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18 08 2012 Saturday LESSON 680 FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org up a levelTipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta TIPITAKA TIPITAKA AND TWELVE DIVISIONS Brief historical background Sutta Pitaka Vinaya Pitaka Abhidhamma Pitaka Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons Sutta Piṭaka — The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā IV. சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளின் கூர்ந்த கவனிப்பு 
- E4. மார்க சத்தியத்தை விளக்கிக்காட்டுதல்-Dhammapada Verse 305 Ekaviharitthera Vatthu-Discipline Yourself In Solitude ABOUT AWAKEN ONES WITH AWARENESS China Henan • Daxiangguo Temple • Iron Pagoda • Shaolin Monastery • Songyue Pagoda • White Horse Temple • Youguo Temple
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18  08  2012 Saturday LESSON 680 FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
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http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

up a levelTipitaka network … his life, his acts, his words
               
sabbe satta bhavantu sukhi-tatta

TIPITAKA
TIPITAKA   AND   TWELVE   DIVISIONS
    Brief historical background
   Sutta Pitaka
   Vinaya Pitaka
   Abhidhamma Pitaka
     Twelve Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Nine Divisions of Buddhist Canons
Sutta Piṭaka

— The basket of discourses —Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta (DN 22) {excerpt} - all infobubbles— Attendance on awareness —Kāyānupassanā
IV. சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளின் கூர்ந்த கவனிப்பு
E4.  மார்க சத்தியத்தை விளக்கிக்காட்டுதல்

Dhammapada Verse 305 Ekaviharitthera Vatthu-Discipline Yourself In Solitude


ABOUT AWAKEN ONES WITH AWARENESS  China
Henan
    •    Daxiangguo Temple
    •    Iron Pagoda
    •    Shaolin Monastery
    •    Songyue Pagoda
    •    White Horse Temple
    •    Youguo Temple




DN 22 - (D ii 290)

Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta

— Attendance on awareness —
[ mahā+satipaṭṭhāna ]

This sutta is widely considered as a the main reference for meditation practice.




Note: infobubbles on all Pali words


Pāḷi



Uddesa

I. Kāyānupassanā


   A. Ānāpāna Pabba
   B. Iriyāpatha Pabba
   C. Sampajāna Pabba
   D. Paṭikūlamanasikāra Pabba
   E. Dhātumanasikāra Pabba
   F. Navasivathika Pabba

II. Vedanānupassanā

III. Cittānupassanā

IV. Dhammānupassanā


   A. Nīvaraṇa Pabba
   B. Khandha Pabba
   C. Āyatana Pabba
   D. Bojjhaṅga Pabba
   E. Sacca Pabba
      E1. Dukkhasacca Niddesa
      E2. Samudayasacca Niddesa
      E3. Nirodhasacca Niddesa
      E4. Maggasacca Niddesa



English



Introduction

I. Observation of Kāya


   A. Section on ānāpāna
   B. Section on postures
   C. Section on sampajañña
   D. Section on repulsiveness
   E. Section on the Elements
   F. Section on the nine charnel grounds

II. Observation of Vedanā

III. Observation of Citta

IV. Observation of Dhammas


   A. Section on the Nīvaraṇas
   B. Section on the Khandhas
   C. Section on the Sense Spheres
   D. Section on the Bojjhaṅgas
   E. Section on the Truths
      E1. Exposition of Dukkhasacca
      E2. Exposition of Samudayasacca
      E3. Exposition of Nirodhasacca
      E4. Exposition of Maggasacca


E4. Maggasacca Niddesa

Katamaṃ ca, bhikkhave, dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariya·saccaṃ? Ayam·eva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathidaṃ sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati, sammāsamādhi.

E4. Exposition of Maggasacca
E4.  மார்க சத்தியத்தை விளக்கிக்காட்டுதல்

And what, bhikkhus, is the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca? It is just this ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga, that is to say sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati and sammāsamādhi

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே, dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca   துக்கம் முடிவுறுகிற மார்க வழிகாட்டும் மேதக்க மெய்ம்மை சத்திய பண்பு? அது சும்மா இந்த  ariya aṭṭhaṅgika magga எண்வகுப்பான மேதக்க மெய்ம்மை சத்திய மார்கம், என்று சொல்லப்படுகிற, sammādiṭṭhi திருஷ்டி நேரான நோக்கு, sammāsaṅkappo நேரான உட்கருத்து/எண்ணம், sammāvācā நேரான பேச்சு, sammākammanto  நேரான வினையாற் றுதல், sammā-ājīvo  நேரான ஜீவனோபாயம், sammāvāyāmo நேரான பிரயத்தனம், sammāsati நேரான விழிப்பு நிலை மற்றும் sammāsamādhi நேரான ஒருமுக சிந்தனை.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi? Yaṃ kho, bhikkhave, dukkhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkha-samudaye ñāṇaṃ , dukkha-nirodhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkha-nirodha-gāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammādiṭṭhi.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammādiṭṭhi? That, bhikkhus, which is the ñāṇa of dukkha, the ñāṇa of dukkha-samudaya, the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha and the ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada, that is called, bhikkhus, sammādiṭṭhi

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே, sammādiṭṭhi திருஷ்டி நேரான நோக்கு? அது, பிக்குகளே, இந்த  ñāṇa of dukkha, துக்க ஞானம், ñāṇa of dukkha-samudaya,  இந்த துக்க மரபுமூல ஞானம்,  ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha  இந்த துக்க இடைநிறுத்த ஞானம்,  மற்றும் ñāṇa of dukkha-nirodha-gāmini paṭipada  இந்த துக்க முடிவுறுகிற மார்க வழிகாட்டும் ஞானம்,அது, பிக்குகளே, sammādiṭṭhi திருஷ்டி நேரான நோக்கு என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo? Yo kho, bhikkhave, nekkhamma-saṅkappo , abyāpāda-saṅkappo, avihiṃsā-saṅkappo ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsaṅkappo.

And what, bhikkhus, are sammāsaṅkappas? Those, bhikkhus, which are saṅkappas of nekkhamma, saṅkappas of abyāpāda, saṅkappas of avihiṃsā, those are called, bhikkhus, sammāsaṅkappas

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே, sammāsaṅkappo நேரான உட்கருத்து/எண்ணம்? அவை , பிக்குகளே, saṅkappas of nekkhamma உலகப்பற்று துறவு சிந்தனா சக்தி,saṅkappas of abyāpāda  வைராக்கியம் இன்மை சிந்தனா சக்தி,  saṅkappas of avihiṃsā வன்முறை இன்மை சிந்தனா சக்தி, அது, பிக்குகளே, sammāsaṅkappo நேரான உட்கருத்து/எண்ணம், என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.


Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāvācā? kho, bhikkhave, musāvādā veramaṇī, pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī, pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī, samphappalāpā veramaṇī ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāvācā.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāvācā? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from musāvādā, abstaining from pisuṇa vācā, abstaining from pharusa vācā, and abstaining from samphappalāpa, that is called, bhikkhus, sammāvācā

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே, sammā-ājīva நேரான பேச்சு? அது, பிக்குகளே,  musāvādā பொய் தவிர்வு  pisuṇa vācā கெடு நோக்கான பேச்சு  தவிர்வு pharusa vācā கடுமையான பேச்சு தவிர்வு மற்றும் samphappalāpa அற்பப்பொழுதுபோக்கான உரையாடல் தவிர்வு அது, பிக்குகளே, நேரான பேச்சு, என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammā-kammanto? kho, bhikkhave, pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā veramaṇī, abrahmacariyā veramaṇī ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammā-kammanto.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammā-kammanta? That, bhikkhus, which is abstaining from pāṇātipāta , abstaining from adinnādāna, abstaining from abrahmacariya, that is called, bhikkhus, sammā-kammanta

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே, sammā-kammanta நேரான வினையாற் றுதல்? அது, பிக்குகளே,   pāṇātipāta  பிராண நாசம் தவிர்வு   adinnādāna  கொடுக்கப்படாத யாவையும் எடுத்தல் தவிர்வு abrahmacariya  தூய வாழ்க்கைவாழ்க்கைக்கு எதிர் நிலையான பாலுறவு தவிர்வு, அது, பிக்குகளே, sammā-kammanta நேரான வினையாற் றுதல் என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.


Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammā-ājīvo? Idha, bhikkhave, ariya-sāvako micchā-ājīvaṃ pahāya sammā-ājīvena jīvitaṃ kappeti ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammā-ājīvo.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammā-ājīva?
Here, bhikkhus, a noble disciple, having abandonned wrong livelihood,
supports his life by right means of livelihood, that is called,
bhikkhus, sammā-ājīva

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே,  sammā-ājīva நேரான ஜீவனோபாயம்? இங்கு பிக்குகளே, ஒரு மேதக்க சீடர், பிழையான ஜீவனோபாயம் கைவிடப்பட்ட உடையவராயிருத்தல், அவருடைய வாழ்க்கை நேர்மை வழிவகை ஜீவனோபாயம் ஆதரவுடன்   வாழ்கிறார், அது, பிக்குகளே, sammā-ājīva நேரான ஜீவனோபாயம் என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāvāyāmo? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāvāyāmo.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāvāyāma? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu generates his chanda for the non-arising of unarisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the forsaking of arisen pāpaka and akusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the arising of unarisen kusala dhammas, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives; he generates his chanda for the steadfastness of arisen kusala dhammas,
for their absence of confusion, for their increase, their development,
their cultivation and their completion, he exerts himself, rouses his viriya, applies vigorously his citta and strives. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāvāyāma

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே, sammāvāyāma  நேரான பிரயத்தனம்?  இங்கு பிக்குகளே, ஒரு  பிக்கு,  எழும்பாத pāpaka பாவம் மற்றும் akusala பாதகமான/தகாத குணம்/உடல் நலத்திற்கு ஒவ்வாத/ஒழுக்கக்கெட்ட/பயிற்சித் திறமையற்ற dhammas தம்மங்கள்  எழும்பாதிருக்கும்போது  chanda உத்வேகம் தோற்றுவி தோற்றுவிக்கிறார், அவர் தானே தீவிரமாக ஈடுபடுத்திக்கொள்கிறார்,  viriya,அவருடைய விறுவிறுப்பு/ஆற்றல்/கடுமுயற்சி/சளைக்காத குணத்தை எழுப்புகிறார், பலம் பொருந்திய சக்தி வாய்ந்த அவருடைய  cittaசித்தம் உள்ளத்தை உபயோகிக்கிறார் மற்றும் கடுமுயற்சி செய்கிறார்; pāpaka பாவம் மற்றும் akusala பாதகமான/தகாத குணம்/உடல் நலத்திற்கு ஒவ்வாத/ஒழுக்கக்கெட்ட/பயிற்சித் திறமையற்ற dhammas   எழும்பாதிருக்கும்போது அதை கைவிட chanda உத்வேகம் தோற்றுவி தோற்றுவிக்கிறார், அவர் தானே தீவிரமாக ஈடுபடுத்திக்கொள்கிறார்,  viriya,அவருடைய விறுவிறுப்பு/ஆற்றல்/கடுமுயற்சி/சளைக்காத குணத்தை எழுப்புகிறார், பலம் பொருந்திய சக்தி வாய்ந்த அவருடைய  cittaசித்தம் உள்ளத்தை உபயோகிக்கிறார் மற்றும் கடுமுயற்சி செய்கிறார்;  எழும்பும் pāpaka பாவம் மற்றும் akusala பாதகமான/தகாத குணம்/உடல் நலத்திற்கு ஒவ்வாத/ஒழுக்கக்கெட்ட/பயிற்சித் திறமையற்ற dhammas தம்மங்கள்  எழும்பாதிருக்கும்போது  chanda உத்வேகம் தோற்றுவி தோற்றுவிக்கிறார், அவர் தானே தீவிரமாக ஈடுபடுத்திக்கொள்கிறார்,  viriya,அவருடைய விறுவிறுப்பு/ஆற்றல்/கடுமுயற்சி/சளைக்காத குணத்தை எழுப்புகிறார், பலம் பொருந்திய சக்தி வாய்ந்த அவருடைய  cittaசித்தம் உள்ளத்தை உபயோகிக்கிறார் மற்றும் கடுமுயற்சி செய்கிறார்; தண்டாமை kusala dhammas,பாராட்டுத் திறனுடைய தம்மங்கள் அவற்றினுடைய குழப்புதல் இராமை,  அவற்றினுடைய மிகுதிப்பாடு, அவற்றினுடைய மேம்பாடு, அவற்றினுடைய நய மேம்பாடு மற்றும் அவற்றினுடைய முழுமையான நிலை, அவர் தானே தீவிரமாக ஈடுபடுத்திக்கொள்கிறார்,  viriya,அவருடைய விறுவிறுப்பு/ஆற்றல்/கடுமுயற்சி/சளைக்காத குணத்தை எழுப்புகிறார், பலம் பொருந்திய சக்தி வாய்ந்த அவருடைய  cittaசித்தம் உள்ளத்தை உபயோகிக்கிறார் மற்றும் கடுமுயற்சி செய்கிறார், அது, பிக்குகளே,  sammāvāyāma  நேரான பிரயத்தனம் என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sammāsati? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Citte cittānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsati.

An what, bhikkhus, is sammāsati? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing kāya in kāya, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing vedanā in vedanā, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing citta in citta, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. He dwells observing dhamma·s in dhamma·s, ātāpī sampajāno, satimā, having given up abhijjhā-domanassa towards the world. This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsati

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே,sammāsati நேரான விழிப்பு நிலை? இங்கு பிக்குகளே, ஒரு  பிக்கு, kāya in kāyaகாயாவை காயாவில் உடம்பில் உடம்பை,ātāpī sampajāno, satimā,  abhijjhā-domanassa இந்த உலகம் நோக்கி ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க உடையவராயிருத்தல்  கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிறார். vedanā in vedanāவேதனையில் வேதனையாக உறுதலுணர்ச்சியில் உறுதலுணர்ச்சியாக ātāpī sampajāno, satimā,  abhijjhā-domanassa இந்த உலகம் நோக்கி ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க உடையவராயிருத்தல்  கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிறார்.   citta in cittaசித்தத்தில் சித்தமாக மனதில் மனமாக , ātāpī sampajāno, satimā,  abhijjhā-domanassa இந்த உலகம் நோக்கி ஏகாந்தமாயிருக்க உடையவராயிருத்தல்  கவனித்து வாசம் செய்கிறார். அது, பிக்குகளே,  sammāsati நேரான விழிப்பு நிலை என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.


Katamo ca, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti: ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassa-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkham-asukhaṃ upekkhā-sati-pārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, sammāsamādhi ti.

And what, bhikkhus, is sammāsamādhi? Here, bhikkhus, a
bhikkhu, detached from kāma, detached from akusala dhammas, having
entered in the first jhāna, abides therein, with vitakka and vicāra,
with pīti and sukha born of detachment.
With
the stilling of vitakka-vicāra, having entered in the second jhāna, he
abides therein with inner tanquilization, unification of citta, without
vitakka nor vicāra, with pīti and sukha born of samādhi.
And
with indifference towards pīti, he abides in upekkha, sato and
sampajāno, he experiences in kāya the sukha which the ariyas describe:
‘one who is equanimous and mindful dwells in [this] sukha’, having
entered in the third jhāna, he abides therein.
Abandoning
sukha and abandoning dukkha, somanassa and domanassa having previously
disappeared, without sukha nor dukkha, with the purity of upekkha and
sati, having entered in the fourth jhāna, he abides therein.
This is called, bhikkhus, sammāsamādhi

மற்றும் எது, பிக்குகளே, sammāsamādhi நேரான ஒருமுக சிந்தனை? இங்கு பிக்குகளே, ஒரு  பிக்கு,kāma  காமத்திலிருந்து புலனுணர்வு மட்டுமேபற்றிய ஆர்வ வேட்கையிலிருந்து தனிப்பாட்டு akusala பாதகமான/தகாத குணம்/உடல் நலத்திற்கு ஒவ்வாத/ஒழுக்கக்கெட்ட/பயிற்சித் திறமையற்ற dhammas தம்மங்கள் தனிப்பாட்டு, முதலாவது jhāna  ஒருமுக சிந்தனையான தியானத்தில் ஈடுபட உள்ளே பிரவேசித்து  உட்கிரகித்த உடையவராயிருத்தல்,  vitakka and vicāra எண்ணம்/எதிரொளி மற்றும்  ஒரு விஷயம் முடியும் முன்பே மற்றொரு விஷயத்திற்கு மாறுகி எண்ணம் அவ்விடத்தில் உறுதியாக உடன் இருந்து, உடனாக  pīti மற்றும் sukha இல் பிறந்த தொடர்பற்ற தன்மை, உடனாக vitakka-vicāra எண்ணம்/எதிரொளி மற்றும்  ஒரு விஷயம் முடியும் முன்பே மற்றொரு விஷயத்திற்கு மாறுகி எண்ணம் மிடாவடை, இரண்டாவதான  jhāna  ஒருமுக சிந்தனையான தியானத்தில் ஈடுபட உள்ளே பிரவேசித்து  உட்கிரகித்த உடையவராயிருத்தல், அவ்விடத்தில் உட்புறமான உள அமைதியூக்கி அத்துடன்  citta சித்தமாக மனதில் ஒன்றுபடுத்தல்,  vitakka and vicāra எண்ணம்/எதிரொளி மற்றும்  ஒரு விஷயம் முடியும் முன்பே மற்றொரு விஷயத்திற்கு மாறுகி எண்ணம் அவ்விடத்தில் உறுதியாக உடன் இருந்து, உடனாக with pīti கழிபேருவகை மற்றும் sukha சுகம் இன்றி அத்துடன் பிறந்த மனம் ஒருமுக சிந்தனையில் குறிவைத்து அதனுடைய ஒன்றுபடுத்தல் மற்றும் ஒருப்படுத்து இல் மற்றும் உடனாக அக்கறையின்மை  pīti கழிபேருவகை நோக்கி, அவர் upekkha உள்ளச்சமநிலை, sato சிந்தனையுள்ள மற்றும் sampajāno மாறா நிலை பகுத்தறிதல் உடைய அநித்தியம் கூட உரித்தாக்கு ஒத்துப்போ, அவர்  kāya the sukha காயாவில்  உடம்பில் சுகம் அகவுணர்வு நிலைகள் எதனை ariyas மேதக்கவர்கள் விரித்துரை: ‘யார் ஒருவர் உள்ளச்சமநிலை மற்றும் எச்சரிக்கையுடன் இருக்கிற இந்த sukha சுகம் வாசம் செய்’, மூன்றாவது jhāna  ஒருமுக சிந்தனையான தியானத்தில் ஈடுபட உள்ளே பிரவேசித்து  உட்கிரகித்த உடையவராயிருத்தல், அவ்விடத்தில் கைவிடப்பட்ட sukha  சுகம் மற்றும் கைவிடப்பட்ட dukkha  துக்கம், somanassa மனத்தால் இயக்கப்படுகிற இனிமை மற்றும் domanassa மனத்தால் இனிமையன்மை முன்பாக மறைந்துபோ இன்றி உடையவராயிருத்தல் sukha சுகம் இல்லாததாக dukkha துக்கம்,  தூய்மை உடன் upekkha  உள்ளச்சமநிலை  மற்றும் sati விழிப்புணர்வு, நான்காவதான jhāna  ஒருமுக சிந்தனையான தியானத்தில் ஈடுபட உள்ளே பிரவேசித்து  உட்கிரகித்த உடையவராயிருத்தல். அது, பிக்குகளே, sammāsamādhi நேரான ஒருமுக சிந்தனை என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariya·saccaṃ.

This is called, bhikkhus, the dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca

அது, பிக்குகளே, dukkha·nirodha·gāminī paṭipadā ariyasacca. இந்த துக்க முடிவுறுகிற வழிகாட்டும் மார்க ஞான மேதக்க மெய்ம்மை என்று அழைக்கபடுகிறது.

Iti ajjhattaṃ dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, bahiddhā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, ajjhatta-bahiddhā dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati; samudaya-dhamm·ānupassī dhammesu viharati, vaya-dhamm·ānupassī dhammesu viharati, samudaya-vaya-dhamm·ānupassī dhammesu viharati; ‘atthi dhammāti pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya, a·nissito ca viharati, na ca kiñci loke upādiyati. Evam·pi kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati, catūsu ariyasaccesu.

Thus he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas externally, or he dwells observing dhammas in dhammas internally and externally; he dwells observing the samudaya of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the passing away of phenomena in dhammas, or he dwells observing the samudaya and passing away of phenomena in dhammas; or else, [realizing:] “these are dhammas!” sati is present in him, just to the extent of mere ñāṇa and mere paṭissati, he dwells detached, and does not cling to anything in the world. Thus, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu dwells observing dhammas in dhammas, with reference to the four ariya·saccas


இவ்வாறு அவர்  dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன் 
கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், அல்லது சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன்  வெளியே கூர்ந்த கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார்;samudaya of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், samudaya and passing away of phenomena புலன்களால் உணரத்தக்க தோற்றம் மற்றும் கழிதல் அதனுடைய அகநிலையில் கூர்ந்து  கவனித்து  வாசம் செய்கிரார், இல்லாவிடில் “இது  dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன் ” என உணர்ந்து,  sati விழிப்பு நிலை அவருக்குள் வந்திருக்கிறது, சும்மா வெறும் ñāṇa  ஓர்அளவு ஞானம் மற்றும் ஓர்அளவு paṭissati என எண்ணி பற்றறு வாசம் செய்கிரார். மற்றும் உலகத்தில் சிறிதளவாவது பற்றிக்கொள்ளாது,அவ்வாறாக பிக்குக்களுக்களே, ஒரு பிக்கு, dhammas சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளில் சட்டத்துக்கு அடிப்படையான அற முறைகளூடன் நான்கு  ariya·saccas மேதக்க மெய்ம்மை கூர்ந்த கவனிப்புடன் வாசம் செய்கிரார்.

Satipaṭṭhānabhāvanā Nisaṃsa

Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya satta·vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, sati upādisese anāgāmitā.

The benefits of practicing the Satipaṭṭhānas

விழிப்பு நிலை பழக்கம் இருத்தலான பலன்கள்

For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for seven years, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita

எவராகிலும், பிக்குகளே,  இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஏழு ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, satta·vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cha vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone seven years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for six years, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

ஏழு ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள் பிக்குகளே,  இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஆறு ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cha vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya pañca vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone six years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for five years, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

ஆறு ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள் பிக்குகளே,  இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஐந்து ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, pañca vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cattāri vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone five years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for four years, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

ஐந்து ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள் பிக்குகளே,  இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி நான்கு ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cattāri vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya tīṇī vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone four years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for three years, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

நான்கு  ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள் பிக்குகளே,  இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி மூன்று ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, tīṇī vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya dve vassāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone three years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for two years, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

மூன்று ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள் பிக்குகளே,  இவை நான்கு
விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி இரண்டு ஆண்டுகள் பழகினால், இரண்டு
முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான
ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது
பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை
இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, dve vassāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya ekaṃ vassaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone two years, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for one year, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

இரண்டு ஆண்டுகள் விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே,  இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஒரு ஆண்டு பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, ekaṃ vassaṃ. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya satta māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone one year, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for seven months, one of two results may be expected:
either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some
clinging left, anāgāmita.

ஒரு ஆண்டு விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே,  இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு
நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஏழு மாதகாலம் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று
எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய
புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம்
இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, satta māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cha māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone seven months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for six months, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

ஏழு மாதகாலம் விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே, இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு
நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஆறு மாதகாலம் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில்
ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய
புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம்
இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cha māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya pañca māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone six months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for five months, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

 ஆறு மாதகாலம் விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே, இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஐந்து மாதகாலம் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, pañca māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya cattāri māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone five months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for four months, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

ஐந்து மாதகாலம் விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே, இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி நான்கு மாதகாலம் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, cattāri māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya tīṇi māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone four months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for three months, one of two results may be expected:
either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some
clinging left, anāgāmita.

நான்கு மாதகாலம் விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே, இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி மூன்று மாதகாலம் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, tīṇi māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya dvi māsāni, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone three months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for two months, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

மூன்று மாதகாலம் விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே, இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி இரண்டு மாதகாலம் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, dve māsāni. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya ekaṃ māsaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone two months, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for one month, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

இரண்டு மாதகாலம் விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே, இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஒரு  மாதகாலம் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, ekaṃ māsaṃ. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya aḍḍha·māsaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone one month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for half a month, one of two results may be expected:
either [perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some
clinging left, anāgāmita.

ஒரு  மாதகாலம் விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே, இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி அரை மாதகாலம் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Tiṭṭhantu, bhikkhave, aḍḍha·māso. Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, ime cattāro satipaṭṭhāne evaṃ bhāveyya sattāhaṃ, tassa dvinnaṃ phalānaṃ aññataraṃ phalaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ: diṭṭheva dhamme aññā, atthi upādisese anāgāmitā.

Let alone half a month, bhikkhus. For whoever, bhikkhus, would practice these four satipaṭṭhānas
in this way for a week, one of two results may be expected: either
[perfect] knowledge in visible phenomena, or if there is some clinging
left, anāgāmita.

அரை மாதகாலம் விடுங்கள், பிக்குகளே, இவை நான்கு விழிப்பு நிலைகளை விரும்பி, இவ்வழி ஒரு வாரகாலம் பழகினால், இரண்டு முடிவுகளில் ஒன்று எதிர்பார்க்கக் கூடும்: இரண்டிலொன்றாக முழு நிறைவான ஞானம் காணக்கூடிய புலனுணர்வாதம், அல்லது ஒருவேளை அங்கே சிறிது பற்றிக்கொள்ளுதல் மிச்சம் இருந்தால் anāgāmita ஒருவருக்கு திரும்புகை இல்லாத நிலை.

Ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, soka-paridevānaṃ samatikkamāya, dukkha-domanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya, ñāyassa adhigamāya, nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānāti. Iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ, idam·etaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ ti.

“This, bhikkhus, is the path that leads to nothing but the purification
of beings, the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, the disappearance
of dukkha-domanassa, the attainment of the right way, the realization of Nibbāna, that is to say the four satipaṭṭhānas.” Thus has it been said, and on the basis of all this has it been said.

“இது, பிக்குகளே, வெறும் இனங்களை  ஆனால் அந்த வழி வகு
தூய்மைப்பாடு பாதை, மனத்துயரம் மற்றும் புலம்புற விஞ்சி, dukkha-domanassa, மனம் சார்ந்த துக்கம் அல்லல்கள் மறைவு, செந்நெறி
முயற்சியால் அடைதல்,Nibbāna முடிவான குறிக்கோளாக அமைகிற  மெய்யாகக் காண்டல் நிலை.

Idam·avoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinanduṃ ti.

Thus spoke the Bhagavā. Delighted, the bhikkhus welcomed the words of the Bhagavā.

இவ்வாறாக ஞானானந்த வணங்கத்தக்க  பகவா போதித்தார். அகமகிழ்வுடன், பிக்குகள் பகவாவின் வார்த்தைகளை வரவேற்றனர்.

Bodhi leaf




Note

1. ‘atthi kāyo’ ti vā pan·assa sati paccupaṭṭhitā hoti, yāvadeva ñāṇa·mattāya paṭissati·mattāya:
this is probably the trickiest part of the sutta. It is very important
because it will be repeated over 20 times, and also because it is the
central part explaining how sati is actually made present. Here are a
few alternate renderings:

VRI: “Now his awareness is established: “This
is body!” Thus he develops his awareness to such an extent that there
is mere understanding along with mere awareness.”

Bhante Analayo: “Or else mindfulness that ‘There is a body’ is established in him to the extent of bare knowledge and remembrance of it”

Thanissaro Bhikkhu: “Or his mindfulness that ‘There is a body’ is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance”

Bhikkhu Nanamoli & Bhikkhu Bodhi: “Or
else mindfulness that ‘there is a body’ is simply established in him to
the extent necessary for bare knowledge and mindfulness.”

Nyanasatta Thera: “Or his mindfulness is
established with the thought: “The body exists,” to the extent necessary
just for knowledge and mindfulness.”

Soma Thera: “Or indeed his mindfulness is
established with the thought: ‘The body exists,’ to the extent necessary
just for knowledge and remembrance”

Maurice Walshe: “Or else, mindfulness that “there is a body” is present to him just to the extent necessary for the knowledge and awareness.”



Translation suggested by the webmaster,
with the support of Thanissaro Bhikkhu’s translation.

———oOo———
Published as a gift of Dhamma, to be distributed free of charge.
Any copies or derivatives of this work must cite their original source.

Verse 305. Discipline Yourself In Solitude

Alone one sits, alone one lies,
alone one walks unweariedly,
in solitude one tames oneself
so in the woods will one delight.

Explanation: He who sits alone, lies down
alone, walks alone, in diligent practice, and alone tames himself, should
find delight in living in the forest.


Dhammapada Verse 305
Ekaviharitthera Vatthu

Ekasanam ekaseyyam
eko caramatandito
eko damayamattanam
vanante ramito siya.

Verse 305: He who sits alone, lies down alone, walks1 alone, in
diligent practice, and alone tames himself should find delight in living in the
forest.


1. All these postures are connected with the cultivation of Insight
Development. (The Commentary)


The Story of the Thera Who Stayed Alone

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (305) of
this book, with reference to a bhikkhu who stayed by himself. Because he usually
stayed alone, he was known as Thera Ekavihari.

Thera Ekavihari did not mix much with other bhikkhus, but usually stayed by
himself. All alone, he would sleep or lie down, or stand, or walk. Other
bhikkhus thought ill of Ekavihari and told the Buddha about him. But the Buddha
did not blame him; instead he said, “Yes, indeed, my son has done well;
for, a bhikkhu should stay in solitude and seclusion”.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 305: He who sits alone, lies down alone, walks
alone, in diligent practice, and alone tames himself should find
delight in living in the forest.

End of Chapter Twenty-One: Miscellaneous

Henan
    •    Daxiangguo Temple

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daxiangguo_Temple

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Daxiangguosi 1.jpg

Daxiangguo Temple (simplified Chinese: 大相国寺; traditional Chinese: 大相國寺) is a famous Chinese Buddhist Temple in Kaifeng in eastern Henan province, People’s Republic of China.

    •    Iron Pagoda

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Pagoda

The Iron Pagoda (Chinese: 鐵塔) of Youguo Temple (佑國寺), Kaifeng City, Henan province, is a Buddhist Chinese pagoda built in 1049 during the Song Dynasty (960–1279) of China. The pagoda is so-named not because it is made of iron, but because its colour resembles that of iron. It is a brick pagoda tower built on the location of a previous wooden pagoda that had been burnt down by lightning fire in 1044. Along with the Liuhe, Lingxiao, Liaodi, Pizhi, and Beisi pagodas, it is seen as a masterpiece of the Song Dynasty architecture.

Contents

Architecture

This octagonal-base structure stands at a current height of 56.88 meters (186.56 feet), with a total of 13 stories.[1] It is a solid-core brick tower with an inner spiral stone staircase and outside openings to allow light and air flow.[2] The architectural style features densely positioned, articulated dougong in the eaves (miyan) and multiple stories (louge).[2] The exterior features more than fifty different varieties of glazed brick and 1,600 intricate and richly detailed carvings, including those of standing and sitting Buddha,
standing monks, singers and flying dancers, flowers, lions, dragons and
other legendary beasts as well as many fine engravings. Under the eaves
are 104 bells that ring in the wind. The foundation rests in the silt of the Yellow River.[3] Inside the Iron Pagoda are frescos of the classical Chinese tales, such the Journey to the West.[4]

History

In the Northern Song (960–1127) dynasty’s capital city of Kaifeng, the famous architect Yu Hao built a magnificent wooden pagoda as part of Youguo Temple (between 965–995 CE.) that was considered by many of his contemporaries to be a marvel of art.[5] Unfortunately, the widely admired structure burned down in 1044 after a lightning strike.[5] Under the order of Emperor Renzong
(1022–1063), a new pagoda was built in its place by 1049. The new tower
was built of nonflammable brick and stone and was dubbed the ‘Iron
Pagoda’ due its iron-grey color when viewed from afar (its bricks are in
fact glazed
red, brown, blue, and green). In 1847 the Yellow River overflowed its
banks and the Youguo Temple collapsed, but the Iron Pagoda survived.
Historically, the pagoda has experienced 38 earthquakes, six floods and
many other disasters, but it remains intact after almost 1000 years.[3][6]

In 1994, the Iron Pagoda was featured on a two-yuan Chinese postage stamp.[7]

Gallery

    •    Shaolin Monastery

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaolin_Monastery

Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery 2006.JPG
Shaolin Monastery
Information
Mountain Name Mount Song
Address Dengfeng, Henan
Country China China
Coordinates 34°30′01″N 112°54′56″ECoordinates: 34°30′01″N 112°54′56″E
Website http://www.shaolin.org.cn/en/index.aspx

Dharma Wheel.svg Portal:Buddhism

The Shaolin Monastery or Shaolin Temple (Chinese: 少林寺; pinyin: Shàolín Sì; Wade–Giles: Shao-lin Szu, pronounced [ʂɑ̂ʊ̯lǐn sî]; Cantonese Yale: Siulàhm Jí) is a Chán Buddhist temple at Song Shan, near Zhengzhou City, Henan Province in Dengfeng, China. It is led by Venerable abbot Shi Yǒngxìn. Founded in the 5th century, the monastery is long famous for its association with Chinese martial arts and particularly with Shaolin Kung Fu, and it is the Mahayana Buddhist monastery perhaps best known to the Western world.[1]

The Shaolin Monastery and its famed Pagoda Forest were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2010 as part of the “Historic Monuments of Dengfeng.”[2]

Contents

Name

Shaolin Monastery
Pagoda Forest9.JPG
The Pagoda forest (close view), located about 300 meters west of the Shaolin Monastery in Henan
Chinese 少林寺

The shào () in “Shaolin” refers to Mount Shaoshi (少室山), one of the seven mountains forming the Songshan mountain range; it is on this mountain the Temple is situated. The word lín () means “forest”. The word () means “monastery/temple”. The late Master Chang Dsu Yao[3]
incorrectly translated “Shaolin” as “young (new) forest” or sometimes
“little forest”. This newer translation is commonly accepted today.

Early history

The first Shaolin Monastery abbot was Batuo (also called Fotuo or Buddhabhadra, not to be confused with Bodhidharma) a dhyana master who came to China from India in 464 to spread Buddhist teachings.[4]

According to the Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks (645) by Dàoxuān, the Shaolin Monastery was built on the north side of Shaoshi, the central peak of Mount Song, one of the Sacred Mountains of China, by Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty in 477. Yang Xuanzhi, in the Record of the Buddhist Monasteries of Luoyang (547), and Li Xian, in the Ming Yitongzhi (1461), concur with Daoxuan’s location and attribution. The Jiaqing Chongxiu Yitongzhi (1843) specifies that this monastery, located in the province of Henan, was built in the 20th year of theTàihé era of the Northern Wei Dynasty, that is, the monastery was built in 495.

Kangxi, the second Qing emperor, was a supporter of the Shaolin temple in Henan and he wrote the calligraphic inscriptions that hang over the Heavenly King Hall and the Buddha Hall to this day.[5]

Destructions

The Pagoda forest (wide view)

The monastery has been destroyed and rebuilt many times. During the 14th century Red Turban revolt,
bandits sacked the monastery for its real or supposed valuables,
destroying much of the temple and driving the monks away. The monastery
was likely abandoned from 1351 or 1356 (the most likely dates for the
attack) to at least 1359, when government troops retook Henan. The
events of this period would later figure heavily in 16th century legends
of the temple’s patron saint Vajrapani, with the story being changed to claim a victory for the monks, rather than a defeat.[6]

In 1641 the troops of anti-Ming rebel Li Zicheng
sacked the monastery due to the monks’ support of the Ming and the
possible threat they posed to the rebels. This effectively destroyed the
temple’s fighting force.[7]
The temple fell into ruin and was home to only a few monks until the
early 18th century, when the Qing government patronized and restored the
temple.[8]

Perhaps the best-known story of the Temple’s destruction is that it
was destroyed by the Qing government for supposed anti-Qing activities.
Variously said to have taken place in 1647 under the Shunzhi Emperor, in 1674 under the Kangxi Emperor, or in 1732 under the Yongzheng Emperor, this destruction is also supposed to have helped spread Shaolin martial arts through China by means of the five fugitive monks.
Some accounts claim that a supposed southern Shaolin Temple was
destroyed instead of, or in addition to, the temple in Henan: Ju Ke, in
the Qing bai lei chao (1917), locates this temple in Fujian Province. These stories commonly appear in legendary or popular accounts of martial history, and in martial arts fiction.

While these latter accounts are common among martial artists, and
often serve as origin stories for various martial arts styles, they are
viewed by scholars as fictional. The accounts are known through often
inconsistent 19th-century secret society histories and popular
literature, and also appear to draw on both Fujianese folklore and
popular narratives such as the Water Margin. Modern scholarly attention to the tales is mainly concerned with their role as folklore.[9][10][11]

Recent history

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A mural painting in the temple (early 19th century)

Walking through the alley of the monastery

A tree within the Shaolin Monastery used by the monks to practice finger-punching

There is evidence of Shaolin martial arts techniques being exported to Japan in the 18th and 19th centuries. Okinawan Shōrin-ryū karate (小林流), for example, has a name meaning “Small [Shao]lin”.[12] Other similarities can be seen in centuries-old Chinese and Japanese martial arts manuals.[13]

In 1928, the warlord Shi Yousan
set fire to the monastery, burning it for over 40 days, destroying a
significant percent of the buildings including many manuscripts of the
temple library.[14]

The Cultural Revolution launched in 1966 targeted religious orders including the monastery. The five monks who were present at the monastery when the Red Guard attacked were shackled and made to wear placards declaring the crimes charged against them.[14] The monks were jailed after publicly being flogged and paraded through the street as people threw rubbish at them.[14] The government purged Buddhist materials from within the monastery walls, leaving it barren for years.

Martial arts groups from all over the world have made donations for
the upkeep of the temple and grounds, and are subsequently honored with
carved stones near the entrance of the temple.

According to Matthew Polly, a travel writer and martial artist, during the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Taizong
granted the Shaolin Temple extra land and special “imperial
dispensation” to eat meat, and drink, which would make Shaolin the only
temple in China that did not prohibit alcohol, although this practice
has ceased today.[15]

Polly’s statement is not corroborated in any period documents, such
as the Shaolin Stele erected in 728. The stele does not list any such
imperial dispensation as reward for the monks’ assistance during the
campaign against Wang Shichong, only land and a water mill are granted.[16]
Historian Meir Shahar is unsure if the popular tale about wine and meat
consumption originated after the released of films like Shaolin Temple.[17]

In the past, many have tried to capitalize on Shaolin Monastery fame
by building their own schools on Mount Song. However, the Chinese
government eventually outlawed this; the schools were moved to the
nearby towns. However, as of 2010, the Ta Gou kung fu school, one of the
largest kung fu schools in China, owns and practices on land below the
Shaolin Temple.[18]

A Dharma gathering was held from August 19 to August 20, 1999, in the Shaolin Monastery for Master Shi Yongxin’s assumption of office as abbot. In March 2006 Vladimir Putin, then President of Russia,
became the first foreign leader to visit the monastery. In 2007 the
Chinese government partially lifted the 300-year ban of the Jieba.
The Jieba is the ancient ceremony of the nine marks, which are burned
onto the head with sticks of incense. The ban was partially lifted only
for those who were mentally and physically prepared to participate in
the tradition.

Two modern bathrooms were recently added to the temple for use by
monks and tourists. The new bathrooms reportedly cost three million yuan.[19]

Southern Temple

A number of traditions make reference to a Southern Shaolin Temple located in Fujian province.[20]
Associated with stories of the supposed burning of Shaolin by the Qing
and with the Five Elders tales, this temple, sometimes known by the name
Changlin, is often claimed to have been either the target of Qing
troops or a place of refuge for monks displaced by attacks on the Henan
Shaolin monastery. Besides the debate over the historicity of the
Qing-era destruction, it’s currently unknown whether there was a true
Southern Temple, with several locations in Fujian given as the location
for the monastery. Fujian does have a historic monastery called
Changlin, and a monastery referred to as a “Shaolin cloister” has
existed in Fujian’s Fuqing county since the Song era, but whether these
have an actual connection to the Henan monastery or a martial tradition
is still unknown.[21] The Southern Temple has been a popular subject of martial arts fiction, first appearing in the 1893 novel Shengchao Ding Sheng Wannian Qing, where it is attacked by the Qianlong Emperor with the help of the White Eyebrow Daoist.[22]

Patron saint

1517 stele dedicated to Narayana’s defeat of the Red Turban rebels. Guanyin (his original form) can be seen in the clouds above his head.

In his book The Shaolin Monastery (2008), Tel Aviv University Prof. Meir Shahar notes the Bodhisattva Vajrapani is the patron saint
of the Shaolin Monastery. A short story appearing in Zhang Zhuo’s
(660-741) Tang anthology shows how the deity had been venerated in the
Monastery from at least the eighth century. It is an anecdotal story of
how the Shaolin monk Sengchou (480-560) gained supernatural strength and
fighting ability by praying to Vajrapani and being force-fed raw meat.[23] Shaolin abbot Zuduan (祖端禪師) (1115–1167) erected a stele in his honor during the Song Dynasty.[24] It reads:

According to the scripture [Lotus Sutra], this deity (Narayana) is a manifestation of Avalokitesvara (Guanyin).[25][26]
If a person who compassionately nourishes all living beings employs
this [deity’s] charm, it will increase his body’s strength (zengzhang shen li). It fulfills all vows, being most efficacious. … Therefore those who study Narayana’s hand-symbolism (mudra), those who seek his spell (mantra), and those who search for his image are numerous. Thus we have erected this stele to spread this transmission.[27]
— Stele re-erected (chong shang) by Shaolin’s abbot Zuduan

Shaolin believes Vajrapani to be an emanation of the Bodhisattva
Guanyin, rather than a stand-alone deity. The Chinese scholar A’De noted
this was because the Lotus Sutra says Guanyin takes on the visage of whatever being that would best help pervade the dharma. The exact Lotus Sutra passage reads: “To those who can be conveyed to deliverance by the body of the spirit who grasps the vajra (Vajrapani) he preaches Dharma by displaying the body of the spirit who grasps the vajra.”[28]

He was historically worshiped as the progenitor of their famous staff
method by the monks themselves. A stele erected by Shaolin abbot Wenzai
in 1517 shows the deity’s vajra-club had by then been changed to a Chinese staff,[29] which originally “served as the emblem of the monk”.[30] Vajrapani’s Yaksha-like Narayana form was eventually equated with one of the four staff-wielding “Kimnara Kings” from the Lotus Sutra in 1575. His name was thus changed from Narayana to “Kimnara King”.[31] One of the many versions of a certain tale regarding his creation of the staff method takes place during the Yuan Dynasty’s Red Turban Rebellion. Bandits lay siege to the monastery, but it is saved by a lowly kitchen worker wielding a long fire poker as a makeshift staff. He leaps into the oven and emerges as a monstrous giant big enough to stand astride both Mount Song
and the imperial fort atop Mount Shaoshi (which are five miles apart).
The bandits flee when they behold this staff-wielding titan. The Shaolin
monks later realize that the kitchen worker was none other than the
Kimnara King in disguise.[32] Shahar notes the part of the kitchen worker might have been based on the actual life of the monk Huineng (638-713).[33] In addition, he suggests the mythical elements of the tale were based on the fictional adventures of Sun Wukong from the Chinese epic Journey to the West. He compares the worker’s transformation in the stove with Sun’s time in Laozi’s crucible, their use of the staff, and the fact that Sun and his weapon can both grow to gigantic proportions.[34]

Statues and paintings of Kimnara were commissioned in various halls
throughout Shaolin in honor of his defeat of the Red Turban army. A
wicker statue woven by the monks and featured in the center of the
“Kimnara Hall” was mentioned in Cheng Zongyou’s seventeenth century
training manual Shaolin Staff Method. However, a century later,
it was claimed that Kimnara had himself woven the statue. It was
destroyed when the monastery was set aflame by the KMT
General Shi Yousan in 1928. A “rejuvenated religious cult” arose around
Kimnara in the late twentieth century. Shaolin re-erected the shrine to
him in 1984 and improved it in 2004.[35]

The Buddhist monk Bodhidharma is often popularly considered to be the creator of the monastery’s arts. An example is provided by Wong Kiew Kit,
who writes: “It was during this time that the Venerable Bodhidharma
came from India to China to spread Buddhism. In 527 CE he settled down
in the Shaolin monastery in Henan province, and inspired the development
of Shaolin Kung Fu. This marked a watershed in the history of Kung Fu,
because it led to a change of course, as Kung Fu became
institutionalized. Before this, martial arts were known only in general
sense.”[36] Wong cites the “Sinew Metamorphosis” as being a qigong style that the Buddhist saint taught to the monks to strengthen their bodies.[37]
All of these claims, however, are generally not supported by martial
arts historians because the idea of Bodhidharma influencing Shaolin
boxing is based on a forged qigong manual written during the 17th
century. This is when a Taoist with the pen name “Purple Coagulation Man of the Way” wrote the Sinews Changing Classic
in 1624, but claimed to have discovered it. The first of two prefaces
of the manual traces this qigong style’s succession from Bodhidharma to
the Chinese general Li Jing via “a chain of Buddhist saints and martial heroes.”[38]
The work itself is full of anachronistic mistakes and even includes a
popular character from Chinese fiction, the “Bushy Bearded Hero” (虬髯客),
as a lineage master.[39] Literati
as far back as the Qing Dynasty have taken note of these mistakes. The
scholar Ling Tinkang (1757–1809) described the author as an ‘ignorant
village master’.”[40]

Bodhidharma is traditionally said by Buddhists to have meditated at the temple and the important early Ch’an practitioner Shenhui
locates it as the site at which Bodhidharma’s disciple Hui-ke cut his
own arm off to obtain the ineffable dharma. The collection of works
attributed to Bodhidharma is called “The Six Gates of Shaoshi
Collection” (少室六門集 Shǎoshì liùmén jí) [Taisho Tripitaka Vol. 48, No.
2009[41]]
and consists of the six treatises or discourses of relatively brief but
different lengths traditionally said to be authored by Bodhidharma.
Each work is considered a gateway to the Buddha Dharma, making the “Six
Gates” of the title. Shaoshi, the peak where Shaolin Temple is located
on Mt. Sung (嵩山 Sunshan), means “little hall” and thus the name of the
peak becomes a play on words for the six gates or doors by which the
reader may enter the little hall on Mt. Sung and find enlightenment. The
actual authorship by Bodhidharma is disputed, but the Third Gate titled
“Two Kinds of Entrances” (二種入) is considered by one of its translators,
Red Pine (Bill Porter), to be the one most likely actually from Bodhidharma[42].
That work is also found in the Buddhist Canon as a separate treatise
with the longer title of “Great Master Bodhidharma’s Outline For
Discerning the Mahayana and Entering the Way By Four Practices and
Contemplation” (菩提達磨大師略辨大乘入道四行觀)[Xuzangjing Vol. X63, No. 1217[43]].

    •    Songyue Pagoda

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Songyue_Pagoda

Jump to: navigation, search

A circular-based stone-constructed Buddhist pagoda built in 523 AD
during the Southern and Northern Dynasties period. It is the oldest
existent stone Chinese pagoda, although wooden Chinese pagodas that
existed beforehand have since been worn down and destroyed.

The Songyue Pagoda (Chinese: 嵩岳寺塔 sōng-yuè sì-tǎ), constructed in 523 AD, is located at the Songyue Monastery on Mount Song, in Henan province, China.[1] Built during the Northern Wei Dynasty, this pagoda is one of the few intact sixth-century pagodas in China and is also the earliest known Chinese brick pagoda.[1] Most structures from that period were made of wood and have not survived.[2][3]

The spread of Buddhism dramatically influenced Chinese architecture.
By the sixth century, Buddhism had spread with tremendous momentum
throughout China: Chinese culture was adjusting and adapting its
traditions to include Buddhism worship.[2] The Chinese transformed the rounded earthen mound of the South Asian stupa into the towering pagoda to house the sacred buried relics of Buddha at its core.[2][3][4]

The pagoda has had a changing shape over time from its Indian
Buddhist origins to its form in China. The unique many-sided shape of
the Songyue Pagoda suggests that it represents an early attempt to merge
the Chinese architecture of straight edges with the circular style of
Buddhism from the Indian subcontinent. The perimeter of the pagoda decreases as it rises, as this is seen in Indian and Central Asian Buddhist cave temple pillars and the later round pagodas in China.[2]

Contents

    •    White Horse Temple

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Horse_Temple

Do not confuse this pagoda with the White Horse Pagoda, Dunhuang.

White Horse Temple
白马寺全景.jpg
White Horse Temple
Information
Denomination Chan Buddhism or Zen Buddhism
Founded 68 AD
Address Luoyang, Henan, China
Country China

Dharma Wheel.svg Portal:Buddhism

White Horse Temple (simplified Chinese: 白马寺; traditional Chinese: 白馬寺; pinyin: Báimǎ Sì, Wade-Giles: Paima szu) is, according to tradition, the first Buddhist temple in China, established in 68 AD under the patronage of Emperor Ming in the Eastern Han capital Luoyang.[1][2][3]

The site is located just outside the walls of the ancient Eastern Han
capital, some 12–13 kilometres (7.5–8.1 mi) east of Luoyang in Henan Province. It is located approximately 40 minutes by bus No. 56 from the Luoyang train station.[4]
The temple, although small in size in comparison to many other temples
in China, is considered by most believers as “the cradle of Chinese
Buddhism”.[5] The geographical landmarks to the south of the temple are Manghan mountain and Lucoche River.[6]

The main temple buildings, a large complex, were reconstructed during the Ming (1368 to 1644) and Qing (1644 to 1912) dynasties.[7] They were refurbished in 1950s, and again in March 1973 after the Cultural Revolution.
It has numerous halls divided by several courtyards and manicured
gardens, covering an area extending to about 13 hectares (32 acres). The
display plaques in Chinese and English give ample descriptions of the Buddhist deities installed in various halls. Significant statues include Śākyamuni Buddha, Maitreya-the laughing Buddha, the Jade Buddha, and figures of saints such as Guru Avalokiteśvara, Amitābha and arhats.
Stone statues of the two white horses, which brought the Indian monks
to China, and of two mythical lions are seen at the entrance.[1][2][3]
Under international funding, the temple has undergone many changes,
both structurally and internally. The most recent cooperative project,
with India, was completed in 2008 when the Sanchi Stupa and the Sarnath Buddha statue were erected.

Contents

Etymology

Though destroyed several times in history, the present Qiyun Pagoda was built in 1175[8]

On arrival of the two monks from the land of the Yuezhi (who controlled northern Afghanistan
and parts of north-western India at this period), they were housed in
the temple. This temple was called the “Pi-ma-sai” meaning White Horse
Temple” where ‘pi’ means “white”, ‘ma’ means “horse” and ’sai’ or ’ssi’
is “temple”. ‘Ssi’ in Chinese also means residence of “Buddhist priests“.[9][10]

Notably, the emperor ordered the suffix 寺 (pinyin si)
to be used in the temple’s name, as a display of respect. Previously,
this character had been used to denote the ministries of the government.
In later periods, all temples, even mosques,
came to use this character in their name and it was dropped from the
names of government ministries. As a result, the temple’s name is
sometimes translated as White Horse Ministry, a translation true to the time. However, White Horse Temple is the correct, literal reading.

However, this may be a “folk etymology
as there were other early temples in different centres with the same
name. The monk Zhidun (or Chih Tun) (314–366), who was a famous
propagator of Buddhism in the southern capital is recorded as having
discussions with Fenghui at the Baima si (Pai ma) monastery in Jiankang
(Chienk’ang) (previously Jianye), the capital of the Eastern Jin (317-420).[11] There was also a Baima si at Xiangyang where Daoan and his disciples stayed c. 365.[12]
To further complicate the search for the origin of the name, it should
be remembered that there were peoples known as the ‘White Horse Qiang’
and ‘Di’ who lived in the ‘White Horse Valley’ on the upper reaches of
the Min Xiang (river), which flows south from the Min Shan
(mountains) near the town of Zhangla [Chang-la]: 32.50° N, 103.40° E.,
and that there are still people calling themselves the ‘White Horse Di’
living there.[13]
It is possible, but unprovable, that the name Baima derived from some
of these peoples, who may have been influenced by Buddhism at an early
period, rather than from literal white horse(s) carrying scriptures. It
does seem strange that there should have been other early monasteries
with the same name, if the legend of the origin of the White Horse
Temple in Luoyang was really true.

Background, legends and importance

Left: White Horse in an enclosure at the
entrance to the White Horse Temple. Right: Horse that brought saints and
scriptures to the location at the entrance

Here are several forms of the legends relating to the foundation and naming of the temple:

Following Emperor Ming’s dream vision about a Buddha who established Buddhism in India, two of Ming’s emissaries departed to search for Buddhist scriptures. They encountered two Indian Buddhist monks in Afghanistan,
and persuaded them to join them and return to China, bringing their
book of Buddhist scriptures, relics and statues of Buddha with them on
two white horses. Pleased with their arrival in China, the king built a
temple in their honour and named it the White Horse Temple or Baima Temple,
as an appreciation of the two white horses that had carried the two
monks. The monks resided at the new temple and here they translated the
Buddhist scriptures into the Chinese language. The Buddhist religion prospered from here and with the arrival of Bodhidarma, another monk from India in the 5th century, Chinese Buddhism evolved, spreading to other countries.

At the invitation of the Chinese Emperor Ming Di, two Indian monks
namely, Matanga and Gobharana, translated the Buddhist classics at the
Baimai Temple at Luo Yang, which was then the nation’s capital. They
translated many scriptures, the notable of these was the Sutra of Forty-two Chapters
(四十二章經), which was translated by Matanga. This was the first Buddhist
sutra in Chinese language and has the pride of place in the history of
Chinese Buddhism. Gobharana translated the ‘Dasa Bhumi’ or the ‘Ten
stages of Perfection’, apart from five others.[9][14] The temple then increased in importance as Buddhism grew within China, and spread to Korea, Japan and Vietnam. The introduction of Buddhism in China was also a significant influence on Chinese morals, thought and ethics.[5]

The temple’s story begins with the dream of Emperor Mingdi and his
establishing the temple in 68 AD honouring the two Indian monks and the
white horses that brought them to China with Buddhist scriptures. The
two monks translated many scriptures while living in the temple, which
was named as White Horse Temple. They also died in the temple precincts
and are buried in the first courtyard of the temple. Following the
establishment of the temple, 1000 monks lived here practicing Buddhism.[5]

According to ‘The Chapter on the Western Regions’ of the Hou Hanshu (Book of Later Han), which was based on a report to the Emperor c. 125, but was not compiled until the 5th century:

“There is a current tradition that Emperor Ming dreamt that he saw a
tall golden man the top of whose head was glowing. He questioned his
group of advisers and one of them said: “In the West there is a god
called Buddha. His body is sixteen chi tall [3.7 metres (12 ft)],
and is the colour of gold.” That is why the Emperor sent envoys to
Tianzhu [Northwest India] to inquire about the Buddha’s doctrine, after
which paintings and statues [of the Buddha] appeared in the Middle Kingdom.”[15]

There are numerous differing accounts explaining how the temple was
established. Yang Hsüan-chih says in the preface to his book, A Record of the Buddhist Monasteries of Lo-yang (completed c.
547 CE), that, after his dream, Emperor Ming ordered that statues of
the Buddha be erected at the [K’ai-]yang Gate (Opening to the Morning
Sun Gate) of the Southern Palace and on near the [Ch’ang]yeh Terrace
(The Eternal Night Terrace).[16] He, however, makes no mention of the temple.

The Emperor is said to have sent a monk or monks to India or Scythia who returned carrying the Sutra of Forty-two Chapters
on a white horse. The Sutra was received by the Emperor and housed in a
temple built outside the walls of Luo Yang. It was China’s first
Buddhist temple.

Other versions mentioned in the book Indian Pandits in the Land of Snow by Sri Sarat Chandra give the following legendary versions:[9]

The legends related to this temple have direct link to the emergence
and spread of Buddhism in China. Two visions are stated in this context.
The first vision was witnessed by Chow Wang, the fifth ruler of the Tang dynasty. The Emperor saw, in the southwestern region of China, a very bright light in the sky, like a halo or aureola
from the west which lit the whole space. The astrologers of his court
predicted that a saint was born in that quarter of the world where he
saw the bright halo light. It was also prophesied that the religion
practised by the saintly person, would spread to China. This was
recorded by the King in his royal register. This year happened to be the
year when Gautam Buddha was born in India.[9]

Left: Maitreya statue in the front hall. Right: Sakhyamuni Buddha statue in the main hall

The second vision happened at Luo Yang during the reign of Mingdi, the second Emperor of the Han Dynasty. In 60 CE, on an auspicious day, the Emperor had a vision (dream) of a saintly person of golden complexion with the Sun and the Moon
shining behind his back came near his throne from the heavens and then
circled his palace. This incident was correlated with the ancient
recorded version and the events were interpreted to mean that the period
prophesied in the past, of Buddhism coming to China, was now. History
chronicler Fu Hi interpreted this vision as that of the divine person
known as Buddha who was born in a place to the west of China in India.
Emperor Mingdi forthwith selected emissaries named Taai Yin, Tain King,
Wangtrun and others, in all totaling 18 people, to go towards the west
to India in search of the religion practiced by Buddha. After travelling
through several countries bordering India such as Getse and Yuchi (the Saka Tartars), and the Bactrian Greece they reached Afghanistan (Gandhara country) where they met two Buddhist monks (Arhats) named Kasyapa Pandita (a Brahmin from Central India)
and Bharana Pandita. They accepted the invitation of the emissaries to
go to China. They then proceeded to China on two white horses
accompanied by the emissaries. They carried with them a few sacred texts
of Sutras - the Sutra of Forty-two Chapters- statues of Buddha,
portraits and also sacred relics. They reached Lou Yang where they were
put up in a temple. The King met them in 67 CE, with due reverence and
was pleased with the presents the monks had brought for him. It was the
30th day in the 12th month of Chinese calendar.
The Emperor was particularly happy with the Buddha image which had
striking similarity to the one he had seen in his dream vision. At this
time, the monks also performed some miracles, which further strengthened
the belief of the Emperor in Buddhism.[9]

Left: A pillar over a turtle dragon with a message near entrance to temple. Right: Gateway entry into the temple

However, some Taoist
priests protested and wanted the Emperor to test the merits of both
parties. The Emperor agreed to test the merits of both parties and
convened a meeting at the southern gate of the White Horse Temple. He
ordered that the sacred texts and religious paraphernalia of the Taoist
be placed on the eastern gate and the sacred texts, relics and Buddha
image of the westerners in the hall of seven gems on the west. He then
ordered that the objects be thrown into the fire, and whichever
documents survived the fire then that religion would receive his
patronage. The Taoists expected that their texts would survive the fire
test. This did not happen as all the texts of Taoists were burnt and
that of the Buddhists from the west survived. With this test, the
Emperor was convinced of the Buddhist religion and he with all his
entourage of Ministers and kinsmen embraced Buddhism. He built several
temples, which included ‘Pai-masai’, the White Horse Temple and three
convents for nuns. The two Taoist priests who had challenged Buddhism
were put to death by fire.[9]

Now that there are many contradictory versions of this story that
most modern scholars accept it only as a Buddhist fable, and not a valid
historical event.[17][18][19][20] The White Horse Temple is, in fact, not recorded in contemporary sources before 289.[21] However, there is a Poma si mentioned in Chang’an in 266, and another of the same name at Jingcheng in central Hubei at about the same date.[22]

It is said that the next year, the Emperor ordered the construction
of the White Horse Temple on the south side of the Imperial Drive three li outside the Hsi-yang Gate of the capital Luoyang,
to remember the horse that carried back the sutras. After the death of
the Emperor a meditation hall was built on his tomb. In front of the
stupa luxuriant pomegranate and grape vines were grown which were said
to be larger than those grown elsewhere.[23]

Buddhism evolved in China after arriving from India, as a blend of
Chinese beliefs and needs, particularly in respect of its folk heritage.
It is Mahayana Buddhism practice, which is widely followed even though the Theravada or Hinayana came to China first.[24]

History

Early history

In 258 a royal Kuchean monk, Po-Yen, translated six Buddhist texts in to Chinese at the temple, including the important Infinite Life Sutra.

Left: A receptacle to burn incense in front of the main temple. Right: An incense burner right after the entrance

The famous Indo-Scythian Buddhist translator, Dharmarakṣa
(Ch: 竺法護, Zhú Fǎhù), active ca. 266–308 AD, came to Luoyang in 266, and
resided at the White Horse Temple from at least the spring of 289 to
290 AD.[25]

The renowned monk Xuanzang (Hsüan-tsang) of the Tang Dynasty
spent 16 years on a long pilgrimage to India (630–635 AD) to the land
of the Buddha, his cherished desire. He started on his pilgrimage from
this temple. On his return from India, Xuanzhang remained the abbot
of the White Horse Temple till his death. During his stay in the
temple, apart from his teaching assignments and other religious
activities of the temple, he translated many Buddhist scriptures in
Sanskrit that he had brought from India into the Chinese language.[5]

In 1175, an inscription on a stone tablet next to Qilun Pagoda—a 35
metres (115 ft) tall, multi-eaved square-based tower located to the
southeast of the White Horse Temple—stated that a previous fire occurred
five decades previously and destroyed the temple and the Sakya
Tathagata sarira stupa, a predecessor to the pagoda. The same inscription of 1175 stated that a Jin Dynasty official had the stone Qilun Pagoda erected soon after. The pagoda is built with the design style imitating the square-based pagodas of the Tang Dynasty.[5]

Middle Ages

Between the 13th century and the 20th century, the temple has
undergone restoration/renovation under the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) and
the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911). Significant restoration took place in the
16th century and some buildings still date to this period, although some
have since been renovated.[26]

Modern history

Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia (centre) in China

Under the regime of the People’s Republic of China, the temple has seen many renovations in the period between 1952 and 1973.[6] In 1973, Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia visited the temple. Cambodia was a communist ally of China and Prince Sihanouk who was staying in a palatial residence in Beijing.
He was permitted to visit various parts of the country on a tour for
propaganda purposes, to show to the outside world that all was normal
within China.[27] As an ardent Buddhist, Sihanouk expressed a wish to Premier Zhou Enlai
to visit the White Horse Temple. This put the administration into a
frenzy, since many parts of the Temple had been damaged during the Cultural Revolution in China and items were missing.[27]
Post haste, 2900 artefacts, which were in other palaces and museums
within China, such as the Palace of Benevolent Tranquillity on the
western side of the Forbidden City and statues in the Arhat Hall (Luohan Tang) of the Temple of Azure Clouds (Biyun Si) in Beijing’s Fragrant Hills (Xiang Shan) were secretly shifted to the temple, and the White Horse Temple was fully restored.[27] The newly restored Temple impressed the Cambodians, who were oblivious to the past events that had gutted the temple.[27]
Interestingly, the shift of artefacts to this temple from other places
was decreed as permanent by Premier Zhou Enlai, and not a loan, when the
authorities of the palace and Azure temple wanted the artefacts to be
returned to them.[27]

In 1992, with the assistance of Thai and Chinese donors, the Hall of the Thai Buddha was constructed slightly west of the old temple.[28]

India-China cultural cooperation

The symbolic importance of the temple to the ancient cultural relations between China and India was demonstrated when the Prime Minister of India P.V. Narasimha Rao visited the temple in 1993. A decade later, in 2003, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee also visited the shrine.[29]

To enhance the Buddhist cultural links between India and China, a
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed on 11 April 2005 under
which it was agreed that India would build an Indian Style Buddhist
temple to the west side of the White Horse Temple in the International
Garden of the complex. Under this agreement, India was to provide the
architectural design, material for construction, the Buddha statue,
landscaping and technical advice of architects and experts during
construction. Chinese authorities were to allot land area of 2,666.67
square metres (28,703.8 sq ft) for building the temple.[30]

Following the MOU signed by India and China in 2005, a Buddhist shrine that is a close replica of Sanchi Stupa
has been completed in 2008 within the precincts of the White Horse
Temple, the first Buddhist temple in China that was also inspired by
Buddhist saints from India in the 1st century AD. The architectural
features of the new temple have closely recreated the Sanchi Stupa,
including the east gate at Sanchi. An image of Buddha has also been
transported from India and deified in the new temple, which conforms to
the Indian Buddhist tradition. The temple has been built over a land
area donated by the Chinese Government. The shrine is a two-storied
structure with circular walls on both floors. The circular walls inside
the temple have been embellished with murals of scenes from the Jataka tales
and the life of Buddha. The Buddha statue made in the pattern of the
5th century image of Buddha at Sarnath has been deified in the central
congressional hall of the temple. The President of India, Pratibha Patil, inaugurated this temple on 27 May 2010.[31] The new temple incorporates features from the most revered Indian Buddhist shrines of Sanchi and Saranath.[31]

Architecture

Left: Entrance arch with mythical lions. A
small tower in front of the main temple to light incense. Right: The
main temple roof line

The temple faces south and is aligned along a central axis starting
from the entrance gate followed by several halls and courtyards in
succession.[6] The temple compound covers an area of 200 mu (13 hectares (32 acres)), and faces south. A stone paifang
(archway), a three door covered archway, has been recently built, 150
metres (490 ft) in front of the original gate. The stone horses at the
front of the temple are in the Ming architectural style, representing
the white horses which carried the scriptures and the Indian monks to
China. Between the archway and gate lies a pool with fountains, crossed
by three stone bridges.[6][28] The two horses at the entrance gate facing each other are made of green stone dated to the Song Dynasty (960–1279).[6]

Entering the temple today, a number of plaques (both in English and Chinese)
and signposts are seen, which guide the visitors and pilgrims through
the various halls of the temple. The plaques briefly explain the various
statues installed in each hall. The halls are discerned in the
inscriptions on the plaques, include the ‘Hall of Greetings’, ‘Hall of
Six Founders’, ‘Hall of jade Buddha’, the ‘Hall of Heavenly Kings’, Hall
of Mahavira and Hall of Changing Ge (repository of ancient scriptures).

In addition, the ‘Cool and Clear Terrace’ known as the ‘Qingliang
Terrace’ is located behind the main hall, the place where the original
sutras were translated.[1][6]
This terrace is amidst bamboo forest of old pine trees and has halls
which are interconnected. Four sides of the terrace are piled with green
bricks. The terrace also has the Kunlu Pavilion with halls on its east
and west that house the statues of the two eminent monks, She Moteng and
Zhu Falan. These two monks were buried inside the temple gate after
they died here; the Bell Tower and the Drum Tower, in front of their
tombs, were once prominent sights of the Luo Yang City.[6]

The Pilu Library

The Hall of Heavenly Kings

In the courtyard, large incense burners are kept for worshippers to
light incense sticks, creating a pungent odour. In the Main hall and
other halls where various images are worshipped, the altars are filled
with fruit and other offerings made by the devotees. Multicoloured
tapestry hang from the ceilings of the halls and lighted candles float
in the basins, presenting a divine spiritual setting.[1]

The smallest hall in the temple is known as the “Hall of greetings”.
It is a relatively new building that was built during the 9th year of
Guangho period as replacement to the original hall which was burned down
at the beginning of the Tonghzi period. This small hall has deified
statues of three western paradise (Indian) saints. Amitabha,
the founder, is at the centre and is flanked by Guru Avalokiteswara,
the God of Mercy on the left and Mahashataprapta on the right.[32]

The six founders of the temple whose statues are worshipped in the ‘Hall of Six Founders’ belonged to the sect of Chan.
The names of the founders as displayed, in the order of their
succession: Bodidharma, the first founder of the temple who hailed from
ancient India where he was the 28th generation patriarch preaching the
Buddhist philosophy, the second founder was Huike, the third founder was
Sengcan, the fourth founder was Daoxn, the fifth founder was Hongren
and the sixth founder was Huineng. Subsequent to Huineng, five schools
of Buddhism and Seven Orders were established.[33]

In the ‘Hall of the Jade Buddha’, an image of the Sakyamuni Buddha has been deified. The 1.6 metres (5.2 ft) tall image made in jade was donated in 1988 by a Chinese man settled in Burma.
This elegantly sculpted and cherished statue has a precious stone
embedded in its forehead. Before it was shifted to this temple in 1992,
it had been stored in the Pilu pavilion.[34]

The first large hall in the temple complex is known as ‘The Hall of
Heavenly Kings’ where statue of Maitreya, known as the laughing Buddha,
is the main deity deified right at the forefront of the hall. This
statue is flanked on the eastern and western sides by four heavenly
kings, each representing one fourth of the universe. The eastern side is
ruled by Chigua (guardian of the State) carrying a Pipa, the western
side is controlled by Guangmu (Sharp-seer) with a dragon in his hand,
the southern direction is represented by Zengzhang (Growth Protector),
carrying an umbrella and the northern direction is represented by Duowen
(Knowledge Preserver), carrying a Pagoda.
In addition, there is also a statue of Skanda (a high ranking heavenly
general and defender of Buddhist law) with back to the Maitreya statue.[35]

Hall of Changing Ge, built in 1995, is a repository of ancient
scriptures and has more than ten types of Buddhist texts, including the Longzang Jing Dazong Jing, Dazeng Zong Jing, Tibet Jing
and so forth. An ancient Buddha statue of China is installed at the
centre of the repository. The making of this Buddha statue is traced to
the Eastern Han Dynasty. The statue was misplaced at the early 20th century. However, it was later found in Thailand
and was replicated in bronze into two 97 centimetres (38 in)) tall
statues and then gilded. One of these is deified in the library and the
other was sent to Thailand.[36]

A tower in front of the main temple to light incense

In the ‘Hall of Mahavira”, there are statues of three principal
Buddhas. The central image is of the Sakyamuni Buddha. This statue is
flanked on the left by the Bhavisyajya guru and on the right by
Amitabha; both these in turn are flanked by two heavenly generals named
Weituo and Weili. Statues of 18 arhats adorn the side of the hall. All the statues were made in ramie-cloth during the Yuan Dynasty.
The walls on both sides are adorned with carvings of ten thousand
Buddhists. A statue of Jialan is installed facing north of the backdoor.[24][36]

In the Main Hall, at the altar, there are three statues, the central statue is that of Sakhyamuni Buddha flanked by statue of Manjushri and Samantabhadra.
There is a very large bell weighing more than 1 tonne (a figure of 2.5
tonnes is also mentioned), installed during the reign of Emperor Jiajing
of the Ming Dynasty, near the altar, which is still struck in time
during the chanting of prayers by the monks. A community of ten thousand
monks resided here during the Tang Dynasty.[1][37]
The inscription on the bell reads: “The sound of the Bell resounds in
Buddha’s temple causing the ghosts in Hell to tremble with fear.”[38]

The living quarters of the monks are situated in an exclusive pagoda,
with restricted entry, called the ‘Qiyun Ta’, or Qiyun Pagoda. It is
approachable after crossing the manicured garden and a bridge to the
left of the main temple. This pagoda was built in the 12th century in
the fifteenth year of the Dading reign of the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234). It is a 13 tiered, 25 metres (82 ft)), high cubic shaped brick tower. It has been renovated in subsequent periods.[1][3][6][28]

Although the temple is open to the public, inquisitive visitors are
under close scrutiny for security purposes. The Chief Abbot of the
temple keeps in touch with the political situation in the country
through a TV installed in his room. The monks are required to carry
identity cards issued to each monks.[1]


    •    Youguo Temple

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Youguo_Temple

o: navigation, search

The glazed-brick Iron Pagoda, built in 1049, and the temple grounds

Youguo Temple (Chinese: 佑國寺) is a Buddhist monastery complex located northeast of Kaifeng, in Henan province, China. It was built during the Song Dynasty (960–1279 CE). The design features the Iron Pagoda towering in the center of the complex, in a style that flourished in Chinese Buddhist temple architecture through the 11th century.[1]

Contents

THE ELEPHANT AND THE DOG

[90]

O

NCE upon a time a Dog used to go into the stable
where the king’s Elephant lived. At first the Dog went there
to get the food that was left after the Elephant had finished eating.

[Illustration]

Day after day the Dog went to the stable, waiting around for bits to eat.
But by and by the Elephant and the Dog came to be great friends.
Then the Elephant began to share his food with the Dog,
and they ate together. When the Elephant slept,
his friend the Dog slept beside him.
When the Elephant felt like playing,
he would catch the Dog in his trunk and swing him to and fro.
Neither the Dog nor the Elephant was quite happy unless the other was near-by.

One day a farmer saw the Dog and said to the Elephant-keeper:
“I will buy that Dog. He looks good-tempered,
and I see that he is smart. How much do you want for the Dog?”

[91] The Elephant-keeper did not care for the Dog,
and he did want some money just then. So he asked a fair price, and
the farmer paid it and took the Dog away to the country.

The king’s Elephant missed the Dog
and did not care to eat when his friend was not there to share the food.
When the time came for the Elephant to bathe,
he would not bathe. The next day again the Elephant would not eat,
and he
[92] would not bathe. The third day,
when the Elephant would neither eat nor bathe, the king was told about it.

[Illustration]

The king sent for his chief servant, saying,
“Go to the stable and find out why the Elephant is acting in this way.”

The chief servant went to the stable and looked
the Elephant all over. Then he said to the Elephant-keeper:
“There seems to be nothing the matter with this Elephant’s body,
but why does he look so sad? Has he lost a play-mate?”

“Yes,” said the keeper, “there was a Dog who ate
and
[93] slept and played with the Elephant. The Dog went away three days ago.”

“Do you know where the Dog is now?” asked the chief servant.

“No, I do not,” said the keeper.

Then the chief servant went back to the king and said.
[94] “The Elephant is not sick, but he is lonely without his friend, the Dog.”

“Where is the Dog?” asked the king.

“A farmer took him away, so the Elephant-keeper says,”
said the chief servant. “No one knows where the farmer lives.”

“Very well,” said the king. “I will send word all over the country,
asking the man who bought this Dog to turn him loose.
I will give him back as much as he paid for the Dog.”

[Illustration]

When the farmer who had bought the Dog heard this,
he turned him loose. The Dog ran back as fast as ever
he could go to the Elephant’s stable.
The Elephant was so glad to see the Dog
that he picked him up with his trunk and put him on his head.
Then he put him down again.

When the Elephant-keeper brought food,
the Elephant watched the Dog as he ate, and then took his own food.

All the rest of their lives the Elephant and the Dog lived together.


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