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128 LESSON 05 01 2011 Kaladana Sutta Seasonable Gifts FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY
All 84,000 Khandas As Found in the Pali Suttas
Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:
The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.
Welcome to the Free Online e-Nālandā Research and Practice University
PTS: A iii 41
Kaladana Sutta: Seasonable Gifts
translated from the Pali by
“There are these five seasonable gifts. Which five? One gives to a newcomer. One gives to one going away. One gives to one who is ill. One gives in time of famine. One sets the first fruits of field & orchard in front of those who are virtuous. These are the five seasonable gifts.”
In the proper season they give —
those with discernment,
responsive, free from stinginess.
Having been given in proper season,
with hearts inspired by the Noble Ones
— straightened, Such —
their offering bears an abundance.
Those who rejoice in that gift
or give assistance,
they, too, have a share of the merit,
and the offering isn’t depleted by that.
So, with an unhesitant mind,
one should give where the gift bears great fruit.
Merit is what establishes
living beings in the next life.
See also: AN 5.148.
Amaravati Buddhist Monastery - CD ROM Library
Amaravati Chanting CD 2005
Metta Song in Pali 9:22mins
Amaravati Buddhist Monastery - CD ROM Library
Amaravati Chanting CD 2005
To listen to these talks you will need an MP3 player. If you do not have one, you can download one at http://www.winamp.com/.
Brahma Buddhism 6:48mins
BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!
WISDOM IS POWER
Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Ultimate Bliss
Using such an instrument
The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :
Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit
As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.
The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches
KAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA
ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS
SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS
MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS
FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS
Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level II: Buddhist Studies,
Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once – Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat
Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in
Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies
Languages and Literature
The Pāli Language and Literature
Pāli is the name given to the language of the texts of Theravāda Buddhism, although the commentarial tradition of the Theravādins states that the language of the canon is Māgadhī, the language spoken by Gotama Buddha. The term Pāli originally referred to a canonical text or passage rather than to a language and its current use is based on a misunderstanding which occurred several centuries ago. The language of the Theravādin canon is a version of a dialect of Middle Indo-Āryan, not Māgadhī, created by the homogenisation of the dialects in which the teachings of the Buddha were orally recorded and transmitted. This became necessary as Buddhism was transmitted far beyond the area of its origin and as the Buddhist monastic order codified his teachings.
The tradition recorded in the ancient Sinhalese chronicles states that the Theravādin canon was written down in the first century B.C.E. The language of the canon continued to be influenced by commentators and grammarians and by the native languages of the countries in which Theravāda Buddhism became established over many centuries. The oral transmission of the Pāli canon continued for several centuries after the death of the Buddha, even after the texts were first preserved in writing. No single script was ever developed for the language of the canon; scribes used the scripts of their native languages to transcribe the texts. Although monasteries in South India are known to have been important centres of Buddhist learning in the early part of this millennium, no manuscripts from anywhere in India except Nepal have survived. Almost all the manuscripts available to scholars since the PTS began can be dated to the 18th or 19th centuries C.E. and the textual traditions of the different Buddhist countries represented by these manuscripts show much evidence of interweaving. The pattern of recitation and validation of texts by councils of monks has continued into the 20th century.
The main division of the Pāli canon as it exists today is threefold, although the Pāli commentarial tradition refers to several different ways of classification. The three divisions are known as piṭakas and the canon itself as the Tipiṭaka; the significance of the term piṭaka, literally “basket”, is not clear. The text of the canon is divided, according to this system, into Vinaya (monastic rules), Suttas (discourses) and Abhidhamma (analysis of the teaching). The PTS edition of the Tipiṭaka contains fifty-seven books (including indexes), and it cannot therefore be considered to be a homogenous entity, comparable to the Christian Bible or Muslim Koran. Although Buddhists refer to the Tipiṭaka as Buddha-vacana, “the word of the Buddha”, there are texts within the canon either attributed to specific monks or related to an event post-dating the time of the Buddha or that can be shown to have been composed after that time. The first four nikāyas (collections) of the Sutta-piṭaka contain sermons in which the basic doctrines of the Buddha’s teaching are expounded either briefly or in detail.
The early activities of the Society centred around making the books of the Tipiṭaka available to scholars. As access to printed editions and manuscripts has improved, scholars have begun to produce truly critical editions and re-establish lost readings. While there is much work still needed on the canon, its commentaries and subcommentaries, the Society is also beginning to encourage work on a wider range of Pāli texts, including those composed in Southeast Asia.
LANGUAGE IN INDIA
Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow
Volume 2 : 7 October 2002
Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Associate Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
ANGUAGE USE IN BUDDHISM
M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
1. GAUTAMA BUDDHA’S REVOLUTIONARY RELIGION
Gautama Buddha broke several conventions in his life. The religion propounded by him did not approve the practice of caste hierarchy. He did not support the Brahmanical Hindu religion. He did not think that soul existed as an independent entity to which karma was attached. He did not approve animal killing, and he insisted on the monks to be wholly celibate. His insistence on morals and ethics, not on ritual purity, was something revolutionary at that time in India. He insisted that everyone should work out his or her salvation on his or her own. Help from others is of no avail in this regard, he declared. However, his categorization of people into two groups, monks and the laity, and declaration that the monks had the chance of attaining nirvana sooner than the laity, established a two-tier system, even when the caste hierarchy was removed.
Buddha wanted his followers to be well versed in Scriptures and be in a position to teach with clarity. Gautama Buddha has, on several occasions, emphasized the need to have good language skills (fluent speaking, in particular) and diligent wisdom or knowledge. A monk who is fluent in the language and who is knowledgeable may be a student under another only for five years. Then he graduates to become a teacher himself. On the other hand, persons not able to speak fluently and who demonstrate no knowledge will remain students all their lives.
2. EMBRACING DIALECTS
One of the most significant aspects of Buddhism is that it embraced dialects without any hesitation as fit vehicles for its scriptures. Gautama Buddha, thus, inaugurated a linguistic revolution. This position of Gautama Buddha was against the tradition of holding Sanskrit as the most sacred, if not the only sacred language, for Hindu Scriptures. Early Buddhist scriptures were all written in Pali, perhaps the dialect spoken by Gautama Buddha himself. Although Pali, thus, acquired an important place in Buddhism, the Buddhist monks and scholars were encouraged to use the dialects and languages of the people whom they were trying to lead to the Buddha Marga.
3. PALI AND BUDDHISM
Pali is considered to be one of the dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan. It appears that the Pali used in early Buddhist Scriptures, followed in Theravada Buddhism practiced in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia, has many features common to other Indo-Aryan dialects as well. So, some scholars consider Pali to be a mixed language, rather than a distinct dialect. Some others consider it as the Avanti dialect spoken in Ujjain. Some consider Pali to be only a literary language, at least after it was used extensively in Buddhist Scriptures well beyond India. Over the centuries, Buddha’s command that the Buddhist monks use the colloquial language of the people to communicate his teachings is not wholly practiced. In Buddhism Pali now occupies the position given to Sanskrit in Vedic Hinduism.
Although Pali is thus “frozen” in some sense in the philosophical discourses of Theravada Buddhism, Buddhist monks, in countries where Buddhism became the dominant majority religion, continuously adopted Pali terms for names, places, and processes and other words and changed their pronunciation and spelling according to the genius of their languages. The adaptations were not looked down upon, nor was it claimed that the sacredness of the Buddhist concepts was lost because of translation or adaptation.
4. BUDDHISM IS HOME FOR MASSIVE TRANSLATIONS
Buddhism is home for massive translations. Buddhist monks and scholars were devoted to translation as a means to transfer their theology into host cultures where Buddhism entered. Long before the evangelical Christian missionaries started translating the Bible into various languages, Buddhists engaged themselves in translating Buddhist scriptures in various languages. It is amazing to learn that monks from India, not merely from north or northeast India, but in great numbers from south India as well, traveled far and wide, settled themselves in these lands and began translating Buddhist texts in the local languages. We really do not have much knowledge of the methods of translation they adopted. Did they learn the local languages first? How did they learn the local languages? How long did they learn these languages to become proficient in them to do the translation? Did they take the help of local scholars for the translation work? How did they decide on the words in the local languages for the theological concepts found in Pali or Sanskrit texts? In Mahayana, Chinese and Indian scholars together translated Mahayana Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. Gard (1961:45) writes, “Translations from certain Pali, Sanskrit, and especially Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit texts were made into various languages and from these versions further translations were made into other languages in addition to new texts being composed in all these languages …”
Original Pali words and the adaptations of these words were common in Buddhist texts used in Sinhalese, Myanmarese, Cambodian, Laotian, Mon, and Thai languages. Use of original Sanskrit words and their adaptations are common in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Tibetan, and Mongolian. While Pali is the language of Theravada Buddhism, Sanskrit and Chinese, and to some extent Tibetan, are the languages of Mahayana Buddhism. Word analyses will indicate the ethnic basis of translations. Since Pali was a dialect currently used when Gautama Buddha began his teaching, the colloquial speech of the people at that time had changed the pronunication values of Sanskrit words used in the dialect. These dialect versions become the standard in Pali. For example, Sanskrit word dharma is written and pronounced dhamma in Theravada texts. The Buddhist texts in Tamil, however, went in for loan translation, following the Tamil tradition of not using the Sanskrit or Sanskrit-related words with their original spelling and to create loan translations instead of borrowing words from other languages. Buddhist Tamil texts were mostly in the nature of didactics, not really the expositions of Buddhist scriptures. It appears that for theological expositions Buddhist monks preferred to use Pali in south India, rather than using the Dravidian languages. Nagarjuna, one of the greatest of all Buddhist monks and theologian, came from Andhra, but his work is in Sanskrit.
5. EMERGENCE OF HYBRID BUDDHIST SANSKRIT
It appears that Buddhist monks were really interested in the linguistic processes of communication and concept formation. Hybrid Buddhist Sanskrit is not Pali, but perhaps an Indo-Aryan dialect currently spoken written with a deliberate addition of Sanskrit words. Hybrid Sanskrit, Pali, and Sanskrit, thus become the major vehicles of Buddhist thought. The prestige attached to Sanskrit and the ever growing numbers of Brahmins entering monasteries would have contributed to acceptance and use of Sanskrit as an important language of theological exposition among Buddhists, whose leader originally wanted them all to use the dialects, the language of common men. Edgerton (1954) reports, “Thousands of words were used which are unknown in Sanskrit, or not used there with the same meanings. To this curious language, which became widespread in North India, I have given the name Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. … there is no reason to assume any single ‘original language of Buddhism.’ And whatever the dialects of the missionaries may have been, the sacred texts were soon adapted to the speech native to each locality” (cited in Gard 1961:47).
6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PALI AND HYBRID SANSKRIT
The relationship between Pali and Hybrid Sanskrit is very interesting. Many words are common in both, but the pronunciation values may be quite different. Edgerton writes, “In some Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit works, especially the Mahavastu, etc. we find passages, in both prose and verse, which correspond more or less closely to passages of the Pali canon. In such passages the vocabulary used in Pali and in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is very largely identical, though the phonetic and grammatical forms are different. This is natural, for both were inherited from a common tradition older than either. Neither was translated from the other; each was adapted independently to the dialect of its locality, but used a word-stock that was to a considerable extent identical. And such words, common to both, continued to be used in both languages in new compositions dealing with the Buddhist religion, which were composed in the separate monkish communities where Pali and Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit flourished” (Gard 1961:47).
7. USE OF COMMONERS’ LANGUAGE AND DIALECTS: DEVELOPING BUDDHIST SCEINCE OF RHETORIC
Buddhists were very particular how they used language and communicated the Buddhist ideas to common people. Gautama Buddha adopted four methods, according to Buddhist texts. “In the first method, the doubts of the interlocutor are ascertained at the outset by putting suitable questions and then removed by appropriate answers; in the second, a direct reply is given to an enquirer without entering into a discussion with him; in the third, answers are given separately to the different aspects of the question; and in the fourth, it is pointed out that as the question is untenable, no reply will be given. Buddha insisted that his disciples should be very discriminating in adopting one of these methods for delivering their courses” (Gard 1961:63-64). In many Indian languages, for example, in Tamil, discussions on rhetoric form part of traditional grammar. These discussions adopt, add, and refine the above listed methods. Didactics of morals and ethics are integrated with rhetoric in Indian grammatical traditions. Tamil classical works impacted by Buddhist thought adopt the methods listed above for their moral and ethical content. Buddha also recommended that the preachers make their presentations in gradual steps, “observe sequence in the details composing a theme, use words of compassion, avoid irrelevant matters, and make his speeches free from caustic remarks against others” (Gard 1961:64). He cautioned that only simple elementary precepts of Buddhism be given to the laity be given. This also should be done in several steps. The deeper concepts were not for the laity, but only for those who become monks. The monks are prohibited from preaching Dharma in more than five or six words to a woman. They have the freedom to preach longer “in the presence of an intelligent man.” Moreover, teaching “Dharma word by word to an unordained person is also prohibited. These offences, “unless repented of and expiated, will be punished by an unfavorable rebirth,” according to the Book of Discipline of the most influential Sarvastivadin school current in India then. (Conze 1959:77).
8. MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION
Gautama Buddha was a staunch supporter of instruction through mother tongue! He told his diciples: “I allow you, O monk, to learn the word of Buddha each in his own language.” He also said that “undue importance should not be attached to the dialect of a particular janapada, i.e., a monk should be accommodating to dialectical variations, and not insist upon the use of a particular word” (Gard 1961:67). There was no hesitation to produce early Buddhist Scriptures in the languages or dialects of the people. In this, “Buddha made a radical departure from the ancient Indian custom of recording the scriptures in a particular language, and this can well be pointed out as one of the causes of the success of Buddhism” (Gard 1961:67)
9. RIGHT SPEECH AND FALSE SPEECH
One of the essential precepts of Buddhism given under the Eight-fold Path is that people should follow or adopt right speech so that they will acquire good karma. What is this right speech? Buddhist Scriptures define right speech as “abstaining from lying, slander, abuse, and idle talk.” Here are some of the characteristics of right speech: “Getting rid of lying words, the monk Gotama refrains from falsehood. He speaks truth, and nothing but the truth; faithful and trustworthy, he does not break his word to the world.” “Getting rid of rudeness of speech, the monk Gotama refrains from using harsh language. He speaks only those words that are blameless, pleasant to the ear, lovely, reaching to the heart, polite, pleasing to the people, and beloved of the people.” “Getting rid of frivolous talk, the monk Gotama refrains from vain conversation. At appropriate times he speaks, in accordance with the facts, words full of meaning . . . And at the right time he speaks words worthy to be noted in one’s mind, fitly illustrated and divided according to the relevancy of fact.” (Gard 1961:133-143)
A commentary current in Buddhaghosa’s time (A.D. 400, in Sri Lanka) defines false speech in an interesting manner: ” ‘False’ this refers to actions of the voice, or actions of the body, which aim at deceiving others by obscuring the actual facts. ‘False Speech is the will to deceive others by words or deeds. One can also explain: ‘False’ means something which is not real, not true. ’speech’ is the intimation that that is real or true. ‘False speech’ is then the volition which leads to the deliberate intimation to someone else that something is so when it is not so. The seriousness of the offence depends on the circumstances. If a householder, unwilling to give something, says that he has not got it, that is a small offence; but to represent something one has seen with one’s own eyes as other than one has seen it, that is a serious offence. If a mendicant has on his rounds got very little oil or ghee, and if he then exclaims, ‘What a magnificent river flows along here, my friends!’, that is only a rather stale joke, and the offence is small; but to say that one has seen wht one has not seen, that which is not so, the thought of deception, an effort to carry it out, the communication of the falsehood to someone else. There is only one way of doing it: with one’s own body. . . . (Conze 1959:72).
Several schools within Mahayana Buddhism, including Vajrayana, may adopt solving riddles as a legitimate meditative practice. In particular, Zen Buddhism adopts this process elaborately. These riddles are couched in normal sentences and employ normal narrative techniques such as anaphora and cohesion. However, the logical propositions are apparently either meaningless or baffling. Solving one koan is enough to achieve Enlightenment. The koans are hard for ordinary men to solve, but the devoted and determined student achieves it. “Of course there is nothing against a man examining all the seventeen hundred Koans which exist in order to try the power of his vision of the true self, but it does not mean that one has to solve several of them in order to be enlightened” (Conze 1959:143). Consider the following koan: “Hear the sound of one hand!”
A succinct description of Zen koan practice is given by Chang (1969) as given below. The Zen master gives an insoluble or seemingly impossible riddle to his disciple. The disciple cannot solve this riddle using language or logic. He must beyond his normal language, logic, and experience and should solve it practicing his higher order mental skill. The Zen master may ask his disciple to talk without tongue, play a stringless lute, clap with single hand, or solve certain problems presented in a story, etc. It is claimed that there are 1700 koans.
An example of a Zen koan is as follows (Burtt, 237): “Riko [Li-k’u], a high government officer of the T’ang dynasty, asked Nansen: ‘A long time ago a man kept a goose in a bottle. It grew larger and larger until it could not get out of the bottle any more; he did not want to break the bottle, nor did he wish to hurt the goose; how would you get it out?’ the master called out, ‘O Officer!’ to this Riko at once responded, ‘Yes!’ (The master said, ‘There, it is out!’ This was the way Nansen produced the goose out of its imprisonment.”
The solution to koans go beyond the normal processes of linguistic comprehension. The goal is to go beyond the usual processes of understanding that is suggested and guided by the linguistic structures and diction employed in a sentence or discourse. In fact, we are called upon to deny or reject such understanding. “Zen meditation means to cut off at the root the mind which thinks ‘I understand it’, and to enter the state where there is no impure discrimination …” (Conze 1959:143, based on an eleventh century Zen school).
Note that from the use of colloquial languages and dialects to communicate Buddhist precepts, Buddhism moves to use the ordinary language sentences for extra-ordinary meditative practices. Since the ultimate reality is nothingness, make that which has meaning a meaningless utterance, and derive a meaning that is not manifestly expressed by an utterance. This process is not akin to idiom formation, nor is it similar to metaphor, simile, etc. In these processes, convention plays a crucial role in bestowing meaning upon the linguistic utterances. On the other hand, koans are intended to break the conventions; the result and the experience are purely subjective.
11. OTHER LOGICAL PROCESSES FOR UNDERSTANDING AND COMMUNICATING BUDDHISM
A lower level exercise may be solving ordinary logical propositions through arguments for and against. Consider the following from an Buddhist text, Questisons of King Milinda: “The king asked: ‘Is there, Nagasena, any being which passes on from this body to another body?’ -’No, your majesty!’ - ‘If there were no passing on from this body to another, would not one then in one’s next life be freed from the evil deeds committed in the past?’ - ‘Yes, that would be so if one were not linked once again with a new organism. But, since your majesty, one is linked once again with a new organism, therefore one is not freed from one’s evil deeds.’ - “Give me a simile!’ - ‘If a man should steal another man’s mangoes, would he deserve a thrashing for that?’ - ‘Yes, of course!’ - ‘But he would not have stolen the very same mangoes as the other one had planted.’ - ‘Just so, your majesty, it is because of the deeds one does, whether pure or impure, by means of this psycho-physical organism, that one is once again linked with another psycho-physical orgnism, and is not freed from the evil deeds.’ - ‘Very good, Nagasena!’ (Conze 1959:151).
12. THE ROOTS OF PECULIARITIES OF LANGUAGE USE IN BUDDHISM
Some of the peculiar characteristics of language use in Buddhism stem from its preference for the dialects and languages used by people as ordinary language, the resistance to the use of a standardized closed system like Sanskrit, the emergence of frozen expressions in languages and dialects originally used, the necessity to standardize the terms within the discourse, and the use of Sanskrit later on as one of the languages of Buddist expression and theological exposition, and popular currency of Hybrid Buddhist Sanskrit. Conze (1959) identifies several interesting characteristics of language use in Buddhism. First, the diction in Buddhism has its own peculiarities. These may be due to the belief that Gautama Buddha was no ordinary being. He is a “god-like being” and that there was something numinous about the diction he used. Such usage departed from the standards of normal Indian usage … Buddhist writings, with few exceptions, are full of the artificews of Sanskrit rhetoric. … Far more intractable is the difficulty presented by the technical terms which abound everywhere. In the original they are quite inconspicuous, but in all translations into non-Indian languages they stand out like so many foreign bodies. The Chinese either retained them in Sanskrit, or coined some strange neologism. ‘Dharma’, in particular, is deliberately ambiguous, with up to ten meanings. … In this respect, as in much else, they differ radically from contemporary ‘linguistic analysts’. Buddhist thinkers had weighty reasons for preferring ambiguous, multivalent terms, … The authors of the Buddhist Scriptures were in fact unwilling, or unable, to state their message without a liberal use of technical terms. … The Scriptures as they stand cannot be read without some mental effort, and they demand a minimum of intellectual agility and attainment. … A great deal of Indian thought, on the contrary, is enshrined in memorial verses of almost unbelievable precision. (Conze, 1959:13-16). In other words, the Buddhist language use became obtuse over the centuries.
13. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
I notice that several interesting nonverbal features are used in Buddhist practices. This subject cannot be exhausted within this short paper. Linguistic features such as recitation, fastidiously correct pronunciation of words and mantras, repetition of mantras and mantra like utterances, and use of prayer wheels, etc. are quite common. The secret syllables that a master gives to his disciple are assumed to have magical powers. Just as these linguistic devices, nonverbal devices are also employed. For example, an early Buddhist text by Buddhaghosa (A.D. 400, in Sri Lanka) suggests that an individual should adopt the appropriate meditative exercises to suit the personality type he belongs to. Six types of behavior are recognized, and these fall under three groups: greed/faith, hate/intelligence, and delusion/discursiveness. Certain similarities between the members of a pair are identified. But I shall not go into those details. What is most interesting is the association of certain nonverbal behaviors to each of these six types. For example, “the natural gait of someone who is dominated by greed is graceful; gently and evenly he puts down his foot, evenly he lifts it, and his step is springy. The hate-type walks as though digging up the ground with his toes; abruptly he puts down his foot, abruptly he lifts it up, and his step drags along. The delusion-type walks with a troubled gait; hesitatingly he puts down his foot, hesitantly he lifts it, and the feet are pressed down rather hastily” (Conze 1959:117). The communicative elements of other postures are also listed. Modern nonverbal communication studies also focus on the meaning of bodily actions in communication and personality assessment.
14. TO CONCLUDE
To conclude, Buddhism exploited colloquial languages and dialects for the propagation of its ideas. It engaged in massive translation processes. The techniques adopted for the translation of Buddhist Scriptures need to be studied. It is possible that the original concepts in the original tongues of Buddhism, namely, Pali and Sanskrit, may have undergone several changes by way of additions, deletions, and transformations of the meanings attached to these concepts through translations. Over the centuries, because of standardization and canonization, colloquial dialects and languages were used mainly to communicate with the laity, and the monks learned the “classical or frozen languages” and used these for their philosophical expositions. Language played a very crucial role in attaining nonexistence, nirvana.
Burtt, Edwin A. 1955. The Teachings of the Compassionate Buddha. New York: Mentor Books, New American Library.
Chang, Lit-sen. 1969. Zen-Existentialism. Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company.
Conze, Edward. (Ed.) 1959. Buddhist Scriptures. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Edgerton, Franklin. 1954. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Language and Literature. Benares: Benaras Hindu University.
Gard, Richard. (Ed.) 1961. Buddhism. New York: George Braziller, Inc.
Amartya Sen: Nalanda stood for the passion of propagating knowledge and understanding
“Science has to fight parochialism, and Nalanda was committed to doing that”
Science has to fight parochialism, and Nalanda University (which existed in Bihar during the early fifth century and the 12th century) was firmly committed to doing just that, according to Amartya Sen, Professor of Economics and Philosophy at Harvard University in the U.S. and chairman of the Interim Governing Board of Nalanda University.
Recalling that the university was “violently destroyed” in an Afghan attack led by Bakhtiyar Khilji in 1193, Prof. Sen, who addressed the Indian Science Congress at SRM University in Kattankulathur near here on Tuesday, said it was being re-established through an Asian initiative, involving India, China, Singapore, Japan and Thailand.
Delivering a talk on Nalanda and the pursuit of science, Prof. Sen, the recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economics, said Nalanda stood for the passion of propagating knowledge and understanding. This was one reason for its keenness to accept students from abroad. “If the seeking of evidence and vindication by critical arguments is part of the tradition of science, so is the commitment to move knowledge and understanding beyond the boundaries of locality.”
Noting that Nalanda had attracted students from many countries, particularly China, Korea and Japan, he said there were students from Turkey too. It was a residential university and at its peak, it had 10,000 students, studying various subjects. “Incidentally, Nalanda is the only non-Chinese institution in which any Chinese scholar received higher education in the history of ancient China.”
Citing the accounts of Chinese chroniclers such as Xuangzang and Yi Jing, Prof. Sen said that among the subjects taught in Nalanda were medicine, public health, architecture and sculpture, in addition to religion, history, law and linguistics. Going by Indian accounts, logic was a subject taught and “my guess is that eventually, evidence would emerge on this part of the curriculum in Nalanda as well.”
Noting that the mixture of religion and science was by no means unique to Nalanda, he said the Buddhist foundation made much room for the pursuit of analytical and scientific subjects within the campus of Nalanda University.
The faculty and students in Nalanda loved to argue and very often, they held argumentative encounters. “There were plenty of organised argumentative matches going on in Nalanda and this too fits, in a very general way, into the scientific spirit that was present in Nalanda,” he added
List of aerospace engineering schools
Aerospace (or aeronautical) engineering can be studied at the bachelors, masters, and Ph.D. levels in aerospace engineering departments at many universities, and in mechanical engineering departments at others.
Following is an incomplete list of institutions offering aerospace engineering education. Institution names are followed by accreditation where applicable.
· 1 Argentina
· 2 Australia
· 3 Bangladesh
· 4 Brazil
· 5 Bulgaria
· 6 Canada
· 7 Chile
· 8 China
· 9 Colombia
· 10 Croatia
· 11 Czech Republic
· 12 Egypt
· 13 Finland
· 14 France
· 15 Germany
· 16 Ghana
· 17 Greece
· 18 Indonesia
· 19 India
· 20 Iran
· 21 Israel
· 22 Ireland
· 23 Italy
· 24 Japan
· 25 Jordan
· 26 Kenya
· 27 Korea
· 28 Lebanon
· 29 Malaysia
· 30 Mexico
· 31 Netherlands
· 32 Nigeria
· 33 Philippines
· 34 Poland
· 35 Portugal
· 36 Pakistan
· 37 Russian Federation
· 38 Romania
· 39 Saudi Arabia
· 40 Serbia
· 41 Singapore
· 42 South Africa
· 43 Spain
· 44 Sweden
· 45 Switzerland
· 46 Taiwan
· 47 Thailand
· 48 Turkey
· 49 Ukraine
· 50 United Arab Emirates
· 51 United Kingdom
· 52 United States
· 53 Venezuela
· 54 References
§ Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Facultad Regional Haedo
§ Universidad Nacional de la Plata
§ Instituto Universitario Aeronáutico
§ Australian Defence Force Academy
§ RMIT University
§ Monash University
§ University of Adelaide
§ University of New South Wales
§ University of Queensland
§ Queensland University of Technology
§ University of Sydney
§ Aeronautical College of Bangladesh National Diploma, Hihger National Diploma, BSc in aerospace engineering, Preparation course for EASA Part-66 License exam. An Approved Center of Edexcel.
§ Aeronautical Institute of Bangladesh Diploma in Aircraft Maintenance Engineering, Major in Avionics & Aerospace Engineering. The only one Approved Institution in Bangladesh by the Civil Aviation Authority of Bangladesh (CAAB) and affiliated to Bangladesh Technical Education Board (BTEB).
§ Military Institute of Science & Technology
§ College of Aviation Technology (CATECH) – Higher National Diploma (HND) is Aerospace Engineering, National Diploma, BBA major in Aviation, Flight training, short courses. An Approved Center of Edexcel.
§ United College of Aviation, Science and Management- BSc in Aeronautical Science, BBA in Airlines Management,CSE,HND in Business, Piloting, Cabin Crew Courses. Approval by National UniversityGovernment of the peoples republic of Bangladesh and Bangladesh technical Education Board (BTEB),edexcel,UK, Newport university CED,Latvia,EU.
§ Taubaté University (UNITAU), Taubaté - SP
§ Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos-SP
§ Universidade Federal do A.B.C. (UFABC), Santo André-SP
§ University of São Paulo’s (USP) São Carlos School of Engineering (EESC), São Carlos-SP
§ Sofia University, Masters Programme in Space Technologies 
§ Ryerson University - B.Eng., M.Eng. and Ph.D.
§ Carleton University - B.Eng., M.Eng. and Ph.D.
§ Concordia University - B.Eng. (Mechanical Engineering) and M.Eng.
§ École Polytechnique de Montréal
§ McGill University - B.Eng. (Mechanical Engineering), M.Eng. and Ph.D.
§ University of Manitoba - B.Sc. (Mechanical Engineering).
§ Royal Military College of Canada - B.Sc. (Aeronautical Engineering), M.A.Sc. and Ph.D.
§ Laval University - M.Sc.
§ University of Toronto - B.A.Sc. (Engineering Science), M.A.Sc. and Ph.D.
§ University of Sherbrooke - M.Ing.
§ York University - B.A.Sc. (Space Engineering), M.Sc. and Ph.D.
In Québec, École Polytechnique de Montréal, McGill University, Laval University, University of Sherbrooke, Concordia University and École de Technologie Supérieure offer a joint program in the field of aeronautics and space technology leading to a M.Eng. (Aero).
Only undergraduate engineering programs in Canada are accredited, and this is done by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board.
§ Academia Politécnica Aeronáutica - Fuerza Aérea de Chile 
§ Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María - Academia de Ciencias Aeronáuticas 
§ Universidad de Concepción - 
§ Nanchang Hangkong University, NANCHANG UNIVERSITY OF AERONAUTICS (南昌航空大学)
§ Northwestern Polytechnical University (西北工业大学)
§ Harbin Institute of Technology (哈尔滨工业大学)
§ Shenyang Aerospace University (沈阳航空航天大学)
§ Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (北京航空航天大学)
§ Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (南京航空航天大学)
§ Tsinghua University (清华大学)
§ Civil Aviation University of China (中国民航大学）)
§ Civil Aviation Flight University of China (中国民用航空飞行学院))
§ Universidad de San Buenventura en Bogota D.C. (http://www.usbbog.edu.co/)
§ Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana en Medellín (http://www.upb.edu.co/)
§ Universidad Los Libertadores en Bogota D.C. (http://www.ulibertadores.edu.co
§ Pontificia Universidad Javeriana en Bogota D.C. (http://www.javeriana.edu.co)
§ Faculty of mechanical engineering and naval architecture, Department of Aeronautical Engineering
§ University of Technology in Brno (http://www.fme.vutbr.cz/index.html?lang=1)
§ Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Aerospace Department
§ (institute of aviation engineering)
§ (Institute of Engineering and Aviation Technology)
http://www.ncato.org/arabic/iaet/index.asp (Arabic) http://www.ncato.org/english/iaet/index.asp (English)
§ Helsinki University of Technology
§ Tampere University of Applied Sciences
§ Institut Supérieur de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace
§ École Nationale de l’Aviation Civile
§ École Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d’Aérotechnique
§ École centrale Paris
§ Arts et Métiers ParisTech
§ Institut polytechnique des sciences avancées
§ Institut de Maintenance Aéronautique de Bordeaux I
§ Ecole Supérieure des Techniques Aéronautiques et de Construction Automobile (ESTACA)
§ Paul Sabatier University
§ École d’Ingénierie des Sciences Aérospatiales
§ Université de la Méditerranée 
§ FH Aachen
§ RWTH Aachen University
§ Technical University of Berlin (TU Berlin)
§ University of Applied Sciences Bremen
§ Technical University of Brunswick
§ TU Darmstadt
§ TU Dresden
§ Munich University of Technology
§ Munich University of Applied Sciences
§ Bundeswehr University of Munich (Universität der Bundeswehr München)
§ University of Stuttgart
§ Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (BSc. in Aerospace Engineering)
§ Polytechnic of Patras - Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering
§ Bandung Institute of Technology
§ Amity Institute of Aerospace Engineering And Research Studies, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh - http://www.amity.edu/ase/programs/graduate/btae/g_btae.asp
§ Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi - http://www.bitmesra.ac.in/departments/validated.asp?Department_ID=D0010
§ Indian Institute of Aeronautical Engineering - http://www.iiaedehradun.org
§ Indian Institute of Science - http://www.aero.iisc.ernet.in/
§ Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology
§ Indian Institute Of Technology Bombay (Mumbai) - http://www.aero.iitb.ac.in/
§ Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur - http://www.iitk.ac.in/aero/
§ Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur - http://www.iitkgp.ac.in/departments/home.php?deptcode=AE
§ Indian Institute Of Technology Madras (Chennai) - http://www.ae.iitm.ac.in/
§ Malla Reddy College Of Engineering & Technology, Hyderabad - http://www.mrcet.com/
§ Marri Laxman Reddy Institute of Technology, Dunigal, Hyderabad - www.mlrinstitutions.ac.in/
§ Institute of Aeronautical Engineering,Hyderabad http://www.iare.ac.in/
§ Madras Institute of Technology - http://www.annauniv.edu/Aerospace/index.html
§ Manipal Institute of Technology - http://www.manipal.edu/Institutions/Engineering/MIT/Departments/AeronauticalandAutomobileEngg/Pages/Overview.aspx
§ Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh - http://www.pec.ac.in
§ Park College of Engineering and Technology - http://www.pcet.ac.in
§ SRM University, Chennai - http://www.srmuniv.com/engineering/mechanical/aerospace/default.php
§ Sathyabama University, Chennai - http://www.sathyabamauniversity.ac.in/
§ VSM Aerospace, Bangalore - http://www.avsmati.org
§ Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Institute of Technology, Vasad, Gujarat - http://www.svitvasad.ac.in/
§ Noorul Islam University, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu - http://www.niuniv.com/
§ C.M. Engineering College
§ Amrita University, Ettimadai, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
§ Hindustan Aviation Academy, Karnataka, Bangalore
§ Nehru college of aeronautics and applied sciences-coimbatore
§ Indian Institute for Aeronautical Engineering & Information Technology, Pune - http://www.iiaeit.org/
§ Maheshwara Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (MITP) - http://www.maheshwaragroup.co.in
§ University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Dehradun Upes - http://www.upes.ac.in
§ Sri Bhagwan Mahavir Jain College of Engineering, Bangalore
§ Guru Gram Institute of Aeronautical Engineering & Technology,Faridabad (HR) -www.gurugram.org.in
§ IGNOU,Maidan Gadhi,Delhi
§ Amirkabir University of Technology http://www.aut.ac.ir
§ K. N. Toosi University of Technology http://www.kntu.ac.ir
§ Sharif University of Technology http://www.sharif.ir/en/
§ Azad University Science & Research Branch http://www.srbiau.ac.ir/en/
§ Civil Aviation Technology College http://www.catc.ac.ir/
§ Imam Hossein University http://www.ihu.ac.ir/
§ Malek-Ashtar University of Technology http://www.mut.ac.ir
§ Aerospace Research Institute http://www.ari.ac.ir
§ Technion-Israel Institute of Technology
§ University of Limerick
§ University of Naples Federico II Engineering department
§ Second University of Naples http://www.diam.unina2.it/
§ University of Bologna
§ University of Palermo http://ingegneria.unipa.it/mio/index.php
§ Politecnico di Milano
§ First University of Roma “La Sapienza”
§ Politecnico di Torino
§ University of Pisa - MSSE
§ University of Padua
§ Daiichi University, College of Technology (第一工業大学?)
§ Hiroshima University (広島大学?)
§ Kanazawa Institute of Technology (金沢工業大学?)
§ Kyoto University (京都大学?)
§ Kyushu Institute of Technology (九州工業大学?)
§ Kyushu University (九州大学?)
§ Nagoya University (名古屋大学?)
§ National Defense Academy of Japan (防衛大学校?)
§ Nihon University (日本大学?)
§ Nippon Bunri University (日本文理大学?)
§ Osaka Prefecture University (大阪府立大学?)
§ Sojo University (崇城大学?)
§ Teikyo University (帝京大学?)
§ Tohoku University (東北大学?)
§ Tokai University (東海大学?)
§ Tokyo Institute of Technology (東京工業大学?)
§ Tokyo Metropolitan University (首都大学東京?)
§ University of Tokyo (東京大学?)
§ Waseda University (早稲田大学?)
§ Jordan University of Science and Technology http://www.just.edu.jo/
§ Kenya Polytechnic University College http://www.kenyapolytechnic.ac.ke
§ Chang-Shin College http://www.csc.ac.kr/
§ Chonbuk National University http://chonbuk.ac.kr/
§ Chosun University http://chosun.ac.kr/
§ Chungnam National University http://cnu.ac.kr/
§ Gyeongsang National University http://www.gsnu.ac.kr/
§ Hanseo University http://www.hanseo.ac.kr/
§ Inha Technical College http://www.inhatc.ac.kr/
§ Inha University http://inha.ac.kr/
§ KAIST http://www.kaist.ac.kr/
§ KonKuk University http://konkuk.ac.kr/
§ Korea Aerospace University http://kau.ac.kr/
§ Pusan National University http://pusan.ac.kr/
§ Sejong University http://www.sejong.ac.kr/
§ Seoul National University http://www.snu.ac.kr/
§ University of Ulsan http://www.ulsan.ac.kr/
§ University of Balamand http://www.balamand.edu.lb/
§ International Islamic University Malaysia
§ Universiti Putra Malaysia
§ Universiti Sains Malaysia
§ Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
§ MARA University of Technology
§ Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESIME Ticoman) http://www.esimetic.ipn.mx/
§ Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua http://www.uach.mx/
§ Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon http://www.uanl.mx/
§ Universidad Nacional Aeronáutica en Querétaro http://www.unaq.edu.mx/
§ Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)
§ Hogeschool van Amsterdam (Aviation Studies)
§ Nigerian College of Aviation Technology, Zaria
§ [AIRFORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY(AFIT),AIRFORCE BASE KADUNA, NIGERIA].
§ Airlink International Aviation School
§ PATTS College of Aeronautics
§ FEATI University
§ Philippine State College of Aeronautics
§ MATS College of Technology
§ Indiana Aerospace University 
§ University of the East
§ Rzeszów University of Technology
§ Warsaw University of Technology
§ IST - Instituto Superior Tecnico
§ Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha
§ Academia da Força Aérea
§ Air University, Islamabad
§ NUST College of Aeronautical Engineering, Risalpur
§ Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad
§ ATS Training Centre, Karachi
AMETI aircraft maintenance engineers training institute in lahore, Punjab. First school in Punjab
§ Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology http://www.mipt.ru
§ Bauman Moscow State Technical University http://www.bmstu.ru
§ Moscow Aviation Institute http://www.mai.ru
§ Samara State Aerospace University http://www.ssau.ru
§ Moscow State Aviation Technological University (MATI) http://www.mati.ru
§ Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation (MSTUCA) www.mstuca.ru
§ Saint Petersburg State University of Civil Aviation http://www.academiaga.ru/
§ Siberian State Aerospace University http://www.sibsau.ru
§ Kazan Aviation Institute http://www.kai.ru
§ Politehnica University of Bucharest http://www.pub.ro/ - Faculty of Aerospace Engineering http://www.aero.pub.ro/
§ ( King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals - Aerospace engineering Department ) http://www.kfupm.edu.sa/ae
§ ( King Abdulaziz University - Aeronautical Engineering Department ) http://engg.kaau.edu.sa/aero/
§ ( King Saud University, College of Engineering,) http://colleges.ksu.edu.sa/Engineering/Pages/AcademicPrograms.aspx
§ University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, http://www.mas.bg.ac.rs, Aerospace Engineer
§ University of Belgrade, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, http://www.sf.bg.ac.rs, Air Transport Engineer (BSc) Master of Civil Aviation (MSc) 
§ Nanyang Technological University
§ The University of the Witwatersrand (WITS)
§ University of Pretoria (TUKKIES)
§ University of Johannesburg (UJ)
§ Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
§ Escuela de Ingeniería Aeronáutica y del Espacio http://www.eiae.upm.es/
§ Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Aeronáutica http://www.aero.upm.es/
§ Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Técnica Aeronáutica http://www.euita.upm.es/
§ Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
§ Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeries Industrial i Aeronàutica de Terrassa http://www.etseiat.upc.edu/
§ Escola Politècnica Superior de Castelldefels http://www.epsc.upc.edu/
§ Universidad de Sevilla http://www.us.es
§ Escuela Superior de Ingenieros http://www.esi.us.es
§ Universidad Politecnica de València http://www.upv.es/
§ Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria del Disseny
§ Universidad de León http://www.unileon.es
§ Escuela Superior Técnica de Ingeniería Industrial, Informática y Aeronáutica
§ Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
§ Swedish Institute for Space Physics (Kiruna)
§ Luleå University of Technology 
§ Royal Institute of Technology
§ Mälardalen University
§ ZHAW School of Engineering BSc Aviation (http://www.engineering.zhaw.ch/de/engineering/studium/bachelor/aviatik.html)
§ Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (國防大學中正理工學院)
§ Fneg Chia University (逢甲大學)
§ National Cheng Kung University (國立成功大學)
§ Tamkang University (淡江大學)
§ Kasetsart University (http://ase.eng.ku.ac.th/)
§ Chulalongkorn University (http://www.ise.eng.chula.ac.th/)
§ King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (http://www.me.kmutnb.ac.th/)
§ Suranaree University of Technology (http://eng.sut.ac.th/me/)
§ Istanbul Technical University (ABET) (http://www.itu.edu.tr/)
§ Middle East Technical University (ABET)(http://www.metu.edu.tr/)
§ Erciyes University (http://havacilik.erciyes.edu.tr/en/indexen.htm)
§ Anadolu University (http://www.anadolu.edu.tr/akademik/yo_svlhvc/eindex.htm)
§ National Technical University of Ukraine - Kyiv Polytechnic Institute (http://kpi.ua/)
§ Kiev International University of Civil Aviation (http://www.kiuca.kiev.ua/)
§ National Aerospace University - Kharkov Aviation Institute (http://www.khai.edu/)
§ National Aviation University (http://www.nau.edu.ua/)
United Arab Emirates
§ Khalifa University SScience, Technology and Research
§ Emirates Aviation College
§ University of Bath Aerospace Engineering (MSc/MEng)
§ University of Brighton Aeronautical Engineering (MEng/MSc)
§ University of Bristol Aeronautical Engineering (MEng)
§ Brunel University Aerospace Engineering (BEng/MEng)
§ City University, London Aeronautical Engineering (MEng/BEng) Avionics (MEng/BEng)
§ Coventry University
§ Cranfield University
§ University of Glamorgan (BEng/BSc)
§ University of Glasgow Aeronautical Engineering or Avionics(BSc/BEng/MEng)
§ University of Hertfordshire (BEng/MEng)
§ Imperial College London (MEng)
§ Kingston University Aerospace Engineering BSc(Hons), Aerospace Engineering, Astronautics & Space Technology MEng/BEng(Hons), Aerospace Engineering MEng/BEng(Hons)
§ University of Leeds Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering (BEng/MEng)
§ University of Leicester Aerospace Engineering (BEng/MEng)
§ University of Liverpool
§ Loughborough University (BEng/MEng)
§ University of Manchester Aerospace Engineering (MSc/MEng/BEng) Avionics (MEng)
§ Perth College Aircraft Maintenance Engineering (BSc)
§ Queen Mary, University of London Aerospace Engineering (MEng/BEng) Avionics (MEng/BEng)
§ Queen’s University Belfast Aeronautical Engineering (MEng/BEng)
§ University of Salford Aeronautical(aerospace) Engineering(BEng/BSc/MEng/MSc)
§ University of Sheffield Aerospace Engineering (MEng) Aerospace Materials (MSc)
§ University of Southampton
§ University of Surrey Aeronautical(aerospace) Engineering (BEng/BSc/MEng/MSc)
§ University of Swansea Aerospace Engineering (BEng/MEng/MSc)
§ University of the West of England Aerospace Engineering (BEng/MEng)
Link to course starting in 2009 UCAS page
In the UK, Aerospace (or aeronautical) engineering can be studied for the B.Eng., M.Eng. and Ph.D. levels at a number of universities. School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester is Europe’s largest school whilst Imperial College London has one of the most prestigious Aeronautics departments in the world.
Please note - ABET stands for the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
§ Utah State University (ABET)
§ Air Force Institute of Technology (ABET)
§ University of Alabama in Huntsville (ABET)
§ University of Alabama (ABET)
§ Arizona State University (ABET)
§ University of Arizona (ABET)
§ Auburn University (ABET)
§ Boston University (ABET)
§ California Institute of Technology
§ California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (ABET)
§ California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (ABET)
§ California State University, Long Beach (ABET)
§ University of California, Davis (ABET)
§ University of California, Irvine (ABET)
§ University of California, Los Angeles (ABET)
§ University of California, San Diego (ABET)
§ Case Western Reserve University (ABET)
§ University of Central Florida (ABET)
§ University of Cincinnati (ABET)
§ Clarkson University (ABET)
§ University of Colorado at Boulder (ABET)
§ Daniel Webster College (ABET)
§ Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
§ Daytona Beach campus (ABET)
§ Prescott campus (ABET)
§ Florida Institute of Technology (ABET)
§ University of Florida (ABET)
§ Georgia Institute of Technology (ABET)
§ University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (ABET)
§ Illinois Institute of Technology (ABET)
§ Iowa State University (ABET)
§ University of Kansas (ABET)
§ University of Maryland, College Park (ABET)
§ Massachusetts Institute of Technology (ABET)
§ University of Miami (ABET)
§ University of Michigan (ABET)
§ University of Minnesota (ABET)
§ Mississippi State University (ABET)
§ Missouri University of Science and Technology (ABET)
§ Naval Postgraduate School (ABET)
§ University at Buffalo, The State University of New York (ABET)
§ University of Nevada, Las Vegas (ABET)
§ North Carolina State University (ABET)
§ Northrop University (ABET)
§ University of Notre Dame (ABET)
§ Ohio State University (ABET)
§ Oklahoma State University (ABET)
§ University of Oklahoma (ABET)
§ The Pennsylvania State University (ABET)
§ Princeton University (ABET)
§ Purdue University (ABET)
§ Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (ABET)
§ Rutgers University (ABET)
§ Saint Louis University (ABET)
§ San Diego State University (ABET)
§ San Jose State University (ABET)
§ University of Southern California (ABET)
§ Stanford University
§ Syracuse University (ABET)
§ University of Tennessee at Knoxville (ABET)
§ University of Tennessee Space Institute
§ Texas A&M University (ABET)
§ University of Texas at Arlington (ABET)
§ University of Texas at Austin (ABET)
§ Tuskegee University (ABET)
§ United States Air Force Academy (ABET)
§ United States Naval Academy (ABET)
§ Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (ABET)
§ University of Virginia (ABET)
§ University of Washington (ABET)
§ West Virginia University (ABET)
§ Western Michigan University (ABET)
§ Whobear’s Aeronautical Studies and Space Training Institute (ABET)
§ Wichita State University (ABET)
§ Worcester Polytechnic Institute (ABET)
Aerospace (or aeronautical) engineering can be studied at the advanced diploma, bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. levels in aerospace engineering departments at many U.S. universities, and in mechanical engineering departments at others. A few departments offer degrees in space-focused astronautical engineering. The programs of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Rutgers University are two such examples. U.S. News & World Report ranks the aerospace engineering programs at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, and the University of Michigan within the top three best programs for doctorate granting universities. However, other top programs within the ten best in the United States include those of Stanford University, Texas A&M University, the University of Texas at Austin, Purdue University and the University of Illinois. The magazine also rates Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, andUnited States Air Force Academy as the premier aerospace engineering programs at universities that do not grant doctorate degrees.
§ Universidad Nacional Experimental de las Fuerzas Armadas (UNEFA) - Aeronautical Engineering
1. ^ 
2. ^ Canadian Council of Professional Engineers
3. ^ Gruntman, Mike (September 19, 2007). “The Time for Academic Departments in Astronautical Engineering”. AIAA SPACE 2007 Conference & Exposition Agenda. AIAA SPACE 2007 Conference & Exposition. AIAA.
4. ^ USNews.com: America’s Best Colleges 2008: Aerospace / Aeronautical / Astronautical
5. ^ USNews.com: America’s Best Colleges 2008: Aerospace / Aeronautical / Astronautical
The National Aerospace University KhAI is an active follower of the integration of Ukrainian higher education and science with the world educational organizations and funds. With a purpose of consolidating the existing relations between foreign universities and the KhAI as well as esteblishing new contacts the International Relations Department of the KhAI was created in spring, 2001.
Main lines of the International Relations Department:
- Co-operation with foreign educational and scientific institutions and organizations under agreements.
- Organization of services connected with the training of foreign citizens.
- Definition and realization of international projects with non-budgetary provisions.
- Participation in international educational and scientific programs and funds.
- Organization and conduction of scientific and educational conferences, fairs, seminars, international subjects lectures, etc.
Nottingham - a global leader in aerospace research
The University of Nottingham’s status as a global leader in aerospace research has been underlined with a new grant of £3.6m.
New funding from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) will help to establish the Institute for Aerospace Technology, which will drive the development of cutting-edge technology in one of the University’s key research areas.
It will help to fund construction of a new research facility at the University of Nottingham Innovation Park (UNIP) — the Aerospace Technology Centre, a dedicated facility housing around 100 staff which will be the biggest of its kind in the UK.
Click here for full story
More information is available from Jill Minter, Engineering Marketing Manager, University of Nottingham, on +44 (0)115 9513629,firstname.lastname@example.org
< ?xml:namespace prefix = v ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” />Tim Utton - Deputy Director of Communications
Email: email@example.comPhone: +44 (0)115 846 8092Location: King’s Meadow Campus
Canadian/European Aerospace Universities’ Student Exchange Program (CESAer)
The objective of the Canada-European Union Student Exchange Program in Aerospace Engineering (CESAer) is to promote transatlantic mobility and international exposure of Aerospace Engineering students for strengthening their ability to make both technical and managerial contributions to international aerospace projects. The program will enable the exchange of 28 graduate students from Canada and 28 graduate students from Europe (M.A.Sc. and Ph.D.) in total, and give international dimension to their thesis work and research. Up to 7 Ryerson University graduate aerospace engineering students in total may take part, spending one academic term abroad (4 to 6 months). The Canadian partners in this initiative are Carleton University (lead institution for Canadian consortium), Concordia University, University of Toronto, and Ryerson University. The European Union partners are the University of Glasgow (lead institution for European consortium), Technical University of Delft, Technical University of Munich, and Czech Technical University of Prague. This effort falls under the umbrella of the Canada-European Union Program for Co-operation in Higher Education and Vocational Training, managed in part through Human Resources and Skill Development Canada.
Please visit the CESAer Program website for details:
Agreements with the Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea
In December 2006, Ryerson signed a five year agreement with Konkuk University to admit Ph.D. students in the Aerospace Engineering program. This program is supported by the University through their successful grant, BK21, funded by the South Korean Government. The students must apply for admission to the School of Graduate Studies of Ryerson and meet the required criteria for admission. If admitted, the Department will provide supervision for these students.
On another front, Ryerson has signed an agreement with Konkuk to admit undergraduate Aerospace Engineering students after completing their 2nd year of program. The students will be admitted in winter semesters and go through a transition term to complete the required prerequisites before starting their 3rd year.
Internship Students Agreement with ESTACA University in Paris, France
In November 2007, an agreement was signed between Ryerson and ESTACA to exchange Aerospace Engineering students at the undergraduate level between the two universities. Based on this agreement, ESTACA will provide internship opportunity for the aerospace engineering students working in EU aerospace companies. On the other hand, RIADI will provide similar opportunity for ESTACA students.
Shenyang Aerospace University Admission Info
The Department offers opportunities for postgraduate study by both research and coursework.
Research postgraduate degrees
Postgraduate degrees by research can be obtained, typically after 2 years (M.Sc.) or 3 years (Ph.D.) study. These degrees are awarded on the basis of an examined thesis containing a contribution to learning. The Department currently has a number of active research areas, centres and groups, information on which can be found on the Research web page.
For further information contact: Dr Colin Goodchild or the member of staff in the area of interest.
Taught postgraduate degrees
Taught postgraduate degrees (MSc) can be obtained normally after 12 months of study. These degrees have a common structure, comprising assessed taught modules during semesters 1 and 2, followed by an individual project conducted over the summer months.
This programme is designed to enable graduates from other engineering and science-based disciplines to gain expertise in modern aerospace engineering. The MSc course comprises both taught and project-based work which covers elements of advanced aeronautics.
For further information contact: Dr Christopher York
To apply for this master, please visit the IPS (international and Postgrad Services) web site:http://www.gla.ac.uk/postgraduate/
Glasgow is the lead organisation for a unique international masters programme in space mission design engineering. This new MSc programme is designed to prepare graduates from engineering, mathematics and the physical sciences for careers in the space industry, space agencies and space-related research institutes. The MSc in Space Mission Analysis and Design is strongly supported by UK and EU industry, with input, among others, from the European Space Agency, LogicaCMG, EADS-Astrium Ltd, SciSys (Space) Ltd, GMV, VEGA and Analyticon.
For further information contact: Dr. Gianmarco Radice
To apply for this master, please visit the IPS (international and Postgrad Services) web site:http://www.gla.ac.uk/postgraduate/
This programme is aimed at graduate students with an engineering background, looking to broaden their knowledge of management whilst at the same time furthering their knowledge of Aerospace Engineering.
For further information contact: Dr Christopher York
To apply for this master, please visit the IPS (international and Postgrad Services) web site:http://www.gla.ac.uk/postgraduate/
The majority of Aerospace Systems can be categorised into the general headings: Flight Control Systems, Navigation Systems, Aircraft Management Systems and Communication Systems. This M.Sc. covers the salient engineering design concepts needed to develop Aerospace Systems and thus provides sufficient coverage of the subject matter at a sufficiently high level
For further information contact: Dr. Euan McGookin
To apply for this master, please visit the IPS (international and Postgrad Services) web site:http://www.gla.ac.uk/postgraduate/
International Masters exchange program
The International Masters Programme includes a selection of taught and project based modules (research only at Glasgow) delivered within the International partner group of universities. The course will prepare graduates for future careers within the international aerospace industry - more information can be found at http://www.colorado.edu/ASEN/IMS.
For further information contact: Dr. Ladislav Smrcek
Funding for postgraduate study is available from a number of sources.
§ University and Faculty Scholarships may be available for PhD study, comprising the tuition fee plus a stipend. The Graduate School web pages contain information on scholarships and fees
§ Much of our research has, and continues to involve, collaboration with external funders, including QinetiQ, AgustaWestland, BAE Systems, European Space Agency and the UKCivil Aviation Authority.
§ Research assistantships are available where a research grant or contract supports a salaried research position.
§ Finally, self-sponsoring is an option.
For further information contact: Dr Colin Goodchild
More information for prospective students can be found at:
§ Postgraduate prospectus for taught or research degrees in engineering.
§ Application form for a postgrad research degree.
Private partner for national aircraft project soon
National Aerospace Laboratories Director A.R. Upadhya on Monday said a private partner will shortly be selected for a joint venture to manufacture the regional transport aircraft.
He said an “Expression of Interest” will shortly be invited for the proposed public-private joint venture involving NAL. There could be more than one partner, Mr. Upadhya told reporters here. On the share of investment of the private partner, he said it would depend on the Government.
Mr. Upadhya, who is also the member-secretary of the High-Powered Committee on National Civil Aircraft Development, said that the committee is likely to utilise the services of financial institutions, SBI Caps and the IDBI, to develop a joint venture business module for this first indigenous regional aircraft.
He said the committee is in touch with four global jet engine manufacturers and is engaged in discussions with their technical teams.
Though the national civil aircraft development programme is looking at a 90-seater aircraft, having a 70-seater aircraft is also an option. The proposed aircraft could also be converted for military operations, Mr. Upadhya added.
Stating that the country has a huge potential for such aircraft, he noted that about 250 are required for civil aviation and about 150 for defence
Press Information Bureau
(C.M. Information Campus)
Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.
Hon’ble C.M. ji greets peopleon the occasion of Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti
Lucknow : 04 January 2011
The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Ms.
Mayawati ji has greeted people of the State, specially the
Sikh brethren, on the occasion of Guru Gobind Singh
In a greeting message issued here today, the Hon’ble
Chief Minister ji said that Guru Gobind Singh set an
example through his sacrifice for the society and it was still
a source of inspiration for all of us. She said that the
founder of the Khalasa Pant, waged a life long battle
against the social ills and discrimination and gave a new
direction to the society.