is an attempt to reach out beyond the Consulate General
It will give news about forthcoming events and services available
The website also hopes to promote trade links with India
Bangalore: The United States may have ruled out setting up a
consulate in Bangalore but hopes that a new website, designed
specifically for Bangalore’s residents, will establish a “virtual
The U.S. Consulate General (Chennai) and American Corner, Bharatiya
Vidya Bhavan, on Wednesday launched a website,
http://bangalore.usvpp.gov, which will act as a “virtual consulate” for
The launch coincided with the fifth anniversary of the American
Corner which was set up to “serve as a window to life and culture in
the U.S.” and offers up-to-date information about cultural,
educational, political, economic and social trends in the U.S.
The Bangalore “virtual consulate” is the first its kind in India and
will give news about forthcoming events and services available at
For those looking for US citizen services, are applying for visas,
planning on doing business in the US, or want to explore education
options, the website points you in the right direction, said Michael
Pelletier, Consul for Public Affairs, US Consulate General, Chennai.
The choice of Bangalore as the first Indian city to launch the
virtual consulate was an “obvious” one, he said. The virtual consulate
is an attempt to reach out beyond the Consulate General and make
American programmes widely available, added Mr. Pelletier.
The website also hopes to promote trade links with India and specifically with Bangalore.
The trade relations are already robust and the private sector
partnerships between the two countries “have outpaced what the
governments have achieved” in this regard, he said.
Deeksha speech on 15th October 1956
My all Buddhist fellows
and invitees present:
is difficult for the thinkers to understand the significance of the place of
conversion (Deeksha) ceremony which was performed yesterday and today
morning. In their and in my opinion as well the ceremony which was held
yesterday should have been held today and today’s yesterday. It is essential to
know, why we have shouldered this responsibility, what was its necessity and
what will be the result of it. By understanding this, the foundation of our
mission will become strong. This process of understanding should have occurred
earlier. But few things remain so uncertain
that, those happen automatically. About this ceremony the things to be
happend, happened. But in spite of exchange of days, nothing
asked a question, why had you chosen
the place for this ceremony? Why this ceremony was not performed at some other
place? A few people say that since the large platoon of R.S.S. (Rashtriya
Swayamsevak Sangh) is in
and just to embarass them this ceremony is being held in this city. This is not
true at all. For this reason this ceremony is not being held at
stupendous that every minute of life is inadequate. I do not have time to
ill-omen others by scratching my nose.
for choosing this place is different. Those
who have studied the Buddhist history will come to know that the people who
propagated Buddhism in
were the Nag people. Nag people were the fierce enemy of the Aryans. Many
Fierceful battles took place between the Aryans and the Non-Aryans. Many
examples are available in the Puranas about where the Aryans burnt
the Nagas. The sage Agasti could save only one Naga. We are the descendants of
him. The Naga people who tolerated the oppression needed some great man to
uplift them and they found that great man in Lord Gautam Buddha. The Nagas
propagated the teachings of Lord Buddha throughout
habitation of the Naga people was in and around
Nag-pur ‘ means the city of
There is a Nagarjun Hill about 27 miles from this place. The river flowing
nearby is Nag river. Obviously this river got this name because of the people
living here. The river which flows through the habitation of the Naga people is
the Nag river. This is the main reason to select this place-Nagpur. There is no
question of irritating anybody nor the intention. The reason of the R. S. S.
even did not touch my mind. Nobody should interpret in that way.
could perhaps be for other reasons. I have already explained that this place
has not been choosen for antagonism. I have been criticised by many people and
newspapers for the initiation of this mission. The criticisms of some is harsh.
In their opinion I am misleading my poor Untouchables. They are misguiding some
of our people by telling that those who are Untouchables today will remain
Untouchables and the rights they have got, they will lose it. They advise
illiterate people among us to follow the traditional path. This might be
influencing some of the young and elder among us. If, by that the doubts have
been arisen in the minds of people, it is our duty to clear those doubts and
the clearing of those doubts will strenghthen the foundation of our movement.
In the past
we had a movement for not to eat meat.. The touchables thought it as if a
thunderbolt of lightening for them. Isn’t this a strange practice that they
should drink the milk of living buffalo and we should carry its carcass on our
shoulder after its death. We ask them why don’t you allow us to carry your dead
mother ? They should give us their dead mother as they give us their dead
buffalo. Some-one some-time wrote in the ‘ Kesari ‘ through correspondence that
in certain villages 50 cattle died every year, Rs. 500 could be earned from
their hides, horns, hoovers, meat, bones and tails; and leaving aside the matter
of meat of dead animals, these people would be deprived of that profit, such
propaganda was made through ‘Kesari ‘. Really speaking what was the necessity
of replying to such propaganda. Our people felt that what our Saheb (leader) is
doing if he is not replying such propaganda?
Once I had
been to Sangamner for meeting. The arrangement for the dinner was made. That
time a reporter from ‘ Kesari ‘ sent me a chit and asked, “You are
advising your people not to carry dead animals. How poor they are ! Their women
do not have sari and blouse to wear, they do not have food, they do not have
fields, when their conditions are so miserable, you tell them to give up an
income of Rs. 500 per year from hides, hooves, meat, is it not a loss of your
“where shall I reply you? Shall I reply here in corridor or in meeting? It
is better to answer before the people. “I asked the person,” Is it
the only thing or you want to ask anymore? “He said, “This much to
say and answer this only “. I asked that person, “How many children
you have and how many people you are? “He said, “I have five children
and my brother has five to seven children “. I said, “It means your
family is large. Hence, you and your relatives should carry all the dead
animals of that village and earn an income of Rs. 500. You must take this
benefit. In addition to this I make an arrangement to give you Rs. 500
annually. What will happen to my people, whether they will get food, clothes or
not, I will see it myself. Then, why are you giving up this benefit? Why don’t
you do this? If we do it, it is beneficial, and if you do it, isn’t beneficial
to you? Carry the dead animals. “
Brahmin-boy came to me yesterday and said, “you have been given reserved
seats in the Parliament and the Assemblies, why are you giving them up? “I
said, “You become Mahar and fill up those seats in the Parliament and the
Assemblies. The vacancies in the services are filled up. So many Brahmins and
others apply for the posts. Why don’t you Brahmin people fill up these reserved
seats by becoming Mahar as you do in services?”
to them is why do you weep for our loss? In reality self-respect is dearer to
human being and not material gain. A woman with virtues and character knows how
much beneficial is immoral behaviour. In our
Those women wake up at 8 O’clock and place an order for the breakfast in nearby
hotel, (Dr. Ambedkar imitated this in changed voice) “O Suleman, get a
plate of mince (Kheema) and bread.” Suleman brings alongwith tea, cake
etc. But, my Downtrodden sisters do not get even simple Chutni-Bhakar (mixture
of chilli and salt and bread), but they live with dignity and character.
fighting for honour and self-respect. We are getting ready to take the human
being towards the perfection, for that we are ready for any sacrifice. These
newspaper people (indicating them) got on my nerves for the past forty years.
How severely they have maligned me till date! I ask them to ponder over at
least now, leave this childishness and be prudent.
conversion to the Buddhism, I am confident, I will get the political rights.
(Shouts in the name of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar with thunderous claps). I cannot
tell what will happen after my death. For this movement we have to struggle
more. What will happen on having embraced the Buddhism if at all there are
difficulties, how could those be avoided. For that, what arguments and efforts
are to be made, I have thoroughly thought over this. My bag is with full of solutions. What are
those I know fully well. These rights I have obtained for my people. One who
obtained these rights, will surely regain them. It I who have obtained these
rights and facilities, and I am confident that I will again obtain them.
Therefore, now at least you should continue to have faith in me. That there is
no truth in the adverse propaganda.
surprised at one thing. Everywhere there is debate on large scale. But no one
has asked me a question as to why I embraced the Buddhism. Why I embraced only
this religion and not any other. This is the basic and important question in
the any movement of a conversion. While converting it should be put to the test
:Which religion and why it should be embraced. Through a resolution at Yeole in
1935, we started the movement of renouncing the Hindu religion. Long back I had
vowed, ” Though I am born as a Hindu I will not die as a Hindu ” and
I proved it yesterday. I am overjoyed, I am exalted. I feel I have been
liberated from the hell. I do not want blind followers. Those who wish to
embrace Buddhism, they should accept it with comprehension. Their conscious
should accept that religion.
absolutely essential for the development of mankind. I know that one sect came
into existence after reading Karl Marx. According to them religion is futile.
They do not have importance of religion. In the morning they get breakfast
containing bread, cream, butter, chicken leg etc. full meal, sound sleep, to
see movies; and that is all. That is their philosophy. I am not of that
opinion. My father was poor; I could not get such kind of luxuries. Nobody has
ever lived a life as hard as mine. Therefore, I have a realisation that how
hard a man’s life can be in the absence of luxuries. I know that economic elevation movement is necessary. I am not against that movement.
Man must progress financially.
But I make
an important distinction in this matter. There is a difference between buffalo,
bull and man.
and bull need fodder every day. Man also needs food. But the difference in
between the two is that buffalo and bull have no mind; man has body and mind
too. Therefore, both should be pondered over. The mind should be developed. The
mind should be cultured. It should be made cultured. I do not want to have any
sort of relationship with such country or people who say that there is no
relation between man and cultured mind except the food. As to keep relationship
with people man should have sound body in the same way while making the body
healthy, the mind should also be cultured. Otherwise, it cannot be said that
mankind has been progressed.
body or mind is ill? The reasons
are, either his body is diseased or his mind has no enthusiasm. If there is no
enthusiasm in mind there is no progress. Why is not this enthusiasm there? The
first reason is that man has been kept in such a way that he does not get any
opportunity or he has no hope to rise. That time, how will he remain
enthusiastic? He remains diseased. The man who gets the fruit of his deeds can
get enthusiasm. Otherwise a teacher in a school started saying, ” Hey, who
is this ? He is a Mahar. And will this wretched Mahar get through in first
class? For what he wants first class ? Be in third class only—to get in first
class is Brahmin’s claim. Under these circumstances, what enthusiasm the boy
will get? How can he progress? The root of creating enthusiasm is in mind,
whose body and mind also are healthy, who is courageous, who has confidence in
surmounting all adversities, in him only enthusiasm is generated and he only
excels. Such a strange philosophy has been incorporated in the Hindu religion
which can never promote enthusiasm. Circumstances making man unenthusiastic
have been maintained for thousands of years, then at the most such people will
be produced who would fill their stomach by clerical jobs. What else will
happen? To protect these clerks, a big clerk is needed.
behind man’s enthusiasm is mind. You know the owners of mills. They appoint
managers for their mills and get the works done in the mills through their
managers. Mill owners are involved in some or the other bad habits, their
minds have not been developed culturally. We started a movement to infuse
enthusiasm in our minds, then the education would be started. I began my
education by wearing a loin-cloth. I could not get even water to drink in the
school. I spent many days without water in the school. The same situation was
maintained even in the
If such is the situation, what else conditions will be
created. Only clerks will be produced.
Linlithgow was the Viceroy when I was in the Executive Council of
” In addition to the normal expenditure, you spend Rs. Three lac on the
Muslims. In the same way you give Rs. Three lac to the
neither Hindus nor Muslims. If you think of doing something for us, then
thousand times more than them should be done. Do at least as much for us as
Muslims. ” Then Lord Linlithgow said, ” Whatever you have to say give
me in writing. ” Accordingly I prepared a memorandum. That manuscript is
still with me. Europeans were very sympathetic. They accepted my proposal. The
problem was on which item the money had to spend. They thought that, our girls
are not educated, they should be provided with education. Boarding be started
for them, and the money should be spent on that. If our girls are provided
education and made educated, where, at home, is the material to cook various
types of dishes? What is the end result of their education ? The Government
spent the money on other heads and withheld the amount for education.
Therefore, one day I went to Lord Linlithgow and regarding the expenditure on
education I said, ” If you do not get angry, I would like to ask
you a question. I am alone equal to fifty graduates, Aren’t I? He
had to accept it. Again I asked him, ” What is the reason of it?” He
said, “We do not know the reason.” I said, “My learning is so
great that I could sit on the pinnacle of the palace. I want such men. Because,
from there, one can make overall surveillance. If our people are to be
protected, then such sharp eyed men should be created. What can a mere clerk
do? At the very moment Lord Linlithgow was convinced by my words and sixteen
men were sent to
for higher education. Just as some earthen pots are half-baked and some are
baked, of those sixteen some are half-baked and some are baked-this is
different matter! Later on C. Rajgopalachari cancelled this scheme of higher
country, such situation prevails that will make us unenthusiastic for thousands
of years to come. Till this situation exists, there cannot be enthusiasm for
our progress. In this regard we cannot do anything by remaining in this
religion. There is Chaturvrana in Manusmruti. Chaturvrana system
is very harmful for the progress of mankind. It has been mentioned in the Manusmruti
that Shudras should do only menial service. Why do they need
education? The Brahmin should take education, Kshatriya should
take up arms, Vaishya should do business and Shudra should serve.
Who will unfold this system? Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaishya have
some gain, but what about Shudras? Will there be any enthusiasm in other
castes except these three varnas? This Chaturvarna System is not
haphazardly; this is not a custom; this is the religion.
There is no
equality in the Hindu religion. Once I had been to Mr. Gandhi, he said, “I
believe in Chaturvarna” ! I said, “Mahatmas like you believe
in Chaturvarna! But what is this Chaturvarna and how is this?
(Dr. Ambedkar expressed this by showing his hand fingers one upon another as
well as keeping palm in flat position.) This Chaturvarna is whether up
or flat? from where the Chaturvarna begins and where does it end ?
Gandhiji did not answer this question and what answer can he give? Those who
ruined us, also be perished by this
religion. I do not accuse this Hindu religion unnecessarily. Nobody will
prosper by the Hindu religion. That religion itself is a ruinous religion.
Why did our
country go under the rule of foreigners? Till 1945
witnessed the wars. In whatever number soldiers were killed that number was
filled by new recruitment. That time nobody could say that we had won the war.
Everything is altogether different of our country. If Kshatriyas are
killed, we are doomed. Had we right to possess the arms, this country would not
have gone in servitude. No one could have been able to conquer this country.
remaining in the Hindu religion nobody can prosper in any way. Because of the
stratification in Hindu religion, it is fact that higher varnas and
castes are benefitted. But, what about the others? The moment Brahmin woman
delivers a child, her eyes are focussed towards a post of High Court Judge
where it is lying vacant. On the contrary, when our sweeper woman delivers a
child, her eyes are focussed on a post of sweeper where it is lying vacant. The
Vama-System of Hindu religion is responsible for such a strange social
structure. What improvement can take place from this? Prosperity can be
achieved only in the Buddhist religion.
Buddhist religion 75% Bhikkhus were Brahmins. 25% were the Shudras and
others. But the Lord Buddha said, “O, Bhikkhus, you have come from
different countries and castes. Rivers flow separately when they flow in their
provinces, but they lose their identity when they meet the sea. They become one
and the same. The Buddhist Sangh is like an ocean. In this Sangh all
are equal. “After they merge into the ocean, it is not possible to
identify the water of Ganga or
Similarly when we join Buddha Sangh, we lose our caste and become equal.
There is only one Great Man who preached such equality, and that Great Man is
Lord Buddha. (Thunderous applause).
say, “Why did you take so much time to get converted ? What were you doing
all these days? This is the question of importance. Convincing a religion is
not an easy task. That is not the mission of a single person. Any person
thinking of religion will come to know this. No man in the world shoulder as
much responsibility as do I. If I get a Song life, I will fulfill my planned
work. (Shouts of ‘ long live Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar’) “.
will say what will happen if Mahar becomes Buddhist. I tell them they should
not say so. It will be dangerous for them. Higher and wealthy class will not
feel the necessity of religion. The officers among them have bungalows to live
in, servants to serve them, they have money, wealth and respect, the men of
such sort need not think of religion or to be worried about it.
necessary for the poor. Religion is necessary for the Depressed people. The
poor man survives on hope. The root of life lies in hope. What will happen to
the life if the hope is lost? Religion makes hopeful, and gives a message to
the depressed and the poor – do not be afraid, life will be hopeful, it will
be! Therefore, the poor and the depressed mankind clings to the religion.
Christian religion entered Europe, the condition of
distressful. People could not get enough food. That time hotchpotch (Khichadi)
was distributed among the poor people. Who become the followers of the Christ?
Poor and Depressed people. The poor and lower class people of the
Christianity is the religion of the beggars. Gibbon is not alive to give the
answer to how Christian religion became the religion of all in Europe,
otherwise he would have had to answer this.
will say that this Buddhism is the religion of Maharas and Mangas. The Brahmin
people used to call Lord Guatam as ‘Bho Guatam’ means ‘Are Gautam’. In this way
the Brahmins used to tease the Lord Buddha. They have to see how many idols of
the foreign countries. if they are put to sell. On the contrary, if the idols
of Lord Buddha are kept for sale, not a single idol will be left out (Loud
clapping). That is too much in
go and show something outside, the name known to the world is of the Lord
Buddha. Then how the propagation of this religion will be prevented!
follow our path, you follow yours. We have found a new path. This is the day of
hope. This is the path of elevation and progress. This is not the new path.
This path has not been borrowed from any where. This path is from here, it is
purely Indian. The Buddhist religion servived here for 2000 years in
speaking, we feel regretted why we did not embrace the Buddhism earlier. The
principles preached by the Lord Buddha are immortal. But the Lord Buddha did
not make such claim. There is a provision for change with the change of
time. Such generosity is not found in any religion.
reason of destruction of the Buddhist religion is the invasions of Muslims.
Muslims destroyed the idols of the Lord Buddha in their invasions. This was the
first attack on the Buddhist religion. Because of the fear of their invasions,
the Buddhist Bhikkhus fled. Some went to
some went to
and some went elsewhere. To defend the religion laity is essential. There was a
Greek King in the North-West Frontier. His name was Milinda. This King always
used to debate. He delighted in debates. He used to tell the Hindus, one who is
a debator should come forward and debate. He had made many unanswerable.
Once, he thought to debate with the
Buddhist people and he asked to fetch any Buddhist debator. So the Buddhist
people requested Nagsena that he should represent the Buddhists in that debate.
Nagsena was learned. Earlier he was Brahmin. What debate took place between
Nagsena and Milinda is known to the world through a book. The name of that book
is ‘Milinda Panha’. Milinda asked a question, ‘Why does the religion decline?’
Nagsena answered and gave three reasons for it.
The first reason is that a
particular religion itself is immature. The basic principles of that religion
have no depth. It becomes a temporal religion and such religion survives only
for short period.
The second reason is that, if there
are no learned preachers in that religion, then the religion declines. Learned
persons should preach the philosophy of the religion. If the preachers of the
religion are not prepared to hold debate with the opponents, then the religion
And the third reason is that, the
religion and the religious principles are only for learned persons. For common
people there are temples and shrines. They go there and worship supernatural
Buddhism we should keep in mind these reasons. No one can say that the
principles of Buddhism are temporal. Today, the whole world respects all the
Principles of Buddhism even after 2500 years. There are 2000 Buddhist Institutions
At the expense of 3 Lac rupees, a Buddhist temple has been built in
there are 3 to 4 thousand Buddhist Institutions. Buddha’s principles are
immortal. Nevertheless the Buddha has not claimed that this is the religion of
God. The Buddha said that his father was a common man; his mother was a common
woman. If you feel, accept this religion. If this religion appeals to your
reason, then accept it. Such generosity has not been allowed in any other
What is the
original foundation of Buddhism? There is tremendous difference between the
Buddha’s religion and other religions. It is not possible to have changes in
other religions because those religions relate man with God. Other religions
preach that God has created the Nature. God has created all-sky, air, moon, sun
etc. God has left nothing for us to do, so we must worship God. According to
the Christian religion, after death, there is a Day of Judgement, and all
depends on that Judgement. There is no place for God and Soul in the Buddha
religion. Lord Buddha said there is sorrow
all over the world, 90% people are suffering from sorrow. To emancipate those depressed and poor
people from sorrow is the
principal task of the Buddha’s religion. What else did Karl Marx tell different
from Lord Buddha’s saying? Lord Buddha did not tell anything in a zigzag way.
have told you whatever, I wanted to say. In all respects this religion is
perfect. It has no stigma at all. The principles of Hinduism are such from
which enthusiasm cannot be created. From thousands of years till the other day
not a single graduate or a learned man was produced from our society. I do not
hesitate to say, there was a woman who used to sweep my school; she was
Maratha. She did not touch me. My mother used to tell me to call elder person
as Mama (uncle). I used to call the postman as Mama (Loud
laughter). In my childhood I felt thirsty in the school. I told so to my
teacher. The teacher called the peon for my protection and told him to take me
to the tap. We went to the tap. The peon opened the tap and I drank the water.
Usually at school I did not get water to drink. Later I was offered some
service as District Judge. But I did not get stick with that sort of job. I had
a problem - who would carry out the mission of my brothers, so I did not get
stick in that bondage.
individual, nothing in this country is impossible for me (clapping). How the arranged declivity of Vaishya,
Kshatriya and Brahmin on your head will be tumbled down and
destroyed, is the real question. Hence, it is my duty to give you in all
respects the knowledge of this religion. By writing books, I will remove all
your doubts and suspicions and will try to lead you to a stage of full
knowledge. At least at present, you should have faith in me.
However, your responsibility is
great too. Your behaviour should be such that other people will honour and
respect you. Do not think that this religion means we have got stuck with a
corpse around our neck. As far as the Buddhism is concerned, the
to follow Buddhist religion in the finest way. It should not happen that the
Mahar people brought the Buddhism to disgrace, so we must have firm determination.
If we accomplish this, then we will thrive ourselves, our nation, and not only
that but the whole world also. Because the Buddhist religion only will be the
saviour of the world. Unless there is justice, there will be no peace in the
path is full of responsibilities. The young should keep in mind that we had
made some resolutions and expressed some desires. They should not become
selfish idlers. We should decide that, at least, we should give 20th part of
our income for this purpose. I want to take all of you with me. Initially
Tathagat gave Deeksha to few individuals and directed them: “Spread this
religion”. After that Yasha and his forty friends embraced the Buddhism. Yasha
belonged to rich family. Lord Buddha said to them, what is this religion like?
The religion is “Bahujan hitay bahujan sukhay, Lokanucampay, Dhamma adi
Kalyanam, Madhya Kalyanama, Paryavasan Kalayanam.” Tathagata decided
the path of preaching His religion according to the conditions of that time.
Now we must have to make the mechanism. After this ceremony each one should
give deeksha to each one. I
proclaim that every Buddhist person has the right to give Deeksha.
Babasaheb Ambedkar concluded his speech under thunderous applause from the
Buddhists and. invitees.
ONLINE TRAINING ON PRECEPTS AND TRADE-76
Ideals and Goals in Buddhist
Threefold Goals in Buddhist Economics
Having studied the economic practices applicable to happiness in this
lifetime and the next, in this chapter we shall look at the goals of
such practice — because without such goals clearly in mind, it is unlikely
that anyone will have the patience to put the forgoing principles into
Buddhist microeconomics are
designed to work on three levels (these determine the true value of any
deal with each level in turn:
The Purely Materialist level
Practice on the purely materialist level corresponds to the first question from
the Diighajaa.nu Sutta (see
2) concerning happiness in the present lifetime. When one’s only
aim in life is to find immediate material convenience for oneself, so that we
can avoid hardship, the Buddha’s teaching can be summarized by the acronym
u.t.thaanasampadaa or diligent acquisition
aarakkhasampadaa or conservation
kalyaa.namittata or having good friends
samajiivita or living within one’s means
aim on this level, which we must not lose sight of is standing on our own two
feet instead of being a burden on society — achieving by scrupulous means a
moderate degree of material comfort and economic security for oneself and one’s
family. The most important guiding principle in accumulating wealth for oneself
is to avoid the bad karma of taking advantage of others.
The Material/Spiritual level
Practice on the material/spiritual level corresponds to the second question
from the Diighajaa.nu Sutta (see
2) concerning happiness in lifetimes to come. The Buddha’s
teaching on this level can be summarized by the acronym ‘Sa-Sii-Caa-Pa’,
saddhaa or faith
siila or self-discipline
caaga or self-sacrifice
pa~n~naa or wisdom
The aim on this level, which
we must not lose sight of are:
For our purposes in the analysis of Buddhist economics, the most
Aa.lavaka belonged to the category of ‘fallen-angel’ ogres. He
The Purely Spiritual level
The purely spiritual level is not dealt with in the Diighajaa.nu Sutta. His
questions covered only the lower two levels. The question remains of what sort
of economics one needs if one wants to reach beyond the heaven realms to
Nirvana and a complete end of all defilements. In the answers of the Buddha, He
has already used the word ‘ariya‘ or ‘transcendental’ several times –
especially in the last virtue of the second set of practices for happiness in
lives to come — where wisdom. The aim on this level, which we must not lose
sight of is to bring oneself to an end of defilements.
INTEGRATION OF MICROECONOMIC PRACTICE ON THREE LEVELS:
The Economical Mandala of
In the present day, educationalists and theoreticians alike need to produce
graphics to help them to plan the economy for the years ahead. However, charts
and graphics are not something that are an innovation for our generation –
because ever since ancient times, Thai Buddhists have had a way of modelling
economics as follows:
They would summarized the
practices on the level of a purely material goal in the form of a mandala
to make it look a little more sacred. In the old days, when monks went to give
a house an inaugural blessing, they used to mark such a diagram above the door.
Sometimes the monk would not write the abbreviations in Thai, but in the Khom
language of the old scriptures. In the beginning everyone would know the
meaning of the abbreviations on the door lintel. Later generations changed the
Khom characters to Thai characters for ease of comprehension.
They added a second layer of
economic abbreviations around the original in order to denote practice on the
level of a material/spiritual goal as follows:
Usually the invited monk
would write the mandala in flour mixed with water — but unfortunately
in most cases, the monk would just write the mandala and return to the
temple without explaining its meaning. Thus the owner of the house in later
generations had no idea of the Buddhist economic principles encapsulated
therein. They didn’t know the meaning and assumed that the mandala was
sacred in itself — so once the monk had returned, they felt relieved that they
had already done their duty as a good Buddhist and went back to playing poker
in the assumption that they would soon be rich.
This mandala so far
gives only practices for economic aims on the material and material/spiritual
levels. If you want to go all the way and have an economic aim that will take
you to Nirvana, you need to add the Noble Eightfold Path to each of the eight
corners of the mandala as illustrated in the diagram below:
. . where the abbreviations have the following meanings:
Sammaa Di.t.thii or Right View
Sammaa Sa.nkappa or Right Intention
Sammaa Vaacaa or Right Speech
Sammaa Kammanta or Right Action
Sammaa Aajiiva or Right Livelihood
Sammaa Vayaamaa or Right Effort
Sammaa Sati or Right Mindfulness
Sammaa Samaadhi or Right Concentration
the people of old found the mandala so important, but feared that it
would be lost, they made mandalas of it on cloth — making the famous ‘yantra‘
cloths found throughout Thailand. Later finding that even the ‘yantra‘
cloths were not very long-lasting, they engraved the pattern on plates of gold,
silver or other metals. Later, with the wish to be able to take the teaching around
with them, they made miniatures in on small metal rolls and made necklaces out
These were skilful means of
ancient Thai Buddhists who tried to integrate Buddhist teachings into everyday
life on every level — especially so as not to get carried away with madness
for material wealth, and in order to focus instead on cultivating spiritual
values. Practising one’s livelihood, according to the principles of Buddhism
would immediately grasp that, one’s duty as a Buddhist was to avoid one’s livelihood
being the reason for accumulating demerit in one’s life. With such principles
in mind, even though it might be a great temptation to make a quick profit from
unscrupulous practices, if one knew that it involved the Wrong Livelihood
prohibited by the Buddha, one would rather sacrifice one’s life than to do it.
In conclusion, you can say
that Buddhist economics teaches us to interact economically in life without
abandoning one’s Dhamma principles.
PRESUMPTIVE HEALTH PROTECTION (IJPHP)
Bacopa monnieri (Coastal Waterhyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola, Water
hyssop) is a perennial,
creeping herb whose habitat includes wetlands and muddy
shores. Brahmi is also the name given to Centella asiatica by some botanists, while others consider that to be a
mistake that arose during the 16th century, when brahmi was confused
with mandukaparni, a name for C. asiatica.
of this plant are succulent and relatively thick. Leaves are oblanceolate and
are arranged oppositely on the stem. The flowers are small and white, with four or five petals. Its
ability to grow in water makes it a popular aquarium plant. It can even grow in slightly brackish conditions. Propagation is often
achieved through cuttings.
grows in marshy areas throughout India,
Nepal, Sri Lanka, China,
Taiwan, and Vietnam, and is also found in Florida and other southern states of the USA
where it can be grown in damp conditions by the pond or bog garden.
has a number of uses in Ayurveda. It is a
traditional treatment for epilepsy and asthma. It has antioxidant properties, reducing oxidation of
fats in the bloodstream. Studies in humans show that an extract
of the plant has antianxiety effects.
listed as a nootropic, a drug that enhances cognitive
ability. In India, this plant has also been used
traditionally to consecrate newborn babies in the belief that it will open the
gateway of intelligence. Laboratory studies on rats indicate that extracts of
the plant improve memory capacity and motor learning ability. Recent studies suggest bacopa may
improve intellectual activity. The sulfhydryl and polyphenol components of Bacopa monniera
extract have also been shown to impact the oxidative stress cascade by
scavenging reactive oxygen species, inhibiting lipoxygenase activity and
reducing divalent metals. This mechanism of action may explain
the effect of Bacopa monniera extract in reducing beta-amyloid deposits
in mice with Alzheimer’s disease.
standardized Bacopa monniera preparation was evaluated for safety and
tolerability in 23 healthy adult volunteers. Participants took 300 mg of the
extract daily for 15 days, followed by 450 mg/daily for the subsequent 15
days. No adverse effects were observed in biochemical, electrocardiographic,
hematological or clinical parameters in the post-treatment vs. the
pre-treatment period. There were some reports of mild gastrointestinal symptoms
that resolved spontaneously.
Health is lost something is lost
A BLUE PRINT FOR LIFE
ON THE FUTURE
THE WAY OF
thing in life is when a person has no hope
for the future. Without hope, there is no future. People
hope. People have kids to make provisions for old age; they
raise and educate them hoping that they will be successful.
Strengthening family ties and living in harmony with
neighbours implies hope that we can all live together better
the future; planting trees and flowers and storing grain in the
event of famine also exhibit a sense of boundless hope. The
Chinese are concerned about continuing the family line over
generations in hopes of extending life of the people. Even
today’s organ transplants are a hope to life.
Precepts (Character, morality
self-discipline) is lost everything is lost
The Bull Called Delightful
[All Deserve Respect]
Once upon a time, in the country of Gandhara
there was a city called Takkasila. In that city the Enlightenment Being was
born as a certain calf. Since he was well bred for strength, he was bought by a
high class rich man. He became very fond of the gentle animal, and called him
‘Delightful’. He took good care of him and fed him only the best.
When Delightful grew up into a big fine strong
bull, he thought, “I was brought up by this generous man. He gave me such
good food and constant care, even though sometimes there were difficulties. Now
I am a big grown-up bull and there is no other bull who can pull as heavy a
load as I can. Therefore, I would like to use my strength to give something in
return to my master.”
So he said to the man, “Sir, please find
some wealthy merchant who is proud of having many strong bulls. Challenge him
by saying that your bull can pull one- hundred heavily loaded bullock
Following his advice, the high class rich man
went to such a merchant and struck up a conversation. After a while, he brought
up the idea of who had the strongest bull in the city.
The merchant said, “Many have bulls, but
no one has any as strong as mine.” The rich man said, “Sir, I have a
bull who can pull one hundred heavily loaded bullock carts.” “No,
friend, how can there be such a bull? That is unbelievable!” said the
merchant. The other replied, “I do have such a bull, and I am willing to
make a bet.”
The merchant said, “I will bet a thousand
gold coins that your bull cannot pull a hundred loaded bullock carts.” So
the bet was made and they agreed on a date and time for the challenge.
The merchant attached together one-hundred big
bullock carts. He filled them with sand and gravel to make them very heavy.
The high class rich man fed the finest rice to
the bull called Delightful. He bathed him and decorated him and hung a
beautiful garland of flowers around his neck.
Then he harnessed him to the first cart and
climbed up onto it. Being so high class, he could not resist the urge to make
himself seem very important. So he cracked a whip in the air, and yelled at the
faithful bull, “Pull, you dumb animal! I command you to pull, you big
The bull called Delightful thought, “This
challenge was my idea. I have never done anything bad to my master, and yet he
insults me with such hard and harsh words!” So he remained in his place
and refused to pull the carts.
The merchant laughed and demanded his winnings
from the bet. The high class rich man had to pay him the one thousand gold
coins. He returned home and sat down, saddened by his lost bet, and embarrassed
by the blow to his pride.
The bull called Delightful grazed peacefully
on his way home. When he arrived, he saw his master sadly lying on his side. He
asked, “Sir, why are you lying there like that? Are you sleeping? You look
sad.” The man said, I lost a thousand gold coins because of you. With such
a loss, how could I sleep?”
The bull replied. “Sir, you called me
‘dummy’. You even cracked a whip in the air over my head. In all my life, did I
ever break anything, step on anything, make a mess in the wrong place, or
behave like a ‘dummy’ in any way?” He answered, “No, my pet.”
The bull called Delightful said, “Then
sir, why did you call me ‘dumb animal’, and insult me even in the presence of
others? The fault is yours. I have done nothing wrong. But since I feel sorry
for you, go again to the merchant and make the same bet for two thousand gold
coins. And remember to use only the respectful words I deserve so well.”
Then the high class rich man went back to the
merchant and made the bet for two-thousand gold coins. The merchant thought it would
be easy money. Again he set up the one hundred heavily loaded bullock carts.
Again the rich man fed and bathed the bull, and hung a garland of flowers
around his neck.
When all was ready, the rich man touched
Delightful’s forehead with a lotus blossom, having given up the whip. Thinking
of him as fondly as if he were his own child, he said, “My son, please do
me the honour of pulling these one hundred bullock carts.”
Lo and behold, the wonderful bull pulled with
all his might and dragged the heavy carts, until the last one stood in the
place of the first.
The merchant, with his mouth hanging open in
disbelief, had to pay the two thousand gold coins. The onlookers were so
impressed that they honoured the bull called Delightful with gifts. But even
more important to the high class rich man than his winnings, was his valuable
lesson in humility and respect.
The moral is: Harsh words
bring no reward. Respectful words bring honor to all.
COMPREHENSIVE PALI COURSE
Akkhīhi oloketvā lokaṁ passanti manussā ñāna
akkhīhi oloketvā Dhammaṁ passanti ñāṇino;
Buddha akkhīhi oloketvā Nibbāṇañca sabbaṁ atitaṁ
paccupannaṁ anāgataṁ passanti Tathāgatā.
Having looked through the eyes, human beings see
the world; having visualized through the eyes of
insight the wise ones comprehend the truth; having
envisioned through the eyes of an Awakened One,
the Truth-Bearers penetrate into the Summum
Bonum as well as into everything concerning the
Past, the present and the future.
Āma, mayaṁ acciṁ gahetvā nānā ṭhāne puna puna
sīghaṁ sīghaṁ gacchimha vāriṁ
araññe viharitvā tathā katuṁ vaṭṭati.
Yes, after holding firebrand flame, we quickly went
places, again and again to drink water. Why?
lived in a forest in darkness, it is to be done in
Pakkhino Sidddhattassa uyyānato upari sīghayāyino
ahesuṁ. Devatto ekaṁ pakkhiṁ māresi; so
‘pakkhiṁ dadāhi’ti, kujjhitvā Bodhisattaṁ
Siddhatthaṁ vadi; Bodhisatto pana pakkhiṁ
hānetuṁ adatvā, sayameva pakkhiṁ ārakkhi.
The birds were quickly moving above the garden of
Siddhattha; Devadatta hit one bird; having fallen, it
Dropped on the thigh of the
Having become angry, saying: “Give me the
Devadatta shouted at Siddhattha the Would-be-
Buddha. The Would-be-Buddha, howevere, without
allowing the bird to be killed, himself protected the bird.
Dadhismā sappiṁ labhati, evaṁ Buddha-
Dhamme yeva Cattāri Ariyasaccāni honti, na
Yattha Ariyasaccāni honti, tattheva
One gets ghee from curd, likewise the Ultimate Bliss
Teaching of the Buddha. How? Only in the
of the Buddha the Four Noble Truths are
elsewhere. Wherever there are the Noble
only there is Nibbāna.
Mā rodatha, mā socathā’ti kasmā Buddho abhāsi?
anicco dukkho anattā, tasmā na kiñci pi
attano attano iti kathetvā manussā
attāpi attano natthi, kasmā tena rodatha?
Why did the Buddha say: “Don’t grieve?”
world is impermanent, unsatisfactory
unsubstantial; therefore nothing is one’s own.
saying: “My own, my own”, human beings
cry; oneself is not one’s own. Why then