WordPress database error: [Table './sarvajan_ambedkar_org/wp_comments' is marked as crashed and should be repaired]
SELECT ID, COUNT( comment_ID ) AS ccount
LEFT JOIN wp_comments ON ( comment_post_ID = ID AND comment_approved = '1')
WHERE ID IN (1387)
GROUP BY ID
143 LESSON 20 01 2011 Ajita manava puccha Ajitas Questions FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT for Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation to attain Ultimate Bliss
Traditionally the are 84,000 Dharma Doors - 84,000 ways to get Awakeness. Maybe so; certainly the Buddha taught a large number of practices that lead to Awakeness. This web page attempts to catalogue those found in the Pali Suttas (DN, MN, SN, AN, Ud & Sn 1). There are 3 sections:
The discourses of Buddha are divided into 84,000, as to separate addresses. The division includes all that was spoken by Buddha.”I received from Buddha,” said Ananda, “82,000 Khandas, and from the priests 2000; these are 84,000 Khandas maintained by me.” They are divided into 275,250, as to the stanzas of the original text, and into 361,550, as to the stanzas of the commentary. All the discourses including both those of Buddha and those of the commentator, are divided into 2,547 banawaras, containing 737,000 stanzas, and 29,368,000 separate letters.
Ajita-manava-puccha: Ajita’s Questions
translated from the Pali by
John D. Ireland
[The Venerable Ajita:]
“By what is the world enveloped? Because of what is it not known? With what do you say it is soiled? What is its great fear?”
“The world is enveloped by ignorance, Ajita. Because of wrongly directed desire and heedlessness it is not known (as it really is). It is soiled by longings and its great fear is suffering.”
“Whatever streams are in the world, it is mindfulness that obstructs them and restricts them, and by wisdom they are cut off.”
“It is just wisdom and mindfulness. Now mind-and-body, sir, explain this: where does it cease?”
“The streams” are cravings flowing out towards pleasurable and desirable objects in the world.
This question and answer refers to the doctrine of dependent-arising (paticca-samuppada). Where rebirth-consciousness (pati-sandhi-vinnana) does not arise there is no establishment of an individual (mind-and-body, namarupa) in a realm of existence, nor the consequent appearance of old age and death and the other sufferings inherent in life.
“Those who have fully understood” are arahants (perfected ones) who have reached the highest goal. “Those who are training” are those noble beings (ariya) who are working towards and are assured of that goal. The other individuals are ordinary beings (puthujjana) who have not yet reached assurance.
BUDDHA (EDUCATE)! DHAMMA (MEDITATE)! SANGHA (ORGANISE)!
WISDOM IS POWER
Awakened One Shows the Path to Attain Eternal Bliss
Using such an instrument
The Free ONLINE e-Nālandā Research and Practice University has been re-organized to function through the following Schools of Learning :
Buddha’s Sangha Practiced His Dhamma Free of cost, hence the Free- e-Nālandā Research and Practice University follows suit
As the Original Nālandā University did not offer any Degree, so also the Free e-Nālandā Research and Practice University.
The teachings of Buddha are eternal, but even then Buddha did not proclaim them to be infallible. The religion of Buddha has the capacity to change according to times, a quality which no other religion can claim to have…Now what is the basis of Buddhism? If you study carefully, you will see that Buddhism is based on reason. There is an element of flexibility inherent in it, which is not found in any other religion.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , Indian scholar, philosopher and architect of Constitution of India, in his writing and speeches
IKAMMA,REBIRTH,AWAKEN-NESS,BUDDHA,THUS COME ONE,DHAMMA II.ARHA ,FOUR HOLY TRUTHS,EIGHTFOLD PATH,TWELVEFOLD CONDITIONED ARISING,BODHISATTVA,PARAMITA,SIX PARAMITAS III.SIX SPIRITUAL POWERS,SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH,TEN DHARMA REALMS,FIVE SKANDHAS,EIGHTEEN REALMS,FIVE MORAL PRECEPTS IV. MEDITATION,MINDFULNESS,FOUR APPLICATIONS OF MINDFULNESS,LOTUS POSTURE,SAMADHI,CHAN SCHOOL,FOUR JHANAS,FOUR FORMLESS REALMS V. FIVE TYPES OF BUDDHIST STUDY AND PRACTICE,MAHAYANA AND HINAYANA COMPARED,PURE LAND,BUDDHA RECITATION,EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES,ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS,EMPTINESS VI. DEMON,LINEAGE
Level I: Introduction to Buddhism,Level II: Buddhist Studies,
Level III: Stream-Enterer,Level IV: Once – Returner,Level V: Non-Returner,Level VI: Arhat
Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in
Philosophy and Comparative Religions;Historical Studies;International Relations and Peace Studies;Business Management in relation to Public Policy and Development Studies;Languages and Literature;and Ecology and Environmental Studies
Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in
Jambudvipa, i.e, PraBuddha Bharath scientific thought in< ?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = “urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office” />
Pali literature has innumerable references to the maritime activity of Jambudvipans in ancient times.Since ancient times Jambudvipa philosophers believed that except Akash (ether), all other elements were physically palpable and hence comprised miniscule particles of matter. The last miniscule particle of matter which could not be subdivided further was termed Parmanu. The word Parmanu is a combination of Param, meaning beyond, and anu meaning atom. Thus the term Parmanu is suggestive of the possibility that, at least at an abstract level Jambudvipa philosophers in ancient times had conceived the possibility of splitting an atom which, as we know today, is the source of atomic energy. This Jambudvipa concept of the atom was developed independently and prior to the development of the idea in the Greco-Roman world. The first Jambudvipa philosopher who formulated ideas about the atom in a systematic manner was Kanada who lived in the 6th century B.C. Another Jambudvipa philosopher, Pakudha Katyayana who also lived in the 6th century B.C. and was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha, had also propounded ideas about the atomic constitution of the material world.
The Buddhist philosophers who came later, rejected ether as an element and replaced it with life, joy and sorrow.
Since ancient times Jambudvipan philosophers believed that except Akash (ether), all other elements were physically palpable and hence comprised miniscule particles of matter. The last miniscule particle of matter which could not be subdivided further was termed Parmanu. The word Parmanu is a combination of Param, meaning beyond, and any meaning atom. Thus the term Parmanu is suggestive of the possibility that, at least at an abstract level Indian philosophers in ancient times had conceived the possibility of splitting an atom which, as we know today, is the source of atomic energy. This Jambudvipans concept of the atom
These philosophers considered the Atom to be indestructible and hence eternal. The Buddhists believed atoms to be minute objects invisible to the naked eye and which come into being and vanish in an instant. The Vaisheshika school of philosophers believed that an atom was a mere point in space. Jambudvipan theories about the atom are greatly abstract and enmeshed in philosophy as they were based on logic and not on personal experience or experimentation. Thus the Jambudvipan theories lacked an empirical base, but in the words of A.L. Basham, the veteran Australian Indologist “they were brilliant imaginative explanations of the physical structure of the world, and in a large measure, agreed with the discoveries of modern physics.”
The Story of Kanada
The school of philosophy which contributed to the development of ideas about the atom was the Vaisheshika school. A brilliant philosopher by the name Kashyapa (later called Kanada) is credited with having propounded the concept of atom for the first time. According to legend, Kashyapa lived in the 6th century B.C. He was the son of a phi losopher named Ulka. From his child days Kashyapa displayed a keen sense of observation. Minute things attracted his attention. The story goes that once when young boy he had accompanied his father a pilgrimage to Prayaga, he noticed that thousands of pilgrims who were flocking the town littered its roads with flowers grains of rice which they offered at the temples by the river Ganges. While everybody else was busy offering prayers, or bathing the Ganges, the young Kashyapa started collecting the grains (Kana) of rice that littered the streets.
Looking at this strange behaviour coming from a boy who seemingly belonged to do family, many of the passers-by curious and started wondering who he could be and why was he acting in strange manner. Soon a crowd collected around the young Kashyapa who continued collecting the grains, oblivious of the attention he was attracting. Passing by that was Muni Somasharma a learned Sage, wondered why the crowd had gathered time when everybody should have been the bathing ghats for the morning’s ritual bath. On going near he saw for himself reason and heard the derogatory remarks being made about the young Kashyapa. Muni Somasharma knew who Kashyapa was, he silenced the crowd and said that, knew who the boy was.
Being himself curious to know the reason for Kashyapa’s strange behaviour, Somasharma asked him why he was counting discarded grains which even a beggar would not care to collect. Somewhat hurt at question, Kashyapa replied that howsoever miniscule an object might be, it nevertheless was a part of the universe. Individual grains in themselves may seem worthless, but a collection of some hundred grains make up a person’s meal, the collection many meals would feed an entire family and ultimately the entire mankind was made of many families, thus even a single grain of rice was as important as all the valuable riches in this world.
This reply of the young Kashyapa deeply impressed Muni Somasharma who said that one day Kashyapa would grow into a celebrated philosopher and said that in recognition of Kayshapa’s unusual sense of perceiving miniscule objects he would henceforth be Kanada, from Kana which means a grain.
This was how Kashyapa came to acquire the Kanada, which was made immortal in history of Indian science due to the path-breaking conception of atom and relativity which Kanada was to put forth. He propounded the Vaisheshika-Sutra (Peculiarity Aphorisms). These Sutras were a of science and philosophy. Their subject was the atomic theory of matter. On reading these Sutras we find that Kanada’s atomic theory was far more advanced than formulated later by the Greek philosophers, Democritus and Leucippus.
Anu and Parmanu
It was Kanada who first propounded the that the Parmanu (atom) was an indestrutible particle of matter. According to the material universe is made up of Kana. When matter is divided and sudivided, we reach a stage beyond which no division is possible, the undivisible element of matter is Parmanu. Kanada explained that this indivisible, indestructible y cannot be sensed through any human organ.
In saying that there are different types of Parmanu for the five Pancha Mahabhootas, Earth, water, fire, air and ether. Each Parmanu has a peculiar property which depends, on the substance to which it belongs . It was because of this conception of peculiarity of Parmanu (atoms) that this theory unded by Kanada came to be known Vaisheshika-Sutra (Peculiarity Aphorisms). In this context Kanada seems to arrived at conclusions which were surpassed only many centuries after him.
According to Kanada, an object appears to be heavy under water than it does in air because the density of atoms in water is more than in air. The additional density of , in water, Kanada said, takes on part of the weight of an object, hence we feel only a part of its total weight, while in air, the lesser density of atoms results in a lesser part of an object’s weight being picked by air, hence we feel the object to be heavier in air than what is was when under the water. In saying this, in a very elementary but important way, Kanada foreshadowed Archimedes’ theory that a body immersed in a fluid is subject to an upward force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Kanada’s idea also had shades of relativity in it which was propounded by Einstien in our times.
About his ideas on atom, Kanada observed that an inherent urge made one Parmanu combine with another. When two Parmanu belonging to one class of substance combined, a dwinuka (binary molecule) was the result. This dwinuka had properties similar to the two parent Parmanu. In the material universe, according to him, Parmanu be longing to different classes of substances combine in different combinations giving us a variety of dwinuka, which in other words means different types of substances. Apart from such combination of different Parmanu, Kanada also put forth the idea of chemical changes occuring because of various factors. He claimed that variation in temperature could bring about such changes.
He cited the examples of blackening of a new earthen pot and the ripening of fruit to illustrate the chemical change in substances brought about by the heat. Thus according to Kanada all substances, all matter that existed in the universe was formed of Parmanu (atoms). The variations in the matter reflected the peculiarity of the Parmanu which constituted that particular matter, the variety of combinations between different types of Parmanu and the effect on them of variation in temperature.
These Indian ideas about atom and atomic physics could have been transmitted to the west during the contacts created between India and the west by the invasion of Alexander. The Greeks invaded north-western India in around 330 B C. Alongwith Alexander, came Greek philosophers like Aristotle who is reported to have been Alexander’s mentor. Scholars like Aristotle would surely have keenly studied the sciences of the lands which the Greek armies overran. Even after Alexander’s departure, massive trade and diplomatic relations existed between Indians and Greeks (who had settled in Asia) This way perhaps, Indian ideas could have travelled westwards where they were developed further.
Some scholars even go to the extent of saying that in Kanada’s lifetime itself some Greek scholars had visited India and through a debate with the great philosopher had been exposed to Indian ideas about atom. the possibility of such a meeting is remote as Kanada lived in the 6th century B.C. and the Greeks came into India only in the 4th century B.C. But nevertheless it remains a fact that Indian ideas about atom are the oldest. It is only after the 4th century B.C., after the Greeks had come in contact with India do we find references to the idea of an atom in Greek science. Thus it is quite possible that the Greeks borrowed the ideas about atom from Indian philosophers in the 4th century B.C. But the credit of developing these ideas further, goes to the Greeks and other western philosophers.
Q. Who invented Nuclear Physics?
Buddhist teacher Pakudha Katyayana taught atomic theory. Maharshi Kanaada of 3rd century,B.C. wrote atomic theory in Vaiseshika Suttas
The Jambudvipa Emperor Ashoka started a “Secret Society of the Nine Unknown Men”: great Jambudvipa scientists who were supposed to catalogue the many sciences. Ashoka kept their work secret because he was afraid that the advanced science catalogued by these men, culled from ancient Jambudvipa sources, would be used for the evil purpose of war, which Ashoka was strongly against, having been converted to Buddhism after defeating a rival army in a bloody battle.
The “Nine Unknown Men” wrote a total of nine books, presumably one each. Book number was “The Secrets of Gravitation!” This book, known to historians, but not actually seen by them dealt chiefly with “gravity control.” It is presumably still around somewhere, kept in a secret library in India, Tibet or elsewhere (perhaps even in North America somewhere). One can certainly understand Ashoka’s reasoning for wanting to keep such knowledge a secret, assuming it exists. if the Nazis had such weapons at their disposal during World War II. Ashoka was also aware devastating wars using such advanced vehicles and other “futuristic weapons” that had destroyed the ancient Jambudvipa “Rama Empire” several thousand years before.
There seems to be no doubt that Vimanas were powered by some sort of “anti-gravity.” Vimanas took off vertically, and were capable of hovering in the sky, like a modern helicopter or dirigible. Bharadvajy the Wise refers to no less than 70 authorities and 10 experts of air travel in antiquity. These sources are now lost.
Vimanas were kept in a Vimana Griha, a kind of hanger, and were sometimes said to be propelled by a yellowish-white liquid, and sometimes by some sort of mercury compound, though writers seem confused in this matter. It is most likely that the later writers on Vimanas, wrote as observers and from earlier texts, and were understandably confused on the principle of their propulsion. The “yellowish-white liquid” sounds suspiciously like gasoline, and perhaps Vimanas had a number of different propulsion sources, including combustion engines and even “pulse-jet” engines. It is interesting to note, that the Nazis developed the first practical pulse-jet engines for their V-8 rocket “buzz bombs.” Hitler and the Nazi staff were exceptionally interested in ancient Jambudvipa and Tibet and sent expeditions to both these places yearly, starting in the 30’s, in order to gather esoteric evidence that they did so, and perhaps it was from these people that the Nazis gained some of their scientific information!
One Vimana described was shaped like a sphere and born along at great speed on a mighty wind generated by mercury. It moved like a UFO, going up, down, backwards and forewards as the pilot desired. In another Jambudvipa source, the Samar, Vimanas were “iron machines, well-knit and smooth, with a charge of mercury that shot out of the back in the form of a roaring flame.” Another work called the Samaranganasutradhara describes how the vehicles were constructed. It is possible that mercury did have something to do with the propulsion, or more possibly, with the guidance system. Curiously, Soviet scientists have discovered what they call “age-old instruments used in navigating cosmic vehicles” in caves in Turkestan and the Gobi Desert. The “devices” are hemispherical objects of glass or porcelain, ending in a cone with a drop of mercury inside.
It is evident that ancient Jambudvipa flew around in these vehicles, all over Asia, to Atlantis presumably; and even, apparently, to South America. Writing found at Mohenjodaro in Pakistan (presumed to be one of the “Seven Rishi Cities of the Rama Empire”) and still undeciphered, has also been found in one other place in the world: Easter Island! Writing on Easter Island, called Rongo-Rongo writing, is also undeciphered, and is uncannily similar to the Mohenjodaro script. Was Easter Island an air base for the Rama Empire’s Vimana route? (At the Mohenjo-Daro Vimana-drome, as the passenger walks down the concourse, he hears the sweet, melodic sound of the announcer over the loudspeaker,
Pali literature has innumerable references to the maritime activity of Jambudvipans in ancient times.
This gives a technocratic exposition on the technique of
shipbuilding. It sets forth minute details about the various types of ships, their sizes, the materials from which they were built. The Yukti Kappa Taru sums up in a condensed form all the available information
The Yukti Kappa Taru gives sufficient information and date to prove that in ancient times, Jambudvipa shipbuilders had a good knowledge of the materials which were used in building ships. Apart from describing the qualities of the different types of wood and their suitablility in shipbuilding, the Yukti Kalpa Taru also gives an elaborate classification of ships based on their size.
The primary division is into 2 classes viz. Samanya (ordinary) and Vishesha (Special). The ordinary type for sea voyages. Ships that undertook sea voyages were classified into, Dirgha type of ships which had a long and narrow hull and the Unnata type of ships which had a higher hull.
This gives elaborate directions for decorating and furnishing the ships with a view to making them comfortable for passengers. Also mentioned are details about the internal seating and accommodation to be provided on the ships. Three classes of ships are distinguished according to their length and the position of cabins. The ships having cabins extending from one end of the deck to the other are called Sarvamandira vessels. These ships are recommended for the transport of royal treasure and horses. The next are the Madhyamarnandira vessels which have cabins only in the middle part of their deck. these vessels are recommended for pleasure trips. And finally there is a category of Agramandira vessels, these ships were used mainly in warfare.
THE ANCIENT INDIAN MARINER’S COMPASS
Interestingly there were terms for many parts of a ship. The ship’s anchor was known as Nava-Bandhan-Kilaha which literally means ‘A Nail to tie up a ship’ . The sail was called Vata Vastra a which means ‘wind-cloth’. The hull was termed StulaBhaga i.e. an’expanded area’. The rudder was called Keni-Pata, Pata means blade; the rudder was also known as Karna which literally means a ‘ear’ and was so called because it used to be a hollow curved blade, as is found today in exhaust fans. The ship’s keel was called Nava-Tala which means ‘bottom of a ship’. The mast was known as Kupadanda, in which danda means a pole.
Even a sextant was used for navigation and was called Vruttashanga-Bhaga. But what is more surprising is that even a contrived mariner’s compass was used by Jambudvipan navigators nearly 1500 to 2000 years ago. This claim is not being made in an overzealous nationalistic spirit. This has in fact been the suggestion of an European expert, Mr. J.L. Reid, who was a member of the Institute of Naval Architects and Shipbuilders in England at around the beginning of the present century.
In ancient Jambudvipa conventional mathematics termed Ganitam was known before the development of algebra. This is borne out by the name - Bijaganitam, which was given to the algebraic form of computation. Bijaganitam means ‘the other mathematics’ (Bija means ‘another’ or ’second’ and Ganitam means mathematics). The fact that this name was chosen for this system of computation implies that it was recognised as a parallel system of computation, different from the conventional one which was used since the past and was till then the only one. Some have interpreted the term Bija to mean seed, symbolizing origin or beginning. And the inference that Bijaganitam was the original form of computation is derived. Credence is lent to this view by the existence of mathematics in the Vedic literature which was also shorthand method of computation. But whatever the origin of algebra, it is certain that this technique of computation Originated in Jambudvipa and was current around 1500 years back. Aryabhatta and Jambudvipa mathematican who lived in the Jambudvipa 5th century A.D. has referred to Bijaganitam in his treatise on Mathematics, Aryabhattiya. An mathematician - astronomer, Bhaskaracharya has also authored a treatise on this subject. the treatise which is dated around the 12th century A.D. is entitled ‘Siddhanta-Shiromani’ of which one section is entitled Bijaganitam.
But even in the area of Geometry, Jambudvipan mathematicians had their contribution. There was an area of mathematical applications called Rekha Ganita (Line Computation). The Sulva Suttas, which literally mean ‘Rule of the Chord’ give geometrical methods of constructing altars and temples. The temples layouts were called Mandalas. Some of important works in this field are by Apastamba, Baudhayana, Hiranyakesin, Manava, Varaha and Vadhula.
The Arab scholar Mohammed Ibn Jubair al Battani studied Jambudvipan use of ratios from Retha Ganita and introduced them among the Arab scholars like Al Khwarazmi, Washiya and Abe Mashar who incorporated the newly acquired knowledge of algebra and other branches of Indian mathema into the Arab ideas about the subject.
The chief exponent of this Indo-Arab amalgam in mathematics was Al Khwarazmi who evolved a technique of calculation from Indian sources. This technique which was named by westerners after Al Khwarazmi as “Algorismi” gave us the modern term Algorithm, which is used in computer software.
Algorithm which is a process of calculation based on decimal notation numbers. This method was deduced by Khwarazmi from the Indian techniques geometric computation which he had st ied. Al Khwarazmi’s work was translated into Latin under the title “De Numero Indico” which means ‘of Indian Numerals’ thus betraying its Indian origin. This translation which belong to the 12th century A.D credited to one Adelard who lived in a town called Bath in Britian.
Thus Al Khwarazmi and Adelard could looked upon as pioneers who transmit Jambudvipan numerals to the west. Incidents according to the Oxford Dictionary, word algorithm which we use in the English language is a corruption of the name Khwarazmi which literally means ‘(a person) from Khawarizm’, which was the name of the town where Al Khwarazmi lived. To day unfortunately’, the original Indian texts that Al Khwarazmi studied arelost to us, only the translations are avail able .
The Arabs borrowed so much from Jambudvipa the field of mathematics that even the subject of mathematics in Arabic came to known as Hindsa which means ‘from India and a mathematician or engineer in Arabic is called Muhandis which means ‘an expert in Mathematics’. The word Muhandis possibly derived from the Arabic term mathematics viz. Hindsa.
The Concept of Zero
The concept of zero also originated in ancient Jambudvipa. This concept may seem to be a very ordinary one and a claim to its discovery may be viewed as queer. But if one gives a hard thought to this concept it would be seen that zero is not just a numeral. Apart from being a numeral, it is also a concept, and a fundamental one at that. It is fundamental because, terms to identify visible or perceptible objects do not require much ingenuity.
But a concept and symbol that connotes nullity represents a qualitative advancement of the human capacity of abstraction. In absence of a concept of zero there could have been only positive numerals in computation, the inclusion of zero in mathematics opened up a new dimension of negative numerals and gave a cut off point and a standard in the measurability of qualities whose extremes are as yet unknown to human beings, such as temperature.
In ancient Jambudvipa this numeral was used in computation, it was indicated by a dot and was termed Pujyam. Even today we use this term for zero along with the more current term Shunyam meaning a blank. But queerly the term Pujyam also means holy. Param-Pujya is a prefix used in written communication with elders. In this case it means respected or esteemed. The reason why the term Pujya - meaning blank - came to be sanctified can only be guessed.”
The ancient Jambudvipa astronomer Brahmagupta is credited with having put forth the concept of zero for the first time: Brahmagupta is said to have been born the year 598 A.D. at Bhillamala (today’s Bhinmal ) in Gujarat, Western Jambudvipa much is known about Brahmagupta’s early life. We are told that his name as a mathematician was well established when K Vyaghramukha of the Chapa dyansty m him the court astronomer. Of his two treatises, Brahma-sputa siddhanta and Karanakhandakhadyaka, first is more famous. It was a corrected version of the old Astronomical text, Brahma siddhanta. It was in his Brahma-sphu siddhanta, for the first time ever had be formulated the rules of the operation zero, foreshadowing the decimal system numeration. With the integration of zero into the numerals it became possible to note higher numerals with limited charecters.
In the earlier Roman and Babylonian systems of numeration, a large number of chara acters were required to denote higher numerals. Thus enumeration and computation became unwieldy. For instance, as E the Roman system of numeration, the number thirty would have to be written as X: while as per the decimal system it would 30, further the number thirty three would be XXXIII as per the Roman system, would be 33 as per the decimal system. Thus it is clear how the introduction of the decimal system made possible the writing of numerals having a high value with limited characters. This also made computation easier.
Apart from developing the decimal system based on the incorporation of zero in enumeration, Brahmagupta also arrived at solutions for indeterminate equations of 1 type ax2+1=y2 and thus can be called the founder of higher branch of mathematics called numerical analysis. Brahmagupta’s treatise Brahma-sputa-siddhanta was translated into Arabic under the title Sind Hind).
made of five metals
In ancient Jambudvipa, chemistry was caled Rasayan Shastra, Rasa-Vidya, Rasatantra and Rasakriya all of which roughly mean ‘Science of liquids’. There also existed chemical laboratories and chemicals works, which were called Rasakriya-nagaram and Rasakriya-shala which literally mean ‘School where liquids are activated’. A chemist was referred to as a Rasadnya and Rasa-tantra-vid which mean ‘Person having knowledge about liquids. Apart from the term Rasa which means liquid, another word, Dravya which means slurry, was also used to refer to chemicals. Thus, in ancient India, chemistry was evidently developed to a significant level.
Metallurgy was an important activity the world over. In fact the discovery of smelting of metals made possible the progress of society from the Stone Age to the Bronze and Iron Ages. In the area of smelting metals, Indians had acquired proficiency in the extraction of metals from ore, and also in the casting of metals. In very early times: around 2000 B.C. the idea of smelting metals was known in Mesopotemia and the Near East. It is possible that Jambudvipans could have borrowed the idea from an outside source. It is generally agreed that the Aryan tribes who are said to have destroyed the Indus Valley civilization had bronze weapons which helped them to overcome the otherwise more advanced people of the Indus cities.
Though Jambudvipa could have had borrowed the idea of smelting metals from an outside source, they seem to have had used metals in warfare from around 1500 B.C when the Aryans are said to have invaded the Indus Valley cities. The next definite reference to the use of metals by Jambudvipan soldiers is by the Greeks. The Greek historian Herodotus has observed in the 5th century that “Jambudvipas in the Persian army used arrows tipped with iron”. Jambudvipan steel and iron were reportedly being used by the Romans for manufacturing armour as well as cutlery. But these references apart, it is in India itself that we find actual objects that reflect the advancement of the technique of smelting.
physics and chemistry
In Jambudvipan languages, the science of Astronomy is today called Khagola-shastra. The word Khagola perhaps is derived from the famous astronomical observatory at the University of Nalanda which was called Khagola. It was at Khagola that the famous 5th century Indian Astronomer Aryabhatta studied and extended the subject.
Aryabhatta is said to have been born in 476 A.D. at a town called Ashmaka in today’s Jambudvipan state of Kerala. When he was still a young boy he had been sent to the University of Nalanda to study astronomy. He made significant contributions to the field of astronomy. He also propounded the Heliocentric theory of gravitation, thus predating Copernicus by almost one thousand years.
Aryabhatta’s Magnum Opus, the Aryabhattiya was translated into Latin in the 13th century. Through this translation, European mathematicians got to know methods for calculating the areas of triangles, volumes of spheres as well as square and cube root. Aryabhatta’s ideas about eclipses and the sun being the source of moonlight may not have caused much of an impression on European astronomers as by then they had come to know of these facts throught the observations of Copernicus and Galileo.
But considering that Aryabhatta discovered these facts 1500 years ago, and 1000 years before Copernicus and Galileo makes him a pioneer in this area too. Aryabhatta’s methods of astronomical calculations expounded in his Aryabhatta-siddhanta were reliable for practical purposes of fixing the Panchanga. Thus in ancient Jambudvipa, eclipses were also forecast and their true nature was perceived at least by the astronomers.
The lack of a telescope hindered further advancement of ancient Jambudvipan astronomy. Though it should be admitted that with their unaided observations with crude instruments, the astronomers in ancient Jambudvipa were able to arrive at near perfect measurement of astronomical movements and predict eclipses.
Jambudvipan astronomers also propounded the theory that the earth was a sphere. Aryabhatta was the first one to have propounded this theory in the 5th century. Another Jambudvipan astronomer, Brahmagupta estimated in the 7th century that the circumference of the earth was 5000 yojanas. A yojana is around 7.2 kms. Calculating on this basis we see that the estimate of 36,000 kms as the earth’s circumference comes quite close to the actual circumference known today.
Baudhāyana, (fl. c. 800 BCE) was an Indian mathematician, who was most likely also a priest. He is noted as the author of the earliest Sulba Sutra—appendices to the Vedas giving rules for the construction of altars—called theBaudhāyana Śulbasûtra, which contained several important mathematical results. He is older than other famous mathematician Apastambha. He belongs to Yajurveda school.
His shrauta sutras related to performing to Vedic sacrifices has followers in some Smartha brahmins (Iyers)And some Iyengars of Tamil Nadu, Yajurvedis or Namboothiris of Kerala, Gurukkal brahmins, among others. The followers of this sutra follow a different method and do 24 Tilatarpana, as Lord Krishna had done tarpana on the day before Amavasaya; they call themselves Baudhayana Amavasya.
The Vivarana of Govindasvami is an important commentary on the Dharmasûtra.
The most notable of the rules (the Sulbasutras do not contain any proofs of the rules which they describe) in the Baudhāyana Sulba Sutta says:
dīrghasyākṣaṇayā rajjuH pārśvamānī, tiryaDaM mānī,
cha yatpṛthagbhUte kurutastadubhayāṅ karoti.
This appears to be referring to a rectangle, although some interpretations consider this to refer to a square. In either case, it states that the square of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares of the sides. If restricted to right-angled isosceles triangles, however, it would constitute a less general claim, but the text seems to be quite open to unequal sides.
If this refers to a rectangle, it is the earliest recorded statement of the Pythagorean theorem.
Baudhayana also provides a non-axiomatic demonstration using a rope measure of the reduced form of the Pythagorean theorem for an isosceles right triangle:
Another problem tackled by Baudhayana is that of finding a circle whose area is the same as that of a square (the reverse of squaring the circle). His sutra i.58 gives this construction:
Baudhayana i.61-2 (elaborated in Apastamba Sulbasutra i.6) gives the length of the diagonal of a square in terms of its sides, which is equivalent to a formula for the square root of 2:
which is correct to five decimals.
Other theorems include: diagonals of rectangle bisect each other, diagonals of rhombus bisect at right angles, area of a square formed by joining the middle points of a square is half of original, the midpoints of a rectangle joined forms a rhombus whose area is half the rectangle, etc.
Note the emphasis on rectangles and squares; this arises from the need to specify yajña bhūmikās—i.e. the altar on which a rituals were conducted, including fire offerings (yajña).
Press Information Bureau
(Chief Minister Information Campus)
Information & Public Relations Department, U.P.
Cabinet Minister Mr. Ashok Kumar Dohre relieved from his ministerial post
Lucknow : 19 January 2011
The Governor Mr. B.L. Joshi has relieved the U.P.
Minister for land development and water resources Mr. Ashok
Kumar Dohre from his ministerial post on the recommendation
of the Hon’ble Chief Minister of U.P. Ms. Mayawati ji for his
behaviour and conduct which were adverse to the dignity of
LUCKNOW: With an eye on the coming 2012 assembly elections in the state,Bahujan Samaj Party has already shortlisted candidates in around 200 seats out of total 403 in the state assembly. It is likely to finalise all its candidates for the polls within next two months.
Going by the formula `jiski jitani bhagedari, uski utani hissedari’ (share according to contribution), backward classes besides SC/STs might get large share of tickets in comparison to other castes. The reason being party’s success in the backward dominated constituencies in assembly by-election since 2007 and in 2009 Lok Sabha elections.
Chief minister and BSP supremo Mayawati wants to complete all ticket distribution `formalities’ one year in advance, so that her candidates get enough time to groom their constituencies. PWD minister and Muslim face of the BSP, Naseemuddin Siddiqui, has been assigned the task of overseeing work in 89 reserved assembly constituencies. Siddiqui’s main task would be to build a strong Muslim-SC/ST alliance in the reserved seats. SC Mishra, Maya’s close confidant and Brahmin face of the party, will continue to focus on Brahmins, while state BSP president Swami Prasad Maurya will work among backward classes
The state has been divided into nine zones for better management. Maya has also issued instructions that only committed party workers should get the important positions from booth to the district level in the party hierarchy. She has directed functionaries to focus on the rural areas, BSP’s traditional base in comparison to the urban. She has also asked party MLAs to conduct scrutiny of the government welfare schemes in their respective areas and ensure that the benefit reaches the people, particularly SC/STs.
The BSP cadre will also publicise the work done by the state government for SC/STs through a door-to-door campaign.
Other backward and most backward classes (OBCs/MBCs) played important role besides Brahmin-SC/ST-Muslim combination in Maya’s 2007 success. Over 50 OBC/MBC candidates fielded by BSP had won in 2007. And, in 2009 Lok Sabha elections, five OBCs/MBCs, of 20 fielded, won. In by-elections held after 2009 general elections, BSP has won 10 backward dominated seats, making foray into backward dominated areas andSamajwadi Party strongholds like Etawah and Barthana.
Party sources said that Maya plans to compensate for the losses due to any `anti-incumbency’ and `Brahmin disenchantment’ factors by roping in non-Yadav OBCs and MBCs.
Not surprisingly, at present, Babu Singh Kushwaha is the second most powerful leader in the BSP. Kushwaha and BSP state president Swami Prasad Maurya are party’s OBC face. Sukhdev Rajbhar, another OBC, has been made Vidhan Sabha speaker. Mayawati had sent Ganga Charan Rajput, a Lodh (who lost to Varun Gandhi in 2009 Lok Sabha elections) to Rajya Sabha. Similarly, Vinay Shakya, who lost to Mulayam in Lok Sabha polls from Mainpuri has been to legislative council. The SC/STs constitute 30% of UP’s population and OBC/MBC around 35%. While keeping her dalit vote intact, Mayawati wants to win over MBCs for 2012.
“Though MBCs are 5-10% in a constituency, they can tilt the results in over 150 assembly seats. A prospective winning combination will automatically attract Muslims, who vote tactically for the party in a better position to defeat BJP and form a government,” said a BSP functionary. “Behenji has also decided to drop all sitting MLAs with criminal background and those caught in controversies like Purshottam Naresh Dwivedi of Nareni (Banda), who has been accused of rape,” he added. “Only those sitting MLAs will get tickets again, whose image is good in their constituency and have potential to win the election,” he said.