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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
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VR1 (WE ARE ONE ) +VE NEWS-MAY YOU BE EVER HAPPY, WELL AND SECURE! MAY YOU LIVE LONG! MAY ALL BEINGS BE EVRER HAPPY, WELL AND SECURE! MAY YOU ALWAYS HAVE CALM, QUIET, ALERT, ATTENTIVE AND EQUANIMINTY MIND! WITH A CLEAR UNDESRSATNDING THAT NOTHING IS PERMANENT!-Buddhist Micro-economics for the here-and-now “It’s not what you earn that counts — but how much you have left over at the end of the month . . .”-ONLINE TRAINING ON PRECEPTS AND TRADE-73-Wealth is lost nothing is lost INTERNATIONAL JIVAKA PRESUMPTIVE HEALTH PROTECTION (IJPHP) Mentha x piperita citrata - (Ehrh.)Briq. Eau De Cologne Mint-Health is lost something is lost A BLUE PRINT FOR LIFE ON NATURE THE WAY OF ENVIRONMAENTAL PROTECTION-Precepts (Character, morality self-discipline) is lost everything is lost FREE ONLINE TRAINING ON BUDDHISM FOR CHILDREN-33 Dirty Bath Water [Cleanliness] -The moral is: Even animals value cleanliness.COMPREHENSIVE PALI COURSE LESSON 12
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 8:48 pm


VR1

(WE  ARE  ONE )

+VE  NEWS

MAY YOU BE EVER HAPPY, WELL AND SECURE!

MAY YOU LIVE LONG!

MAY ALL BEINGS BE EVRER HAPPY, WELL AND SECURE!

MAY YOU ALWAYS HAVE CALM, QUIET, ALERT, ATTENTIVE AND

EQUANIMINTY MIND!

WITH A CLEAR UNDESRSATNDING THAT

NOTHING IS PERMANENT!




ALMOST EVERY FRAUD involves
VICTIM

sending “CASH” money to a
Fraudster/Scammer.

ABSOLUTELY DO NOT send any money
using Western
Union
/ Moneygram. 

Always deal ONLY locally by meeting
the seller/buyer in person.

READ and UNDERSTAND the methods used
by Fraudsters in the link above.


ONLINE TRAINING ON PRECEPTS AND TRADE-73


3

Buddhist Micro-economics for the
here-and-now


“It’s not what you earn that counts — but how much you have left
over at the end of the month . . .”

 

The Buddha gave a total of
four principles of economic practice for finding happiness in the present
lifetime [di.t.t.hadhammikattha-sa.mvattanika dhamma] (A.iv.281): 

  1. Diligent
    acquisition
    [u.t.thaanasampadaa]:
    Diligent acquisition means skilfulness in the acquisition of wealth.
    Diligent acquisition refers to the habits of a person who works hard for
    their living — in contrast to those who are too lazy to make the effort.
    It also refers to the patience needed for people to work together as a
    team and the wisdom to recognize the work left undone — being able to
    perform, organize and administer the work as required. The most important
    feature of this first stage of the economic process can be summarized as
    acquiring wealth in an ethical way. As Buddhists we would say that taking
    advantage of others economically, in whatever form, is unethical
    acquisition of wealth. Particular forms of livelihood which the Buddha
    advised us to avoid in this respect are the five sorts of Unwholesome
    Livelihood [micchaa va.nijjaa] (A.iii.207) mentioned below:
      
  1. trading
    in weapons:
    The
    weapon trade is a major source of income for every superpower of the
    world. It is only normal that those who supply weapons will be on the
    receiving end of hatred from the victims of the destruction caused by the
    weapons they have sold. Selling weapons is the starting point of a long
    chain of negative karmic consequences. Weapons have had a part in every
    violent catastrophe occurring worldwide over the years — and it is not
    our place here to say who is right or wrong — but no-one can deny the
    magnitude of the death toll coming from armed conflict. Not selling
    weapons means refraining from any sort of trade in instruments for
    destroying life, whether it be guns, knives or even hunting equipment
    like traps or bait. Anything used for killing people or animals are
    considered weapons for the purposes of Unwholesome Livelihood. Even
    without physically harming a person, maltreatment can cause resentment
    which lasts across lifetimes — thus, it is up to all of us to check our
    own aggression without waiting for prodding from others . . .
     
  2. trading
    in people:

    Trading in people is also making profit out of the suffering of others.
    It formerly meant trading in slaves, but nowadays has come to include
    child labour, wage-slaves and prostitution;
     
  3. selling
    live animals to the slaughterhouse:
    Selling
    live animals to the slaughterhouse is taking a profit from the suffering
    of animals in a way that leads inevitably to their death;
     
  4. trading
    in alcohol or intoxicants:
    Trading
    in alcohol and intoxicants including non-medicinal drugs such as
    marijuana;
     
  5. trading
    in poison:
    Trading
    in poison means selling poison such as insecticide or rat-poison. The
    Buddha advised us not to sell such agents because otherwise their
    retribution will find its way back to us. Even though when we sell the
    poison it has not yet caused any harm, but as soon as it is used it has
    the same potency as already mentioned for weapons. If only we were to
    follow the Buddha’s advice more widely we wouldn’t have to waste our time
    in the present day for so much campaigning for biologically grown
    vegetables.
      

It is not to say that there are no more than these five ways of
unwholesomely earning a living — but these are the main ones. Thus if you
would like to know where to start looking for ways to reduce the amount of
conflict in the world, the present author’s advice would be to start by
minimizing your involvement with Unwholesome Livelihood. The Buddha taught that
any person who lapses into Unwholesome Livelihood will eventually attract a
heavy burden of negative karma for themselves. Other ways of making money which
involve economic exploitation in various ways can also be included as
unwholesome livelihood, such as criminal activities, or for example:
 

    • Making
      one’s living out of interest:

      The present author’s still remembers when he was a child, his mother
      always maintained, “In our household and our family we have never
      liked living off the interest earned from the money we lend to
      others.” She explained, “It is making a living out of the
      suffering of people who are incompetent in managing their own finances.
      If they were really competent in their financial management, they
      wouldn’t have to come borrowing money from the likes of us! Those who are
      financially careless would rather borrow at a high interest rate than go
      without — which would indicate that they don’t have much idea about the
      effective way to earn, save and use their finances. If you get too
      involved with these sort of people, it will just lead you to unnecessary
      frustration. If you really want to help such people, then just give the
      money to them without strings attached. It is not worthwhile to extend the
      mutual agony of having to be paid back for the interest on a loan.”
       
  1. Careful
    conservation
    [aarakkhasampadaa]:
    Careful conservation means skilfulness in the saving of wealth. Having
    earned wealth by the sweat of one’s brow in a scrupulous way, a person should
    take good care of their wealth, not allowing it to be eroded away by
    unjust taxation, theft, natural disaster or unintended inheritants. As for
    unwholesome conservation of wealth — this refers to excessive hoarding or
    stockpiling as mentioned above. Furthermore, when saving up one’s wealth
    — one should not allow doing so to bring us into conflict with those
    around us. Good reasons to put money on the side, according to Buddhist
    principles (A.iii.45) are in case of emergency such as repairing the consequences
    of fire, flood, excess taxation, theft or exhortion by malevolent
    relatives! You have to consider carefully, however what form you ought to
    save your money in. Of course the best way to conserve your wealth is as
    transcendental wealth or merit (see self-sacrifice of Chapter 4) –
    because in such a form it is beyond the touch of interest rates and it
    will appreciate with the passing of the years — thus saving in the form
    of transcendental wealth is really the most skilful way of conserving one’s
    wealth.
     
  2. Having
    virtuous friends
    [kalyaa.namittata]:
    Having virtuous friends means surrounding yourself with a network of
    virtuous friends in all areas of your life. The sort of friends one should
    cultivate are those endowed with faith [saddha], self-discipline [siila],
    self-sacrifice [caaga] and wisdom [pa~n~naa]. Apart from
    facilitating our cultivation of wisdom, it will also strengthen the
    network of good friends of which we are a part. Such networking is
    particularly relevant to teamwork because when one earns one’s living, one
    does not usually do so alone — whether it be working in the same office
    as one’s colleagues or cooperating in an international network. The most
    important attribute of teamwork is that the team members must have a
    similarly high level of scrupulousness in their work dealings and a
    similarly high level of faith in spiritual teachings. Furthermore,
    everyone in the team should have a similarly high level of self-sacrifice,
    dedicated to the collective good — thereby avoiding the dangers of
    networking with those who are overcome by their own selfishness. The
    Buddha taught that worldly wealth is exhausted in a moment — but the
    value of training other people to be virtuous never knows an end. The
    importance of this virtue is emphasized over and over again by the Buddha
    — who especially in the context of economics, taught that simply
    acquiring, storing and using wealth is not good enough. We have to build
    up a network of good people to work with too, before we get round to using
    our wealth — the way we use our wealth should be in cooperation with such
    good friends, if we really want happiness and prosperity in life.The
    Buddha emphasized that when one is earning one’s living, one should try to
    avoid associating with those who break the Precepts — no matter
    whether they be young or old. If not only the Precepts, but also their
    faith in Buddhism is lacking, then that is all the more reason to avoid
    associating with them. It is as if we are selective about channelling our
    resources — devoting our resources to encourage the proliferation of
    virtuous people in our society. Those who encourage virtue in their
    co-workers at the same time they earn their living will never have to
    complain at a later date of being ’stabbed in the back’ by their colleagues.
    You have no-one else but yourself to blame if your employees are left
    incompetent, unable to work as a team or unable to delegate — you cannot
    just expect competent people to rain down on you from the sky! You have to
    build on your employees competency by training them yourself. At the same
    time you need to continue to train yourself — seeing what virtues you can
    pick up from those more experienced than yourself — in this way, you will
    soon produce a network of good co-workers for yourself.
     
  3. Living
    within your means
    [samajiivitaa]:
    Living within your means means skilfulness in spending. Those who realize
    the ease with which wealth can come and go, should lead their life in a
    way that is appropriate to their means — not being extravagent but at the
    same time, not too spendthrift either! When we talk of generosity [daana]
    in this context we mean giving those things which are surplus to our
    needs. Some people might doubt as to how much they really need or might be
    unable to distinguish between ‘need’ and ‘want’ and hence the Buddha gave
    guidance about how householders should budget their earnings so that their
    generosity is neither reluctant nor a burden on the family expenditure.
    The Buddha taught (Aadiya Sutta A.iii.45 [36/93]) that the family budget
    should be divided into five. He did not say that each part should be 20%
    of your earnings, but he taught that you should budget for each of these
    sorts of expenditure. As for the “working capital” which you
    have built up for yourself, the Buddha taught in the Si”ngalovaada
    Sutta (D.iii.180ff.) that you should apply one-quarter of your earnings
    for your immediate needs, one-half should be reinvested in your business
    and the remaining quarter should be saved in case of emergency. It is up
    to each individual to decide how much of their income to use as
    “working capital” and how much to use for generosity. If you
    budget in this way, you will be able to practise generosity, giving
    neither too much nor too little. The fivefold division of one’s funds
    mentioned above should be as follows:
      
    1. one
      part to support the immediate needs of yourself, your parents, your
      children, spouse, servants
        
    2. one
      part to extend generosity towards your friends
        
    3. one
      part to be saved in case of emergency (as already mentioned above)
        
    4. one
      part which should be used for five sorts of dedication  
    1. for
      one’s extended family  
    2. for
      hospitality  
    3. for
      dedicating merit for the departed  
    4. for
      taxes  
    5. for
      dedicating merit to the things that you believe in according to your
      local custom (e.g.ascetics, animals, physical forces and elements, lower
      deities or higher deities depending on your culture)
        
  1. one
    part to extend support to well-practising monks and ascetics 

  2. In the old days they used to compare an extravagent person with a low income to
    the owner of a fig-tree who shakes the tree so that all the figs fall off, but
    who picks up only a few of them to eat. At the other extreme, a person with a
    good income who is not generous with their wealth will die in hardship
    out of keeping with their social status. Steering the middle way between
    stinginess and extravagence in a way appropriate to your level of income is
    said to be living within your means. Aside of the main five forms of
    Unwholesome Livelihood (mentioned above) which cause deterioration of
    wealth, there are another four sorts of behaviour, known as the ‘Four Roads to
    Ruin’ which if we can avoid them, will also help to protect our hard-earned
    income:
     

      1. womanizing;  
      2. drinking
        alcohol;  
      3. gambling;  
      4. associating
        with bad company 

      In
      conclusion, for anyone to remain scrupulous after wholesomely acquiring and
      saving their wealth, it is necessary to build up a network of good people [kalyaa.namitta]
      around themselves first, before they come to spending their hard-earned wealth.
      Habitually associating with good friends will cause one to expend with
      reflection as to true benefit, and thereby use one’s wealth solely for things
      which help in cultivating faith, keeping one’s precepts purely, practising
      self-sacrifice and cultivating wisdom in keeping with the guidance of the
      Buddha for happiness in lives to come (see next chapter).

      Thus, throughout one’s life
      one should earn one’s living carefully according to the four principles
      of happiness in the present lifetime — never compromising one’s Buddhist
      scrupulousness — and the same goes for saving one’s wealth. At the same
      time one needs to develop those around one as a protective fence or network of
      good friends. Surrounded by virtuous people, the tendency for our mind to be
      tempted by unethical compromises will be significantly reduced — and the
      interactions we have with our fellow workers will be for mutual encouragement
      of further good deeds.

      Metaphor of the reservoir

      The four economic principles for happiness in the present lifetime can be
      compared to four channels of water which supply a pool. The Four Roads to Ruin
      can be compared to four outlets from the pool. If we close the inlets and open
      the outlets, in the absence of rain, the pool will soon become completely dry.
      There will certainly be no increase in the water level. On the contrary, if one
      opens all four of the inlets by conducting oneself in keeping with the Buddhist
      economic principles, while closing the outlets by avoiding all four roads to
      ruin, before long the pool will be full or even overflowing. Thus, whether we
      are speaking economically on a personal level or on national level, it is vital
      to seal up the four possible outlets from our economic prosperity — by not
      womanizing, drinking alcohol or gambling — and by associating with good
      friends. These are the basics of Buddhist microeconomics for the present
      lifetime — economics that you won’t find described anywhere else in the world.
      If you heed the Buddha’s words on economics and put them in to practice you
      will have prosperity in your future, never falling upon hard times.

      Wealth
      is lost nothing is lost



      INTERNATIONAL JIVAKA
      PRESUMPTIVE HEALTH PROTECTION (IJPHP)
            


      Mentha
      x piperita citrata
      - (Ehrh.)Briq.

      Eau
      De Cologne Mint

      Author

      (Ehrh.)Briq.

      Botanical references

      17, 200

      Family

      Labiatae

      Genus

      Mentha

      Synonyms

      Mentha citrata - Ehrh.

      Known Hazards

      warning signAlthough no specific mention has been seen for this
      sub-species, it should be noted that, in large quantities, the closely allied
      M. x piperita vulgaris can cause abortions, especially when used in the form
      of the extracted essential oil, so it should not be used by pregnant women.

      Range

      Britain.

      Habitat

      A natural hybrid, M. aquatica x
      M. spicata found in moist soils on the sides of ditches, roadsides etc in S. England[5, 17].

      Edibility Rating

      apple iconapple icon2 (1-5)

      Medicinal Rating

      apple iconapple icon2 (1-5)

      Physical
      Characteristics

      icon of manicon of perennial/biennial/annual

      Perennial growing to 0.3m by 1m.

      It is hardy to zone 3 and is not
      frost tender. It is in flower from August to October. The flowers are
      hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
      It is noted for attracting wildlife.

      The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy)
      and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid,
      neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland)
      or no shade. It requires moist soil.

      Habitats

      Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Cultivated Beds;

      Edible
      Uses

      Edible Parts: Leaves.

      Edible Uses: Condiment; Tea.

      Leaves - raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring in
      salads or cooked foods[5]. A very pungent flavour, the leaves of the true
      eau-de-cologne mint are too aromatic for most tastes, though the cultivar ‘Basil’
      has an excellent flavour and makes a very good substitute for basil in
      pesto[K]. A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves[21, 183].

      Medicinal
      Uses

      Plants For A Future can not take any
      responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek
      advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

      Anodyne; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Carminative; Cholagogue; Diaphoretic; Refrigerant; Stomachic; Tonic; Vasodilator.

      Eau de Cologne mint, like many other members of
      this genus, is often used as a domestic herbal remedy, being valued especially
      for its antiseptic properties and its beneficial effect on the digestion. Like
      other members of the genus, it is best not used by pregnant women because large
      doses can cause an abortion. The leaves and flowering plant are anodyne,
      antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, diaphoretic, refrigerant,
      stomachic, tonic, vasodilator[4, 9, 21, 165]. A tea made from the leaves has
      traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive
      disorders and various minor ailments[222]. The medicinal uses of this herb are
      more akin to lavender (Lavandula spp) than the mints. It is used to treat
      infertility, rapid heartbeat, nervous exhaustion etc[238]. The leaves are
      harvested as the plant comes into flower and can be dried for later use[238].
      The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large
      doses[222].

      Other
      Uses

      Essential; Repellent; Strewing.

      An essential oil obtained from the whole plant is
      a source of lavender oil which is used in perfumery[46, 105, 238]. It is also
      used in oral hygiene preparations, toiletries etc[238]. Formerly used as a
      strewing herb[14], the plant repels insects, rats etc[14, 18, 20]. Rats and
      mice intensely dislike the smell of mint. The plant was therefore used in homes
      as a strewing herb and has also been spread in granaries to keep the rodents
      off the grain[244].

      Scented
      Plants

      Leaves: Crushed Dried

      The
      leaves have a very strong aroma, somewhat like ‘Eau de Cologne’.

      Cultivation
      details

      A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in most
      soils and situations so long as the soil is not too dry[1, 200]. Grows well in
      heavy clay soils. A sunny position is best for the production of essential oils,
      but the plant also succeeds in partial shade. Prefers a slightly acid soil[16].
      Plants are very tolerant of neglect, succeeding in long grass[K]. Hybridizes
      freely with other members of this genus. Most mints have fairly aggressive
      spreading roots and, unless you have the space to let them roam, they need to
      be restrained by some means such as planting them in containers that are buried
      in the soil[K]. The flowers are very attractive to bees and butterflies[24]. A
      good companion for growing near cabbages and tomatoes, helping to keep them
      free of insect pests[14, 20]. The mint will need to be grown in containers to
      prevent it spreading too aggressively into the other plants. The whole plant
      has a strong minty aroma with a hint of ginger[245]. The plant produces a
      better quality essential oil if the plant is grown in dry ground[115]. Members
      of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[233].

      Propagation

      Seed - sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is
      usually fairly quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they
      are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Mentha species are
      very prone to hybridisation and so the seed cannot be relied on to breed true.
      Even without hybridisation, seedlings will not be uniform and so the content of
      medicinal oils etc will vary. When growing plants with a particular aroma it is
      best to propagate them by division[K]. Division can be easily carried out at
      almost any time of the year, though it is probably best done in the spring or autumn
      to allow the plant to establish more quickly. Virtually any part of the root is
      capable of growing into a new plant. Larger divisions can be planted out direct
      into their permanent positions. However, for maximum increase it is possible to
      divide the roots up into sections no more than 3cm long and pot these up in
      light shade in a cold frame. They will quickly become established and can be
      planted out in the summer.

      Cultivars

      ‘Basil’

      The
      leaves have a true basil flavour though rather more minty. They can be used as
      a flavouring in similar ways to basil and make an excellent pesto[K].

      Health is lost something is lost


      A BLUE PRINT FOR LIFE

      ON NATURE

      THE WAY OF ENVIRONMAENTAL PROTECTION

                  If we wish
      to lead a wonderful life, then the laws of

      Nature must be obeyed. Spouses should be respectful of and

      understand one another, among neighbours, friends, and

      relatives there should be amity; and colleagues should aid

      and support one another. To start a business, one should

      first conduct market surveys, collect money, and make

      appropriate arrangements for human resources and

      management. To govern a nation, one should understand

      public opinion, employ loyal and honest people, carefully

      consider one’s words, and diligently carry out good laws.

      Buddhists should set an example in fostering happiness and

      good ties, meditating and increasing wisdom, as well as

      shouldering the responsibility to instruct and guide all

      sentient beings. If one conforms to the way in daily life –

      that is Buddhist way of natural life and way of living – then

      one will behave appropriately.



      Precepts (Character, morality
      self-discipline) is lost everything is lost


      FREE
      ONLINE TRAINING ON BUDDHISM FOR CHILDREN-33


      Dirty Bath Water
      [Cleanliness]

      Once upon a time, in a kingdom in India, the
      finest of the royal horses was taken down to the river to be bathed. The grooms
      took him to the same shallow pool where they always washed him.

      However, just before they arrived, a filthy
      dirty horse had been washed in the same spot. He had been caught in the
      countryside and had never had a good bath in all his life.

      The fine royal horse sniffed the air. He knew
      right away that some filthy wild horse had bathed there and fouled the water.
      So he was disgusted and refused to be washed at that place.

      The grooms tried their best to get him into
      the water, but could do nothing with him. So they went to the king and
      complained that the fine well-trained royal stallion had suddenly become
      stubborn and unmanageable.

      It just so happened that the king had an
      intelligent minister who was known for his understanding of animals. So he
      called for him and said, “Please go and see what has happened to my number
      one horse. Find out if he is sick or what is the reason he refuses to be
      bathed. Of all my horses, I thought this one was of such high quality that he
      would never let himself sink into dirtiness. There must be something
      wrong.”

      The minister went down to the riverside
      bathing pool immediately. He found that the stately horse was not sick, but in
      perfect health. He noticed also that he was deliberately breathing as little as
      possible. So he sniffed the air and smelled a slight foul odour. Investigating
      further, he found that it came from the unclean water in the bathing pool. So
      he figured out that another very dirty horse must have been washed there, and
      that the king’s horse was too fond of cleanliness to bathe in dirty water.

      The minister asked the horse grooms, “Has
      any other horse been bathed at this spot today.?” “Yes,” they
      replied, “before we arrived, a dirty wild horse was bathed here.” The
      minister told them, “My dear grooms, this is a fine royal horse who loves
      cleanliness. He does not wish to bathe in dirty water. So the thing to do is to
      take him up river, where the water is fresh and clean, and wash him
      there.”

      They followed his instructions, and the royal
      horse was pleased to bathe in the new place.

      The minister returned to the king and told
      what had happened. Then he said, “You were correct your majesty, this fine
      horse was indeed of such high quality that he would not let himself sink into
      dirtiness!”

      The king was amazed that his minister seemed
      to be able to read the mind of a horse. So he rewarded him appropriately.

      The moral is: Even animals value cleanliness.


      COMPREHENSIVE
      PALI COURSE


      LESSON 12

      Declension of Neuter words
      ending in ‘i’and ’ī’

       

      (a)  
      i – ending

      Vibhati            
                  Ekavacana                  
      Bahuvacana

       

      1.   Paṭhamā                     
      i                                  i,
      īni

      2.  
      Dutiyā                         
      i
                              i, īni

      3.  
      Tatiyā                         
      inā                              
      ībhi, īhi

      4.  
      Catutthī                       
      ino, issa                   
      īna

      5.  
      Pañcami                     
      inā, ismā, imhā          ībhi,
      īhi

      6.   Chaṭṭhi                       
      ino,issa                     
      īna

      7.  
      Sattamī                       
      ismi
      ṁ,imhi,  
              
         isu,
      īsu

      8.  
      Ālapana                      
      i,
                                       ī, īno

      For example: Akkhi = Eye

      Vibhati            
                  Ekavacana                  
      Bahuvacana

       

      1.   Paṭhamā                     Akkhi                      Ahhki,
      Ahhkīni

      2.   Dutiyā                         
      Ahhki
                       Ahhki,
      Ahhkīni

      3.  
      Tatiyā                         
      Ahhkinā                     Ahhkībhi,
      Ahhkīhi

      4.   Catutthī                       Ahhkino, Ahhkissa    Ahhkīna

      5.  
      Pañcami                     
      Ahhk
      inā, Ahhkismā, 

      Ahhkimhā                  Ahhkībhi, Ahhkīhi

      6.   Chaṭṭhi                      Ahhkino,
      Ahhk
      issa     Ahhk īna

      7.  
      Sattamī                       
      Ahhkismi
      ṁ, Ahhkimhi, Ahhkisu, Ahhkīsu

      8.  
      Ālapana                      
      Ahhki,
                                          Ahhkī,
      Ahhkīno

      Similarly declined are:

      Vāri
      = water
                                Sappi =
      ghee                       A
      ṭṭhi = bone

      Acci = flame                  Dadhi = curd                 Satti
      = thigh

      (b)  
      ī – ending

       

      Vibhati            
                  Ekavacana                  
      Bahuvacana

       

      1.   Paṭhamā                     
      ī                                 ī,
      īni

      2.   Dutiyā                         
      i
                              ī, īni

      3.  
      Tatiyā                         
      inā                              
      ībhi, īhi

      4.  
      Catutthī                       
      ino, issa                   
      īna

      5.  
      Pañcami                     
      inā, ismā, imhā          ībhi,
      īhi

      6.   Chaṭṭhi                       
      ino,issa                     
      īna

      7.  
      Sattamī                       ini,
      ismi
      ṁ, imhi,  
              
      isu, īsu

      8.   Ālapana                      
      ī
                                        ī, īni

      For
      example:
      Da
      ī

      Vibhati            
                  Ekavacana                  
      Bahuvacana

       

      1.   Paṭhamā                     Daī                      Daī, Daīni

      2.  
      Dutiyā                         
      Da
      i                Daī, Daīni

      3.  
      Tatiyā                         
      Da
      inā                    Daī, Dabhi, Daīhi

      4.   Catutthī                       
      Da
      ino, Daissa Daīna

      5.  
      Pañcami                     
      Da
      inā, Daismā, 

      Daimhā                 Daībhi,
      Da
      īhi

      6.   Chaṭṭhi                       
      Da
      ino,
      Da
      issa Daīna

      7.  
      Sattamī                       Da
      ini, Daismiṁ,

      Daimhi,  
              
            Daisu, Daīsu

      8.   Ālapana                      
      Da
      ī                        Daī, Daīni

      Similarly declined are:

      Sukhakārī  = giver of
      happiness

      Sukhakāmi = well-wisher

      Pāpi = evil one

      Sighayāyi = that which moves quickly

      Pāni = living being

      ñāī = one endowed with
      with knowledge

      Vāsī
      = dweller

      Pakkhī = bird, winged one

      Inī = one with debt

      Leṇnvāsī = cave-dweller

      Rogī = ailing one, sick

      Kuṇi = crooked-handed one

       

      Vocabulary:

      Āma = yes

      Na = no

      Payojanaṁ = need, useful

      Mā = don’t

      Vayogata = in old age

      Saṭho = crooked

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