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LESSON 3991 5 Sat Jun 2021 DO GOOD PURIFY MIND MINDFULLY SWIM PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT ANN COTTON BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD KUSINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA WHITE HOME 668. 5A Main Road, 8th Cross, HAL 3rd Cross PUNIYA BHUMI Bengaluru, MAGADHI Karnataka PRABUDDHA UNIVERSE http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org Buddhasaid2us@gmail.com jcs4ever@outlook.com Jchandrasekharan@yahoo.com
Filed under: General
Posted by: site admin @ 3:30 pm

LESSON 3991 5 Sat Jun 2021

DO GOOD PURIFY MIND
MINDFULLY SWIM
PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT ANN COTTON BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD

KUSINARA NIBBANA BHUMI PAGODA

WHITE HOME

668. 5A Main Road,
8th Cross,
HAL 3rd Cross
PUNIYA BHUMI Bengaluru,
MAGADHI Karnataka
PRABUDDHA UNIVERSE

http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Buddhasaid2us@gmail.com

jcs4ever@outlook.com

Jchandrasekharan@yahoo.com

https://balconygardenweb.com/how-to-grow-buddhas-hand-growing-buddhas-hand-citron/

How to Grow Buddha’s Hand | Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron
Growing Buddha’s hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

Citrons (whose variety is Hand of Buddha) are large and true citruses, which produces less acidic fruit covered in thick peels and fragrant flowers that are appreciated by perfumers.

Propagation Method: Seeds, cuttings

Height: 3-5 m

Exposure: Full to partial sun

Soil pH: Slightly acidic (pH level around 5.5 to 6)

Soil Type: Well-drained, loamy

Other Names: Citrus medica, bushukan, fingered citron, fragrant citron, five finger mandarin, goblin fingers

Growing Habit

Buddha’s hand citron is an evergreen, large thorny shrub or small tree that grows up to 3 to 5 meters tall. Native to North East India and China, Buddha’s Hand is a member of the citrus family and also called as Buddha’s Finger because of its unusual and fragmented finger like fruits. These fingers form a cluster like a hand and can be between 5 to 20 in numbers.

Growing Buddha’s Hand

Buddha’s hand plant can be grown from cuttings and seeds. But it’s best to find a plant from the nursery.

Note: Lot of misinformation on the web that Buddha’s hand cannot be grown from seed, but it is false. You can grow Buddha’s hand from fresh seeds. However, it is true that its seeds are rare.

Planting

Planting Buddha’s hand properly is an initial but most important step because it determines the proper growth of the tree, flowering and the production of citrons.

If you’re about to grow it in a cold climate, planting should be done in spring to early summer when the temperature starts to warm up in containers.

In tropical climates planting can be done in any season except summer, right after the end of summer is best planting time.

Requirements for Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron

Buddha’s hand citron needs a well-drained, rich acidic soil to grow well.
If you’re about to grow Buddha’s Hand in a colder zone below 10, remember it is not resistant to frost and begin to suffer when the temperature falls down below 5 °C.
Choose a sunny and sheltered position from the wind to grow it. Water citron tree regularly for the first 2 years after planting.
Citron Care

Buddha’s Hand citron is quite easy to maintain. If the plantation is done well and plant assimilates the climate, it’s a tree that brings great satisfaction with its heavenly scented flowers and prolific fruits.

It does not require special watering, except in warm climates and those suffering from severe droughts in summer. It grows best when watered only at the time when the top surface of soil begins to dry.

https://youtu.be/zR_Z3UjTAlo growing Buddha’s hand fruit trees

Never do excess watering because it doesn’t like wet feet.
Fertilize it with citrus fertilizer according to the product’s instruction.
Buddha’s hand is not a houseplant, and you can’t grow it indoors, although growing this in a container is possible. If you want a citrus tree that can be grown indoors, grow lemon or calamondin.
Pests and Diseases

Buddha’s Hand has similar pests and diseases problems you see in other citrus varieties. Fruit rot, Brown rot, leaf miner, spider mites, cochineal, aphids, and scales can attack the plant.

https://balconygardenweb.com/how-to-grow-buddhas-hand-growing-buddhas-hand-citron/

How to Grow Buddha’s Hand | Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron
Growing Buddha’s hand citron is not very difficult. It rewards you with large citrus fruits that look very unusual and finger-like.

Citrons (whose variety is Hand of Buddha) are large and true citruses, which produces less acidic fruit covered in thick peels and fragrant flowers that are appreciated by perfumers.

Propagation Method: Seeds, cuttings

Height: 3-5 m

Exposure: Full to partial sun

Soil pH: Slightly acidic (pH level around 5.5 to 6)

Soil Type: Well-drained, loamy

Other Names: Citrus medica, bushukan, fingered citron, fragrant citron, five finger mandarin, goblin fingers

Growing Habit

Buddha’s hand citron is an evergreen, large thorny shrub or small tree that grows up to 3 to 5 meters tall. Native to North East India and China, Buddha’s Hand is a member of the citrus family and also called as Buddha’s Finger because of its unusual and fragmented finger like fruits. These fingers form a cluster like a hand and can be between 5 to 20 in numbers.

Growing Buddha’s Hand

Buddha’s hand plant can be grown from cuttings and seeds. But it’s best to find a plant from the nursery.

Note: Lot of misinformation on the web that Buddha’s hand cannot be grown from seed, but it is false. You can grow Buddha’s hand from fresh seeds. However, it is true that its seeds are rare.

Planting

Planting Buddha’s hand properly is an initial but most important step because it determines the proper growth of the tree, flowering and the production of citrons.

If you’re about to grow it in a cold climate, planting should be done in spring to early summer when the temperature starts to warm up in containers.

In tropical climates planting can be done in any season except summer, right after the end of summer is best planting time.

Requirements for Growing Buddha’s Hand Citron

Buddha’s hand citron needs a well-drained, rich acidic soil to grow well.
If you’re about to grow Buddha’s Hand in a colder zone below 10, remember it is not resistant to frost and begin to suffer when the temperature falls down below 5 °C.
Choose a sunny and sheltered position from the wind to grow it. Water citron tree regularly for the first 2 years after planting.
Citron Care

Buddha’s Hand citron is quite easy to maintain. If the plantation is done well and plant assimilates the climate, it’s a tree that brings great satisfaction with its heavenly scented flowers and prolific fruits.

It does not require special watering, except in warm climates and those suffering from severe droughts in summer. It grows best when watered only at the time when the top surface of soil begins to dry.

Never do excess watering because it doesn’t like wet feet.
Fertilize it with citrus fertilizer according to the product’s instruction.
Buddha’s hand is not a houseplant, and you can’t grow it indoors, although growing this in a container is possible. If you want a citrus tree that can be grown indoors, grow lemon or calamondin.
Pests and Diseases

Buddha’s Hand has similar pests and diseases problems you see in other citrus varieties. Fruit rot, Brown rot, leaf miner, spider mites, cochineal, aphids, and scales can attack the plant.

https://youtu.be/J8L6ctj5v64 Kumkuma Keshri Tomato step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of Kumkuma Keshri Tomato

https://youtu.be/czKN1LZMzkY CLUSTER BEANS step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of CLUSTER BEANS

https://youtu.be/lKvmMetVki8 RADISH WHITE LONG step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of RADISH WHITE LONG

https://gardenerspath.com/plants/vegetables/grow-daikon/

HOW TO PLANT AND GROW DAIKON: ADD SOME ZING TO YOUR GARDEN
October 12, 2019 by Briana Yablonski
Raphanus sativus var. Longipinnatus

It has always seemed to me that daikon radish is one of the easiest fall crops to grow. Sometimes I’ve sown seeds and forgotten about them, only to return to large white roots.

Daikon radish, still in the soil, with leaf tops in soft focus. Green and white text to the middle and bottom of the frame.
We link to vendors to help you find relevant products. If you buy from one of our links, we may earn a commission.

These radishes require little upkeep and store well. During the dark of winter, I love munching on them to add some zing to an otherwise dreary day.

What You’ll Learn

What Is Daikon?
Cultivation and History
How to Sow
How to Grow
Growing Tips
Cultivars to Select
Managing Pests and Disease
Harvesting
Preserving
Recipes and Cooking ideas
Quick Reference Growing Guide
What Is Daikon?

Daikon is a specific type of radish characterized by its large root. It’s no surprise that its name comes from two Japanese words: dai, which means large, and kon, which means root.

Daikon radish lying on dry soil, with it’s leaf tops attached. In the background, more tubers poking out of the soil, ready for harvesting, in bright sunshine.

It also has a longer date to maturity than other types of radish, which makes sense for its larger size.

Like all radishes, it is a member of the Brassicaceae family. Daikon also goes by other names including white radish, Chinese radish, and Japanese radish.

Cultivation and History

Although daikon is widely grown and consumed throughout East Asia, it is thought to have originated in the Mediterranean. However, these radishes soon made their way to countries including China, Japan, and Korea sometime during the third or fourth century.

Vertical image of daikon radishes with their green tops leaning up against an orange plastic basket on soil.

Since then, they have been a mainstay in certain Asian cuisines, appearing in dishes including stews, stir fries, and ferments.

Daikon is a winter radish, meaning it grows best when it is allowed to mature in colder weather. Therefore, it is typically planted in mid-summer to early fall, depending on your growing zone.

These radishes are often used as cover crops to loosen soil and reduce erosion. This has given them the name tillage radishes.

How to Sow

As with other radishes, these are best grown via direct seeding. The date when you should plant seeds depends on your growing zone. Daikon radishes can be grown in USDA Hardiness Zones 2-11.

Close up of fingers placing daikon seeds into a shallow hollow in the soil.

Aim to sow seeds around two months before your predicted first frost date. This will ensure plants mature in time for harvest.

No matter where you are located, sow one seed every inch in rows 12-18 inches apart. Seeds should be planted at a depth of 1/4 to 1/2 inch.

How to Grow

As mentioned above, this crop is best grown via direct seeding. Before you plant the seeds, you want to make sure you prepare your soil.

Daikon radishes grow best in soil with a pH of 5.8-6.8. Although their roots can loosen compacted soil, they grow best where soil is already loose. If your soil is compacted, consider loosening it with a broadfork before planting.

Since you will be harvesting the roots, avoid applying excessive amounts of nitrogen to the soil. Too much nitrogen will grow large greens, but small roots.

Choose a full sun to partial shade location for best results.

Close up of two hands gently dividing seedlings in the soil.

Once you plant your seeds, make sure you keep the soil moist, and they will germinate within a few days. Within a week of germination, thin seedlings to 4-6 inches apart.

Plants will mature in 40-70 days, depending on the variety. Don’t fret if part of the root is visible above ground; this is normal.

Close up of daikon radishes, the tuber visible above the soil, and bright green tops in gentle sunshine.

Water should be provided every few days if rain doesn’t fall. You are aiming for moist, but not wet, soil.

Growing Tips

Avoid applying excessive nitrogen, to ensure development of roots.
Thin seedlings so roots have space to size up.
Loosen soil so roots can grow large.
Cultivars to Select

Daikon come in three main types: oblong, tapered, and round.

The difference between these types is in their root shape. Some are rounded with nearly the same circumference from top to root, some have more of a narrow and tapered shape similar to a carrot, and others are nearly spherical.

Cultivars also vary in root color, with most being some combination of white and light green.

Japanese Minowase

This heirloom variety produces oblong roots that can grow up to two feet in length. The roots are all white, and can be stored for multiple weeks after harvest.

Three ‘Japanese Minowase’ daikon tubers on a wooden surface with leaf tops attached.

‘Japanese Minowase’

Ready to eat in 45-60 days, the ‘Japanese Minowase’ cultivar is also known for being adaptable to sun or shade.

Find seeds at Eden Brothers.

Long

The ‘Long’ cultivar has white tapered roots with light green tops.

Close up of four ‘Long’ daikon tubers on a hessian sack on soil. In the background are two still waiting to be harvested.

‘Long’

This type can grow up to 14 inches in length. Expect about 60 days to maturity. It can be grown in the spring as well as in the fall.

Find seeds at Burpee.

Red

This variety has oblong roots that grow 5-8 inches long. The exterior of the roots is bright red while the interior ranges from white to pink.

Close up of ‘Red’ daikon tubers, with leaf tops trimmed, on a white background.

‘Red‘

‘Red’ is an heirloom cultivar that you can expect to be ready to harvest in as little as 30 days.

Find seeds at True Leaf Market.

Watermelon

An heirloom variety of daikon with a round bulb, this type is the star of the show when added to any salad or platter of crudités.

Close up of round ‘Watermelon’ daikon radish, harvested, with leaf tops trimmed.

‘Watermelon’

White or light green on the outside, slicing into these roots reveals bright pink flesh that is reminiscent of a watermelon.

These can be harvested when they reach golf ball size, or leave them in the ground longer for whopping grapefruit-sized roots. Expect 30-80 days to harvest.

Seeds are available from True Leaf Market.

White Icicle

Icicle radishes form white, narrow, tapered roots that reach about 5 inches in length at maturity. And this cultivar grows quickly – you can expect a harvest in just 27-35 days!

‘White Icicle’ daikon radishes harvested, with leaf tops attached, on a wooden surface.

‘White Icicle‘

With a mildly pungent flavor, Burpee rates this cultivar as “Best in Class.”

Get your seeds now, available from Burpee.

Managing Pests and Disease

Pests generally don’t bother these radishes too much, however, there are some that still pop up occasionally.

Insects

Different types of insects may go after the leaves as well as the roots. Luckily, they don’t usually cause too much damage.

Flea Beetle

Flea beetles are little bugs that go after the leaves of your plants. If you see small holes in your leaves, take a closer look. You will probably see the beetles themselves, only 1/16-1/4 inch in size.

Close up of two flea beetles on a leaf. The background is of the leaf in soft focus.

Read more about flea beetles and how to control them here.

Harlequin Bug

These bugs may look pretty, but they can really do some damage to your crops. They are orange and black with shield-shaped bodies, and they feed on leafy greens.

If you only see a few bugs on your plants, simply pick them off and place them in some soapy water.

Close up of a harlequin beetle on a branch, with soft focus vegetation in the background.

If these pests take over your crop and require more intense intervention, they can be treated with a spray of neem oil, pyrethin, or insecticidal soap.

Cabbage Maggot

If you pull up your daikon only to discover that they are ridden with tiny channels, the cabbage maggot is likely to blame. These pests are the juvenile form of small flies.

To prevent infestation by these insect pests, consider employing a cover cropping routine. Another method to keep pests at bay is by using floating row covers to exclude insects from your crops.

Read more about cabbage maggot control here.

Disease

All parts of the daikon plant are susceptible to disease, both above and belowground. Again, these issues won’t usually prove to be too much of a problem for your crop.

Septoria Leaf Spot

If you see yellow spots with gray centers on your radish leaves, they are probably infected with this fungus. The best treatment is to remove infected leaves and/or plants. This will stop the spread of the fungus.

Black Root Rot

This fungus goes after your plants’ roots, turning pieces black in color and distorted in shape. If it affects small seedlings, the plants may die. Unfortunately, this disease cannot be treated once it is spotted on your plants.

However, it can be prevented using cultural methods. Don’t over water your crops and make sure they are planted in soil with good drainage.

Another way to prevent this disease is by practicing crop rotation. Since this fungus affects multiple Brassica species, make sure you don’t grow brassicas repeatedly in the same area.

Harvesting

Daikon radishes can be harvested once they meet their date of maturity. Check your seed packets for recommendations.

Close up of daikon leaf tops growing in soil.

Keep in mind that although this type of radish has more of a capacity to grow large while maintaining quality than your traditional radish varieties, they can still become pithy and spongy if they are left to grow too big. Be sure to harvest before this happens.

If hit with hard frosts, the radishes will become spongy or die. However, the time to harvest can be extended by protecting plants with floating row covers.

Close up of the top of a daikon tuber in the soil, with bright sunshine filtering through the leaf tops.

Varieties with long and slender roots are fragile and susceptible to snapping. You can prevent them from breaking by loosening the soil with a pitchfork, broadfork, or shovel.

Once your soil is adequately loose, grab the leaves where they meet the tops of the roots and gently pull. Now’s the moment when you get to see just how big your daikon have grown!

Freshly harvested daikon radishes in a plastic container in water. Sunshine bathes the leaf tops.

Once the plants are pulled from the ground, cut off the leaves at their base. With the leaves removed, the roots can be stored for multiple weeks under the right conditions.

To increase the storage life of your radishes, avoid washing the roots or leaves until you are ready to use them.

Close up of harvested daikon tubers, with their leaf tops cut off.

Daikon is best stored in a cold, moist environment. Therefore, the best way to store your harvest is to place the roots in the refrigerator with a damp paper towel or cloth.

You can wrap or cover them in the towel; the important thing is that you are providing a humid environment.

Leaves can be stored in a zip-top plastic bag in the crisper drawer of your refrigerator for a few days.

Preserving

These radishes are often fermented on their own to be eaten as a type of pickle. They are also used as a component of Napa cabbage-based kimchi.

Fermenting is a simple process that only requires three main things: salt, water, and time. You can read more about fermented foods on our sister site, Foodal.

Recipes and Cooking Ideas

Daikon radish is a versatile crop in the kitchen. It can be eaten raw or cooked, and all parts of the plant can be consumed.

You do not need to peel this vegetable, though some people choose to do so. One simple way to eat daikon is to slice it up raw into discs that can be dipped in hummus or ranch dressing.

A dark grey surface with a whole daikon radish, sliced daikon in a jar in liquid. In the foreground a white bowl with slices and a thyme leaf on top. A fabric tea towel with stripes on the right.

Another great way to eat daikon is to dice it into ½-inch cubes and then saute them in oil with garlic and ginger for a few minutes. Remove from the heat and toss with rice noodles, soy sauce, sesame oil, and your favorite fresh diced hot pepper or hot pepper flakes.

Due to their rough texture, the leaves are best enjoyed cooked via methods including sauteing and steaming. They make a great addition to Thai-inspired coconut curries.

Close up of daikon spouts, clearly showing the furry roots coming out of the seeds.

Daikon sprouts can also be enjoyed in salads and sandwiches. See our article on sprouts and microgreens for more information to grow your own.

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type:
Annual
Water Needs:
1/2 inch per week
Native To:
Mediterranean, East Asia
Maintenance:
Low
Hardiness (USDA Zone):
2-11
Soil Type:
Rich, well aerated
Season:
Fall
Soil pH:
5.8-6.8
Exposure:
Full sun to partial shade
Soil Drainage:
Well draining
Time to Maturity:
40-70 days
Companion Planting:
Marigolds, scallions
Spacing:
4-6 inches
Avoid Planting With:
Garlic, corn, potatoes, tomatoes
Planting Depth:
1/4-1/2 inch
Family:
Brassicaceae
Height:
10-20 inches
Genus:
Raphanus
Spread:
6 inches
Species and Cultivar:
R. sativus var. longipinnatus
Tolerance:
Cold, light frost, high air temperatures, depending on variety
Pests & Diseases:
Flea beetles, harlequin bugs, cabbage maggots, septoria leaf spot, black root rot
Grow Some Giant Radishes

Now that you know how to plant and grow these large radishes, it’s time to add them to your fall garden. You’ll be impressed with their size and how easy they are to grow.

Close up of daikon radishes, the tuber visible above the soil, and bright green tops in gentle sunshine.

To see how this crop can fit in with the rest of your fall plans, check out some other cool-weather-loving crops here!

And if you want to learn how to grow other fall crops, read these guides next:

How to Plant and Grow Cabbage
A Flavor You’ve Come to Love: How to Grow Brussels Sprouts
Growing Kohlrabi

https://youtu.be/OsBd0kwpq00 RED CHERRY TOMATO step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of RED CHERRY TOMATO

https://youtu.be/35t_yr1bb40 Double Color Okra step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of Double Color Okra

https://youtu.be/1ClMzP0U99Y BEETROOT step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of BEETROOT

https://gardenerspath.com/plants/herbs/grow-fenugreek/

HOW TO GROW FENUGREEK
November 27, 2019 by Heather Buckner
Trigonella foenum-graecum

Looking for a new, versatile crop to enjoy? Why not try your hand at growing fenugreek?

Not only does this herb make an attractive addition to the garden, its medicinal value, soil building properties, and enticing flavor and aroma make this easy-to-grow annual one you don’t want to miss out on!

A vertical picture of a fenugreek plant growing in the garden. One small white flower is visible against the green backdrop of foliage. To the center and bottom of the frame is green and white text.
We link to vendors to help you find relevant products. If you buy from one of our links, we may earn a commission.

Here’s what’s to come in this article:

What You’ll Learn

What Is Fenugreek?
Cultivation and History
Benefits to the Garden
Medicine
Propagation
How to Grow
Container Growing
Growing Tips
Where to Buy
Managing Pests and Disease
Harvesting
Preserving and Storage
Cooking Ideas
Quick Reference Growing Guide
Let’s dig in!

What Is Fenugreek?

Fenugreek is a tender annual that is a member of the legume family.

This plant can grow up to two feet in height from a single hollow hairy stem, with stems that branch at the base. The leaves are small with three ovate green to purple leaflets each and solitary white, yellow, or purple flowers that grow from the leaf axils.

The leaves look similar to clover leaves and the flowers resemble those of common peas. The aromatic yellowish brown seeds develop in curved yellow pods.

Both the seeds and the leaves are edible.

In addition to its culinary applications, this plant also has a long history of medicinal use, as well as use in animal feed and as a soil building cover crop.

Cultivation and History

Cultivated worldwide, both the seeds and the leaves are used in cooking, most commonly in south and central Asian cuisine. Also known as methi, you will often taste its maple syrup like flavor in curry, dal, pickles, and spice mixes.

This herb is thought to have been first cultivated in the near East, India and North Africa.

One thing is certain: it has been used by humans for a very long time. Archaeological remains of charred and desiccated seeds discovered in Iraq have been carbon dated back 6000 years!

In ancient Egypt, fenugreek was used in cooking as well as medicinally to reduce fevers, and as an incense for religious ceremonies. It has also been a part of Indian cuisine for 3,000 years.

It was later used in Ancient Greece and by the Romans often as oxen fodder, to treat a variety of ailments, to make yellow dyes for coloring wool, and as a flavoring for wine.

Benefits to the Garden

Like other legumes, fenugreek is a useful cover crop to fix nitrogen in the soil, a critical nutrient for plant growth.

A close up of fenugreek plants being used as a cover crop on a fallow field. The bright green of the foliage contrasts with various mounds of soil, with the background fading into soft focus.

Nitrogen-fixing plants form a symbiotic relationship with certain types of bacteria in the soil that colonize on the roots. In order for fenugreek to fix nitrogen, it needs one particular bacterium, Rhizobium meliloti.

The bacteria extract nitrogen from the air and convert it into a usable form that becomes available in the soil for uptake by plants.

You can tell if a plant is fixing nitrogen by digging it up and examining the roots for pink colored nodules.

Plants that are fixing nitrogen are able to grow lush and green even in low quality soil, while those that do not may produce smaller, less colorful foliage. These nitrogen-fixers improve the quality of the soil for other plants by the addition of this important mineral.

This quick growing annual is also useful as a ground cover under slow growing crops. It will cover the soil before you know it, thwarting weeds, building nutrients, and regulating soil moisture.

Medicine

This herb has therapeutic roots in many traditions, and has been studied extensively in recent years for its effectiveness as an herbal medicine.

A wooden chopping board with a glass containing liquid and fenugreek seeds. To the right is a white bowl filled with the seeds, and a couple of green methi leaves. On a white background.

Used for centuries to increase breast milk production in lactating mothers, it contains high amounts of the phytosteroid diosgenin, a known galactogogue.

It has also been used to ease menstrual pain and induce labor. Fenugreek contains phytoestrogens, chemical compounds that mimic estrogen and bind to estrogen receptor sites in the body.

According to Maria Noel Groves in her book “Body into Balance: An Herbal Guide to Holistic Self-Care,” available on Amazon, herbs that contain phytoestrogens are sometimes recommended by herbalists and medical practitioners to support bone health, improve perimenopause symptoms, and reduce the risk of estrogen-dependent cancers.

Body into Balance: An Herbal Guide to Holistic Self-Care

In males, it has been used to boost testosterone and sperm count. One clinical study of 50 male participants taking extract of fenugreek seeds for 12 weeks found an increased sperm count, as well as an improvement in mental alertness, libido, and mood.

However, this was a very small study, and conflicting research on the topic exists, so findings in this area remain inconclusive.

Research into its potential benefits for those with diabetes is also ongoing. Certain compounds in fenugreek may potentially reduce intestinal glucose absorption, improving insulin sensitivity, delaying gastric emptying, and reducing concentrations of lipid-binding proteins.

A close up of a wooden bowl and wooden scoop containing fenugreek seeds, behind them some methi leaves, and to the right of the frame is a small glass bottle containing oil with a cork in the top. The background is a dark colored wooden surface.

This is perhaps because the herb is rich in dietary fiber, but you would have to consume quite a bit to see a noticeable effect related to fiber intake!

Several studies have also shown effectiveness for improving metabolic symptoms associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

While fenugreek has many potential health benefits, it is important to always consult a medical professional before starting any herbal medicine regimen.

Use of this herb should be avoided when pregnant, as it has the potential to stimulate uterine contractions.

Propagation

This annual does not transplant well and should instead be sown from seed.

Seeds should be sown in the garden after all chance of frost has passed and the soil has started to warm, any time from late spring to late summer.

A close up of tiny fenugreek seedlings sprouting through the soil. Little green shoots on a light brown soil background in bright sunshine.

If you’re growing fenugreek for its seeds, plant in the spring or early summer so it has time to produce adequate seed pods before the growing season ends.

If using it solely for its fast growing leaves, sowing any time between spring and late summer is fine.

Seeds can be broadcasted or planted in rows 8-18 inches apart at just 1/4 deep. They should sprout quickly, poking through the soil in just a few days. Water regularly to keep the soil moist, but do not over water, as this plant won’t grow in waterlogged soil.

How to Grow

Fenugreek will do just fine planted in average, well draining soil, though it prefers neutral to slightly alkaline soil, with a pH range of about 6.5 to 8.2. Due to its nitrogen fixing properties, planting fenugreek in poor soils will help to improve the nutrient quality for future crops.

A close up image of fenugreek plants growing in the garden. A mass of bright green leaves in light sunshine.

There is no need to add fertilizer, but it is always a good idea to incorporate rotted manure or compost into the soil before sowing. If you wish, you can use a liquid compost tea or comfrey tea every few weeks to encourage more robust growth.

Fenugreek requires at least 4-5 hours of direct sun a day, and can tolerate afternoon shade. While it may be planted in partial shade in warm climates, in colder locations, it is best to grow it in a sunny spot.

This plant does particularly well in warm and hot climates with average temperatures of 50-90°F, and it can even be grown year-round in USDA Hardiness Zones 9-11.

Once established, thin seedlings to two inches apart.

Water your crop regularly to keep it moist, particularly in dry weather. Do not overwater, as waterlogged soil will impede growth.

A close up of purple fenugreek flowers. With tiny petals, purple on the outside, getting lighter towards the center of the flower, the color contrasts with the green foliage and stems. The background is more flowers and foliage fading into soft focus, in bright sunshine.

Pinch off the top third of mature stems periodically to encourage lush, branching growth. If you’re not planning to collect the seeds, prune the top 6 inches of the mature plant to encourage more growth and prevent it from setting seed.

Container Growing

This herb can easily be grown in containers. Plant seeds in a pot indoors on a sunny windowsill, or place pots on the balcony or in a patio garden.

Fenugreek is a shallow rooted plant, so you don’t need a deep container. Use a wide planter around 6-8 inches deep with good drainage.

Fill the container with 2/3 potting mix and 1/3 compost. Sprinkle seeds in the pot and add a thin 1/4-inch layer of soil to cover. Thin to 1-2 inches of space between seedlings.

Growing Tips

Sow seeds directly – fenugreek doesn’t like being transplanted
Keep soil moist but not waterlogged
Plant in a sunny spot or indoors in containers
Where to Buy

Though various cultivars are in development for agriculture use and for growth as a cover and forage crop, you’ll typically find only one type of fenugreek seed at the nursery.

A close up of a small metal pot full to the brim and overflowing with fenugreek seeds, on a blue background.

Fenugreek Seeds

Packets of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed available in a variety of sizes from Eden Brothers. Grow them for the leaves and seeds, for both culinary and medicinal use.

Are sprouts more your thing?

A close up of sprouting fenugreek seeds on a dark gray background. In the bottom right of the frame is a circular logo with black text.

Sprouting Fenugreek Seeds

A bit bitter on their own, fenugreek sprouts taste great mixed with other types of sprouts. Large-volume packages of sprouting seeds in a variety of sizes are available from True Leaf Market.

Managing Pests and Disease

In the home garden, fenugreek isn’t especially prone to pests and diseases, but there are a few you need to watch out for.

Insects

Insects don’t pose much of a problem, except for one particular creepy-crawly.

Aphids

These small sap-sucking pests feed on the juices of the tender parts of the plant, negatively affecting growth. Plants may also become contaminated by the honeydew, a substance produced by the aphids. For more information about aphids see our guide here.

Try using neem oil or homemade insecticidal soap to combat infestations.

Disease

Particularly in warm or humid conditions, if your plants aren’t thriving it could be as a result of disease.

Root Rot

This fungus causes yellowing of lower leaves, wilting, and stunted growth. Plants that succumb to root rot will eventually die.

If you suspect root rot, pull up a plant and examine the roots to see whether they look rotten. Planting in well drained and sufficiently warm soil will reduce the risk of rot.

Powdery Mildew

Mildew often affects this crop during the later stages of life, when foliage is dry and the weather is warm. Look for white powdery spots on the lower and upper surfaces of leaves, flowers, and other parts.

Apply neem oil to combat mildew.

Read more about fighting powdery mildew attacks here.

Charcoal Rot

This fungus causes discoloration and cankers on the stems of plants that may spread upward, causing the leaves to wilt and drop. It thrives during the hot, dry part of the growing season and often affects plants that under heat stress.

Adequate thinning and weeding of plants, incorporating aged manure into beds prior to planting, mulching to maintain moisture, and regular watering during periods of dry weather will help keep stress to a minimum, and reduce the risk of this disease.

Harvesting

This fast-growing annual will produce leaves that are ready to harvest within just 20-30 days of sowing.

Trim the leaves carefully, snipping off the top third of mature stems, and allowing the rest to continue growing. This will also encourage branching, which will increase flowering and seed production later on.

A close up of a bunch of fenugreek leaves tied at the stems with a piece of string, on a white background.

After cutting, leaves will regrow in about 15 days. You can continue to harvest the leaves multiple times until the plant begins to flower.

When the plant bolts and begins seed production, leaves will become tough and bitter.

Seed harvest takes a bit more patience. Plan to collect seeds 3-5 months after planting, once the plant has finished flowering, died back, and begun to turn yellow.

The seeds develop within small pods, and each pod contains about 10 to 20 seeds.

Gather the pods by simply snapping them off where they meet the stem, being careful not to tear them as the seeds will scatter everywhere.

A close up of a wooden spoon containing fenugreek seeds spilling out of it. Methi leaves in the background on a dark wooden surface.

Peel the pods open to reveal the yellow-brown seeds inside. You can also rub them between your palms to break them open, or place them in a bag and rub vigorously to separate the seeds from the pods.

Store seeds in an airtight container in a cool, dry, dark place and they’ll remain viable for 2-3 years. You can also use them as a spice in your cooking.

Preserving and Storage

Fresh leaves will keep for up to a week if you remove them from the stalks, wrap in a paper towel, then place in an airtight container in the refrigerator.

Leaves can be used fresh or dried as an herb in cooking or tea. To dry the leaves, hang stems upside down in bundles in a dark, dry location. You can also dry them in a dehydrator or in your oven on the “warm” setting.

A close up of a wooden bowl and wooden spoon both containing dried methi leaves ready for cooking. The background is a textured, white surface.

Once thoroughly dried, remove leaves from the stems and store in a tightly lidded glass jar in a dark pantry.

You can also freeze the fresh leaves for up to 10 months. Take the leaves off the stems, roughly chop them and wrap loosely in aluminum foil, then put the foil parcel into a Ziploc bag in the freezer.

When you’re ready to use them, just remove from the foil, wash, and get cooking!

Read more about freezing fresh herbs in this guide.

A close up of a black frying pan containing dried methi seeds for roasting. The background is a dark wooden surface and to the bottom left of the frame is a cream colored cloth.

If you’re using the seeds as a spice, many people dry roast them to enhance their nutty flavor and aroma. Just roast seeds on medium-high heat for one to two minutes, stirring frequently to prevent burning.

Be cautious not to over roast, or they will become intensely bitter.

A close up of a white bowl containing finely ground fenugreek seeds on a hessian background. Behind it are further seeds fading into soft focus.

You can also grind the seeds for use in cooking. But they’re tough, so this is going to require some extra prep. You won’t have much luck with a mortar and pestle! Here’s how to do it:

Soak seeds overnight in water. Drain, and pat dry with a paper towel or leave to dry.
Heat a pan over medium heat, add seeds, and stir. Roast them until their color deepens.
Add them to a spice or coffee grinder, and crush them into a powder.
Dried or powdered seeds will keep for about a year if stored in an airtight container in a cool, dark place.
Cooking Ideas

With a spicy, peppery aroma and a sweet and sour taste somewhat similar to maple syrup, fenugreek has a distinctive flavor that is delicious in all sorts of dishes.

This herb can be consumed fresh or dried. The seeds can be ground and used as a spice. Some people even like to eat fenugreek sprouts and microgreens. The leaves make a delicious addition to roti or paratha dough.

A close up of a plastic container with sprouting fenugreek seeds, the tops of the sprouts rising out of the container on light colored stems with green shoots. The background is wicker and a wooden surface.

Popular in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine, the seeds are used as a spice in many traditional recipes. Throw a dash of fenugreek powder into your next coconut curry, or sprinkle it on roasted potatoes.

A close up of a white bowl on a white plate with a curry dish. Fenugreek leaves are scattered around the plate and the background is a green and white checked cloth.

You can toss some of the toasted seeds on your salads, or add them to a pickle brine. In terms of flavor profile, it blends amazingly with cumin and coriander!

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type:
Herb, annual
Tolerance:
All soil types
Native To:
Near East
Water Needs:
Moderate
Hardiness (USDA Zone):
9-11
Maintenance:
Low
Season:
Spring-fall
Soil Type:
Average, fixes nitrogen
Exposure:
Full sun to partial shade
Soil pH:
6.5-8.2
Time to Maturity:
3-5 months
Soil Drainage:
Well-draining
Spacing:
8-18 inches
Companion Planting:
Buckwheat, beans, cowpeas
Planting Depth:
1/4 inch
Family:
Fabaceae
Height:
2 feet
Genus:
Trigonella
Spread:
5-6 inches
Species:
T. foenum-graecum
Pests & Diseases:
Aphids, powdery mildew, root rot, charcoal rot
Grow Your Own Spice Rack

Medicinal, delicious, soil building, and beautiful, this one of a kind legume really has it all!

A close up of a bee on a fenugreek plant. Lush green foliage contrasts with tiny white flowers just ready to bloom, in the bright sunlight.

Try incorporating it in your garden lineup this season, and impress your friends with a flavorful homegrown herb and spice that may be new to them.

Have you tried growing fenugreek? Tell us all about it in the comments below!

If you found this guide valuable, give these a read next:

How to Grow Flavorful Cardamom in Your Home Garden
How to Grow and Use Epazote Herb
How to Plant and Grow Ginger in Your Home Garden
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© Ask the Experts, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. See our TOS for more details. Product photos via Eden Brothers, True Leaf Market, and Storey Publishing. Uncredited photos: Shutterstock. Additional writing and editing by Clare Groom and Allison Sidhu.

https://gardeningtips.in/fenugreek-seed-germination-time-process-methi

https://youtu.be/M9hvoy4KPIw GREEN LONG CHILLI step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of GREEN LONG CHILLI

https://youtu.be/lKvmMetVki8 Radish white Long

step by step detail guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of Radish white Long

https://youtu.be/OsBd0kwpq00 RED CHERRY TOMATO step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of RED CHERRY TOMATO

https://gardenerspath.com/plants/vegetables/growing-cherry-tomatoes/

HOW TO GROW CHERRY TOMATOES
July 7, 2020 by Lorna Kring
Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme

Do you love the idea of picking sweet, ripe tomatoes fresh from the vine but aren’t sure how to begin?

Cherry tomatoes are great plants to start with.

Rewarding for the new and experienced gardener alike, they’re wonderfully productive and easy to grow – a single plant can produce a reliable crop of bite-sized fruits from early summer until fall.

A vertical picture of cherry tomatoes ripening on the vine, with foliage in soft focus in the background. To the center and bottom of the frame is green and white text.
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Hearty and vigorous plants, the pretty fruits grow in large clusters in a rainbow of colors – chocolate, mahogany, orange, red, yellow, almost black, and pink, in a solid hue or even with tiger stripes.

And the flavors of sun-warmed fruit right off the vine are absolutely delicious, from mild to sweet to tangy.

Because of the small fruit size, typically one to two inches, these high yielding plants often bear fruit in just 55 to 65 days, with some ready for harvest in as little as 45 days. However, there are those that can take up to 80 days to mature as well.

They also perform well in containers, so they can be grown just about anywhere, even on small balconies or decks.

A close up of a small staked green cherry tomato plant, pictured on a soft focus background.

Sound like something you’d like to try? Then join us now for our best tips on growing cherry tomatoes.

Here’s what we’ll cover:

What You’ll Learn

What Are Cherry Tomatoes?
Heirloom Hybrids
Seeds or Seedlings?
Planting Gear
Growing Tips
Harvesting
Varieties to Select
What Are Cherry Tomatoes?

Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme are thought to be the direct descendants of S. pimpinellifolium – the wild ancestor of today’s domesticated varieties.

This ancient forebearer was a weedy plant, with small, blueberry-sized fruit. It traveled from the northern Andes into Mexico, and at some point, morphed into a plant with larger fruits that were suitable for domestication.

Today’s varieties still bear small, globular fruits, although they typically measure about a half-inch to two inches in size. Those with an oblong shape are called grape tomatoes, but they abide in the same classification.

Varieties are classified into determinate and indeterminate growth habits, and several determinate ones are bred for compact growth in small spaces.

And like the standard sized Solanum plants, cultivation is divided into heirloom or hybrid divisions.

However, there’s also a new breed on the block. Let’s take a look at that first.

Heirloom Hybrids

It sounds like an oxymoron, but heirloom hybrids are a new breed of tomato created by crossing two heirloom varieties, or an heirloom with a modern hybrid cultivar.

They’re bred for qualities such as best color, flavor, shape, and texture as well as disease resistance, early fruiting, and vigor – often using only heirloom parents.

A close up of a bowl full of heirloom hybrid cherry tomatoes, set on a rustic fabric on a wooden surface, pictured on a soft focus background.

This results in plants with outstanding performance along with the deep, rich flavor of heirlooms. And flavor is what many folks find lacking in standard hybrids.

If you’d like to try out one of the new breed, ‘Black Pearl’ is an heirloom hybrid with a deep, rich mahogany color and full, complex flavor – sweet with a rich, tangy bite.

Seeds can be purchased at Burpee.

Seeds or Seedlings?

To grow your plants from seed, they need to be started indoors approximately six weeks before your last frost date (LFD).

Photo by Lorna Kring.
Transplanting them outdoors usually happens about six weeks after your last frost date, or when the plants are around 12 weeks old.

You’ll need to collect your own seed from heirloom plants (seeds from hybrids won’t necessarily be true to the parents) or purchase seeds. Seeds can be purchased from your local nursery, online sources, and seed catalogs, which usually arrive in January.

And if you’re new to starting your own, our guide on how to grow tomatoes from seed has detailed instructions in six easy steps.

Alternatively, you can wait until spring arrives and purchase seedlings from your local nursery or garden shop.

Planting Gear

Once your seedlings have been hardened off and are ready for the great outdoors, it’s time to gather up your planting gear.

And don’t be fooled by the size of the fruit – these plants are vigorous and can grow large and bushy.

Unless you’ve chosen dwarf or patio varieties, the fruit-laden branches can be heavy and require support in the form of cages or stakes.

This helps to keep fruit off the ground and prevents branches from breaking under the weight – even with determinate varieties.

A picture of a group of plants supported by galvanized hoop cages, growing in a raised bed garden.

Galvanized Plant Support

Cages come in different sizes and shapes and need to be sturdy enough not to buckle under a large plant, like this set of five galvanized hoop cages available at Wayfair.

For reference, here’s a list of everything you’ll need to get growing:

Cherry or grape tomato plants
Depending on the variety, cages or stakes are needed for support along with plant clips, twine, or Velcro ties
If planting in containers, they need to be at least 5 gallons in size and have drainage holes (a pot 12 inches in diameter and 12 inches tall holds approximately 5 gallons)
Bone meal to add to the planting hole for strong root growth
Potting soil mix if planting in containers
Plant food (use a balanced all-purpose blend, or an 18-18-21 NPK formula for Solanums)
For more detailed information on planting or container cultivation, be sure to check our grow and care guide for tomatoes.

Growing Tips

Cherry tomatoes are typically robust and easy to cultivate, but there are a few things you can do to assist with a bountiful harvest:

Plants are happiest in soil that’s well-draining with a pH level of 6.2 to 6.5.
They require a full sunlight location – a minimum of six hours per day.
Refrain from planting until the chance of frost is past. Use a cloche or plant cover to protect new seedlings if adverse weather sets in (i.e. cold, wet, and windy conditions).
Be sure to leave ample room between planting holes – the fruit may be small, but the plants can grow big and bushy.
Set your cages or stakes in place when planting to avoid disturbing the roots later.
If you’re growing container plants on a balcony, tie the stems to the railing to eliminate the need for cages or stakes.
When planting, pluck the lowest stems and shoots from the main stalk. Then bury the plant close to the lowest remaining set of leaves, one to two inches away. The buried, stripped stalk will produce more roots for stronger growth.
To prevent future problems like blossom end rot, mix a small handful of lime or Epsom salts into the planting hole. Both increase magnesium levels, which can be blocked by high concentrations of calcium and potassium in the soil.
Pinch out suckers as they appear, to redirect energy into fruit production. These are the small branches that appear in the “V” formed between the main stalk and branches.
A close up of a sucker from a staked cherry tomato plant being pinched out on a soft focus background.
Photo by Lorna Kring.
After flowers appear, feed plants growing in the ground biweekly with a balanced fertilizer, or a tomato formula of 18-18-21.
Container plants require more frequent fertilizing and may need to be fed weekly. If so, use a diluted, half-strength formula to compensate for the increased frequency of application.
Plants perform best with a deep weekly watering rather than frequent light watering.
If space is an issue, look for dwarf or patio varieties. These are determinate plants bred for compact growth. For details on the differences, read our guide to learn more about determinate and indeterminate varieties.
Harvesting

Harvest when the fruits have changed to their expected color. This can be from six to 10 weeks after pollination, depending on the weather and the varieties you’ve chosen.

A close up of a hand from the bottom of the frame harvesting ripe cherry tomatoes into an orange plastic bowl in a garden.

When ripe, fruit will come away from the stem with a gentle tug or twist.

Pick ripe fruit every day or two to encourage a continuous bloom set and greater production.

Varieties to Select

For ideas on what varieties would best suit your needs, check our review of 17 of the best cherry tomatoes.

In the meantime, here are a few suggestions to get you started:

Baby Boomer

A compact hybrid variety, ‘Baby Boomer’ delivers a big payload with yields of over 300 red, one-inch fruits per plant, produced all summer long and right until first frost.

A close up of a wooden bowl filled with freshly harvested ‘Baby Boomer’ cherry tomatoes set on a wooden surface with foliage in soft focus in the background.

‘Baby Boomer’

Fruits mature in 50 to 55 days on determinate plants that reach 20 to 25 inches.

Pick up seeds or three-packs of plants at Burpee.

Black Cherry

‘Black Cherry’ is an heirloom with a rich heritage that shows in its complex, sweet flavor and firm texture.

The one-inch fruits ripen to a deep, dark mahogany brown, and stems are laden throughout the hot summer months.

A close up of a group of ‘Black Cherry’ cherry tomatoes with water droplets set on a textured surface in the background.

‘Black Cherry’

Indeterminate plants grow to 60 inches and fruit matures in 64 days. This variety is naturally disease resistant.

You can purchase seeds at Eden Brothers.

Sungold

Perhaps the most popular cherry tomato, ‘Sungold’ is a highly prolific vine with large clusters of tangerine-orange fruits.

‘Sungold’

Delicious fresh off the vine, on the grill, and in salads. An indeterminate plant, fruits ripen in 57 days and vines grow 48 to 60 inches.

Seeds can be purchased at True Leaf Market.

Recipes and Cooking Ideas

Don’t panic when these prolific plants deliver a bumper crop!

Instead, let your homegrown harvest shine. Tossed into salads or made into salsa or a fresh marinara, used as a tasty topping for homemade pizza, or cooked down into preserves, sweet cherry tomatoes are one of the most delicious rewards of the summer garden.

A close up of a bowl of corn and cream cheese dip with cherry tomatoes set on a plate with greens and tortilla chips in soft focus in the background.
Photo by Meghan Yager.
Try this corn and cream cheese dip with cherry tomatoes from our sister site, Foodal, for a tasty appetizer.

A close up of a ramekin of roasted cherry tomatoes with shrimp and feta served with bread slices, lemon, and coriander on a wooden table background.
Photo by Felicia Lim.
Roasted cherry tomatoes with shrimp and feta, also from Foodal, make a tasty entree option.

A close up of a plate of chicken cutlets on a base of arugula greens, with cutlery and a napkin on a table.
Photo by Meghan Yager.
Or, if you’re not in the mood for seafood, give these chicken cutlets with tomatoes a whirl on a busy weeknight, also from Foodal.

Delicious Bite-Sized Gems

Prolific, hardy, and reliable, cherry tomatoes are an easy and fulfilling introduction to growing your own Solanums.

Choose varieties for containers or the garden, give indeterminate varieties some support, and follow our tips for an abundance of delicious bite-sized fruits all summer.

A close up of a ripe cherry tomato plant with water droplets in the sun with green foliage.

Do you folks have any favorite varieties you’d like to recommend? Drop us a note in the comments below.

And for more tomato knowledge, add these growing guides to your reading list:

The Top 10 Reasons to Love Tomatoes and Add More to Your Diet
15 of the Best Canning Tomatoes You Should Grow
How To Identify, Prevent, and Treat Common Tomato Diseases
How to Make Tomatoes Turn Red When They Refuse to Ripen on the Vine

https://youtu.be/35t_yr1bb40 Double Color Okra step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of Double Color Okra

https://www.diynetwork.com/how-to/outdoors/gardening/how-to-grow-okra

How to Grow Okra
Long popular in the Southern United States, okra is making inroads in vegetable gardens across the country. The pod-like fruit is a wonderful addition to soups and stews.
Cost $
Skill Level
Start to Finish 2+ Days
TOOLS
hoe
MATERIALS
okra seeds
compost
fertilizer
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction
Step 1:Soak the Seeds
Step 2:Prepare the Site
Step 3:Plant the Seeds
Step 4:Cultivate the Plants
Step 5:Harvest the Okra
INTRODUCTION
Purchase the Seeds
Okra is related to the hibiscus, and as such it produces large ornamental flowers. The green pod-like fruits are very popular in the Southern United States, where they are enjoyed in soups and stews. Okra does not transplant well, so most gardeners grow their crops from seed. Popular seed varieties include Emerald, Clemson Spineless and Green Velvet.

STEP 1
Speed Up Germination Process by Soaking Okra Seeds
Soak the Seeds
Okra is easy to grow but the seeds have a hard coat that can slow germination. To speed up the process, soak the seeds overnight in warm water before planting. Wrapping the seeds in moist paper towels also works well.

STEP 2
Prepare the Site
Okras require full sun (at least 8 hours a day) and prefer soil that is loose, fertile and slightly alkaline. If the soil is more acidic, work some lime into the bed a few months before planting. Enrich the soil with compost, turning it into the bed with a rake. Finally, add a half cup of slow-release 5-10-10 fertilizer for every 20 square feet of garden space.

STEP 3
Plant the Seeds
It is best to plant okra after daytime temps hit 85 degrees and nighttime temps reach the low 60s. Use a garden hoe to make 1″-deep furrows in the garden bed. Space the furrows 24″ apart. Place the presoaked seeds into the furrows, spacing them 6″ apart. Gently rake the soil over the seeds to cover them. After lightly firming the soil, water the seeds well. Place a garden marker to indicate the crops.

STEP 4
Cultivate Okra Plants
Cultivate the Plants
When the seedlings reach approximately 2″ tall, thin the plants to one every foot. Apply a generous layer of mulch around the plants, but do not let the mulch come in contact with the stems. Okra grows very rapidly in hot weather, and the leafy plants do a great job of shading out competing weeds. Frequent watering is necessary during the germination and flowering stages, but after that okra can tolerate dry conditions. However, during extended dry periods, a deep soaking once every 10 days should be adequate.

STEP 5
Harvest Okra Pods with Garden Shears
Harvest the Okra
In warm weather the immature fruit pods grow very rapidly, often reaching full size in just a couple days. When the pods reach about 2″ to 3″ long, remove them from the plant with pruning shears. Left too long on the plant and the fruit becomes woody and tough. The pods should be picked often to encourage continued production. The plants will grow and bear fruit right up until frost.

https://youtu.be/1ClMzP0U99Y BEETROOT step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of BEETROOT

https://gardenerspath.com/plants/vegetables/grow-beets-containers/

HOW TO GROW BEETS IN CONTAINERS
February 13, 2020 by Laura Ojeda Melchor
I admit it: I haven’t always loved beets (Beta vulgaris).

But that all changed the day I tried home-pickled beets in a sandwich for the first time, and was shocked by how much more flavorful they were than the ones that come in a can.

Home-pickled beets taste fantastic in all sorts of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern dishes, and the recipe I use is this one, from our sister site Foodal.

Nothing makes me feel cozier than the idea of a root cellar filled with homegrown beets and other root vegetables with a long storage life.

A close up vertical picture of freshly harvested beet roots with the greens still intact, set in a basket on a green soft focus background. To the center and bottom of the frame is green and white text.
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But does anyone even have a root cellar anymore?

If you do, I’m supremely jealous.

Since most of us aren’t lucky enough to have adorable root cellars in our backyards, we have to resort to purchasing store-bought veggies at some point during the year.

It either gets too hot outside to grow root vegetables, or too cold, thanks to the frozen ground and all that.

If you are lucky enough to be able to grow these tasty roots outside practically all year, see our complete guide to growing beets.

A close up of two jars containing pickled beets with a small glass serving bowl in front of them, set on a wooden surface with a wooden wall in the background.

Thanks to modern HVAC systems and grow lights, you can grow juicy, ruby-colored beetroot in containers year-round.

In this article, I’ll show you exactly how to do it.

What You’ll Learn

The Best Weather
Choose the Right Container
Prepare the Soil
How to Sow
How to Grow
Growing Tips
Cultivars to Select
Managing Pests and Disease
Harvest Time
The Best Weather

You can grow beets in containers indoors or outdoors.

For outdoor container growing, the hardy roots do well in a wide range of USDA Hardiness Zones: anywhere from Zone 2 with its extreme low of -50°F to Zone 10 with its low of 30°F.

A close up of a white plastic pot set on a windowsill in bright sunshine containing a beet plant with lush foliage and purple stems on a soft focus light background.

Beets are as versatile as they are colorful. But keep this in mind: they love cool weather and scads of sunshine.

Members of the goosefoot, or Chenopodiaceae family, beets are closely related to chard, the difference being that chard is grown for its leafy greens, not the roots.

You can grow beets outdoors in containers through fall, winter, and spring if you have a greenhouse or a cold frame and you live in USDA Hardiness Zones 7-10.

In Zones 2-6, you’ll need to bring them inside for the winter. But that doesn’t mean you can ignore the temperature set on your thermostat. Beets like temperatures that sit right around 50-70°F.

You don’t want your home or greenhouse to be too hot, or too cold.

For reference, when it’s -10°F outside here in the Anchorage area of Alaska, I tend to set my house’s heater at 67°F – perfect for growing beets!

Choose the Right Container

The most important thing to consider when growing this root vegetable is the depth of your container.

Beets need a pot that’s ten inches deep at the very least, so the roots have plenty of room to grow and stretch.

A vertical close up picture of a small black round pot containing a beet plant with the root slightly above the soil, purple stems and bright green leafy foliage in sunshine.
The container can be as wide or long as you want it to be, depending on how many beets you’d like to plant.

Keep in mind that they need to be sowed three inches apart in order to have enough room to mature.

For a nice-sized crop, try a 15- to 20-gallon soft-sided Smart Pot, available on Amazon.

15-Gallon Smart Pot

Keep in mind that a pot this big is best for growing veggies on a deck or porch – it’s too cumbersome for indoor gardening or moving around.

A longer hard-sided planter like this one from the Home Depot is also an excellent choice.

A close up of a white planting container set on a paved surface with flowers and upright plants with lush vegetation in the background in bright sunshine.

10-inch Hard Sided Planter

At 10 inches deep and 26 inches long, it’s the perfect size for an indoor crop.

Make sure the container has drainage holes – and consider spreading small pebbles over the bottom of the container so any excess water can drain down below the soil and the roots don’t get waterlogged.

Prepare the Soil

You can use garden soil for an indoor or outdoor container, but you may have to amend it. Beets need a pH of 6.0-7.0, so if you’re using soil from the yard, it’s worth conducting a soil test.

They need well-draining, light soil to allow the roots to expand as they develop.

To make a healthy soil from your own materials, add well-rotted manure or compost to garden soil and mix in some bone meal for additional phosphorous, if you need to.

Your soil should be light and fluffy. If it’s too heavy, your roots might turn out looking like this:

A vertical picture showing a beet root that has become deformed before harvest, with the bright purple stems still visible, but the foliage removed, set on a black surface with a small white sign with black text to the right of the frame.

For prepackaged potting soil, I love Miracle-Gro Nature’s Care Natural and Organic Potting Mix, available from Home Depot.

It’s fluffy soil that drains well.

A close up of the packaging of Nature’s Care organic potting mix, with green packaging and black text.

Nature’s Care Natural Organic Potting Mix

If you didn’t mix compost into your garden-amended soil or are using store-bought potting mix, you may need to add a little fertilizer.

I like to use a balanced vegetable-specific fertilizer for my plants’ nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium needs.

My favorite vegetable fertilizer is this organic option from Dr. Earth, available on Amazon.

It smells funky – kind of like a horse barn – but it’s safe for use around pets and people, which is important to me as the parent of both a child and a dog.

Dr. Earth Organic Balanced Fertilizer

Simply mix one or two tablespoons of the fertilizer into every four square inches of soil. And remember to blend the fertilizer thoroughly into the dirt before you plant.

I failed to do this with my basil plant recently. Since I didn’t want to disturb the tender new leaves, I shook a little bit of Dr. Earth fertilizer on the soil around the leaves and then watered it in.

A couple days later, I found fuzzy white mold – saprophytic fungus – all over the surface of the soil.

A close up of a round red ceramic pot with tiny green shoots pushing up through the soil, and a fungal mold on the top of the potting soil.
Photo by Laura Melchor.
After doing a bit of research, I discovered that saprophytic fungus is harmless to your plant, but it’s unsightly.

The mold develops because potting soil is already full of fungi that are good for your plant.

When you sprinkle organic fertilizer onto the surface of your potting mix without working it in, the fungi in the soil start feeding on the nutrients.

The high concentration of fertilizer in one place is basically a dream buffet for the fungi – and it’s a sign that the fertilizer is working just as it should.

So instead of freaking out, just take a fork or trowel and gently mix the moldy goodness into the soil.

A close up of a small red circular plant pot with two tiny shoots pushing up and a fork from the left of the frame digging the earth.
Photo by Laura Melchor.
Now that we’ve cleared that up, let’s move on to the actual sowing of your seeds!

How to Sow

While you can technically start beets in seedling trays, the delicate roots can get blunted or damaged easily if you aren’t extremely careful when transplanting.

If you’re planning to grow a beet crop on your deck in early spring and it’s still too cold out to keep the plant outside, you can start the seeds indoors in two-inch-deep seed trays or a biodegradable starter tray.

You’ll want to do this just two to three weeks before the average last frost date, when the weather warms up enough for your beets to survive outdoors.

Once the seedlings are about two inches tall, it’s time to transplant them into deeper containers.

Sowing the seeds directly into your containers is usually the best option.

Now, onto the actual sowing process.

Beetroot seeds strike an uncanny resemblance to a handful of nutritious cereal.

A close up background picture of light brown beet seeds, ready for sowing.

This is because each seed you’ll get in a packet is actually a spiky protective pod containing several smaller seeds. Or you can get a monogerm variety, which has one seed per pod.

To help with germination, soak the pods in warm water for two to three hours before you sow. This helps to open them up.

Spaced three inches apart, poke one-inch-deep holes into the soil with your finger.

Drop two of these delightfully funky seeds into each hole and cover lightly with soil. That way if one seedling doesn’t sprout, you still have another.

The same guidelines apply if you’re planting in seed trays.

A close up of a hand holding beet seeds in the palm.

Now you’re ready to give your seeds a good soaking.

How to Grow

I’ve got a lovely container garden going in my home office right now, and I used to carry each container to the kitchen and water it with the gentle rain feature on my kitchen faucet.

Obviously, this was rather time-consuming. Especially since I tried to water each of my containers without my toddler catching me – or inadvertently tripping me.

And with beets, dragging a 10-inch-deep container all over the place would be even harder.I solved the problem by getting this little galvanized watering can from Amazon.

A close up of a small galvanized steel watering can held in the palm of a hand on a green background.
Photo by Laura Melchor.
It fits in the palm of my hand and I can use it to water all of my office plants with just two trips to the faucet.

My other favorite thing about this watering can is its sprinkle spout.

Instead of a fat stream of water that displaces teensy new seeds in a heartbeat, the watering can gently and evenly drizzles water on the soil.

A close up of a white watering can pouring water onto small seedlings planted in dark earth on a soft focus green background.

Make sure to use a similar method to water your freshly planted seeds so they don’t move around.

After planting, water them thoroughly.

If the seeds are growing in seed trays with covers on them or any other sort of humidity-retaining feature, you will probably only need to water them every two or three days.

In pots or containers, the moisture tends to evaporate more quickly, so water every other day.

A close up of a round plastic container with small beet seedlings pushing through the dark earthy soil. In the background is lawn in soft focus.

Your seeds should germinate within five to ten days. After that, water your seedlings when the top inch of soil dries out. You want to keep the soil moist, but not waterlogged.

Thin the seedlings about a week after germination by cutting the weaker stems at their base with a pair of sharp, clean scissors.

You probably won’t meet too many weeds unless you used garden soil to pot your beet seeds, but if you do see weeds, tug them out right away so that they don’t steal any water or food from your roots.

Read on to discover the most important not-so-secret secret to growing great beets.

Provide Plenty of Light

Here it is: beets love sunshine.

If you’re growing this root vegetable on a brightly lit deck, that’s perfect.

A top down close up of a beet plant with bright green foliage and purple stems growing in a round black pot, set on a tiled surface.

Beets need six to eight hours of sunlight, whether they’re grown in containers indoors or outdoors.

For indoor growers, placing your container on a milk crate, chair, or table next to a sunny window can work to help them germinate and grow.

Make sure the window provides at least six hours of direct sunlight per day.

If you’re like me and live in a location where it tends to be pretty dark (and cold) in the winter, you’ll need a grow light.

With this budget-friendly grow light that’s available from Amazon, my seeds have all germinated in six or seven days. Even the carrots I recently sowed – and those can take up to two weeks.

LED Dual Head Clip-on Grow Light

While you can set it on just a red-blue combination for germination and chlorophyll synthesis or a yellow-bulb-only setting for full-spectrum photosynthesis, I like to set it on the third setting: combination of red, blue, and full-spectrum yellow light for optimal photosynthesis and growth.

A vertical picture showing a two stemmed grow light throwing light onto two small pots and a small seedling tray set on a wooden surface with a green wall behind.
Photo by Laura Melchor.
While beets will grow leafy greens even without full sun, they won’t develop the juicy roots they’re known for.

The grow light described above features a handy timer function that allows you to keep it on for three, nine, or twelve-hour periods. I often set mine for nine or twelve hours a day.

For a beet-utiful veggie, don’t skimp on light.

Growing Tips

If weeds pop up, gently tug them up and out of your containers ASAP
Keep the soil moist but not waterlogged
Provide plenty of sunlight, or use a grow light
Cultivars to Select

Most beet varieties will grow just fine in containers, as long as they’re deep enough.

Here are two smaller cultivars for you to try growing in pots first.

Red Ace Hybrid

This extra cold-hardy, lightly sweet root produces smaller globes than other varieties, making it perfect for a container crop.

A close up of ‘Red Ace’ variety of Beta vulgaris growing in a container, ready for harvest. The roots are sticking out of the dark soil with bright purple stems and green foliage. To the bottom right of the frame is a circular logo and white text.

‘Red Ace’

The cold hardiness of ‘Red Ace’ also makes it an ideal variety to grow on your deck if you live somewhere with mild winters.

Find four-ounce packets at True Leaf Market.

Moulin Rouge

This beautiful dark-red beet also produces smaller fruit, but it’s no less tasty than larger varieties.

A close up of ‘Moulin Rouge’ variety of Beta vulgaris, with round roots and bright purple stems set on a wooden surface.

‘Moulin Rouge’

‘Moulin Rouge’ beets are ideal for those with gardens in extra-sunny areas, as they demand full sun and warmer temperatures.

Get packets of 300 seeds from Burpee.

Looking for more varieties? See our our guide: “Top 17 Beet Varieties to Plant This Season” for more options.
Managing Pests and Disease

Pests and diseases can crop up whether you grow your beets indoors or outdoors, but because your plants are growing in containers, you shouldn’t have too many problems.

A container does just that – contains beets in their own little world, separate from the many different plants and critters that can contribute to problems.

If aphids, beet webworms, and flea beetles gnaw on your leaves, spray the leaves with a neem oil solution. Learn more about how to manage aphids here.

For more information on combating creepy crawlies that are attacking your crop, be sure to check out our guide to common beet pests.

Diseases are also less of an issue with container-grown beetroot.

Plus, the soil in containers tends to be less humid and dry out more quickly than the earth does, which helps keep fungal diseases away.

But keep an eye out for cercospora leaf spot, one of the most common fungal diseases to plague this plant.

It appears as patchy spots on the foliage, eventually spreading over the entire leaf area.

A close up of a green leaf suffering from a fungal infection, showing reddish brown spots, on a white background.

If your plants become infected, remove the affected leaves right away.

The beetroot should still thrive if only some leaves were infected. But if the entire plant is covered with leaf spot, uproot the beet and dispose of all plant matter.

As a general preventative measure against disease, keep your beet greens well thinned as they grow taller, to promote good airflow, avoid overcrowding, and prevent the spread of fungus.

Taking two to four leaves from the outer portion of the plant will help with this while allowing the root to keep growing well – plus you’ll get a tasty treat for your salad.

In addition, avoid watering the actual leaves of the beet so that they don’t get damp and prone to fungal diseases.

In cases of a severe infection, use an organic fungal spray if you need to.

Learn more about common beet diseases in this guide.

Harvest Time

You can harvest beet greens for salads and stir-fries whenever you want, depending on whether you like tender young leaves or bigger, mature greens.

Simply snip a leaf or two from the outer portion of the plant; this helps with airflow, too! To learn exactly how and when to do this, see our full guide on how to harvest beet greens here.

Around six to eight weeks after the germination of your seedlings – check your seed packet for maturity date – you’ll have leafy green tops with juicy bulbs waiting just below the surface of the soil.

Or maybe they’ve even popped out of the soil a bit, unable to contain their glory.

That means it’s the most exciting moment of all: root harvest time.

Uproot your hard-won bulbs for pickling, roasting, juicing, and more.

A woman lifts beet roots from the ground and inspects the greens in light evening sunshine with a garden scene in soft focus in the background.

Another added bonus is that container-grown beets are often the most perfectly shaped roots of all, since it’s easy to give them exactly the type of growing conditions they need.

An Un-Beet-Able Bounty

When you think about it, beetroots are a truly special veggie.

Not only are they absolutely gorgeous and tasty, but they’re also high in folate, fiber, iron, vitamin C, and potassium, making them a star snack and an excellent addition to everything from sweet baked goods to salads and soups.

A close up of freshly harvested deep red beet roots with the taproot still attached and the purple stems with green leafy foliage, set on a wooden surface in a kitchen.

If you have kids who are interested in gardening, growing beets in containers is a fantastic activity to battle the winter doldrums.

In the summer, give them their own containers to tend. They’ll be so eager to watch their plants’ development and enjoy their very own homegrown harvests.

A little girl dressed in pink pulls a beet root from the ground, with a woman behind her.

In fact, I bet they’ll be much more likely to try this veggie in the first place if they grow it themselves.

Have you ever grown beets in containers? Share any tips, tricks, or questions with us in the comments below.

And don’t miss these articles on growing tasty root vegetables:

How to Grow Carrots in Containers
Gimme Those Potatoes: A Spud Growing Guide
How to Grow Rutabagas: A Cool-Weather Crop Perfect for Fall
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Photos by Laura Melchor © Ask the Experts, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. See our TOS for more details. Originally published on February 13, 2020. Last updated: March 25, 2021 at 0:34 am. Product photos via Burpee, Dr. Earth, Home Depot, Juhefa, Smart Pots, and True Leaf Market Uncredited photos: Shutterstock. With additional writing and editing by Clare Groom and Allison Sidhu.

About Laura Ojeda Melchor

Laura Ojeda Melchor grew up helping her mom in the garden in Montana, and as an adult she’s brought her cold-weather gardening skills with her to her home in Alaska. She’s especially proud of the flowerbeds she and her three-year-old son built with rocks dug up from their little Alaska homestead. As a freelance writer, she contributes to several websites and blogs across the web. Laura also writes novels and holds an MFA in writing from Vermont College of Fine Arts.

More Posts(94)
Categories Containers, Vegetables
Tags Amaranth Family (Amaranthaceae), Beets, Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae), Root Crops
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2 COMMENTS
Oldest
Pius Ufada Undigwele
Pius Ufada Undigwele (@guest_8730)
#8730
10 months ago
I enjoyed reading the article. Especially after eating the first fruit of beet root I developed so much interest for beets but they are not available.

0

Reply
Laura Melchor
Laura Melchor (@lauramelchor)
Author
#8740
Reply to
Pius Ufada Undigwele
10 months ago
Isn’t it tasty? I’m sorry that they aren’t available where you are — maybe you could order seeds and plant them at home? Or if not, perhaps there’s a similar vegetable to try in your area, such as radishes, rutabagas, turnips, or even carrots? Let me know if I can help you in any way. 🙂

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https://verticalveg.org.uk/how-to-grow-chillies-in-containers/

How to Grow Chillies in Containers – Introduction
Mark Ridsdill Smith 63 comments
Twilight Chilli - ideal for a smaller pot on the windowsill - looks great, too.
Chillies grow very well in containers – but they do have some specific needs. To discover the ‘tricks of the trade’, I met up with (and filmed) professional chilli grower, Steve Waters.

Few other plants can match chillies for ‘flavour for space’ ratio. One plant will often give you a hundred chillies or more. So all but the most dedicated chilli eater can usually be self sufficient in chillies with just a few plants – something very achievable, even in a tiny growing space. Any surplus chillies can easily be dried or frozen, keeping you in supply all year.

A huge benefit of growing your own is the vast array of delicious varieties now available – you’ll discover a whole new world of flavour when compared to the ubiquitous, one dimensional ‘red’ and ‘green’ chillies sold by most supermarkets. Whether you are looking for amazing taste (try Aji Lemon, Fatali or Cherry Bomb), or fiery heat (try Bhut Jolokia) or something beautiful to brighten your balcony (try Twilight – pictured above – or Purple Princess), you will be spoilt for choice.

You do need a warm, sheltered spot – inside or outside – with at least six hours sun to grow chillies with any reliable success (they will be reluctant to fruit without). But with the right conditions, chillies can do brilliantly in containers.

Most chilli varieties are not difficult to grow – but they do have slightly different needs from most other edible crops. For example, the seeds need more warmth to germinate, and the plants benefit from drying out more between waterings. If you’re starting out, it’s also useful to know that some chilli varieties are a lot harder to grow than others. Some of the easiest and most reliable are recommended below.

Steve Waters (thank you Steve!), who runs the South Devon Chilli Farm, grows over 170 varieties of chilli, and harvests hundreds of kilos every day in season. He shares his tips and experience for you in the videos below:

Can you recommend four chillies for containers?
Steve recommends some reliable and tasty chillies for containers.

Steve’s top chillies for reliability and flavour in containers:

Thai Hot or Demon Red, Twilight, Apache – small plants, ideal for a 1 litre pot on the window sill.
Cherry bomb – produces heavy crop of large red chillies, great flavour, not too hot, one of the first to ripen.
Ring of fire – productive, tasty chilli, great for cooking.
Hungarian Hotwax – milder chilli but with excellent flavour, ideal for stuffing.
How to sow and germinate chillies
It’s not difficult to grow chillies from seed, but they do need warmth and good light. Steve offers his tips in this video:

Steve’s top sowing tips
Sow your seeds in fine vermiculite or seed compost in three inch pots or use coir jiffy pellets.
Chillies need warmth to germinate and good light to grow into healthy seedlings. Steve starts his chillies in mid January – but if you don’t have a heated propagator or a bright window sill (or LED grow lamp), it’s easier to start them at the end of March (small varieties like Thai Hot can be started even later).
Water the growing medium well before sowing – then try to water as little as possible until germination. Excessive watering can wash the goodness out of the seed before it germinates.
Some very hot chillies, like Bhut Jolokia, can benefit from soaking in water for 24 hours before sowing.
A thermostatically controlled propagator (set at 25 – 30 0C / 77 – 860F) or a simple heated propagator makes germinating chillies easier and faster (but is not essential). If you don’t have a propagator , try to find a place with a warm, consistent temperature. Chilli seeds need warmth! (A “propagator” is the gardening term for a container with a transparent lid, designed for raising seeds).
Place your propagator where it will not heat up too much in the sun – consistency of temperature is also important.
Once germinated, chillies can be replanted at any level. So if you have tall, spindly seedlings, replant them with some of the stem under the soil. (This is a very handy tip).
Chilli seedlings need good light to grow healthily. Many urban homes do not have bright light inside (neighbouring buildings and trees casting shade), particularly early in the season (February / March) when light levels are low. If you’re seedlings are struggling, you can either buy an LED grow light or simply wait and buy a plant later in the year (often a good option with chillies as you only need a few plants).
Where can you buy seeds and plants? Online is a good place to look first: a specialist chilli producer, like South Devon Chilli Farm, will often offer the best choice and the most expert advice. Or look for a chilli festival happening near you (more and more are springing up) where you’ll also be able to taste the different chillies.

How to water chillies in pots; what growing media to use?
How you water chillies will make a big difference to your growing success – and the right soil mix will help with this. Steve explains how in this video.

Steve’s top watering tips
Drainage is important (chilli roots must have air). If you are prone to over water or if you’re using an automatic watering system, you can improve drainage by adding perlite (10 – 30%) or grit.
Use a soil based compost – like ‘John Innes No.2’ if you can get it.
When you have planted a chilli in a new pot, feel the weight of the pot before watering it. Try to remember this weight – and avoid watering again until the pot has come back down to just above the unwatered weight again.
Chillies seem to do best with dry and wet cycles – so its best not to water them every day if possible.
As chillies grow bigger, they like to be moved into progressively slightly larger pots. For example, move a seedling from a three inch pot into a half litre, then one litre, then three litre – rather than from a three inch pot to a three litre one.
How to Feed Chillies
Chillies are less hungry than tomatoes but will still need regular feeding once they have used the food in their compost (usually after about six weeks). Large, heavily fruiting chillies, like Cherry Bomb, need substantially more feeding than smaller varieties that produce small chillies.

Steve’s top feeding tips
A high potassium or potash (K) feed is good for fruiting chillies (The potassium will help them fruit). You can make your own feed from comfrey leaves or use a tomato feed. If using tomato feed, use at slightly lower concentrations than suggested for tomatoes.
After heavily harvesting, a balanced liquid feed (one with equal N, P and K – see the side of the bottle) can help it to recover, and put on new growth.
Many thanks to Steve for sharing his knowledge and experience – I hope they will help guide you to chilli growing success.

For more on growing chillies in containers, including the amazing diversity of chillies, there are more videos with Steve in the Masterclasses.

Your turn
What’s your favourite favourite of chilli to grow in containers? I’d love to hear in the comments below.

https://gardeningtips.in/https://www.diynetwork.com/how-to/outdoors/gardening/growing-white-radishes

Growing White Radishes

White radishes come in two distinct types: early, quick-grow white, and long-season slow-growing white. Both are great.

Botanical Name: Raphanus sativus

We think of radishes, usually, as bright red root crops. But lots of radishes with white skin and white flesh are also available and easy to grow in any garden.

White radishes come in two general categories: round white radishes that are sown by seed in spring or late summer for quick harvest and larger, longer varieties – Asian-type radishes, for the most part – that are sown in midsummer for an autumn or early winter harvest. Both kinds are good to grow!

Mild, for the most part, crispy, and especially suitable for cooking in stir-fry or pickled dishes, white radishes are also exciting to look at: unexpectedly brilliant in the usually green vegetable panoply.

To grow white radishes, always provide a well-worked soil with plenty of organic material dugin; radishes also need a lot of moisture, evenly distributed throughout the growing season, and full sunshine for most of the day.

Check out these white radishes, which are easy to grow as long as sown as seed at the right time:

Philadelphia White Box. This robust white radish dates back several hundred years as a distinct type. The somewhat squat shape indicates that these radishes are sown in very cool soil and mature in 30 days. That means fleshy, nutritious roots to harvest in just over a month.
White Beauty. This heirloom radish matures in less than month: 25 days. The shape is rounded but flat, the skin a creamy matte. Plant this one in the coldest margins of the growing season.
Japanese Minowase Daikon. A huge Japanese radish that can grow to two feet in length, the Minowase is a staple of Asian cooking for fresh salads, stir fry, or pickling. Sow in summer for a harvest several months later in Autumn.
Tama Hybrid. Here’s another Asian radish, in this case long and cylindrical, with a thick topping of green and white greens. Don’t sow the seeds of this radish until late summer, or it may bolt and get tough.
White Chinese Celestial. This mild winter radish takes about 60 days to mature. The size is about six or eight inches long and up to three inches across. It’s a valuable garden companion in the colder seasons
Watermelon. If you want a radish that’s white on the outside but pink or red on the inside, look no further. Watermelon is a round radish that can be sown in summer and harvested in the autumn or winter.
Ping Pong Hybrid. The name describes the shape: white and perfectly round. This is a short-season radish, so plant the seeds in early spring or late summer.
Hailstone. So fast to reach maturity: only 25 days, or less than a month. This radish can be harvest as soon as it reaches an inch in diameter.
No matter what kind of radishes you grow, weed them gently and keep the developing plants supplied with water. Thin seedlings if crowding is preventing shapely development of roots.

Growing Red Radishes
Growing Rapid Radishes
Growing Radishes Indoors
How to Grow Radishes in Containers
Growing Radishes from Seed
Growing Radish Greens
Growing Organic Radishes
Growing Green Radishes
Fertilizer for Radishes
How to Store Radishes
Harvesting Radishes
Radish Companion Planting

https://gardenerspath.com/plants/herbs/grow-fenugreek/

HOW TO GROW FENUGREEK
November 27, 2019 by Heather Buckner
Trigonella foenum-graecum

Looking for a new, versatile crop to enjoy? Why not try your hand at growing fenugreek?

Not only does this herb make an attractive addition to the garden, its medicinal value, soil building properties, and enticing flavor and aroma make this easy-to-grow annual one you don’t want to miss out on!

A vertical picture of a fenugreek plant growing in the garden. One small white flower is visible against the green backdrop of foliage. To the center and bottom of the frame is green and white text.
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Here’s what’s to come in this article:

What You’ll Learn

What Is Fenugreek?
Cultivation and History
Benefits to the Garden
Medicine
Propagation
How to Grow
Container Growing
Growing Tips
Where to Buy
Managing Pests and Disease
Harvesting
Preserving and Storage
Cooking Ideas
Quick Reference Growing Guide
Let’s dig in!

What Is Fenugreek?

Fenugreek is a tender annual that is a member of the legume family.

This plant can grow up to two feet in height from a single hollow hairy stem, with stems that branch at the base. The leaves are small with three ovate green to purple leaflets each and solitary white, yellow, or purple flowers that grow from the leaf axils.

The leaves look similar to clover leaves and the flowers resemble those of common peas. The aromatic yellowish brown seeds develop in curved yellow pods.

Both the seeds and the leaves are edible.

In addition to its culinary applications, this plant also has a long history of medicinal use, as well as use in animal feed and as a soil building cover crop.

Cultivation and History

Cultivated worldwide, both the seeds and the leaves are used in cooking, most commonly in south and central Asian cuisine. Also known as methi, you will often taste its maple syrup like flavor in curry, dal, pickles, and spice mixes.

This herb is thought to have been first cultivated in the near East, India and North Africa.

One thing is certain: it has been used by humans for a very long time. Archaeological remains of charred and desiccated seeds discovered in Iraq have been carbon dated back 6000 years!

In ancient Egypt, fenugreek was used in cooking as well as medicinally to reduce fevers, and as an incense for religious ceremonies. It has also been a part of Indian cuisine for 3,000 years.

It was later used in Ancient Greece and by the Romans often as oxen fodder, to treat a variety of ailments, to make yellow dyes for coloring wool, and as a flavoring for wine.

Benefits to the Garden

Like other legumes, fenugreek is a useful cover crop to fix nitrogen in the soil, a critical nutrient for plant growth.

A close up of fenugreek plants being used as a cover crop on a fallow field. The bright green of the foliage contrasts with various mounds of soil, with the background fading into soft focus.

Nitrogen-fixing plants form a symbiotic relationship with certain types of bacteria in the soil that colonize on the roots. In order for fenugreek to fix nitrogen, it needs one particular bacterium, Rhizobium meliloti.

The bacteria extract nitrogen from the air and convert it into a usable form that becomes available in the soil for uptake by plants.

You can tell if a plant is fixing nitrogen by digging it up and examining the roots for pink colored nodules.

Plants that are fixing nitrogen are able to grow lush and green even in low quality soil, while those that do not may produce smaller, less colorful foliage. These nitrogen-fixers improve the quality of the soil for other plants by the addition of this important mineral.

This quick growing annual is also useful as a ground cover under slow growing crops. It will cover the soil before you know it, thwarting weeds, building nutrients, and regulating soil moisture.

Medicine

This herb has therapeutic roots in many traditions, and has been studied extensively in recent years for its effectiveness as an herbal medicine.

A wooden chopping board with a glass containing liquid and fenugreek seeds. To the right is a white bowl filled with the seeds, and a couple of green methi leaves. On a white background.

Used for centuries to increase breast milk production in lactating mothers, it contains high amounts of the phytosteroid diosgenin, a known galactogogue.

It has also been used to ease menstrual pain and induce labor. Fenugreek contains phytoestrogens, chemical compounds that mimic estrogen and bind to estrogen receptor sites in the body.

According to Maria Noel Groves in her book “Body into Balance: An Herbal Guide to Holistic Self-Care,” available on Amazon, herbs that contain phytoestrogens are sometimes recommended by herbalists and medical practitioners to support bone health, improve perimenopause symptoms, and reduce the risk of estrogen-dependent cancers.

Body into Balance: An Herbal Guide to Holistic Self-Care

In males, it has been used to boost testosterone and sperm count. One clinical study of 50 male participants taking extract of fenugreek seeds for 12 weeks found an increased sperm count, as well as an improvement in mental alertness, libido, and mood.

However, this was a very small study, and conflicting research on the topic exists, so findings in this area remain inconclusive.

Research into its potential benefits for those with diabetes is also ongoing. Certain compounds in fenugreek may potentially reduce intestinal glucose absorption, improving insulin sensitivity, delaying gastric emptying, and reducing concentrations of lipid-binding proteins.

A close up of a wooden bowl and wooden scoop containing fenugreek seeds, behind them some methi leaves, and to the right of the frame is a small glass bottle containing oil with a cork in the top. The background is a dark colored wooden surface.

This is perhaps because the herb is rich in dietary fiber, but you would have to consume quite a bit to see a noticeable effect related to fiber intake!

Several studies have also shown effectiveness for improving metabolic symptoms associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

While fenugreek has many potential health benefits, it is important to always consult a medical professional before starting any herbal medicine regimen.

Use of this herb should be avoided when pregnant, as it has the potential to stimulate uterine contractions.

Propagation

This annual does not transplant well and should instead be sown from seed.

Seeds should be sown in the garden after all chance of frost has passed and the soil has started to warm, any time from late spring to late summer.

A close up of tiny fenugreek seedlings sprouting through the soil. Little green shoots on a light brown soil background in bright sunshine.

If you’re growing fenugreek for its seeds, plant in the spring or early summer so it has time to produce adequate seed pods before the growing season ends.

If using it solely for its fast growing leaves, sowing any time between spring and late summer is fine.

Seeds can be broadcasted or planted in rows 8-18 inches apart at just 1/4 deep. They should sprout quickly, poking through the soil in just a few days. Water regularly to keep the soil moist, but do not over water, as this plant won’t grow in waterlogged soil.

How to Grow

Fenugreek will do just fine planted in average, well draining soil, though it prefers neutral to slightly alkaline soil, with a pH range of about 6.5 to 8.2. Due to its nitrogen fixing properties, planting fenugreek in poor soils will help to improve the nutrient quality for future crops.

A close up image of fenugreek plants growing in the garden. A mass of bright green leaves in light sunshine.

There is no need to add fertilizer, but it is always a good idea to incorporate rotted manure or compost into the soil before sowing. If you wish, you can use a liquid compost tea or comfrey tea every few weeks to encourage more robust growth.

Fenugreek requires at least 4-5 hours of direct sun a day, and can tolerate afternoon shade. While it may be planted in partial shade in warm climates, in colder locations, it is best to grow it in a sunny spot.

This plant does particularly well in warm and hot climates with average temperatures of 50-90°F, and it can even be grown year-round in USDA Hardiness Zones 9-11.

Once established, thin seedlings to two inches apart.

Water your crop regularly to keep it moist, particularly in dry weather. Do not overwater, as waterlogged soil will impede growth.

A close up of purple fenugreek flowers. With tiny petals, purple on the outside, getting lighter towards the center of the flower, the color contrasts with the green foliage and stems. The background is more flowers and foliage fading into soft focus, in bright sunshine.

Pinch off the top third of mature stems periodically to encourage lush, branching growth. If you’re not planning to collect the seeds, prune the top 6 inches of the mature plant to encourage more growth and prevent it from setting seed.

Container Growing

This herb can easily be grown in containers. Plant seeds in a pot indoors on a sunny windowsill, or place pots on the balcony or in a patio garden.

Fenugreek is a shallow rooted plant, so you don’t need a deep container. Use a wide planter around 6-8 inches deep with good drainage.

Fill the container with 2/3 potting mix and 1/3 compost. Sprinkle seeds in the pot and add a thin 1/4-inch layer of soil to cover. Thin to 1-2 inches of space between seedlings.

Growing Tips

Sow seeds directly – fenugreek doesn’t like being transplanted
Keep soil moist but not waterlogged
Plant in a sunny spot or indoors in containers
Where to Buy

Though various cultivars are in development for agriculture use and for growth as a cover and forage crop, you’ll typically find only one type of fenugreek seed at the nursery.

A close up of a small metal pot full to the brim and overflowing with fenugreek seeds, on a blue background.

Fenugreek Seeds

Packets of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed available in a variety of sizes from Eden Brothers. Grow them for the leaves and seeds, for both culinary and medicinal use.

Are sprouts more your thing?

A close up of sprouting fenugreek seeds on a dark gray background. In the bottom right of the frame is a circular logo with black text.

Sprouting Fenugreek Seeds

A bit bitter on their own, fenugreek sprouts taste great mixed with other types of sprouts. Large-volume packages of sprouting seeds in a variety of sizes are available from True Leaf Market.

Managing Pests and Disease

In the home garden, fenugreek isn’t especially prone to pests and diseases, but there are a few you need to watch out for.

Insects

Insects don’t pose much of a problem, except for one particular creepy-crawly.

Aphids

These small sap-sucking pests feed on the juices of the tender parts of the plant, negatively affecting growth. Plants may also become contaminated by the honeydew, a substance produced by the aphids. For more information about aphids see our guide here.

Try using neem oil or homemade insecticidal soap to combat infestations.

Disease

Particularly in warm or humid conditions, if your plants aren’t thriving it could be as a result of disease.

Root Rot

This fungus causes yellowing of lower leaves, wilting, and stunted growth. Plants that succumb to root rot will eventually die.

If you suspect root rot, pull up a plant and examine the roots to see whether they look rotten. Planting in well drained and sufficiently warm soil will reduce the risk of rot.

Powdery Mildew

Mildew often affects this crop during the later stages of life, when foliage is dry and the weather is warm. Look for white powdery spots on the lower and upper surfaces of leaves, flowers, and other parts.

Apply neem oil to combat mildew.

Read more about fighting powdery mildew attacks here.

Charcoal Rot

This fungus causes discoloration and cankers on the stems of plants that may spread upward, causing the leaves to wilt and drop. It thrives during the hot, dry part of the growing season and often affects plants that under heat stress.

Adequate thinning and weeding of plants, incorporating aged manure into beds prior to planting, mulching to maintain moisture, and regular watering during periods of dry weather will help keep stress to a minimum, and reduce the risk of this disease.

Harvesting

This fast-growing annual will produce leaves that are ready to harvest within just 20-30 days of sowing.

Trim the leaves carefully, snipping off the top third of mature stems, and allowing the rest to continue growing. This will also encourage branching, which will increase flowering and seed production later on.

A close up of a bunch of fenugreek leaves tied at the stems with a piece of string, on a white background.

After cutting, leaves will regrow in about 15 days. You can continue to harvest the leaves multiple times until the plant begins to flower.

When the plant bolts and begins seed production, leaves will become tough and bitter.

Seed harvest takes a bit more patience. Plan to collect seeds 3-5 months after planting, once the plant has finished flowering, died back, and begun to turn yellow.

The seeds develop within small pods, and each pod contains about 10 to 20 seeds.

Gather the pods by simply snapping them off where they meet the stem, being careful not to tear them as the seeds will scatter everywhere.

A close up of a wooden spoon containing fenugreek seeds spilling out of it. Methi leaves in the background on a dark wooden surface.

Peel the pods open to reveal the yellow-brown seeds inside. You can also rub them between your palms to break them open, or place them in a bag and rub vigorously to separate the seeds from the pods.

Store seeds in an airtight container in a cool, dry, dark place and they’ll remain viable for 2-3 years. You can also use them as a spice in your cooking.

Preserving and Storage

Fresh leaves will keep for up to a week if you remove them from the stalks, wrap in a paper towel, then place in an airtight container in the refrigerator.

Leaves can be used fresh or dried as an herb in cooking or tea. To dry the leaves, hang stems upside down in bundles in a dark, dry location. You can also dry them in a dehydrator or in your oven on the “warm” setting.

A close up of a wooden bowl and wooden spoon both containing dried methi leaves ready for cooking. The background is a textured, white surface.

Once thoroughly dried, remove leaves from the stems and store in a tightly lidded glass jar in a dark pantry.

You can also freeze the fresh leaves for up to 10 months. Take the leaves off the stems, roughly chop them and wrap loosely in aluminum foil, then put the foil parcel into a Ziploc bag in the freezer.

When you’re ready to use them, just remove from the foil, wash, and get cooking!

Read more about freezing fresh herbs in this guide.

A close up of a black frying pan containing dried methi seeds for roasting. The background is a dark wooden surface and to the bottom left of the frame is a cream colored cloth.

If you’re using the seeds as a spice, many people dry roast them to enhance their nutty flavor and aroma. Just roast seeds on medium-high heat for one to two minutes, stirring frequently to prevent burning.

Be cautious not to over roast, or they will become intensely bitter.

A close up of a white bowl containing finely ground fenugreek seeds on a hessian background. Behind it are further seeds fading into soft focus.

You can also grind the seeds for use in cooking. But they’re tough, so this is going to require some extra prep. You won’t have much luck with a mortar and pestle! Here’s how to do it:

Soak seeds overnight in water. Drain, and pat dry with a paper towel or leave to dry.
Heat a pan over medium heat, add seeds, and stir. Roast them until their color deepens.
Add them to a spice or coffee grinder, and crush them into a powder.
Dried or powdered seeds will keep for about a year if stored in an airtight container in a cool, dark place.
Cooking Ideas

With a spicy, peppery aroma and a sweet and sour taste somewhat similar to maple syrup, fenugreek has a distinctive flavor that is delicious in all sorts of dishes.

This herb can be consumed fresh or dried. The seeds can be ground and used as a spice. Some people even like to eat fenugreek sprouts and microgreens. The leaves make a delicious addition to roti or paratha dough.

A close up of a plastic container with sprouting fenugreek seeds, the tops of the sprouts rising out of the container on light colored stems with green shoots. The background is wicker and a wooden surface.

Popular in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine, the seeds are used as a spice in many traditional recipes. Throw a dash of fenugreek powder into your next coconut curry, or sprinkle it on roasted potatoes.

A close up of a white bowl on a white plate with a curry dish. Fenugreek leaves are scattered around the plate and the background is a green and white checked cloth.

You can toss some of the toasted seeds on your salads, or add them to a pickle brine. In terms of flavor profile, it blends amazingly with cumin and coriander!

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type:
Herb, annual
Tolerance:
All soil types
Native To:
Near East
Water Needs:
Moderate
Hardiness (USDA Zone):
9-11
Maintenance:
Low
Season:
Spring-fall
Soil Type:
Average, fixes nitrogen
Exposure:
Full sun to partial shade
Soil pH:
6.5-8.2
Time to Maturity:
3-5 months
Soil Drainage:
Well-draining
Spacing:
8-18 inches
Companion Planting:
Buckwheat, beans, cowpeas
Planting Depth:
1/4 inch
Family:
Fabaceae
Height:
2 feet
Genus:
Trigonella
Spread:
5-6 inches
Species:
T. foenum-graecum
Pests & Diseases:
Aphids, powdery mildew, root rot, charcoal rot
Grow Your Own Spice Rack

Medicinal, delicious, soil building, and beautiful, this one of a kind legume really has it all!

A close up of a bee on a fenugreek plant. Lush green foliage contrasts with tiny white flowers just ready to bloom, in the bright sunlight.

Try incorporating it in your garden lineup this season, and impress your friends with a flavorful homegrown herb and spice that may be new to them.

Have you tried growing fenugreek? Tell us all about it in the comments below!

If you found this guide valuable, give these a read next:

How to Grow Flavorful Cardamom in Your Home Garden
How to Grow and Use Epazote Herb
How to Plant and Grow Ginger in Your Home Garden
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© Ask the Experts, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. See our TOS for more details. Product photos via Eden Brothers, True Leaf Market, and Storey Publishing. Uncredited photos: Shutterstock. Additional writing and editing by Clare Groom and Allison Sidhu.

https://gardeningtips.in/fenugreek-seed-germination-time-process-methi

growing-green-chillies-in-pots-mirchi-a-full-guide

https://youtu.be/M9hvoy4KPIw GREEN LONG CHILLI step by step detailed guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of GREEN LONG CHILLI

https://youtu.be/lKvmMetVki8 Radish white Long

step by step detail guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of Radish white Long

https://youtu.be/WrAlMx_EeGY FENUGREEK

step by step detail guide to seed in pots with animated pictures of FENUGREEK

https://gardenerspath.com/plants/herbs/grow-fenugreek/

HOW TO GROW FENUGREEK
November 27, 2019 by Heather Buckner
Trigonella foenum-graecum

Looking for a new, versatile crop to enjoy? Why not try your hand at growing fenugreek?

Not only does this herb make an attractive addition to the garden, its medicinal value, soil building properties, and enticing flavor and aroma make this easy-to-grow annual one you don’t want to miss out on!

A vertical picture of a fenugreek plant growing in the garden. One small white flower is visible against the green backdrop of foliage. To the center and bottom of the frame is green and white text.
We link to vendors to help you find relevant products. If you buy from one of our links, we may earn a commission.

Here’s what’s to come in this article:

What You’ll Learn

What Is Fenugreek?
Cultivation and History
Benefits to the Garden
Medicine
Propagation
How to Grow
Container Growing
Growing Tips
Where to Buy
Managing Pests and Disease
Harvesting
Preserving and Storage
Cooking Ideas
Quick Reference Growing Guide
Let’s dig in!

What Is Fenugreek?

Fenugreek is a tender annual that is a member of the legume family.

This plant can grow up to two feet in height from a single hollow hairy stem, with stems that branch at the base. The leaves are small with three ovate green to purple leaflets each and solitary white, yellow, or purple flowers that grow from the leaf axils.

The leaves look similar to clover leaves and the flowers resemble those of common peas. The aromatic yellowish brown seeds develop in curved yellow pods.

Both the seeds and the leaves are edible.

In addition to its culinary applications, this plant also has a long history of medicinal use, as well as use in animal feed and as a soil building cover crop.

Cultivation and History

Cultivated worldwide, both the seeds and the leaves are used in cooking, most commonly in south and central Asian cuisine. Also known as methi, you will often taste its maple syrup like flavor in curry, dal, pickles, and spice mixes.

This herb is thought to have been first cultivated in the near East, India and North Africa.

One thing is certain: it has been used by humans for a very long time. Archaeological remains of charred and desiccated seeds discovered in Iraq have been carbon dated back 6000 years!

In ancient Egypt, fenugreek was used in cooking as well as medicinally to reduce fevers, and as an incense for religious ceremonies. It has also been a part of Indian cuisine for 3,000 years.

It was later used in Ancient Greece and by the Romans often as oxen fodder, to treat a variety of ailments, to make yellow dyes for coloring wool, and as a flavoring for wine.

Benefits to the Garden

Like other legumes, fenugreek is a useful cover crop to fix nitrogen in the soil, a critical nutrient for plant growth.

A close up of fenugreek plants being used as a cover crop on a fallow field. The bright green of the foliage contrasts with various mounds of soil, with the background fading into soft focus.

Nitrogen-fixing plants form a symbiotic relationship with certain types of bacteria in the soil that colonize on the roots. In order for fenugreek to fix nitrogen, it needs one particular bacterium, Rhizobium meliloti.

The bacteria extract nitrogen from the air and convert it into a usable form that becomes available in the soil for uptake by plants.

You can tell if a plant is fixing nitrogen by digging it up and examining the roots for pink colored nodules.

Plants that are fixing nitrogen are able to grow lush and green even in low quality soil, while those that do not may produce smaller, less colorful foliage. These nitrogen-fixers improve the quality of the soil for other plants by the addition of this important mineral.

This quick growing annual is also useful as a ground cover under slow growing crops. It will cover the soil before you know it, thwarting weeds, building nutrients, and regulating soil moisture.

Medicine

This herb has therapeutic roots in many traditions, and has been studied extensively in recent years for its effectiveness as an herbal medicine.

A wooden chopping board with a glass containing liquid and fenugreek seeds. To the right is a white bowl filled with the seeds, and a couple of green methi leaves. On a white background.

Used for centuries to increase breast milk production in lactating mothers, it contains high amounts of the phytosteroid diosgenin, a known galactogogue.

It has also been used to ease menstrual pain and induce labor. Fenugreek contains phytoestrogens, chemical compounds that mimic estrogen and bind to estrogen receptor sites in the body.

According to Maria Noel Groves in her book “Body into Balance: An Herbal Guide to Holistic Self-Care,” available on Amazon, herbs that contain phytoestrogens are sometimes recommended by herbalists and medical practitioners to support bone health, improve perimenopause symptoms, and reduce the risk of estrogen-dependent cancers.

Body into Balance: An Herbal Guide to Holistic Self-Care

In males, it has been used to boost testosterone and sperm count. One clinical study of 50 male participants taking extract of fenugreek seeds for 12 weeks found an increased sperm count, as well as an improvement in mental alertness, libido, and mood.

However, this was a very small study, and conflicting research on the topic exists, so findings in this area remain inconclusive.

Research into its potential benefits for those with diabetes is also ongoing. Certain compounds in fenugreek may potentially reduce intestinal glucose absorption, improving insulin sensitivity, delaying gastric emptying, and reducing concentrations of lipid-binding proteins.

A close up of a wooden bowl and wooden scoop containing fenugreek seeds, behind them some methi leaves, and to the right of the frame is a small glass bottle containing oil with a cork in the top. The background is a dark colored wooden surface.

This is perhaps because the herb is rich in dietary fiber, but you would have to consume quite a bit to see a noticeable effect related to fiber intake!

Several studies have also shown effectiveness for improving metabolic symptoms associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

While fenugreek has many potential health benefits, it is important to always consult a medical professional before starting any herbal medicine regimen.

Use of this herb should be avoided when pregnant, as it has the potential to stimulate uterine contractions.

Propagation

This annual does not transplant well and should instead be sown from seed.

Seeds should be sown in the garden after all chance of frost has passed and the soil has started to warm, any time from late spring to late summer.

A close up of tiny fenugreek seedlings sprouting through the soil. Little green shoots on a light brown soil background in bright sunshine.

If you’re growing fenugreek for its seeds, plant in the spring or early summer so it has time to produce adequate seed pods before the growing season ends.

If using it solely for its fast growing leaves, sowing any time between spring and late summer is fine.

Seeds can be broadcasted or planted in rows 8-18 inches apart at just 1/4 deep. They should sprout quickly, poking through the soil in just a few days. Water regularly to keep the soil moist, but do not over water, as this plant won’t grow in waterlogged soil.

How to Grow

Fenugreek will do just fine planted in average, well draining soil, though it prefers neutral to slightly alkaline soil, with a pH range of about 6.5 to 8.2. Due to its nitrogen fixing properties, planting fenugreek in poor soils will help to improve the nutrient quality for future crops.

A close up image of fenugreek plants growing in the garden. A mass of bright green leaves in light sunshine.

There is no need to add fertilizer, but it is always a good idea to incorporate rotted manure or compost into the soil before sowing. If you wish, you can use a liquid compost tea or comfrey tea every few weeks to encourage more robust growth.

Fenugreek requires at least 4-5 hours of direct sun a day, and can tolerate afternoon shade. While it may be planted in partial shade in warm climates, in colder locations, it is best to grow it in a sunny spot.

This plant does particularly well in warm and hot climates with average temperatures of 50-90°F, and it can even be grown year-round in USDA Hardiness Zones 9-11.

Once established, thin seedlings to two inches apart.

Water your crop regularly to keep it moist, particularly in dry weather. Do not overwater, as waterlogged soil will impede growth.

A close up of purple fenugreek flowers. With tiny petals, purple on the outside, getting lighter towards the center of the flower, the color contrasts with the green foliage and stems. The background is more flowers and foliage fading into soft focus, in bright sunshine.

Pinch off the top third of mature stems periodically to encourage lush, branching growth. If you’re not planning to collect the seeds, prune the top 6 inches of the mature plant to encourage more growth and prevent it from setting seed.

Container Growing

This herb can easily be grown in containers. Plant seeds in a pot indoors on a sunny windowsill, or place pots on the balcony or in a patio garden.

Fenugreek is a shallow rooted plant, so you don’t need a deep container. Use a wide planter around 6-8 inches deep with good drainage.

Fill the container with 2/3 potting mix and 1/3 compost. Sprinkle seeds in the pot and add a thin 1/4-inch layer of soil to cover. Thin to 1-2 inches of space between seedlings.

Growing Tips

Sow seeds directly – fenugreek doesn’t like being transplanted
Keep soil moist but not waterlogged
Plant in a sunny spot or indoors in containers
Where to Buy

Though various cultivars are in development for agriculture use and for growth as a cover and forage crop, you’ll typically find only one type of fenugreek seed at the nursery.

A close up of a small metal pot full to the brim and overflowing with fenugreek seeds, on a blue background.

Fenugreek Seeds

Packets of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed available in a variety of sizes from Eden Brothers. Grow them for the leaves and seeds, for both culinary and medicinal use.

Are sprouts more your thing?

A close up of sprouting fenugreek seeds on a dark gray background. In the bottom right of the frame is a circular logo with black text.

Sprouting Fenugreek Seeds

A bit bitter on their own, fenugreek sprouts taste great mixed with other types of sprouts. Large-volume packages of sprouting seeds in a variety of sizes are available from True Leaf Market.

Managing Pests and Disease

In the home garden, fenugreek isn’t especially prone to pests and diseases, but there are a few you need to watch out for.

Insects

Insects don’t pose much of a problem, except for one particular creepy-crawly.

Aphids

These small sap-sucking pests feed on the juices of the tender parts of the plant, negatively affecting growth. Plants may also become contaminated by the honeydew, a substance produced by the aphids. For more information about aphids see our guide here.

Try using neem oil or homemade insecticidal soap to combat infestations.

Disease

Particularly in warm or humid conditions, if your plants aren’t thriving it could be as a result of disease.

Root Rot

This fungus causes yellowing of lower leaves, wilting, and stunted growth. Plants that succumb to root rot will eventually die.

If you suspect root rot, pull up a plant and examine the roots to see whether they look rotten. Planting in well drained and sufficiently warm soil will reduce the risk of rot.

Powdery Mildew

Mildew often affects this crop during the later stages of life, when foliage is dry and the weather is warm. Look for white powdery spots on the lower and upper surfaces of leaves, flowers, and other parts.

Apply neem oil to combat mildew.

Read more about fighting powdery mildew attacks here.

Charcoal Rot

This fungus causes discoloration and cankers on the stems of plants that may spread upward, causing the leaves to wilt and drop. It thrives during the hot, dry part of the growing season and often affects plants that under heat stress.

Adequate thinning and weeding of plants, incorporating aged manure into beds prior to planting, mulching to maintain moisture, and regular watering during periods of dry weather will help keep stress to a minimum, and reduce the risk of this disease.

Harvesting

This fast-growing annual will produce leaves that are ready to harvest within just 20-30 days of sowing.

Trim the leaves carefully, snipping off the top third of mature stems, and allowing the rest to continue growing. This will also encourage branching, which will increase flowering and seed production later on.

A close up of a bunch of fenugreek leaves tied at the stems with a piece of string, on a white background.

After cutting, leaves will regrow in about 15 days. You can continue to harvest the leaves multiple times until the plant begins to flower.

When the plant bolts and begins seed production, leaves will become tough and bitter.

Seed harvest takes a bit more patience. Plan to collect seeds 3-5 months after planting, once the plant has finished flowering, died back, and begun to turn yellow.

The seeds develop within small pods, and each pod contains about 10 to 20 seeds.

Gather the pods by simply snapping them off where they meet the stem, being careful not to tear them as the seeds will scatter everywhere.

A close up of a wooden spoon containing fenugreek seeds spilling out of it. Methi leaves in the background on a dark wooden surface.

Peel the pods open to reveal the yellow-brown seeds inside. You can also rub them between your palms to break them open, or place them in a bag and rub vigorously to separate the seeds from the pods.

Store seeds in an airtight container in a cool, dry, dark place and they’ll remain viable for 2-3 years. You can also use them as a spice in your cooking.

Preserving and Storage

Fresh leaves will keep for up to a week if you remove them from the stalks, wrap in a paper towel, then place in an airtight container in the refrigerator.

Leaves can be used fresh or dried as an herb in cooking or tea. To dry the leaves, hang stems upside down in bundles in a dark, dry location. You can also dry them in a dehydrator or in your oven on the “warm” setting.

A close up of a wooden bowl and wooden spoon both containing dried methi leaves ready for cooking. The background is a textured, white surface.

Once thoroughly dried, remove leaves from the stems and store in a tightly lidded glass jar in a dark pantry.

You can also freeze the fresh leaves for up to 10 months. Take the leaves off the stems, roughly chop them and wrap loosely in aluminum foil, then put the foil parcel into a Ziploc bag in the freezer.

When you’re ready to use them, just remove from the foil, wash, and get cooking!

Read more about freezing fresh herbs in this guide.

A close up of a black frying pan containing dried methi seeds for roasting. The background is a dark wooden surface and to the bottom left of the frame is a cream colored cloth.

If you’re using the seeds as a spice, many people dry roast them to enhance their nutty flavor and aroma. Just roast seeds on medium-high heat for one to two minutes, stirring frequently to prevent burning.

Be cautious not to over roast, or they will become intensely bitter.

A close up of a white bowl containing finely ground fenugreek seeds on a hessian background. Behind it are further seeds fading into soft focus.

You can also grind the seeds for use in cooking. But they’re tough, so this is going to require some extra prep. You won’t have much luck with a mortar and pestle! Here’s how to do it:

Soak seeds overnight in water. Drain, and pat dry with a paper towel or leave to dry.
Heat a pan over medium heat, add seeds, and stir. Roast them until their color deepens.
Add them to a spice or coffee grinder, and crush them into a powder.
Dried or powdered seeds will keep for about a year if stored in an airtight container in a cool, dark place.
Cooking Ideas

With a spicy, peppery aroma and a sweet and sour taste somewhat similar to maple syrup, fenugreek has a distinctive flavor that is delicious in all sorts of dishes.

This herb can be consumed fresh or dried. The seeds can be ground and used as a spice. Some people even like to eat fenugreek sprouts and microgreens. The leaves make a delicious addition to roti or paratha dough.

A close up of a plastic container with sprouting fenugreek seeds, the tops of the sprouts rising out of the container on light colored stems with green shoots. The background is wicker and a wooden surface.

Popular in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine, the seeds are used as a spice in many traditional recipes. Throw a dash of fenugreek powder into your next coconut curry, or sprinkle it on roasted potatoes.

A close up of a white bowl on a white plate with a curry dish. Fenugreek leaves are scattered around the plate and the background is a green and white checked cloth.

You can toss some of the toasted seeds on your salads, or add them to a pickle brine. In terms of flavor profile, it blends amazingly with cumin and coriander!

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type:
Herb, annual
Tolerance:
All soil types
Native To:
Near East
Water Needs:
Moderate
Hardiness (USDA Zone):
9-11
Maintenance:
Low
Season:
Spring-fall
Soil Type:
Average, fixes nitrogen
Exposure:
Full sun to partial shade
Soil pH:
6.5-8.2
Time to Maturity:
3-5 months
Soil Drainage:
Well-draining
Spacing:
8-18 inches
Companion Planting:
Buckwheat, beans, cowpeas
Planting Depth:
1/4 inch
Family:
Fabaceae
Height:
2 feet
Genus:
Trigonella
Spread:
5-6 inches
Species:
T. foenum-graecum
Pests & Diseases:
Aphids, powdery mildew, root rot, charcoal rot
Grow Your Own Spice Rack

Medicinal, delicious, soil building, and beautiful, this one of a kind legume really has it all!

A close up of a bee on a fenugreek plant. Lush green foliage contrasts with tiny white flowers just ready to bloom, in the bright sunlight.

Try incorporating it in your garden lineup this season, and impress your friends with a flavorful homegrown herb and spice that may be new to them.

Have you tried growing fenugreek? Tell us all about it in the comments below!

If you found this guide valuable, give these a read next:

How to Grow Flavorful Cardamom in Your Home Garden
How to Grow and Use Epazote Herb
How to Plant and Grow Ginger in Your Home Garden
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© Ask the Experts, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. See our TOS for more details. Product photos via Eden Brothers, True Leaf Market, and Storey Publishing. Uncredited photos: Shutterstock. Additional writing and editing by Clare Groom and Allison Sidhu.

https://gardeningtips.in/fenugreek-seed-germination-time-process-methi

Dwarf Cottonwood bearing with full bloom Tree (Scientific Name: Populus deltoides) to grow in pots at home and all I’ve the world with animated pictures and videos.

Shutterstock/Doug Matthews A towering native, a cottonwood tree soars and spreads, growing more than 100 feet tall and almost as wide. It’s a cherished shade tree, often planted in parks. In the wild, cottonwood grows along rivers, ponds and other bodies of water. It also thrives in floodplains and dry riverbeds, where infrequent rains transform dry land into waterways. Historically, cottonwood earned its place as a landscape tree because it grows rapidly, adding up to 6 feet a year. It’s also a favorite for shade, with the large spread helping to cast cooling shade over homes and streets. There’s a cottonwood for nearly any region, with different hardy types in Zones 2 through 9.

The Pros of Cottonwood

Fast growth and wonderful shade are reasons enough to cherish cottonwood, but these trees possess other qualities that make them worth planting. The leaves have flat stems, so they shimmer and rustle in the wind. The effect is eye-catching and distinctively attractive. The tree offers strong fall color, with leaves fading to glowing shades of gold.

In the wild, cottonwood is one of the fastest trees to colonize unplanted areas, making it a solid choice for areas prone to flooding and soil erosion. The National Forest Service uses it to stabilize streambanks and act as a natural waterway filtration system to reduce sedimentation. It tends to colonize and form groves that act as natural windbreaks. In areas with enough space, such as a ranch or acreage, a cottonwood makes a beautiful addition to a landscape.

The rapid growth that makes some folks cheer for cottonwood is also a negative, because the wood is brittle, leading to breaking branches and plenty of twigs to collect before mowing. As a cottonwood tree grows, large branches often break in windstorms, which can lead to property damage.

Because cottonwood trees are adapted to thrive in floodplains, they naturally have shallow root systems, so that as floodwaters recede, the roots can breathe and the tree survives. These same shallow roots wreak havoc with sidewalks and driveways. Roots also seek out moisture, invading sewer pipes and septic systems.

The Bottom Line on Cottonwood

Cottonwood makes a stunning tree — planted in the right spot. It’s a spectacular sight when it can grow unrestricted and welcome wildlife like roosting turkeys or eagles. A good place to grow cottonwood is away from structures, on a ranch, farm or in a park.

In a residential setting, it’s not the best choice. In fact, some municipalities ban the planting of cottonwood, and many gardening experts recommend removing cottonwood trees on residential properties. If you buy a home with a cottonwood tree, it’s wise to have it inspected by a certified arborist, who can assess the tree’s health and prune — or remove — as needed.

Cottonwood Tree Facts

Native Americans used cottonwood trees for dugout canoes and even transformed its bark into a medicinal tea.
Cottonwood trees feature male and female parts on separate trees (female trees are the ones that produce the cottony substance that gives the tree its name).
Cottonwood trees can add 6 feet in height each year making them the fastest growing trees in North America.
Cottonwood Varieties

Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) — grows in eastern U.S. and southern Canada

Black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera) — grows west of the Rocky Mountains

Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) — grows from California east to Utah and Arizona and south into northwest Mexico

dwarf cottonwood bearing with full bloom tree (scientific name: populus deltoides) to grow in pots at home and all over the world with animated pictures and music videos

https://www.ehow.com/how_8344235_care-cottonwood-tree.html

How to Care for a Cottonwood Tree

By Joanne Marie
eHow may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story.
Cottonwood
A close-up of a cottonwood tree.
Image Credit: AvatarKnowmad/iStock/Getty Images
If you have a cottonwood tree (Populus spp.) or want to plant one, then you may already know that a cottonwood becomes dormant in winter and is dioecious, which means each tree is either male or female. Cottonwood is also large, fast-growing and available in several varieties. The tree grows well when given basic care, although also paying attention to several possible problems is essential.
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Water Guidelines

Cottonwood varieties include the black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), which can become 100 feet tall and is hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. Most cottonwoods grow best in evenly moist soil. So water any kind of cottonwood’s soil as needed to prevent it from drying out. Check the soil’s moisture level by using a small shovel to make a narrow, 2-inch-deep trench in the soil. If the trench’s soil feels dry to your touch, then water the tree’s soil deeply but slowly to ensure the water reaches all the roots. Applying a 3- to 4-inch-thick layer of straw or shredded bark on the ground under the tree’s canopy will retain soil moisture, but keep that mulch several inches from the cottonwood’s trunk to discourage fungal problems.
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Fertilizer Application

An established cottonwood tree doesn’t need fertilizer on a regular basis; fertilizer can cause too much soft, tender growth that damages easily. If, however, your tree is young, or if an older tree’s growth slows and the leaves are small, then you can support the cottonwood by fertilizing its soil in spring when the tree begins new growth. Apply a granular, 16-4-8 fertilizer to the tree’s root zone, using 12 1/2 pounds for every 1,000 square feet of the tree’s root zone. The root zone is the area under the tree that is equal to 1 1/2 times the diameter of the tree’s canopy — or a circular area that is 18 feet wide for a tree with a 12-foot-wide canopy. Scratch the fertilizer into the soil, distributing it evenly, and water the fertilized area well.
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Removal of Sprouts and Damaged Branches

Cottonwoods include the eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), which is hardy in USDA zones 2 through 9. It and most other cottonwoods have a rounded crown and open growth habit, and they don’t require regular pruning to develop a visually pleasing shape. Cottonwood twigs that stick into the soil under the tree, though, can develop roots and sprout, producing unwanted growth at ground level. Remove those sprouts by cutting them to the ground, using sharp pruning shears and wiping the blades with rubbing alcohol before each cut to discourage the spread of plant diseases; disinfect the blades in the same way when you finish using them. Ensure the sprouts don’t reappear by using a small shovel to remove all the roots that grew from each twig. All cottonwoods have branches that tend to be weak and susceptible to wind damage. Remove split or otherwise damaged branches as they appear, using loping pruners or a pruning saw for large branches, and disinfecting the pruning tool before each cut and after you finish using it.
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Potential Problems

Cottonwood is susceptible to several fungal disorders, including rusts and leaf spot. The best ways to prevent those problems are to water the tree at its base, avoiding wetting its foliage, and to water on only sunny days so surfaces that become wet dry quickly. Clearing debris from under the tree on a regular basis also helps prevent fungal problems.
Cottonwood can attract aphids, which are small, greenish-yellow, soft-bodied pests. Destroy them by spraying the tree until all its surfaces are wet with insecticidal soap, diluted at a rate of 5 tablespoons of insecticidal soap concentrate per 1 gallon of water; use the solution when the temperature is below 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Repeat the spray application every seven to 10 days as needed. Scale insects, which look like hard, dark spots on leaves and stems, also may attack a cottonwood. When you see scale insects on your tree, spray all its surfaces until they are wet with a horticultural oil that you diluted at a rate of 5 tablespoons per 1 gallon of water; use the solution only when the temperature is below 90 degrees Fahrenheit and when drought is not an issue. When mixing or using insecticidal soap, horticultural oil or a solution made from either product, wear a hat, goggles and clothing that covers your skin, and avoid breathing the fumes and spray mist.

KHADI AND VILLAGE INDUSTRIES COMISSION
KHADI INSTITUTION PROFILE
Office Name : SO CHENNAI TAMIL NADU
Institution Code : 99027
Institution Name : TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. BOARD,
Address: Post City/Village State Aided by
: KURALAGAM ANNEXE, 5TH FLOOR, : Chennai
: Chennai
: TAMIL NADU : KVIB
Pincode District District
: 600104
: CHENNAI : A+
Contact Person Name
Email ID
Mobile No.
Chairman : L.K.TIRUPATHY lktirupathy@gmail.com 9566012097
Secretary :
Nodal Officer :
Registration Detail
Registration Date Registration No. Registration Type
12-11-2020 99027 SOC
Khadi Certificate No. TND/1254 Date : 31-MAR_2021
Khadi Mark No. 0068 Khadi Mark Dt. 01-Oct-2019
Sales Outlet Details
Type Name Address City Pincode
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT SHANMUGAR SALAI MADRAS 600045 ROAD ,TAMBARAM
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT NORTH PARK AMBATTUR 600052 STREET ,
AMBATTUR
Sales Outlet GRAMSHILPA KURUUNJIPADI, LUDDALORE 607302 NO.11, BUS STAND
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 99/ ERODE MAIN TIRUCHCHIRAPPAL 639104 ROAD, LI
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT THOTHIYAM, THOTHIYAM 621215 TIRUCHCHIRAPPAL
LI
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT NO-294, K H ROAD AYANAVARM 600023
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT NO-173 G A ROAD, CHENNAI 600021
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT A D2 BLUE STAR, ANNANAGAR 600040 ANNA NAGAR
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 172, ANNASALAI ANNA SALAI 600002
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT THIRAVATTIYAR, CHENNAI 600019
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT NO-9 ESPLANADE, PARRYS 600001 KURALAGAM
Sales Outlet DEPARTMENTAL UNIT OF 26,27 BROTHESTER NAZARATH 600018 KVIB STREET
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT NO-9 ESPLANADE, PARRYS 600001 KURALAGAM
05 June 2021
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Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT MYLAPORE CHENNAI 600028 ROAD,CHENNAI
Sales Outlet DEPARTMENTAL UNIT OF 26,27 BROTHESTER NAZARATH 628617 KVIB STREET
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT PALANI MAIN ROAD KHADI KRAFT UDU, 642204 , UDUMALPET PALANI M
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT KUMAR NAGAR , THATTI POLYAM 676103 TIRYAR
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT PENNAGARAM DHARMAPURI 63670 ROAD ,
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 7/95, M.G. ROAD , HOSUR 635109 HOSUR
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT GANDHIJI ROAD GANDHIJI ROAD 623707 PARAMAKUDIN PARAMAKUDIN
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT BATALAGUNDU BUS BATALAGUNDU 624202 STAND
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT PUJAN RAN STREET WALAJAPET 632401
Sales Outlet DEPARTMENTAL UNIT OF MADRAS PANDULU POST 600018 KVIB OFFICE,PANDU
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT THITUVANAMALAI , UTAAN GARHI 635207
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT HEAD POST OFFICE RAMANATHAPURA 623501 ROAD , M
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 4/111, MAIN ROAD MUDUKALATHUY 623704
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 4/111, MAIN ROAD MUDUKALATHUY 623704
Sales Outlet DEPARTMENTAL UNIT OF 651, MUSLIM KAMUTHI 623603 KVIB BAZAAR
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT GANDHIJI ROAD GANDHIJI ROAD 623707 PARAMAKUDIN PARAMAKUDIN
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT ODDANACHATRAM ODDANCHATRAM 624619 BUS STAND COPLX
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 56*94, HARI HARAN PONNERI 601204 BAZAAR SHEET
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT ANNA SHOPPING DINDIGUL 624001 COMPLEX
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT BERATHI ROAD CUDDALORE 607001
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 330,N.S.P SALAI , TIRUTTANI 631209 TIRUTTANI
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT DHARMAPURI ROAD KRISHNAGIRI 635001
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 321, PUDU ROAD KAVILPATHI 628501
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT POOMALAI VANIGA NEL MARGVATHUR 602319
Sales Outlet DEPARTMENTAL UNIT OF 7/149, SARDHAI NAGAPALUR 628904 KVIB BAZAR
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT BATALAGUNDU BUS BATALAGUNDU 600018 STAND
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT ODDANACHATRAM ODDANCHATRAM 600018 BUS STAND COPLX
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT AMMON SANTHI TENKASI 627811 ROAD
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 321, PUDU ROAD , KAVILPATHI 628501 KAVILPATHI
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT ST THOMAS ROAD TIRUNELVELI 627001
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT DINDIGUL ANNA SHOPPING 600018 COMPLEX OLD
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT TIRUNELVELI TIRUNELVELI 600018
05 June 2021
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Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT TIRUNELVELI TIRUNELVELI 600018
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 321, PUDU ROAD , KAVILPATHI 628501 KAVILPATHI
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT MAIN ROAD NANGUNERI 627108
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT SANKARN KOVIL SANKARN KOVIL 627756
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT AMMON SANTHI TENKASI 600018 ROAD , TENKASI
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT 1/59, KEELAVASAL PANCHASAT 623526 VEETHI
Sales Outlet KHADI KRAFT ytt try 600000
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR CHEYUR RD 641654 BOARD, AVINASHI
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR SALEM 636008 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR RAMNAD 623707 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR NR WEIGH BRIDGE 641654 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR NAMAKKAL 637001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR TRICHY 621306 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR KAVERI NAGAR 639001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. TIRUVANNAMALAI VILLUPURAM 606401 BOARD, ROAD
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR CUDDALORE 607001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR ARAKKONAM 631001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. NEAR TUTICORIN 628215 BOARD, DEVASTHANAM
OFFICE
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR CUDDALORE 608001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. SATHYAMANGALAM GOBI 638452 BOARD, MAIN ROAD
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR HOSUR 635109 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR PERAMBLUR 621102 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR MUSIRI 621211 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR THURAIYUR 621010 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR PUDDUKOTTAI 623526 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR NAGAPATTINAM 611001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. NEW BUS STAND VILLUPURAM 605106 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR DHARAPURAM 638656 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. NEW BUS STAND ERODE 638052 BOARD, COMPLEX
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR DINDIGUL 624001 BOARD,
05 June 2021
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Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR VELLAKOIL 638111 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. BIG BAZAR STREET THANJAVUR 614601 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. SHOPPING CENTER VELLORE 632401 BOARD, BHEEL CPLX
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR MADURAI 625001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 7 KAMRAJ BUS NAGERCOIL 629167 BOARD, STAND COMPLEX
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. NO 5 MUNCIPALITY PALANI 624618 BOARD, BLDG
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR PUDDUKOTTAI 622001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR KUMBKONAM 612001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR VELLORE 635751 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 142 SEKKALAI ROAD SHIVAGANGAI 630561 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 8 DDDC BUILDING KRISHNAGIRI 637001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. SHOP NO 12 THENI 625531 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. PENNAHARAM DHRAMAPURI 636001 BOARD, ROAD
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR VELLORE 632001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR ARCOT VELLORE 632503 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KADALAIYUR ROAD KOVILPATTI 628501 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR VEDACHANTHUR 624710 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. RAMAKRISHNA COIMBATORE 641020 BOARD, VIDYALAYA
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. ERODE 92 NAMAKKAL 637211 BOARD, BUNGLOW STREET
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR THIRUVANNAMALA 605757 BOARD, I
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 22 NORTH CAR VIRUDHNAGAR 626135 BOARD, STREET
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. A R LANE TIRUNELVELI 627002 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR KARAMBAKKUDI 622302 BOARD, ALANGUDI
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 3/49 RASOOL RAMADAPURAM 625535 BOARD, MANSION COMPLEX
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. RAILWAT STN RD THIRUVARUR 610001 BOARD, VIJAYAPURAM
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. NEAR HAJEE TIRUNELVELI 625001 BOARD, MOOSA TEXTILES
SHOP
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR KARUR 639001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR OOTY NILGIRIS 643001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR TINDIVANAM 604001 BOARD,
05 June 2021
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Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR POLLACHI 641669 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. GOBI MAIN ROAD ERODE 638503 BOARD, RANGASAMUDRAM
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR PUDDUKOTAI 622301 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. MAIN ROAD NEAR TIRUNELVELI 627401 BOARD, COURT
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR ARIYALUR 621704 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. NO 4 GANDHI RD NAGAPATTINAM 609001 BOARD, SECOND STREET
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 6/51 MARTHANDAM MARTHANDAM 629165 BOARD, JUNCTION
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR VIRUDHUNAGAR 626001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR VIRUDHANCHALAM 606001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR ARAVAKURICHI 639201 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. RAJARAJAN THANJAVUR 602001 BOARD, COMPLEX
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR R S PURAM 641002 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR ERODE 641654 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 299 GANDHI VEEDHI SHIVAGANGAI 630561 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR BUS STAND 643217 BOARD, KOTHAGIRI
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. EDAPADI ROAD SANGAGIRI 637301 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR TRICHY 620001 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. MUNCIPALITY RASIPURAM 637408 BOARD, BUILDING NAMKKAL
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 274 NAGERCOIL 629157 BOARD, THENGAIPATTINAM
ROAD
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 5/4 MAIN PANRUTI 607106 BOARD, BAZARCIRCLE 12
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 6 NAGARIYA NAGERCOIL 629001 BOARD, BUILDING
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR BATHALAKUNDU 624202 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. MUNCIPALITY KODAIKANAL 624101 BOARD, BUILDING
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. NO 114 GANDHI THIRUVARUR 614001 BOARD, ROAD
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. TIRUCHULI ROAD VIRUDHUNAGAR 626101 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. ARASAN BULDINGS SIVAKASI 626130 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. GREAT COTTON TUTICORIN 628001 BOARD, ROAD
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR PALLADAM 641664 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. KHADI BHANDAR KALLAKURICHI 606202 BOARD,
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Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. DAILY MARKET TIRUNELVELI 627002 BOARD, TIRUCHENDUR
ROAD
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. P S R SHOP USILAMPATTI 625532 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. CHEEPALAKOTTAI CHINAMANNUR 625515 BOARD, ROAD
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 1 K P ROAD NEAR KANYAKUMARI 629001 BOARD, ANNA BUS STAND
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. P S R SHOP USILAMPATTI 625532 BOARD,
Sales Outlet TAMIL NADU KHADI & V. I. 16/4 POLICE NAGERCOIL 629151 BOARD, STATION ROAD
Infrastructure Details
Infrastructure Type Description in No. Remarks
CHARKHA 6 Spindle Charkha 1294
Loom Traditional Loom 551
Land Details
Artisan Details
Artisan Type No. of Artisan
TOTAL ARTISANS: 2912
Weaver 960
Spinner 1952
Products Details
Performance Details
MDA Year Khadi VI
Production (Rs. in Lakhs)
Sales (Rs. in Lakhs)
2016-17 KH 1112.79 0
2016-17 VI 299.93 0
2016-17 Total : 1412.72 0
2017-18 KH 1103.84 0
2017-18 VI 299.99 0
2017-18 Total : 1403.82 0
2018-19 KH 1501.67 0
2018-19 VI 283.14 0
2018-19 Total : 1784.8 0
05 June 2021
Page 6 of 7

2019-20 KH 1339.08 0
2019-20 VI 112.2 0
2019-20 Total : 1451.28 0
2020-21 KH 651.98 0
2020-21 VI 18.95 0
2020-21 Total : 670.93 0
Total : 6723.5

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DO GOOD PURIFY MIND MINDFULLY SWIM PLANT VEGETABLES & DWARF FRUIT BEARING TREES IN POTS ALL OVER THE WORLD
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NAMO BUDDHAYA

On 5th June 1956 the Most Venerable Acharya Buddharakkhita Bhanteji arrived in Bengaluru with a Sacred Bodhi Tree sapling from Buddhagaya. He founded the Maha Bodhi Society Bengaluru on this day by planting the Holy Bodhi Tree. (He was a great lover of the nature and nothing is more relevant than plantation of a tree as foundation of our society, which incidentally is also observed as World Environment Day around the globe).

For 57 years he strived hard to build the Vihara and so many Dhamma activities and humanitarian programs. The Maha Bodhi Society Bengaluru is now a sacred place consisting of Vihara, meditation Center, holy bodhi tree, stupas with holy relics, Buddhist Research Center, Tipitaka Center and place for countless people from all walks of life to get solace, peace, happiness and wisdom. With branches all over India let us dedicate to serve even more the humanity.

Come let us pay gratitude to Bada Bhanteji and celebrate the FOUNDATION DAY of Maha Bodhi Society Bengaluru and it’s branches online.

Please join online

Date: 5th June 2021
Time:5 PM to 7 PM

-Undertaking Tisarana -Pancasila
-Puja
-PATTHANA chanting
-Meditation

Online links
YouTube:
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC51ukj-N_0tREiESDdiCoIw

Facebook:
https://www.facebook.com/MahaBodhiSocietyBengaluru/

May all beings be happy and well!

Team Mahabodhi
🌺🙏🌺🙏🌺🙏

https://youtu.be/68QH1M4XZlU

https://youtu.be/mYorFLsUU8A step by step guide to grow vegetable and dwarf fruit bearing trees in pots and all over the world

step by step guide to grow vegetable and dwarf fruit bearing trees in pots and all over the world

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01) Classical Magahi Magadhi,
02) Classical Chandaso language,
03)Magadhi Prakrit,
04) Classical Hela Basa (Hela Language),
05) Classical Pāḷi,
06) ClassicalDevanagari,Classical Hindi-Devanagari- शास्त्रीय हिंदी,
07) ClassicalCyrillic
08) Classical Afrikaans– Klassieke Afrikaans
09) Classical Albanian-Shqiptare klasike,
10) Classical Amharic-አንጋፋዊ አማርኛ,
11) Classical Arabic-اللغة العربية الفصحى
12) Classical Armenian-դասական հայերեն,
13) Classical Assamese-ধ্ৰুপদী অসমীয়া
14) Classical Azerbaijani- Klassik Azərbaycan,

15) Classical Basque- Euskal klasikoa,
16) Classical Belarusian-Класічная беларуская,
17) Classical Bengali-ক্লাসিক্যাল বাংলা,
18) Classical Bosnian-Klasični bosanski,
19) Classical Bulgaria- Класически българск,
20) Classical Catalan-Català clàssic 21) Classical Cebuano-Klase sa Sugbo, 22) Classical Chichewa-Chikale cha Chichewa,
23) Classical Chinese (Simplified)-古典中文(简体),
24) Classical Chinese (Traditional)-古典中文(繁體),
25) Classical Corsican-Corsa Corsicana,
26) Classical Croatian-Klasična hrvatska,
27) Classical Czech-Klasická čeština
28) Classical Danish-Klassisk dansk,Klassisk dansk,
29) Classical Dutch- Klassiek Nederlands,
30) Classical English,Roman,
31) Classical Esperanto-Klasika Esperanto,
32) Classical Estonian- klassikaline eesti keel,
33) Classical Filipino klassikaline filipiinlane,
34) Classical Finnish- Klassinen suomalainen,
35) Classical French- Français classique,
36) Classical Frisian- Klassike Frysk,
37) Classical Galician-Clásico galego,
38) Classical Georgian-კლასიკური ქართული,
39) Classical German- Klassisches Deutsch,
40) Classical Greek-Κλασσικά Ελληνικά,
41) Classical Gujarati-ક્લાસિકલ ગુજરાતી,
42) Classical Haitian Creole-Klasik kreyòl,
43) Classical Hausa-Hausa Hausa,
44) Classical Hawaiian-Hawaiian Hawaiian,
45) Classical Hebrew- עברית קלאסית
46) Classical Hmong- Lus Hmoob,
47) Classical Hungarian-Klasszikus magyar,
48) Classical Icelandic-Klassísk íslensku,
49) Classical Igbo,Klassískt Igbo,
50) Classical Indonesian-Bahasa Indonesia Klasik,
51) Classical Irish-Indinéisis Clasaiceach,
52) Classical Italian-Italiano classico,
53) Classical Japanese-古典的なイタリア語,
54) Classical Javanese-Klasik Jawa,
55) Classical Kannada- ಶಾಸ್ತ್ರೀಯ ಕನ್ನಡ,
56) Classical Kazakh-Классикалық қазақ,
57) Classical Khmer- ខ្មែរបុរាណ,
58) Classical Kinyarwanda
59) Classical Korean-고전 한국어,
60) Classical Kurdish (Kurmanji)-Kurdî (Kurmancî),
61) Classical Kyrgyz-Классикалык Кыргыз,
62) Classical Lao-ຄລາສສິກລາວ,
63) Classical Latin-LXII) Classical Latin,
64) Classical Latvian-Klasiskā latviešu valoda,
65) Classical Lithuanian-Klasikinė lietuvių kalba,
66) Classical Luxembourgish-Klassesch Lëtzebuergesch,
67) Classical Macedonian-Класичен македонски,
68) Classical Malagasy,класичен малгашки,
69) Classical Malay-Melayu Klasik,
70) Classical Malayalam-ക്ലാസിക്കൽ മലയാളം,
71) Classical Maltese-Klassiku Malti,
72) Classical Maori-Maori Maori,
73) Classical Marathi-क्लासिकल माओरी,
74) Classical Mongolian-Сонгодог Монгол,
75) Classical Myanmar (Burmese)-Classical မြန်မာ (ဗမာ),
76) Classical Nepali-शास्त्रीय म्यांमार (बर्मा),
77) Classical Norwegian-Klassisk norsk,
78) Classical Odia (Oriya
79) Classical Pashto- ټولګی پښتو
80) Classical Persian-کلاسیک فارسی
81) Classical Polish-Język klasyczny polski,
82) Classical Portuguese-Português Clássico,
83) Classical Punjabi-ਕਲਾਸੀਕਲ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ,
84) Classical Romanian-Clasic românesc,
85) Classical Russian-Классический русский,
86) Classical Samoan-Samoan Samoa,
87) Classical Sanskrit छ्लस्सिचल् षन्स्क्रित्
88) Classical Scots Gaelic-Gàidhlig Albannach Clasaigeach,
89) Classical Serbian-Класични српски,
90) Classical Sesotho-Seserbia ea boholo-holo,
91) Classical Shona-Shona Shona,
92) Classical Sindhi,
93) Classical Sinhala-සම්භාව්ය සිංහල,
94) Classical Slovak-Klasický slovenský,
95) Classical Slovenian-Klasična slovenska,
96) Classical Somali-Soomaali qowmiyadeed,
97) Classical Spanish-Español clásico,
98) Classical Sundanese-Sunda Klasik,
99) Classical Swahili,Kiswahili cha Classical,
100) Classical Swedish-Klassisk svensk,
101) Classical Tajik-тоҷикӣ классикӣ,
102) Classical Tamil-பாரம்பரிய இசைத்தமிழ் செம்மொழி,
103) Classical Tatar
104) Classical Telugu- క్లాసికల్ తెలుగు,
105) Classical Thai-ภาษาไทยคลาสสิก,
106) Classical Turkish-Klasik Türk,
107) Classical Turkmen
108) Classical Ukrainian-Класичний український,
109) Classical Urdu- کلاسیکی اردو
110) Classical Uyghur,
111) Classical Uzbek-Klassik o’z,
112) Classical Vietnamese-Tiếng Việ,
113) Classical Welsh-Cymraeg Clasurol,
114) Classical Xhosa-IsiXhosa zesiXhosa,
115) Classical Yiddish- קלאסישע ייִדיש
116) Classical Yoruba-Yoruba Yoruba,
117) Classical Zulu-I-Classical Zulu
https://gulfnews.com/…/census-more-than-19500-languages…:
More than 19,500
languages spoken in Prabuddha Bharat as mother tongues The mother tongue
of each member of a household need not necessarily be the sameMore than
19,500 languages or dialects are spoken in
Prabuddha Bharat as mother tongues, according to the latest analysis of a
census released this week.There are 121 languages which are spoken by
10,000 or more people in Prabuddha Bharat, which has a population of 121
crore, it said.The Registrar General and
Census Commissioner, Prabuddha Bharat,said since a household may consist
of persons related by blood or of unrelated persons or a mix of both,
it is absolutely necessary to ask every person about her or his mother
tongue.It was required because the mother tongue
of each member of a household need not necessarily be the same — these
may be different for different members in the household.
The number of such
raw returns of mother tongues has totalled 19,569, the report of the
2011 census said.However, 96.71 per cent of the population in the
country have one of the 22 scheduled languages as their
mother tongue.Since mother tongues, as returned in the census, are
basically the designations provided by the respondents of the linguistic
mediums in which the respondents think they communicate, they need not
be identical with the actual linguistic mediums,
it said.The methodologyFor assessing the correlation between the mother
tongue and designations of the census and for presenting the numerous
raw returns in terms of their linguistic affiliation to actual languages
and dialects, 19,569 raw returns were subjected
to thorough linguistic scrutiny, edit and rationalisation.This resulted
in 1,369 rationalised mother tongues and 1,474 names which were treated
as “unclassified” and relegated to “other” mother tongue category.The
1,369 rationalised mother tongues were further
classified following the usual linguistic methods for rational grouping
based on available linguistic information.
Thus, an inventory
of classified mother tongues returned by 10,000 or more speakers are
grouped under appropriate languages at the all-India level, wherever
possible, has been prepared for final presentation
of the 2011 mother tongue data.What are the findings?The total number of
languages arrived at is 121, the Registrar General and Census
Commissioner, Prabuddha Bharat, said.The 121 languages are presented in
two parts — languages included in the Eighth Schedule
of the Prabuddha Bharatian Constitution, comprising 22 languages and
languages not included in the Eighth Schedule, comprising of 99
languages plus the category “total of other languages”, which includes
all other languages and mother tongues which returned
less than 10,000 speakers each at the all-India level or were not
identifiable on the basis of the linguistic information available.The
number of scheduled languages was 22 at the time of presentation of the
2001. The same 22 languages are maintained in 2011
census also.The non-scheduled languages are 99 in 2011 against 100 in
2001.The decrease in the number is due to exclusion of Simte and
Persian, which were not returned in sufficient numbers as 2011, and
inclusion of Mao, which has returned more than 10,000
speakers at the all-Prabuddha Bharat level at 2011 census.Of the total
population of Prabuddha Bharat 96.71 percent have one of the scheduled
languages as their mother tongue, the remaining 3.29 per cent is
accounted for other languages.There are total 270
identifiable mother tongues which have returned 10,000 or more speakers
each at the all-India level, comprising 123 mother tongues grouped under
the scheduled languages and 147 mother tongues grouped under the
non-scheduled languages.Those mother tongues which
have returned less than 10,000 speakers each and which have been
classified under a particular language, are included in “others” under
that language.About the constitutional languagesThe Eighth Schedule of
the Constitution consists of the following 22 languages
– Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani,
Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi,
Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Bodo, Santhali, Maithili and Dogri.Of these
languages, 14 were initially included in the Constitution.
Sindhi language was added in 1967. Thereafter three more languages,
Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were included in 1992.Subsequently, Bodo,
Dogri, Maithili and Santhali were added in 2004.
https://www.ethnologue.com/guides/how-many-languages
How many languages are there in the world?
7,139 languages are spoken today.
That number is
constantly in flux, because we’re learning more about the world’s
languages every day. And beyond that, the languages themselves are in
flux. They’re living and dynamic, spoken by communities
whose lives are shaped by our rapidly changing world. This is a fragile
time: Roughly 40% of languages are now endangered, often with less than
1,000 speakers remaining. Meanwhile, just 23 languages account for more
than half the world’s population.
Living Languages, 2021
by Ethnologue
Region
Asia
Africa
Pacific
Americas
Europe
Other Popular Guides
What is the most spoken language?
What are the top 200 most spoken languages?
What continents have the most indigenous languages?
What countries have the most languages?
What are the largest language families?
How many languages are endangered?
About
Ethnologue Ethnologue is the research center for language intelligence.
We help our clients identify languages, find where they’re spoken, get population estimates, and more
.

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