting
there, he addressed the monks: “For what topic of conversation are you
gathered together here? In the midst of what topic of conversation have you
been interrupted?”

“Just
now, lord, after the meal, on returning from our alms round, we gathered at the
meeting hall and got engaged in many kinds of bestial topics of conversation:
conversation about kings, robbers, & ministers of state; armies, alarms,
& battles; food & drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, & scents;
relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women &
heroes; the gossip of the street & the well; tales of the dead; tales of
diversity, the creation of the world & of the sea; talk of whether things
exist or not.”

“It
isn’t right, monks, that sons of good families, on having gone forth out of
faith from home to the homeless life, should get engaged in such topics of
conversation, i.e., conversation about kings, robbers, & ministers of
state… talk of whether things exist or not.

“Monks, there are these ten grounds for praise. Which ten?

“There
is the case where a monk himself is modest and instigates talk on modesty among
the monks. The fact that he is modest and instigates talk on modesty among the
monks is grounds for praise.

“He
himself is contented and instigates talk on contentment among the monks…

“He
himself is secluded and instigates talk on seclusion among the monks…

“He
himself is non-entangled and instigates talk on non-entanglement among the
monks…

“He
himself has his persistence aroused and instigates talk on arousing persistence
among the monks…

“He
himself is consummate in virtue and instigates talk on being consummate in
virtue among the monks…

“He
himself is consummate in concentration and instigates talk on being consummate
in concentration among the monks…

“He
himself is consummate in discernment and instigates talk on being consummate in
discernment among the monks…

“He
himself is consummate in release and instigates talk on being consummate in
release among the monks…

“He
himself is consummate in knowledge & vision of release and instigates talk
on being consummate in knowledge & vision of release among the monks. The
fact that he is consummate in knowledge & vision of release and instigates
talk on being consummate in knowledge & vision of release among the monks
is grounds for praise.

“These
are the ten grounds for praise.”

 

 

 

Sambodhi
Sutta: Self-awakening

I have heard that on one occasion
the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in
Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s monastery. There he said to the monks:
“Monks, if wanderers who are members of other sects should ask you, ‘What, friend, are the prerequisites for the development
of the wings to self-awakening?’ how would you answer them?”

“For
us, lord, the teachings have the Blessed One as their root, their guide, &
their arbitrator. It would be good if the Blessed One himself would explicate
the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the monks
will remember it.”

“In
that case, monks, listen & pay close attention. I will speak.”

“As
you say, lord,” the monks responded.

The Blessed One said, “If
wanderers who are members of other sects should ask you, ‘What, friend, are the
prerequisites for the development of the wings to self-awakening?’ you should
answer, ‘There is the case where a monk has admirable
friends, admirable companions, admirable comrades. This is the first
prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.

“‘Furthermore,
the monk is virtuous. He dwells restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha,
consummate in his behavior & sphere of activity. He trains himself, having
undertaken the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults. This is
the second prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.

“‘Furthermore,
he gets to hear at will, easily & without difficulty, talk that is truly
sobering & conducive to the opening of awareness, i.e., talk on modesty, on
contentment, on seclusion, on non-entanglement, on arousing persistence, on virtue,
on concentration, on discernment, on release, and on the knowledge & vision
of release. This is the third prerequisite for the development of the wings to
self-awakening.

“‘Furthermore,
he keeps his persistence aroused for abandoning unskillful mental qualities and
for taking on skillful mental qualities. He is steadfast, solid in his effort,
not shirking his duties with regard to skillful mental qualities. This is the
fourth prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.

“‘Furthermore,
he is discerning, endowed with the discernment of arising & passing away —
noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress. This is the fifth
prerequisite for the development of the wings to self-awakening.’

Monks, when a monk has admirable friends, admirable
companions, admirable comrades, it is to be expected that he will be virtuous,
will dwell restrained in accordance with the Patimokkha, consummate in his
behavior & sphere of activity, and will train himself, having undertaken
the training rules, seeing danger in the slightest faults.

“When
a monk has admirable friends, admirable companions, admirable comrades, it is
to be expected that he will get to hear at will, easily & without
difficulty, talk that is truly sobering and conducive to the opening of
awareness, i.e., talk on modesty, on contentment, on seclusion, on
non-entanglement, on arousing persistence, on virtue, on concentration, on
discernment, on release, and on the knowledge & vision of release.

“When
a monk has admirable friends, admirable companions, admirable comrades, it is
to be expected that he will keep his persistence aroused for abandoning
unskillful mental qualities, and for taking on skillful mental qualities —
steadfast, solid in his effort, not shirking his duties with regard to skillful
mental qualities.

“When
a monk has admirable friends, admirable companions, admirable comrades, it is
to be expected that he will be discerning, endowed with discernment of arising
& passing away — noble, penetrating, leading to the right ending of stress.

“And
furthermore, monks, when the monk is established in these five qualities, there
are four additional qualities he should develop: He should develop
[contemplation of] the unattractive so as to abandon lust. He should develop
good will so as to abandon ill will. He should develop mindfulness of
in-&-out breathing so as to cut off distractive thinking. He should develop
the perception of inconstancy so as to uproot the conceit, ‘I am.’ For a monk perceiving
inconstancy, the perception of not-self is made firm. One perceiving not-self
attains the uprooting of the conceit, ‘I am’ — Unbinding in the here &
now.”

Mogharaja-manava-puccha:
Mogharaja’s Question

 

[Mogharaja:]

 

Twice
now, O Sakyan,

I’ve
asked you,

but
you, One with vision,

haven’t
answered me.

When
asked the third time

the
celestial seer answers:

so I
have heard.

This
world, the next world,

the
Brahma world with its devas:

I
don’t know how they’re viewed

by
the glorious Gotama.

So to
the one who has seen

to
the far extreme,

I’ve
come with a question:

How
does one view the world

so as
not to be seen

by
Death’s king?

 

[The
Buddha:]

 

View
the world, Mogharaja,

as
empty —

always
mindful

to
have removed any view

about
self.

 

This
way one is above & beyond death.

This
is how one views the world

so as
not to be seen

by
Death’s king.

Vakkali
Sutta: Vakkali

The Pali
title of this sutta is based on the PTS (Feer) edition.

Seeing the Dhamma

[The
Buddha visits the Ven. Vakkali, who is sick
]

Now the Venerable Vakkali saw the
Blessed One coming from a distance, and tried to get up. Then the Blessed One
said to the Venerable Vakkali: “Enough, Vakkali, do not try to get up.[1] There are these seats made ready. I will sit
down there.” And he sat down on a seat that was ready. Then he said:

“Are you feeling better,
Vakkali? Are you bearing up? Are your pains getting better and not worse? Are
there signs that they are getting better and not worse?”[2]

“No,
Lord, I do not feel better, I am not bearing up. I have severe pains, and they
are getting worse, not better. There is no sign of improvement, only of
worsening.”

“Have
you any doubts, Vakkali? Have you any cause for regret?”

“Indeed,
Lord, I have many doubts. I have much cause for regret.”

“Have
you nothing to reproach yourself about as regards morals?”

“No,
Lord, I have nothing to reproach myself about as regards morals.”

“Well
then, Vakkali, if you have nothing to reproach yourself about as regards
morals, you must have some worry or scruple that is troubling you.”

“For
a long time, Lord, I have wanted to come and set eyes on the Blessed One, but I
had not the strength in this body to come and see the Blessed One.”

“Enough, Vakkali! What is
there to see in this vile body? He who sees Dhamma, Vakkali, sees me; he who
sees me sees Dhamma. Truly seeing Dhamma, one sees me; seeing me one sees
Dhamma.”[3]

 


 

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EbQo8uZV9zc

for

BURMESE BUDDHISTS CHANTING
METTA (LOVING KINDNESS)

The
BSP’s entire politics is ekla chalo, no pre-poll alliance.

All the doles announced
to more than 85 % of the poor by Political Parties amounts to less than 15% of
the total budget of the state. More than 85% of the budget will be enjoyed by
15% population of rich politicians and capitalists after cornering votes from
the poor and the black money will be deposited in Foreign Banks to benefit
those countries. Now leaders and Cadres like Uttar Pradesh must go to the people and explain to them the need for acquiring the MASTERKEY instead
of being guests in others’ houses.

For equal distribution
of wealth, vote BSP

Buddha As a Leader

The Buddha has often been described as
one of the greatest leaders of all time. But just what characterizes a good
leader? What are the duties and qualities of good leadership? And what can we
learn from the Buddha as a leader that we can apply to our chaotic world?< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />

The Leader as Visionary

Like the captain of a ship, a leader
must have a definite goal; only then can he chart his course and steer his ship
in the right direction. Having given up his royal rights, wealth and family,
Prince Siddhartha had one goal - to find the cause of suffering and a way out
of suffering. Despite much hardship and setback, he never veered from his
course but persevered till he gained Awakenment. But the Buddha did not stop
there. He made it his mission to lead all sentient beings out of the samsaric
cycle of suffering. It is this vision which defined his forty-five years of
teaching and shaped his role as leader of an order(sangha) and a following that
is still growing strong today.

Guided by this vision, the Buddha’s
mission was an all-embracing one. It is a mission founded on compassion and
love for all sentient beings, regardless of race, creed or status quo.
Addressing his first group of disciples, the Buddha instructed them to go forth
and spread the teachings for the good and happiness of the many. In this
respect, the Buddha was revolutionary, displaying extreme courage in his
advocacy for the emancipation of the persons belonging to all the four castes,
in his dismissal of the Brahmin as the supreme authority and in his admission
of women to the sangha.

The Leader as Role Model

A leader must be an exemplary figure,
someone we can respect and emulate. The Buddha, having purified himself through
many lifetimes, embodied all the Perfections (paramita). He was extraordinary,
virtuous and righteous in every thought, word and deed. He says as he does and
does as he says. Such integrity and consistency won him the trust of his
followers.

As a leader, the Buddha led by example.
His simple and humble lifestyle is a reflection of his teachings. In his daily
routine, the Buddha wasted no time on idleness and frivolity. For forty-five
years, he devoted his time and effort for the good of others, starting his day
before dawn and working till midnight. Compare this with many world leaders who
live in the laps of luxury while half of the world’s population suffer from
poverty and hunger, and we can understand why many people lament the lack of
good leaders in our times. In his advice to the rulers of his time, the Buddha
emphasized the importance of leadership according to the Dhamma. A ruler must
first establish himself in piety and righteousness, and avoid all the vices.
Sovereignty and the rule of power are subjected to the rule of righteousness,
not the rule of force. Here is the ideal model of a value-based leadership. The
Buddha highlighted ten principles which a ruler ought to be possess:

1. Dana - alms-giving

2. Sila - morality

3. Parricaga - unselfishness

4. Ajjava - integrity

5. Maddava - gentleness

6. Tapo - self-restraint

7. Akkhoda - non-anger

8. Avihimsa - non-violence

9. Khanti - patience

10. Avirodhana - agreeability

The Leader as Mediator

As a leader, the Buddha demonstrated
both skills in mediation and impartiality in judgment. In the Ummagga Jataka,
as Prince Mahausadha, the Bodhisattva (the Buddha in a previous birth) showed
his ability to resolve problems and arguments. As advisor to the King, he
displayed wit and intelligence in the protection of his people.

The Buddha displayed his skills at
resolving conflicts between opposing parties on several occasions. Once a
dispute broke out between the Sakyans, to which the Buddha belonged, and the
Koliyas, to which his mother, Queen Maya, belonged. Unable to arrive at an
agreement over the distribution of the waters of the river Rohini, the two
parties were on the verge of war. The Buddha settled the dispute by
asking:”What do you consider as more valuable - water or human
lives?”

The Leader as Manager

The Buddha was a great human resource
manager. With an acute knowledge of human beings, he knew the strengths and
weaknesses of those around him. Based on their dominant traits, the Buddha
categorised people into six groups:

1. those lustful and passionate

2. those with hatred and anger

3. those with delusion

4. those with faith and confidence

5. those with wisdom and intelligence

6. those with hesitation and doubt

He delegated duties to his followers in
accordance with their abilities and temperament. In addition, he showed his
appreciation by conferring upon them due respect and recognition. Trainers of
managerial leadership could learn much from the Buddha in this respect to
develop an effective workforce.

The Leader as Protector

The Jataka stories, which tell of the
previous births of the Buddha, abound with numerous examples of the
Bodhisattva’s courage and self-sacrificial spirit to safeguard the interests of
his group. In the Mahakapi Jataka, the Bodhisattva in a previous birth was the
leader of a troop of monkeys living in the Himalayas. One day, the king of the
state saw that the forest was abundant with mango trees, set his men upon the
monkeys. To flee from the king’s men, the Bodhisattva used some bamboo vines to
build a bridge so that the monkeys could cross over to the other river bank.
Unfortunately the bamboo vines were too short. To bridge the gap, the
Bodhisattva stretched himself out, clinging on to one side with his hands and
the other with his tail so that the monkeys could cross over on his back. Among
the monkeys was Devadatta, his arch-enemy. Seeing his opponent in a
disadvantaged position, he stamped hard on his back as he made his way across.
The Bodhisattva was in immense pain but remained clinging on to the bamboo
vines till the last monkey was safely across. The king, upon witnessing such a
courageous and selfless act by such a monkey, ordered his men to bring him down
from the trees and tried to save him. Asked why he endangered his life to save
his subjects the Bodhisattva replied:”O King! Verily my body is broken.
But my mind is still sound; I uplifted only those over whom I exercised my
royal powers for so long.?

After the Bodhisattva’s death, the king
in honour his self-sacrificing spirit, erected a shrine and ordered that daily
offerings be made.

Another aspect in which the Buddha
exercised his role as a protector is in teachings of the Buddha was open to
all, in the Buddha’s four-fold party of monks, nuns, lay men and lay women
followers, admission was not so liberal.

While this may invite criticisms that
the Buddha was prejudicial, it is necessary not for his personal interests but
to protect the Buddhist community from corruptive and evil forces and to ensure
its long-term survival. The Buddha also set out criteria and rules and
regulations, especially the vinaya code, to protect the well-being and order of
his community.

The Leader Shows the Way

During his 45 years of missionary work,
many followers became awakened after listening to his teachings. 2500 years
later, the Buddha continues to inspire millions of people around the world to
follow his path. This, above all else, is the most important role of the Buddha
as a leader - one who is able to inspire others to bring out the best in
themselves, to develop their full potential and gain the ultimate goal of Nibbana.

 

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the
Pali Suttas


Traditionally
the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so;
certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to
Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas
(DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn
 1). There are 3 sections:


The
discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The
division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said
Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into
275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the
stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha
and those of the commentator, are divided 
into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000
separate letters.

 

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!          DHAMMA
(MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One
Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice
University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of
Learning :

Buddha’s
Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā
Research and Practice University follows suit

As
the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the
Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then
Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the
capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can
claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you
will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility
inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and
architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level
II: Buddhist Studies,

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once
– Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa,
i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,astronomy,alchemy,andanatomy

Philosophy
and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace
Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development
Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 

Jambudvipa,
i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

Mathematics

Astronomy

Alchemy

And
Andanatomy

 

Buddhist perception of humanity

Buddhism and Information Technology

Buddhist perception of Business Management in
Relation to Public Policy and Development and Ecology and Environment 

POLITICS is SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE

Sandip Patil

[The Buddhist Circle] Uttar Pradesh, the Land of Lord
Buddha: Towards Transformation like Samrat Ashoka

Hi All,

For Establishing an Equalitarian Social Order,

Uttar Pradesh Government is Dedicated to Humanistic
Thoughts and Deeds Of Tathagat Gautam Buddha.

 

http://information.up.nic.in/UP%20Boudh%20Paryatan%20Guide%20Book.pdf


A brief description of the works got executed by the Hon. Chief Minister of
Uttar Pradesh Ms.Mayawati Ji during her all the four terms in office in the
context of development and beautification of the places associated with
Tathagat Gautam Buddha and the Buddhist Circuit for the benefit of tourist and
pilgrims.

The land of Uttar Pradesh has the glory of having been blessed by
the dust beneath the feet of the great humanitarian and epoch-making person
like Gautam Buddha. Gautam Buddha undertook a journey across the country with a
view to inculcating in the masses the feelings of humanity and universal
brotherhood. Places like Kapilvastu (Piprahwa), Sarnath, Shravasti, Kaushambi,
Sankisa and Kushinagar etc., in the state had the pride of having been blessed
by the foot prints by that kindness and compassion incarnate. As a result these
places in Uttar Pradesh became venerable and worthy of visit by national and
international tourists. This is the reason why devout tourists from not only
India, but also from many other countries like Japan, Thailand, Taiwan, China,
Korea and Burma consider themselves fortunate in being able to come to these
places and offer their floral tribute to Lord Buddha.

With Regards
Sandip Patil
Mumbai, 8149645674

VOICE OF SARVAJAN LUCKYLEAKS

[The
Buddhist Circle] IIT-JEE Preparation Private Coaching for our student.

From: Prashant D. Rahulkar

Subject: [The Buddhist Circle] IIT-JEE Preparation Private Coaching for our
student.
To: “BuddhistCircle”
Date: Friday, August 28, 2009, 10:43 AM

Hello All,

Hope you all are aware of the 18% cut-off
this year for SC student in IIT and lot of seats remain vacant,

this is really sad news for all of us.

Does it mean our student are not capable or
they don’t get any proper Guidance/Coaching ?

 

Everyone of us, know the answer of this -
Our student can’t join any high fees private coaching center due to lack of
money.

This mail thread initiated to find out the
solution of this major problem and hope some concrete action should be taken by
us.

 

I would like to share some idea with you.

 

#1. There is NGO Dakshana [http://www.dakshana .org/] running two year IIT-JEE
preparation program for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya student only. We can
motivate our student to join this program.

 

#2. Student will get the admission in
Private Coaching center [Kota Rajasathan or any good result oriented private
institute ] program running by Department of Social Welfare. (This idea share
by P. S. Wankhande,Sir) . The same kind of pattern can implement for CAT also
to get admission in IIM.

 

Please add you idea/thought in this thread.

At the same time, we need to focus for IIM
admission also.

Note - Please forward same mail to our IITian’s groups.

Cutoff 2009 released by IIT
Delhi

Minimum Qualifying Mark for Ranking (MQMR) and Aggregate Cut-off

Merit List

MQMR

Aggregate Cut-off
(out of 480)

Chemistry (out of 160)

Mathematics
(out of 160)

Physics
(out of 160)

General
(CML)

11

11

8

178

OBC

10

10

8

161

SC

6

6

4

89

ST

6

6

4

89

PD

6

6

4

89

Marks of the first and the last ranked candidates in JEE merit
lists

Merit List

Marks of the first candidate

Marks of the last candidate

Chemistry

Mathematics

Physics

Aggregate

Chemistry

Mathematics

Physics

Aggregate

General
(CML)

122

153

149

424

72

31

75

178

OBC

126

143

144

413

66

63

32

161

SC

115

100

111

326

43

41

5

89

ST

106

118

95

319

25

40

24

89

PD

115

87

87

289

20

36

33

89

 

Maximum and minimum marks scored in different subjects by
candidates in JEE merit lists

Merit List

Chemistry

Mathematics

Physics

Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

Minimum

General (CML)

132

11

156

12

156

15

OBC

131

14

145

14

149

15

SC

115

7

119

6

124

4

ST

106

8

118

6

103

4

PD

115

11

115

6

110

6

 

 

 

 

Aggregate
cut-off for Extended Merit Lists

Merit list

General

OBC

SC

ST

PD

Aggregate cut-off

56

62

17

16

17

 

Thanks,

-Prashant Rahulkar

Ravinder Singh

progressindia008@yahoo.com

 

 

[humanrightsactivist] RSS Mother of Corruption, SC on
Rs.2000 Crore RSS Land Scam

Thursday, 7 April 2011 9:10 AM

RSS
Mother of Corruption, SC on Rs.2000 Crore RSS Land Scam

SC
in its critical judgment found that RSS trust owned top RSS BJP leadership
allotment of 20 acres of land in Bhopal worth Rs.2000 crores for almost free
was made even before the trust was registered.

RSS
is mother of corruption and Raja and others are pigmies in comparison.

Raja
the untouchable is considered wrong doer and is in Jail, but the first,
second, third and fourth rate soul
Members
of Trust are L. K. Advani, Venkaiah Naidu, Kailash Joshi (Bhopal MP), Balwant
P. Aptey ( Rajya Sabha member from Maharashtra ) and Sanjay Joshi. And Man
Mohan Singh and others are just errorists.

According
to Manusmriti they will not be punished. Forget about the Constitution
written By Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

Will
they resign from politics for corruption?

Ravinder
Singh

April07,
2011

SC
cancels BJP govt’s land largesse to trust

By
Gyanant Singh in New Delhi

Kushabhau
Thakre Trust allotted land in Bhopal even before it was registered

THEBJP
was left red- faced on Wednesday after the Supreme Court quashed the allotment
of 20 acres of land in Bhopal to a trust named after late party leader
Kushabhau Thakre.

A
bench comprising Justice G. S. Singhvi and Justice A. K. Ganguly directed the
state government to take back the possession of the land and refund the
amount deposited by the trust within a period of 15 days.

Noting
that the land was allotted without issuing any advertisement inviting
applications, the court said: “What needs to be emphasised is that the State
and/ or its agencies/ instrumentalities cannot give largesse to any person
according to the sweet will and whims of the political entities and/ or
officers of the State.” The land was allotted in 2004 to the Kushabhau Thakre
Memorial Trust by the then BJP government of Madhya Pradesh headed by Uma
Bharti.

The
trust, which wanted to start an institute, had applied for a plot even though
no advertisement had been issued by the state government.

The
court order came on a petition filed by NGO Akhil Bhartiya Upbhokta Congress,
a Bhopal- based consumer group.

It
had challenged the government’s decision on the grounds that the land at
Bavadiya Kalan was given in advance and at a throwaway price to the trust in
violation of the laws. The allotment was allegedly made even before the trust
was registered.

The
NGO approached the Supreme Court in appeal after the Madhya Pradesh High
Court refused to interfere with the allotment.

Allowing
the appeal, the Supreme Court said there cannot be “ any policy, much less a
rational policy, of allotting land on the basis of applications made by
individuals, bodies, organisations or institutions de hors an invitation or
advertisement by the State or its agency/ instrumentality”. Justice Singhvi,
who wrote the judgment for the bench, said the state cannot exclude other
eligible persons from lodging a competing claim.

The
court noted that the objective of the trust was laudable, but the fact
remained that “ all its trustees are members of a particular party and the
entire exercise for the reservation and allotment of land and waiver of major
portion of the premium was undertaken because political functionaries of the
state wanted to favour respondent No. 5 ( the trust) and the officers of the
state at different levels were forced to toe the line of their political
masters”. BJP leaders L. K. Advani, Venkaiah Naidu, Kailash Joshi (Bhopal
MP), Balwant P. Aptey ( Rajya Sabha member from Maharashtra ) and Sanjay
Joshi (party general- secretary) are among the members of the trust.

The
court said no exception can be taken to the use of discretion by political
functionaries and officers of a state, but such discretion has to be
exercised in a judicious manner without any discrimination against anyone.

Parties
in Madhya Pradesh reacted to the SC order on predictable lines. While the BJP
was circumspect, the Congress hailed the directive and turned fire- power
against the state government.

“We
will comment on the judgment only after we get an authorised copy of it,”
state BJP spokesperson Hitesh Vajpayee said. Chief minister Shivraj Singh
Chauhan adopted a similar line. “I will comment only after going through the
copy of the judgment,” he said.

BJP
sources said the party’s strategy would be to try and neutralise the issue.
However, the Congress is unlikely to allow its rival to put the issue into
cold storage. Party MLA Ajay Singh said: “For too long, the ruling party has
been giving prime lands at throwaway prices not only in Bhopal but all over
Madhya Pradesh.” Inputs from Anup Dutta/ Bhopal

SC
scraps land allotment to Thakre trust

TIMES
NEWS NETWORK April07, 2011

New
Delhi: The Supreme Court on Wednesday cancelled allotment of 20 acres of
prime land by the BJP government in Bhopal to the Kushabhau Thakre Memorial
Trust, of which L K Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi and Venkaiah Naidu are
trustees, on the ground that it was a political largesse without
transparency.


The court said though the trust’s objective was laudable, it could not become
the recipient of state largesse on party lines. It faulted the allotment on
the ground that similarly placed trusts and charitable organisations got no
wind of availability of land as it was never advertised.


“The fact remains that all its trustees are members of a particular party and
the entire exercise for the reservation and allotment of land and waiver of
major portion of the premium was undertaken because political functionaries
of the state wanted to favour the trust and the officers of the state at
various levels were forced to toe the line of their political masters,” said
a Bench comprising Justices G S Singhvi and A K Ganguly.


Allowing a petition filed by Akhil Bharatiya Upbhokta Congress, the Bench
said: “The allotment of 20 acres of land is declared illegal and quashed.

Commissioner,
Town and Country Planning, Bhopal , is directed to take possession of the
land and use the same strictly in accordance with the Bhopal Development
Plan. The state government is directed to refund the amount deposited by the
trust within a period of 15 days from today.”


Writing the judgment for the Bench, Justice Singhvi lamented the misuse of
office by ruling parties disregarding the constitutional provisions. “What
needs to be emphasized is that the state and/or its
agencies/instrumentalities cannot give largesse to any person according to
the sweet will and whims of political entities and/or officers of the state.”


The allotment of land, grant of quota, permit licences etc by the government
should always be done in a fair and equitable manner and in the exercise of
discretion it must eschew favouritism and nepotism, the court said.


“There cannot be any policy, much less a rational policy, of allotting land
on the basis of applications made by individuals, bodies, organisations or
institutions de hors an invitation or advertisement by the State or its
agency/instrumentality,” it said.

Cong seeks LK explanation for link

Congress on Wednesday called for action under various legal provisions
against a BJP-dominated trust which was censured by the Supreme Court for
receiving over 20 acres of land in Bhopal at a throwaway price six months
before its inception. Party spokesperson Jayanthi Natarajan said that apart
from criminal procedure, the authorities should haul up BJP veteran L K
Advani and ask him to explain his association with the Kushabhau Thakre Trust
which had received ‘undue favours’ from the BJP government in Madhya Pradesh.
The court set aside the land allotment passing an order on a petition by an
NGO. “This is an act of shameful, blatant and brazen corruption on the part
of the BJP,” Natarajan said. TNN

[humanrightsactivist] RSS Destabilizing Indian Government –
Hijack Anna Hazare

Wednesday, 6 April 2011 11:17 PM

RSS
Destabilizing Indian Government – Hijack Anna Hazare

RSS
was founded for the promotion and protection of Bania & Traders is
established fact. RSS is behind ‘DESTABILIZING’ government of India campaign
since Induction of Nitin Gadkari as President who became Carpet Roller to
Industrial Liquor Sugar Power Tycoon with investment of Rs. 1 lac.

RSS
sabotaged Bank Nationalization, Sabotage NRI investment in India, Enriched
Ambani and Banias, Opened Foreign Imports, repealed FERA, repealed Urban Land
Ceiling Act, Denied Credit and MSP to farmers, Legalized Moneylenders by
promoting Micro Finance, Sold Minerals, Oil & Gas cheaply to Ambanis and
others, Sabotaged Dam Buildings that prevent floods, generate power and
triple crop production. Handed over Telecom, Power, Airlines to private
sector. Sold Education and Healthcare to Banias.

Balco,
Hotels, IITs, Hospitals, Schools & Colleges etc everything was handed
over to the corrupt.

=
These Scoundrels have not done a single good thing since inception for 120
crore Indians.

RSS
for example filled Gujarat High Court with lawyers from the bar so as to
Control Indian Judiciary.

RSS
want to HIJACK every public institution.

Table 1. Phase I,
Narendra Modi - Bharatiya Janata Party 12/15 = 80%

Honorable Judge

From

Date of Appoint.

J. Kantilal Ambalal Puj

Bar

December 3, 2001

J. Jayant Maganlal Patel

Bar

December 3, 2001

J. Mukesh R. Shah

Bar

March 7, 2004

J. Kalpesh Satyendra Jhaveri

Bar

March 7, 2004

J. Akil Abdul Hamid Kureshi

Bar

March 7, 2004

J. Dhirubhai Naranbhai Patel

Bar

March 7, 2004

J. Anant Surendraray Dave

Bar

October 8, 2004

J. Shailesh R. Brahmbhatt

Bar

October 8, 2004

J. Harsha Nathalal Devani

Bar

October 8, 2004

J. Mukesh D. Shah

Service

January 17, 2005

J. G.S.Singhvi

Bar

February 28, 2005

J. Ramesh Surajmal Garg

Bar

February 28, 2005

J. Harshvadan B Antani

Service

June 14, 2005

J. Bankim Nikhilbhai Mehta

Service

June 14, 2005

J. Abhilasha Kumari

Bar

January 9, 2006

Chief
Justice of India was appointed by L.K. Advani and CAG promoted by BJP.

BJP
had no chance of winning Bihar Elections so 2G scam was Engineered and Press
and Media flooded with false propaganda.

Vote
Polled difference was just 3% between BJP-JDU alliance and Congress +
RJD-LSP.

Over
Rs.1,50,000 crores of Central Funding meant for poor disappeared in Bihar,
villages in Bihar didn’t get a penny. But for Employment Guarantee Scheme
poor would have suffered a lot and BJP-JDU would have lost deposits in most
seats.

This
time RSS had pushed Anna Hazare at Election Time when it shall not get any
seats in states going to elections.

Now
I would like you to look at Anna Hazares village, you will be Horrified to
find Ralegan Siddi is at least 50 years behind Punjab and 100 years behind
developed countries and live in Bullock Cart age – like the one depicted in
‘Teesri Kasam’.

http://www.annahazare.org/images/gallery-ralegansiddhi.swf

Right
hand of Anna, Arvind Kejriwal was TOUT of BJP who Sabotaged investigation in
Corruption in NHAI.

Ravinder
Singh

April07,
2011


comments (0)
219 LESSON 06 04 2011 Ariyamagga Sutta The Noble Path and Kukkuravatika Sutta The Dog-duty Ascetic FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org -POLITICS is SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble C.M. ji greets people on occasion of Cheti Chand Jayanti-Internet is an ability to let us know to an unprecedented level what government is doing-How SC/ST politics in Tamil Nadu lost track
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 12:02 am

 219 LESSON 06 04 2011 Ariyamagga Sutta The Noble Path and Kukkuravatika Sutta The Dog-duty Ascetic FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter  to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org -POLITICS is SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE-Hon’ble C.M. ji greets people on occasion of Cheti Chand Jayanti-Internet is an ability to let us know to an unprecedented level what government is doing-How SC/ST politics in Tamil Nadu lost track


THE BUDDHIST 

ONLINE GOOD NEWS LETTER

COURSE PROGRAMME

Ariyamagga
Sutta: The Noble Path

“Monks,
these four types of kamma have been directly realized, verified, & made
known by me. Which four? There is kamma that is dark with dark result. There is
kamma that is bright with bright result. There is kamma that is dark &
bright with dark & bright result. There is kamma that is neither dark nor
bright with neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of kamma.

“And
what is kamma that is dark with dark result? There is the case where a certain
person fabricates an injurious bodily fabrication, fabricates an injurious
verbal fabrication, fabricates an injurious mental fabrication. Having
fabricated an injurious bodily fabrication, having fabricated an injurious
verbal fabrication, having fabricated an injurious mental fabrication, he
rearises in an injurious world. On rearising in an injurious world, he is there
touched by injurious contacts. Touched by injurious contacts, he experiences
feelings that are exclusively painful, like those of the beings in hell. This
is called kamma that is dark with dark result.

“And
what is kamma that is bright with bright result? There is the case where a
certain person fabricates a non-injurious bodily fabrication … a non-injurious
verbal fabrication … a non-injurious mental fabrication … He rearises in a
non-injurious world … There he is touched by non-injurious contacts … He
experiences feelings that are exclusively pleasant, like those of the Beautiful
Black Devas. This is called kamma that is bright with bright result.

“And
what is kamma that is dark & bright with dark & bright result? There is
the case where a certain person fabricates a bodily fabrication that is
injurious & non-injurious … a verbal fabrication that is injurious &
non-injurious … a mental fabrication that is injurious & non-injurious
… He rearises in an injurious & non-injurious world … There he is
touched by injurious & non-injurious contacts … He experiences injurious
& non-injurious feelings, pleasure mingled with pain, like those of human
beings, some devas, and some beings in the lower realms. This is called kamma
that is dark & bright with dark & bright result.

“And
what is kamma that is neither dark nor bright with neither dark nor bright
result, leading to the ending of kamma? Right view, right resolve, right
speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right
concentration. This is called kamma that is neither dark nor bright with
neither dark nor bright result, leading to the ending of kamma.

“These,
monks, are the four types of kamma directly realized, verified, & made
known by me.”

 

Kukkuravatika
Sutta: The Dog-duty Ascetic

Introduction

There
were some strange people around in the Buddha’s days believing some strange
things — but that is no different from our own days when people still believe
the most odd off-balance ideas. In this sutta we meet some people who believed
that by imitating animals they would be saved. Maybe they’re still with us too!

Belief
is often one thing, action another. While beliefs sometimes influence actions,
for other people their beliefs are quite separate from what they do. But the
Buddha says all intentional actions, whether thoughts, speech or bodily
actions, however expressed, arekamma and
lead the doer of them to experience a result sooner or later. In this sutta the
Buddha classifies kamma into four groups:

1.      
dark with
a dark result;

2.      
bright
with a bright result;

3.      
dark and
bright with a dark and bright result;

4.      
neither
dark nor bright with a neither dark nor bright result.

Dark
(evil) kamma does not give a bright (happy) result, nor does bright
(beneficial) kamma lead to dark (miserable) result. Kamma can be mixed, where
an action is done with a variety of motives, some good, some evil. And that
kind of kamma also exists which gives up attachment to and interest in the
other three and so leads beyond the range of kamma.

1. Thus have I heard. On one
occasion the Blessed One was living in the Koliyan country:
there is a town of the Koliyans called Haliddavasana.

2. Then Punna,
a son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic, and also Seniya a naked dog duty ascetic, went to the
Blessed One, and Punna the ox duty ascetic paid homage to the Blessed One and
sat down at one side, while Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic exchanged
greetings with the Blessed One, and when the courteous and amiable talk was
finished, he too sat down at one side curled up like a dog. When Punna the
ox-duty ascetic sat down, he asked the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, this
naked dog-duty ascetic Seniya does what is hard to do: he eats his food when it
is thrown on the ground. That dog duty has long been taken up and practiced by
him. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?”[1]

“Enough,
Punna, let that be. Do not ask me that.”

A
second time… A third time Punna the ox-duty ascetic asked the Blessed One:
“Venerable sir, this naked dog-duty ascetic Seniya does what is hard to
do: he eats his food when it is thrown on the ground. That dog duty has long
been taken up and practiced by him. What will be his destination? What will be
his future course?”

“Well,
Punna, since I certainly cannot persuade you when I say ‘Enough, Punna, let
that be. Do not ask me that,’ I shall therefore answer you.

3.
“Here, Punna, someone develops the dog duty fully and unstintingly, he
develops the dog-habit fully and unstintingly, he develops the dog mind fully
and unstintingly, he develops dog behavior fully and unstintingly. Having done
that, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company
of dogs. But if his view is such as this: ‘By this virtue or duty or asceticism
or religious life I shall become a (great) god or some (lesser) god,’ that is
wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view,
I say: hell or the animal womb. So, Punna, if his dog duty is perfected, it
will lead him to the company of dogs; if it is not, it will lead him to
hell.”

4.
When this was said, Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic wept and shed tears. Then
the Blessed One told Punna, son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic:
“Punna, I could not persuade you when I said, ‘Enough Punna, let that be.
Do not ask me that.’”

“Venerable
sir, I am not weeping that the Blessed One has spoken thus. Still, this dog
duty has long been taken up and practiced by me. Venerable sir, there is this
Punna, a son of the Koliyans and an ox duty ascetic: that ox duty has long been
taken up and practiced by him. What will be his destination? What will be his
future course?”

“Enough,
Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that.” A second time… A third time
Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic asked the Blessed One: “Venerable sir,
there is this Punna, a son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic; that ox duty
has long been taken up and practiced by him. What will be his destination? What
will be his future course?”

“Well,
Seniya, since I certainly cannot persuade you when I say ‘Enough, Seniya, let
that be. Do not ask me that,’ I shall therefore answer you.”

5.
“Here, Seniya, someone develops the ox duty fully and unstintingly, he
develops the ox habit fully and unstintingly, he develops the ox mind fully and
unstintingly, he develops the ox behavior fully and unstintingly. Having done
that, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company
of oxen. But if his view is such as this: ‘By this virtue or duty or asceticism
or religious like I shall become a (great) god or some (lesser) god,’ that is
wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view,
I say: hell or the animal womb. So, Seniya, if his ox duty is perfected, it
will lead him to the company of oxen; if it is not, it will lead him to
hell.”

6.
When this was said, Punna, a son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic, wept
and shed tears. Then the Blessed One told Seniya, the naked dog duty ascetic:
“Seniya, I could not persuade you when I said, ‘Enough, Seniya, let that
be. Do not ask me that.’”

“Venerable
sir, I am not weeping that the Blessed One has spoken thus. Still, this ox duty
has long been taken up and practiced by me. Venerable sir, I have confidence in
the Blessed One thus: ‘The Blessed One is capable of teaching me the Dhamma in
such a way that I may abandon this ox duty and that this naked dog-duty ascetic
Seniya may abandon that dog duty.’”

7.
“Then, Punna, listen and heed well what I shall say.”

“Yes,
venerable sir,” he replied. The Blessed One said this:

8. “Punna, there are four
kinds of kamma proclaimed by me after realization myself with direct knowledge.
What are the four? There is dark kamma with dark ripening, there is bright
kamma with bright ripening, there is dark-and-bright kamma with dark-and-bright
ripening, and there is kamma that is not dark and not bright with
neither-dark-nor-bright ripening that conduces to the exhaustion of kamma.

9. “What is dark kamma with
dark ripening? Here someone produces a (kammic) bodily process (bound up) with
affliction,[2] he
produces a (kammic) verbal process (bound up) with affliction, he produces a
(kammic) mental process (bound up) with affliction. By so doing, he reappears
in a world with affliction. When that happens, afflicting contacts[3] touch
him. Being touched by these, he feels afflicting feelings entirely painful as
in the case of beings in hell. Thus a being’s reappearance is due to a being: he
reappears owing to the kammas he has performed. When he has reappeared,
contacts touch him. Thus I say are beings heirs of their kammas. This is called
dark kamma with dark ripening.

10.
“And what is bright kamma with bright ripening? Here someone produces a
(kammic) bodily process not (bound up) with affliction, he produces a (kammic)
verbal process not (bound up) with affliction, he produces a (kammic) mental
process not (bound up) with affliction. By doing so, he reappears in a world
without affliction. When that happens, unafflicting contacts touch him. Being
touched by these, he feels unafflicting feelings entirely pleasant as in the
case of the Subhakinha, the gods of Refulgent Glory. Thus a being’s
reappearance is due to a being: he reappears owing to the kammas he has
performed. When he has reappeared, contacts touch him. Thus I say are beings
heirs of their kammas. This is called bright kamma with bright ripening.

11.
“What is dark-and-bright kamma with dark-and-bright ripening? Here someone
produces a (kammic) bodily process both (bound up) with affliction and not
(bound up) with affliction… verbal process… mental process both (bound up)
with affliction and not (bound up) with affliction. By doing so, he reappears
in a world both with and without affliction. When that happens, both afflicting
and unafflicting contacts touch him. Being touched by these, he feels
afflicting and unafflicting feelings with mingled pleasure and pain as in the
case of human beings and some gods and some inhabitants of the states of
deprivation. Thus a being’s reappearance is due to a being: he reappears owing
to the kammas he has performed. When he has reappeared, contacts touch him. Thus
I say are beings heirs of their kammas. This is called dark-and-bright kamma
with dark-and-bright ripening.

12.
“What is neither-dark-nor-bright kamma with neither-dark-nor-bright
ripening that leads to the exhaustion of kamma? As to these (three kinds of
kamma), any volition in abandoning the kind of kamma that is dark with dark
ripening, any volition in abandoning the kind of kamma that is bright with
bright ripening, and any volition in abandoning the kind of kamma that is
dark-and bright with dark-and-bright ripening: this is called
neither-dark-nor-bright kamma with neither-dark-nor-bright ripening.

“These
are the four kinds of kamma proclaimed by me after realization myself with
direct knowledge.”

13. When this was said, Punna, a
son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic, said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!
The Dhamma has been made clear in many ways by Master Gotama as though he were
turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing the hidden, showing the way
to one who is lost, holding up a lamp in the darkness for those with eyesight
to see forms.

14.
“I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of
bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has
gone to him for refuge for life.”

15. But Seniya the naked dog-duty
ascetic said: “Magnificent, Master
Gotama!… The Dhamma has been made clear… for those with eyesight to see
forms.

16. “I go to Master Gotama
for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. I would receive the
going forth under Master Gotama and the full admission.”[4]

17.
“Seniya, one who belonged formerly to another sect and wants the going
forth and the full admission in this Dhamma and Discipline lives on probation
for four months. At the end of the four months bhikkhus who are satisfied in
their minds give him the going forth into homelessness and also the full
admission to the bhikkhus’ state. A difference in persons has become known to
me in this (probation period).”

“Venerable
sir, if those who belonged formerly to another sect and want the going forth
and the full admission in this Dhamma and Discipline live on probation for four
months and at the end of four months bhikkhus who are satisfied in their minds
give them the going forth into homelessness and the full admission to the
bhikkhus’ state, I will live on probation for four years and at the end of the
four years let bhikkhus who are satisfied in their minds give me the going
forth into homelessness and the full admission to the bhikkhus’ state.”

18. Seniya the naked
dog duty ascetic received the going forth under the Blessed One, and he
received the full admission. And not long after his full admission, dwelling
alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and self-controlled, the venerable Seniya
by realization himself with direct knowledge here and now entered upon and
abode in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen
rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness. He had direct knowledge
thus: “Birth is exhausted, the holy life has been lived, what had to be
done has been done, there is no more of this to come.”

And
the venerable Seniya became one of the arahants.

POLITICS
is SACRED with GOOD GOVERNANCE

Press Information Bureau

(C.M. Information Campus)

Information & Public Relations Department,
U.P.

 

Hon’ble C.M. ji greets people on occasion of Cheti
Chand Jayanti

 

Lucknow: 04 April 2011

 

The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms.
Mayawati ji

has extended her heartiest greetings and good
wishes to the

people of the state, especially Sindhi community,
on the occasion

of Bhagwan Jhulelal Jayanti (Cheti Chand).

 

In a greetings message, the Hon’ble Chief Minister
ji said

that Bhawan Jhulelal made constant efforts to
establish human

and moral values in the society and gave a new
dimension to the

social harmony. Owing to his untiring efforts, he
is respected not

only in Sindhi community, but universally, she
pointed out. She

said that his messages were still relevant in the
current

perspective.

 

The Hon’ble Chief Minister ji expressed the hope
that all the

people including the people of Sindhi community
would follow the

path shown by him and make meaningful contribution
in

establishing an
egalitarian society.

 

Internet is an ability to let us know to an unprecedented level
what government is doing.

The inventor of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, has
cautioned against the Net coming under a regime of espionage and censorship in various
countries, negating its potential for good.

These warnings underscore the rising importance of the world’s
biggest public network and the need for the people to ensure that it remains
truly free and open, unimpeded by official controls, technological
discrimination, and cost barriers. The digital natives who inhabit the world
look upon unrestricted, good quality access to the Internet as a fundamental
right. Indeed, some progressive countries have initiated action to legislate
such an entitlement. Finland became a model state last year by making broadband
connectivity a legal right.

There is a message here for India, which brings up the rear
among fast-growing countries when it comes to high-speed Internet connectivity.
After setting ambitious targets, it has taken weak, jagged steps to improve
broadband coverage, particularly in rural areas. The target is to provide high
bandwidth connections to 160 million households by 2014, but this involves a
steep climb — the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India says only about 10
million were connected at the end of 2010.

Physical
access to the Internet is crucial, but as  Mr. Berners-Lee emphasise, the more complex
issue is one of official controls. India put in place the Information
Technology Act, 2000 and amended it subsequently in a bid to address public and
industry concerns. But the law is still founded on the principle of executive
control of online publication, rather than judicial due process. The amended
Act has drawn criticism from advocates of free speech and data protection for
its over-broad sweep and poor legislative clarity. This law must be rewritten
in plain language and the fundamental right of free speech protected without
dodges and equivocation. The more odious provisions enabling pre-censorship
must go, and generic descriptions that serve as definitions of infringements
need to be replaced with specific ones. India also needs a data protection law
that restricts access to personal data collected and held by government. The Internet
era is all about sharing and enabling people to express themselves freely. The
imperative is to specify just what governments are
allowed to do — and prevent them from exercising Orwellian control
.

VOICE
OF SARVAJAN HONEYLEAKS

The
BSP’s entire politics is ekla chalo, no pre-poll alliance

All
the doles announced to more than 85 % of the poor by Political Parties amounts
to less

than 15% of the total budget of the state. More
than 85% of the budget will be

enjoyed by 15% population of rich politicians and
capitalists after cornering

votes from the poor and the black money will be
deposited in Foreign Banks to

benefit those countries. Now leaders and Cadres like Uttar Pradesh must go to the people and explain to them the need for acquiring the MASTERKEY instead of being guests in others’ houses.For equal distribution of
wealth, vote BSP

[ZESTCaste] How SC/ST politics in Tamil Nadu lost track

http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Madurai/article1592230.ece


How SC/ST politics in Tamil Nadu lost track
D. Karthikeyan

Twenty per cent of the State’s population, too many parties and too
little unity. The SC/ST politics in Tamil Nadu emerged as an
alternative in the early and mid-1990s opposing the Dravidian politics
in the State.

Close to two decades down the lane many SC/ST intellectuals and social
scientists feel that it has lost track.

In fact, the history of SC/ST movement actually precedes the Dravidian
movement to the colonial era in which SC/ST intellectuals and leaders
Ayothidas Pandithar and Rettaimalai Srinivasan made interventions at
various levels espousing the cause of the depressed classes with the
Britishers.

Victim of Dravidian hegemony

SC/ST electorate, an important decisive factor in any elections in the
State, has over the years been with the Congress, the Left, the
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra
Kazhagam. It was during the early 1990s, following Dr. Ambedkar
centenary and high-level of caste atrocities at the hands of
intermediate castes, Puthiya Tamilagam and Vidhuthalai Chiruthaigal
Katchi emerged originally as social organisations and later entered
electoral politics.

SC/ST intellectuals in the State feel that the SC/ST movements have
not only lost momentum but also fallen prey to the hegemonising
control tactics of the Dravidian parties. Ten seats allocated for the
VCK in the DMK alliance and the fact that the PT could not get more
than two seats indicated the sorry state of affairs of SC/ST politics
in the State.

SC/ST intellectual and writer Stalin Rajangam says,
“If Pattali Makkal
Katchi, which drew a blank in the Lok Sabha elections could get a
maximum of 31 seats and a Rajya Sabha seat despite the fact of being a
troublesome partner in alliance, the VCK which has a clout in the
northern districts and also a reasonable presence across the State has
failed completely in the art of lobbying and politicking.”

The SC/ST discourse which emerged as a
counter-hegemonic discourse
questioning the Dravidian ideology as being non-inclusive and one
which failed to mainstream the subalterns has become diluted and
fallen easy prey to the compulsions of electoral politics. SC/ST
parties in the State lack a particular agenda or framework. Rather
than tackling and lobbying with a concrete strategy they only wish to
play second fiddle to the Dravidian parties.

The VCK’s emergence in the political scenario is an
interesting one.
The party, which was against the idea of electoral politics and later
decided to contest elections, was offered eight seats in 2001, along
with 10 for the PT by the DMK. In 2006, they were offered nine seats
by the AIADMK and in 2011 they are given 10. The growth rate is
abysmally low and during the last ten years they were able to get just
two seats more.

Mr. Stalin Rajangam further said that the
compromises that the VCK had
made during the last five years anticipating the electoral gains as a
passive partner not voicing the major issues that affected the SC/STs
to appease the DMK showed the intricate workings of political
hegemony.

Case of PT

The case of PT is much more disturbing as the party, which grew as a
militant organisation following the caste conflicts that rocked the
southern districts in the early and mid-1990s, has completely lost
ground and has reached a level of accepting a couple of seats from the
AIADMK. Feeling betrayed by the Dravidian parties and also SC/ST
parties who have failed to give adequate representation for
Arunthathiyar Scheduled Castes, Adi Tamizhar Peravai has fielded candidates in
21 constituencies.

In the 2006 Assembly elections, the VCK contesting
in nine
constituencies won in Kattumannarkoil and Mangalore and despite losing
did well in Sirkazhi, Chengam and Harur. K. Krishnasamy of Puthiya
Tamilagam, contesting on BSP symbol, lost at Ottapidaram by a margin
of 10,000 votes. The VCK has attracted members of the minority
community and various castes into its fold in the recent years. But
the party’s poor bargaining and lobbying efforts in the alliance could
be a big setback, feel experts. Thol. Thirumavalavan was expecting to
field a rainbow of candidates cutting across various castes but now
has settled with one Muslim and one Vanniyar candidate, says a close
aide of the former.

C. Lakshmanan of Madras Institute of Development
Studies feels that
the overarching domain of identity politics is its emancipatory
potential. However, over a course of time, it loses that potential and
enters a vicious circle. SC/ST politics has entered that phase here.
“They started highlighting the significant differences in the SC/ST
struggles to that of non-SC/STs, but once they got consolidated they
are compromising themselves and their community for narrow individual
interests.”

“The DMK’s offer of 10 seats to the VCK does not indicate growth, as 8
out of the 10 are reserved seats. So, it has actually got only two
seats from the DMK.”


Most of them also feel that the coming together of the VCK and the PMK
is just part of an electoral strategy and not a result of any real
effort to bring together the two communities.




To expect that this coming together would go beyond electoral politics
and have a significant impact on the functioning of caste dynamics is
just an illusion, feel SC/ST intellectuals.

 

Awakeness Practices

All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the
Pali Suttas


Traditionally
the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so;
certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to
Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas
(DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn
 1). There are 3 sections:


The
discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The
division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said
Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and  from the
priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into
275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the
stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha
and those of the commentator, are divided 
into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000
separate letters.

 

BUDDHA (EDUCATE)!          DHAMMA
(MEDITATE)!  SANGHA (ORGANISE)!

WISDOM IS POWER

Awakened One
Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss

Using such an instrument

The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice
University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of
Learning :

Buddha’s
Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā
Research and Practice University follows suit

As
the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the
Free  e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.

The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then
Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the
capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can
claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you
will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility
inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and
architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches

IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE

with

Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level
II: Buddhist Studies,

TO ATTAIN

Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once
– Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat

Jambudvipa,
i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

mathematics,astronomy,alchemy,andanatomy

Philosophy
and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace
Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development
Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies

 

Jambudvipa,
i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in

Mathematics

Astronomy

Alchemy

And
Andanatomy

 

Buddhist perception of humanity

Buddhism and Information Technology

Buddhist perception of Business Management in
Relation to Public Policy and Development and Ecology and Environment


comments (0)