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08/11/11
342 and 343 LESSONS 11 and 12 08 2011 Tuvataka Sutta Quickly and Samaññaphala Sutta: The Fruits of the Contemplative Life FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org- Free Buddhist Studies for Young Students- Lesson 7: Three characteristics of life and Lesson 8: The Four Noble Truths-POLITICS is SACRED with HIGHLY PROMISING BEST GOVERNANCE of UTTAR PRADESH CHIEF MINISTER MS MAYAWATI JI-Mayawati govt bans ‘Aarakshan’ for 2 months in UP
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342 and 343 LESSONS 11 and 12 08 2011 Tuvataka Sutta Quickly and Samaññaphala
Sutta: The Fruits of the Contemplative Lif
e
FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice
UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT to attain
Ultimate Bliss-Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org-
Free Buddhist Studies for Young Students- Lesson 7: Three characteristics of life
and Lesson 8: The Four Noble Truths-
POLITICS is SACRED with
HIGHLY PROMISING BEST GOVERNANCE of UTTAR PRADESH CHIEF MINISTER MS MAYAWATI JI-
Mayawati govt bans ‘Aarakshan’ for 2 months in
UP

Snp 4.14

PTS: Sn 915-934

Tuvataka Sutta: Quickly

translated from the Pali
by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1997–2011

“I ask the kinsman
of the Sun, the great seer, about seclusion & the state of peace. Seeing in
what way is a monk unbound, clinging to nothing in the world?” “He
should put an entire stop to the root of objectification-classifications: ‘I am
the thinker.’[1]

He should train, always mindful, to subdue any craving inside him. Whatever
truth he may know, within or without, he shouldn’t get entrenched in connection
with it, for that isn’t called Unbinding by the good. He shouldn’t, because of
it, think himself better, lower, or equal. Touched by contact in various ways,
he shouldn’t keep conjuring self. Stilled right within, a monk shouldn’t seek
peace from another from anything else. For one stilled right within, there’s
nothing embraced, so how rejected?[2] As in the middle of the sea it is still, with no waves upwelling,
so the monk — unperturbed, still — should not swell himself anywhere.”
“He whose eyes are open has described the Dhamma he’s witnessed, subduing
danger. Now tell us, sir, the practice: the code of discipline &
concentration.” “One shouldn’t be careless with his eyes, should
close his ears to village-talk, shouldn’t hunger for flavors, or view anything
in the world as mine. When touched by contact he shouldn’t lament,
shouldn’t covet anywhere any states of becoming, or tremble at terrors. When
gaining food & drink, staples & cloth, he should not make a hoard. Nor
should he be upset when receiving no gains. Absorbed, not foot-loose, he should
refrain from restlessness, shouldn’t be heedless, should live in a noise-less
abode. Not making much of sleep, ardent, given to wakefulness, he should
abandon sloth, deception, laughter, sports, fornication, & all that goes
with it; should not practice charms, interpret physical marks, dreams, the
stars, animal cries; should not be devoted to practicing medicine or inducing
fertility. A monk shouldn’t tremble at blame or grow haughty with praise;
should thrust aside selfishness, greed, divisive speech, anger; shouldn’t buy
or sell or revile anyone anywhere; shouldn’t linger in villages, or flatter
people in hopes of gains. A monk shouldn’t boast or speak with ulterior motive,
shouldn’t train in insolence or speak quarrelsome words; shouldn’t engage in
deception or knowingly cheat; shouldn’t despise others for their life,
discernment, precepts, or practices. Provoked with many words from
contemplatives or ordinary people, he shouldn’t respond harshly, for those who
retaliate aren’t calm. Knowing this teaching, a monk inquiring should always
train in it mindfully. Knowing Unbinding as peace, he shouldn’t be heedless of
Gotama’s message — for he, the Conqueror unconquered, witnessed the Dhamma, not
by hearsay, but directly, himself. So, heedful, you should always train in line
with that Blessed One’s message,” the Blessed One said.

DN 2

PTS: D i 47

Samaññaphala Sutta: The
Fruits of the Contemplative Life

translated from the Pali
by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1997–2011

Translator’s Introduction

This discourse is one of the masterpieces of the Pali canon. At
heart, it is a comprehensive portrait of the Buddhist path of training,
illustrating each stage of the training with vivid similes. This portrait is
placed in juxtaposition to the Buddhist view of the teachings of rival
philosophical teachers of the time, showing how the Buddha — in
contradistinction to the inflexible, party-line approach of his contemporaries
— presented his teaching in a way that was pertinent and sensitive to the needs
of his listeners. This larger portrait of the intellectual landscape of early
Buddhist India is then presented in a moving narrative frame: the sad story of
King Ajatasattu.

Ajatasattu was the son of King Bimbisara of Magadha, one of the
Buddha’s earliest followers. Urged on by Devadatta — the Buddha’s cousin, who
wished to use Ajatasattu’s support in his bid to take over the Buddha’s
position as head of the Sangha — Ajatasattu arranged for his father’s death so
that he could secure his own position on the throne. As a result of this evil
deed, he was destined not only to be killed by his own son — Udayibhadda (mentioned in the discourse) — but also to
take immediate rebirth in one of the lowest regions of hell.

In this discourse, Ajatasattu visits the Buddha in hopes that
the latter will bring some peace to his mind. The question he puts to the
Buddha shows the limited level of his own understanding, so the Buddha
patiently describes the steps of the training, beginning at a very basic level
and gradually moving up, as a way of raising the king’s spiritual horizons. At
the end of the talk, Ajatasattu takes refuge in the Triple Gem. Although his
earlier deeds were so heavy that this expression of faith could have only
limited consequences in the immediate present, the Commentary assures us that
the king’s story would ultimately have a happy ending. After the Buddha’s
death, he sponsored the First Council, at which a congress of arahant disciples
produced the first standardized account of the Buddha’s teachings. As a result
of the merit coming from this deed, Ajatasattu is destined — after his release
from hell — to attain Awakening as a Private Buddha.

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying at
Rajagaha, in Jivaka Komarabhacca’s
mango grove, with a large community of monks — 1,250 monks in all. Now at that
time — it being the observance day, the full-moon night of the water-lily
season, the fourth month of the rains — King Ajatasattu
of Magadha, the son of Queen Videha, was sitting on the roof
terrace of his palace surrounded by his ministers. Then he felt inspired to
exclaim: “How wonderful is this moonlit night! How beautiful… How
lovely… How inspiring… How auspicious is this moonlit night! What priest or
contemplative should we visit tonight who might enlighten and bring peace to
our mind?”

When this was said, one of the ministers said to the king:
“Your majesty, there is Purana Kassapa, the leader of
a community, the leader of a group, the teacher of a group, honored and famous,
esteemed as holy by the mass of people. He is aged, long gone forth, advanced
in years, in the last phase of life. Your majesty should visit him. Perhaps, if
you visited him, he would enlighten and bring peace to your mind.”

When this was said, the king remained silent.

Then another minister said to the king: “Your majesty,
there is Makkhali Gosala… Your majesty, there is Ajita Kesakambalin… Your majesty, there is Pakudha
Kaccayana
… Your majesty, there is Sañjaya Belatthaputta
Your majesty, there is Nigantha Nataputta, the leader of
a community, the leader of a group, the teacher of a group, honored and famous,
esteemed as holy by the mass of people. He is aged, long gone forth, advanced
in years, in the last phase of life. Your majesty should visit him. Perhaps, if
you visited him, he would enlighten and bring peace to your mind.”

When this was said, the king remained silent.

All this time Jivaka Komarabhacca was sitting silently not far
from the king. So the king said to him, “Friend Jivaka, why are you silent?”

“Your majesty, there is the Blessed One, worthy and rightly
self-awakened, staying in my mango grove with a large community of monks —
1,250 monks in all. Concerning this Blessed One, this admirable report has been
spread: ‘Surely, the Blessed One is worthy and rightly self-awakened,
consummate in clear knowing and conduct, well-gone, an expert with regard to
the cosmos, unexcelled trainer of tamable people, teacher of beings human and
divine, awakened, blessed.’ Your majesty should visit him. Perhaps, if you
visited him, he would enlighten and bring peace to your mind.”

“Then in that case, friend Jivaka, have the riding
elephants prepared.”

Having replied, “As you say, your majesty,” having had
five hundred female elephants prepared as well as the king’s personal tusker,
Jivaka announced to the king: “Your majesty, your riding elephants are
prepared. Do what you think it is now time to do.”

Then the king, having had five hundred of his women mounted on
the five hundred female elephants — one on each — and having mounted his own
personal tusker, set out from the capital in full royal state, with attendants
carrying torches, headed for Jivaka Komarabhacca’s mango grove. But when the
king was not far from the mango grove, he was gripped with fear, trepidation,
his hair standing on end. Fearful, agitated, his hair standing on end, he said
to Jivaka Komarabhacca: “Friend Jivaka, you aren’t deceiving me, are you?
You aren’t betraying me, are you? You aren’t turning me over to my enemies, are
you? How can there be such a large community of monks — 1,250 in all — with no
sound of sneezing, no sound of coughing, no voices at all?”

“Don’t be afraid, great king. Don’t be afraid. I’m not
deceiving you or betraying you or turning you over to your enemies. Go forward,
great king, go forward! Those are lamps burning in the pavilion hall.”

Then the king, going as far on his tusker as the ground would
permit, dismounted and approached the door of the pavilion on foot. On arrival,
he asked Jivaka: “Where, friend Jivaka, is the Blessed One?”

“That is the Blessed One, great king, sitting against the
middle pillar, facing east, surrounded by the community of monks.”

Then the king approached the Blessed One and, on reaching him,
stood to one side. As he was standing there — surveying the community of monks
sitting in absolute silence, as calm as a lake — he felt inspired to exclaim:
“May my son, Prince Udayibhadda, enjoy the same
peace that this community of monks now enjoys!”

[The Blessed One said:] “Have you come, great king,
together with your affections?”

“Lord, my son, Prince Udayibhadda, is very dear to me. May
he enjoy the same peace that this community of monks now enjoys!”

Then, bowing down to the Blessed One, and saluting the community
of monks with his hands palm-to-palm over his heart, he sat to one side. As he
was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One: “I would like to ask the
Blessed One about a certain issue, if he would give me the opportunity to
explain my question.”

“Ask, great king, whatever you like.”

The King’s
Question

“Lord, there are these common craftsmen: elephant-trainers,
horse-trainers, charioteers, archers, standard bearers, camp marshals, supply
corps officers, high royal officers, commandos, military heroes, armor-clad
warriors, leather-clad warriors, domestic slaves, confectioners, barbers, bath
attendants, cooks, garland-makers, laundrymen, weavers, basket-makers, potters,
calculators, accountants, and any other common craftsmen of a similar sort.
They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and now. They
give pleasure and refreshment to themselves, to their parents, wives, and
children, to their friends and colleagues. They put in place an excellent
presentation of offerings to priests and contemplatives, leading to heaven, resulting
in happiness, conducive to a heavenly rebirth. Is it possible, lord, to point
out a similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and
now?”

“Do you remember, great king, ever having asked this
question of other priests and contemplatives?”

“Yes, I do.”

“If it isn’t troublesome for you, how did they
answer?”

“No, it’s not troublesome for me wherever the Blessed One —
or someone like the Blessed One — is sitting.”

“Then speak, great king.”

Non-action

“Once, lord, I approached Purana Kassapa
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of
friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I was sitting there I
asked him: ‘Venerable Kassapa, there are these common craftsmen… They live
off the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and now… Is it possible,
venerable sir, to point out a similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible
in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Purana Kassapa said to me, ‘Great
king, in acting or getting others to act, in mutilating or getting others to
mutilate, in torturing or getting others to torture, in inflicting sorrow or in
getting others to inflict sorrow, in tormenting or getting others to torment,
in intimidating or getting others to intimidate, in taking life, taking what is
not given, breaking into houses, plundering wealth, committing burglary,
ambushing highways, committing adultery, speaking falsehood — one does no evil.
If with a razor-edged disk one were to turn all the living beings on this earth
to a single heap of flesh, a single pile of flesh, there would be no evil from
that cause, no coming of evil. Even if one were to go along the right bank of
the Ganges, killing and getting others to kill, mutilating and getting others
to mutilate, torturing and getting others to torture, there would be no evil
from that cause, no coming of evil. Even if one were to go along the left bank
of the Ganges, giving and getting others to give, making sacrifices and getting
others to make sacrifices, there would be no merit from that cause, no coming
of merit. Through generosity, self-control, restraint, and truthful speech
there is no merit from that cause, no coming of merit.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, Purana Kassapa answered with non-action. Just as if a
person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or, when
asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango: In the same way, when
asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, Purana
Kassapa answered with non-action. The thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone
like me think of disparaging a priest or contemplative living in his realm?’
Yet I neither delighted in Purana Kassapa’s words nor did I protest against
them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without expressing
dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching, without adopting it, I got up
from my seat and left.

Purification
through Wandering-on

“Another time I approached Makkhali
Gosala
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I was
sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Gosala, there are these common
craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and
now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar fruit of the
contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Makkhali Gosala said to me, ‘Great
king, there is no cause, no requisite condition, for the defilement of beings.
Beings are defiled without cause, without requisite condition. There is no
cause, no requisite condition, for the purification of beings. Beings are
purified without cause, without requisite condition. There is nothing self-caused,
nothing other-caused, nothing human-caused. There is no strength, no effort, no
human energy, no human endeavor. All living beings, all life, all beings, all
souls are powerless, devoid of strength, devoid of effort. Subject to the
changes of fate, serendipity, and nature, they are sensitive to pleasure and
pain in the six great classes of birth.

“‘There are 1,406,600 principle modes of origin. There are
500 kinds of kamma, five kinds, and three kinds; full kamma and half kamma.
There are 62 pathways, 62 sub-eons, six great classes of birth, eight classes
of men, 4,900 modes of livelihood, 4,900 kinds of wanderers, 4,900 Naga-abodes,
2,000 faculties, 3,000 hells, 36 dust-realms, seven spheres of percipient
beings, seven spheres of non-percipient beings, seven kinds of jointed plants,
seven kinds of devas, seven kinds of human beings, seven kinds of demons, seven
great lakes, seven major knots, seven minor knots, 700 major precipices, 700
minor precipices, 700 major dreams, 700 minor dreams, 84,000 great aeons.
Having transmigrated and wandered on through these, the wise and the foolish
alike will put an end to pain.

“‘Though one might think, “Through this morality, this
practice, this austerity, or this holy life I will ripen unripened kamma and
eliminate ripened kamma whenever touched by it” — that is impossible.
Pleasure and pain are measured out, the wandering-on is fixed in its limits.
There is no shortening or lengthening, no accelerating or decelerating. Just as a ball of string, when thrown, comes to its end simply
by unwinding, in the same way, having transmigrated and wandered on, the wise
and the foolish alike will put an end to pain.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, Makkhali Gosala answered with purification through
wandering-on. Just as if a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer
with a breadfruit; or, when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a
mango. In the same way, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, Makkhali Gosala answered with purification through wandering-on.
The thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone like me think of disparaging a
priest or contemplative living in his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in
Makkhali Gosala’s words nor did I protest against them. Neither delighting nor
protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without expressing dissatisfaction, without
accepting his teaching, without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

Annihilation

“Another time I approached Ajita Kesakambalin
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of
friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I was sitting there I
asked him: ‘Venerable Ajita, there are these common craftsmen… They live off
the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and now… Is it possible,
venerable sir, to point out a similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible
in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Ajita Kesakambalin said to me, ‘Great
king, there is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed. There is no
fruit or result of good or bad actions. There is no this world, no next world,
no mother, no father, no spontaneously reborn beings; no priests or
contemplatives who, faring rightly and practicing rightly, proclaim this world
and the next after having directly known and realized it for themselves. A
person is a composite of four primary elements. At death, the earth (in the
body) returns to and merges with the (external) earth-substance. The fire
returns to and merges with the external fire-substance. The liquid returns to
and merges with the external liquid-substance. The wind returns to and merges
with the external wind-substance. The sense-faculties scatter into space. Four
men, with the bier as the fifth, carry the corpse. Its eulogies are sounded
only as far as the charnel ground. The bones turn pigeon-colored. The offerings
end in ashes. Generosity is taught by idiots. The words of those who speak of
existence after death are false, empty chatter. With the break-up of the body,
the wise and the foolish alike are annihilated, destroyed. They do not exist
after death.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, Ajita Kesakambalin answered with annihilation. Just as if
a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or, when
asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango. In the same way, when
asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, Ajita
Kesakambalin answered with annihilation. The thought occurred to me: ‘How can
anyone like me think of disparaging a priest or contemplative living in his
realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in Ajita Kesakambalin’s words nor did I protest
against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without
expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching, without adopting
it, I got up from my seat and left.

Non-relatedness

“Another time I approached Pakudha
Kaccayana
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I was
sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Kaccayana, there are these common
craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and
now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar fruit of the
contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Pakudha Kaccayana said to me, ‘Great
king, there are these seven substances — unmade, irreducible, uncreated,
without a creator, barren, stable as a mountain-peak, standing firm like a
pillar — that do not alter, do not change, do not interfere with one another,
are incapable of causing one another pleasure, pain, or both pleasure and pain.
Which seven? The earth-substance, the liquid-substance, the fire-substance, the
wind-substance, pleasure, pain, and the soul as the seventh. These are the
seven substances — unmade, irreducible, uncreated, without a creator, barren,
stable as a mountain-peak, standing firm like a pillar — that do not alter, do
not change, do not interfere with one another, and are incapable of causing one
another pleasure, pain, or both pleasure and pain.

“‘And among them there is no killer nor one who causes
killing, no hearer nor one who causes hearing, no cognizer nor one who causes
cognition. When one cuts off [another person’s] head, there is no one taking
anyone’s life. It is simply between the seven substances that the sword
passes.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, Pakudha Kaccayana answered with non-relatedness. Just as
if a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or,
when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango. In the same way,
when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now,
Pakudha Kaccayana answered with non-relatedness. The thought occurred to me:
‘How can anyone like me think of disparaging a priest or contemplative living
in his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in Pakudha Kaccayana’s words nor did I
protest against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied.
Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching, without
adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

Fourfold
Restraint

“Another time I approached Nigantha
Nataputta
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an
exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I was
sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Aggivessana, there are these common
craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and
now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar fruit of the
contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Nigantha Nataputta said to me, ‘Great
king, there is the case where the Nigantha — the knotless one — is restrained
with the fourfold restraint. And how is the Nigantha restrained with the
fourfold restraint? There is the case where the Nigantha is obstructed by all
waters, conjoined with all waters, cleansed with all waters, suffused with all
waters. This is how the Nigantha is restrained with the fourfold restraint.
When the Nigantha — a knotless one — is restrained with such a fourfold
restraint, he is said to be a Knotless One (Nigantha), a son of Nata
(Nataputta), with his self perfected, his self controlled, his self
established.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, Nigantha Nataputta answered with fourfold restraint. Just
as if a person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or,
when asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango: In the same way,
when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now,
Nigantha Nataputta answered with fourfold restraint. The thought occurred to
me: ‘How can anyone like me think of disparaging a priest or contemplative
living in his realm?’ Yet I neither delighted in Nigantha Nataputta’s words nor
did I protest against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was
dissatisfied. Without expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his
teaching, without adopting it, I got up from my seat and left.

Evasion

“Another time I approached Sañjaya
Belatthaputta
and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him.
After an exchange of friendly greetings and courtesies, I sat to one side. As I
was sitting there I asked him: ‘Venerable Sañjaya, there are these common
craftsmen… They live off the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and
now… Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out a similar fruit of the
contemplative life, visible in the here and now?’

“When this was said, Sañjaya Belatthaputta said to me, ‘If
you ask me if there exists another world [after death], if I thought that there
exists another world, would I declare that to you? I don’t think so. I don’t
think in that way. I don’t think otherwise. I don’t think not. I don’t think
not not. If you asked me if there isn’t another world… both is and isn’t…
neither is nor isn’t… if there are beings who transmigrate… if there
aren’t… both are and aren’t… neither are nor aren’t… if the Tathagata
exists after death… doesn’t… both… neither exists nor doesn’t exist after
death, would I declare that to you? I don’t think so. I don’t think in that
way. I don’t think otherwise. I don’t think not. I don’t think not not.’

“Thus, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life,
visible here and now, Sañjaya Belatthaputta answered with evasion. Just as if a
person, when asked about a mango, were to answer with a breadfruit; or, when
asked about a breadfruit, were to answer with a mango: In the same way, when
asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and now, Sañjaya
Belatthaputta answered with evasion. The thought occurred to me: ‘This — among
these priests and contemplatives — is the most foolish and confused of all. How
can he, when asked about a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here and
now, answer with evasion?’ Still the thought occurred to me: ‘How can anyone
like me think of disparaging a priest or contemplative living in his realm?’
Yet I neither delighted in Sañjaya Belatthaputta’s words nor did I protest
against them. Neither delighting nor protesting, I was dissatisfied. Without
expressing dissatisfaction, without accepting his teaching, without adopting
it, I got up from my seat and left.

The First
Visible Fruit of the Contemplative Life

“So, lord, I ask the Blessed One as well: There are these
common craftsmen: elephant-trainers, horse-trainers, charioteers, archers,
standard bearers, camp marshals, supply corps officers, high royal officers,
commandos, military heroes, armor-clad warriors, leather-clad warriors,
domestic slaves, confectioners, barbers, bath attendants, cooks,
garland-makers, laundrymen, weavers, basket-makers, potters, calculators,
accountants, and any other common craftsmen of a similar sort. They live off
the fruits of their crafts, visible in the here and now. They give pleasure and
refreshment to themselves, to their parents, wives, and children, to their
friends and colleagues. They put in place an excellent presentation of
offerings to priests and contemplatives, leading to heaven, resulting in
happiness, conducive to a heavenly rebirth. Is it possible, lord, to point out
a similar fruit of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?”

“Yes, it is, great king. But first, with regard to that, I
will ask you a counter-question. Answer however you please. Suppose there were
a man of yours: your slave, your workman, rising in the morning before you,
going to bed in the evening only after you, doing whatever you order, always
acting to please you, speaking politely to you, always watching for the look on
your face. The thought would occur to him: ‘Isn’t it amazing? Isn’t it
astounding? — the destination, the results, of meritorious deeds. For this King
Ajatasattu is a human being, and I, too, am a human being, yet King Ajatasattu
enjoys himself supplied and replete with the five strings of sensuality — like
a deva, as it were — while I am his slave, his workman… always watching for
the look on his face. I, too, should do meritorious deeds. What if I were to
shave off my hair and beard, put on the ochre robes, and go forth from the household
life into homelessness?’

“So after some time he shaves off his hair and beard, puts
on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into homelessness.
Having thus gone forth he lives restrained in body, speech, and mind, content
with the simplest food and shelter, delighting in solitude. Then suppose one of
your men were to inform you: ‘You should know, your majesty, that that man of
yours — your slave, your workman… always watching for the look on your
face… has gone forth from the household life into homelessness… content
with the simplest food and shelter, delighting in solitude.’ Would you, thus
informed, say, ‘Bring that man back to me. Make him again be my slave, my
workman… always watching for the look on my face!’?”

“Not at all, lord. Rather, I am the one who should bow down
to him, rise up out of respect for him, invite him to a seat, invite him to
accept gifts of robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites for the
sick. And I would provide him with righteous safety, defense, and
protection.”

“So what do you think, great king. With that being the
case, is there a visible fruit of the contemplative life, or is there
not?”

“Yes, lord. With that being the case, there certainly is a
visible fruit of the contemplative life.”

“This, great king, is the first fruit of the contemplative
life, visible in the here and now, that I point out to you.”

The Second
Visible Fruit of the Contemplative Life

“But is it possible, lord, to point out yet another fruit
of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?”

“Yes, it is, great king. But first, with regard to that, I
will ask you a counter-question. Answer however you please. Suppose there were
a man of yours: a farmer, a householder, a taxpayer swelling the royal
treasury. The thought would occur to him: ‘Isn’t it amazing? Isn’t it
astounding? — the destination, the results, of meritorious deeds! For this King
Ajatasattu is a human being, and I, too, am a human being, yet King Ajatasattu
enjoys himself supplied and replete with the five strings of sensuality — like
a deva, as it were — while I am a farmer, a householder, a taxpayer swelling
the royal treasury. I, too, should do meritorious deeds. What if I were to
shave off my hair and beard, put on the ochre robes, and go forth from the
household life into homelessness?’

“So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large
or small; leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair
and beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into
homelessness. Having thus gone forth he lives restrained in body, speech, and
mind, content with the simplest food and shelter, delighting in solitude. Then
suppose one of your men were to inform you: ‘You should know, your majesty,
that that man of yours — the farmer, the householder, the taxpayer swelling the
royal treasury… has gone forth from the household life into homelessness…
content with the simplest food and shelter, delighting in solitude.’ Would you,
thus informed, say, ‘Bring that man back to me. Make him again be a farmer, a
householder, a taxpayer swelling the royal treasury!’?”

“Not at all, lord. Rather, I am the one who should bow down
to him, rise up out of respect for him, invite him to a seat, invite him to
accept gifts of robes, almsfood, lodgings, and medicinal requisites for the
sick. And I would provide him with righteous safety, defense, and
protection.”

“So what do you think, great king. With that being the
case, is there a visible fruit of the contemplative life, or is there not?”

“Yes, lord. With that being the case, there certainly is a
visible fruit of the contemplative life.”

“This, great king, is the second fruit of the contemplative
life, visible in the here and now, that I point out to you.”

Higher Fruits
of the Contemplative Life

“But is it possible, lord, to point out yet another fruit
of the contemplative life, visible in the here and now?”

“Yes, it is, great king. Listen and pay close attention. I
will speak.

“There is the case, great king, where a Tathagata appears
in the world, worthy and rightly self-awakened. He teaches the Dhamma admirable
in its beginning, admirable in its middle, admirable in its end. He proclaims
the holy life both in its particulars and in its essence, entirely perfect,
surpassingly pure.

“A householder or householder’s son, hearing the Dhamma,
gains conviction in the Tathagata and reflects: ‘Household life
is confining
, a dusty path. The life gone forth is like the open air. It is
not easy living at home to practice the holy life totally perfect, totally
pure, like a polished shell. What if I were to shave off my
hair and beard, put on the ochre robes, and go forth from the household life
into homelessness?’

“So after some time he abandons his mass of wealth, large
or small; leaves his circle of relatives, large or small; shaves off his hair
and beard, puts on the ochre robes, and goes forth from the household life into
homelessness.

“When he has thus gone forth, he lives restrained by the
rules of the monastic code, seeing danger in the slightest faults. Consummate
in his virtue, he guards the doors of his senses, is possessed of mindfulness
and alertness, and is content.

The
Lesser Section on Virtue

“And how is a monk consummate in virtue? Abandoning the
taking of life, he abstains from the taking of life. He dwells with his rod
laid down, his knife laid down, scrupulous, merciful, compassionate for the
welfare of all living beings. This is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning the taking of what is not given, he abstains
from taking what is not given. He takes only what is given, accepts only what
is given, lives not by stealth but by means of a self that has become pure.
This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning uncelibacy, he lives a celibate life, aloof,
refraining from the sexual act that is the villager’s way. This, too, is part
of his virtue.

“Abandoning false speech, he abstains from false speech. He
speaks the truth, holds to the truth, is firm, reliable, no deceiver of the
world. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning divisive speech he abstains from divisive
speech. What he has heard here he does not tell there to break those people
apart from these people here. What he has heard there he does not tell here to
break these people apart from those people there. Thus reconciling those who
have broken apart or cementing those who are united, he loves concord, delights
in concord, enjoys concord, speaks things that create concord. This, too, is
part of his virtue.

“Abandoning abusive speech, he abstains from abusive
speech. He speaks words that are soothing to the ear, that are affectionate,
that go to the heart, that are polite, appealing and pleasing to people at
large. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Abandoning idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He
speaks in season, speaks what is factual, what is in accordance with the goal,
the Dhamma, and the Vinaya. He speaks words worth treasuring, seasonable,
reasonable, circumscribed, connected with the goal. This, too, is part of his
virtue.

“He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

“He eats only once a day, refraining from the evening meal
and from food at the wrong time of day.

“He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and
from watching shows.

“He abstains from wearing garlands and from beautifying
himself with scents and cosmetics.

“He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

“He abstains from accepting gold and money.

“He abstains from accepting uncooked grain… raw meat…
women and girls… male and female slaves… goats and sheep… fowl and
pigs… elephants, cattle, steeds, and mares… fields and property.

“He abstains from running messages… from buying and
selling… from dealing with false scales, false metals, and false measures…
from bribery, deception, and fraud.

“He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning,
highway robbery, plunder, and violence.

“This, too, is part of his virtue.

The
Intermediate Section on Virtue

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, are addicted to damaging seed and plant life such as these —
plants propagated from roots, stems, joints, buddings, and seeds — he abstains
from damaging seed and plant life such as these. This, too, is part of his
virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, are addicted to consuming stored-up goods such as these —
stored-up food, stored-up drinks, stored-up clothing, stored-up vehicles,
stored-up bedding, stored-up scents, and stored-up meat — he abstains from
consuming stored-up goods such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and contemplatives,
living off food given in faith, are addicted to watching shows such as these —
dancing, singing, instrumental music, plays, ballad recitations, hand-clapping,
cymbals and drums, magic lantern scenes, acrobatic and conjuring tricks,
elephant fights, horse fights, buffalo fights, bull fights, goat fights, ram
fights, cock fights, quail fights; fighting with staves, boxing, wrestling,
war-games, roll calls, battle arrays, and regimental reviews — he abstains from
watching shows such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, are addicted to heedless and idle games such as these —
eight-row chess, ten-row chess, chess in the air, hopscotch, spillikins, dice,
stick games, hand-pictures, ball-games, blowing through toy pipes, playing with
toy plows, turning somersaults, playing with toy windmills, toy measures, toy
chariots, toy bows, guessing letters drawn in the air, guessing thoughts,
mimicking deformities — he abstains from heedless and idle games such as these.
This, too, is part of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and
contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to high and
luxurious furnishings such as these — over-sized couches, couches adorned with
carved animals, long-haired coverlets, multi-colored patchwork coverlets, white
woolen coverlets, woolen coverlets embroidered with flowers or animal figures,
stuffed quilts, coverlets with fringe, silk coverlets embroidered with gems;
large woolen carpets; elephant, horse, and chariot rugs, antelope-hide rugs,
deer-hide rugs; couches with awnings, couches with red cushions for the head
and feet — he abstains from using high and luxurious furnishings such as these.
This, too, is part of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and
contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to scents,
cosmetics, and means of beautification such as these — rubbing powders into the
body, massaging with oils, bathing in perfumed water, kneading the limbs, using
mirrors, ointments, garlands, scents, creams, face-powders, mascara, bracelets,
head-bands, decorated walking sticks, ornamented water-bottles, swords, fancy
sunshades, decorated sandals, turbans, gems, yak-tail whisks, long-fringed
white robes — he abstains from using scents, cosmetics, and means of
beautification such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

Whereas some priests and
contemplatives, living off food given in faith, are addicted to talking about
lowly topics such as these — talking about kings, robbers, ministers of state;
armies, alarms, and battles; food and drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, and
scents; relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women
and heroes; the gossip of the street and the well; tales of the dead; tales of
diversity [philosophical discussions of the past and future], the creation of
the world and of the sea, and talk of whether things exist or not — he abstains
from talking about lowly topics such as these. This, too, is part of his
virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, are addicted to debates such as these — ‘You understand
this doctrine and discipline? I’m the one who understands this doctrine
and discipline. How could you understand this doctrine and discipline? You’re
practicing wrongly. I’m practicing rightly. I’m being consistent. You’re not.
What should be said first you said last. What should be said last you said
first. What you took so long to think out has been refuted. Your doctrine has
been overthrown. You’re defeated. Go and try to salvage your doctrine;
extricate yourself if you can!’ — he abstains from debates such as these. This,
too, is part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, are addicted to running messages and errands for people such as
these — kings, ministers of state, noble warriors, priests, householders, or
youths [who say], ‘Go here, go there, take this there, fetch that here’ — he
abstains from running messages and errands for people such as these. This, too,
is part of his virtue.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, engage in scheming, persuading, hinting, belittling, and
pursuing gain with gain, he abstains from forms of scheming and persuading
[improper ways of trying to gain material support from donors] such as these.
This, too, is part of his virtue.

The Great
Section on Virtue

Whereas some priests and
contemplatives, living off food given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong
livelihood, by such lowly arts as: reading marks on the limbs [e.g.,
palmistry]; reading omens and signs; interpreting celestial events [falling
stars, comets]; interpreting dreams; reading marks on the body [e.g.,
phrenology]; reading marks on cloth gnawed by mice; offering fire oblations,
oblations from a ladle, oblations of husks, rice powder, rice grains, ghee, and
oil; offering oblations from the mouth; offering blood-sacrifices; making
predictions based on the fingertips; geomancy; laying demons in a cemetery;
placing spells on spirits; reciting house-protection charms; snake charming,
poison-lore, scorpion-lore, rat-lore, bird-lore, crow-lore; fortune-telling
based on visions; giving protective charms; interpreting the calls of birds and
animals — he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:
determining lucky and unlucky gems, garments, staffs, swords, spears, arrows,
bows, and other weapons; women, boys, girls, male slaves, female slaves;
elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows, goats, rams, fowl, quails, lizards,
long-eared rodents, tortoises, and other animals — he abstains from wrong
livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting: the rulers will march forth; the rulers will march forth and
return; our rulers will attack, and their rulers will retreat; their rulers
will attack, and our rulers will retreat; there will be triumph for our rulers
and defeat for their rulers; there will be triumph for their rulers and defeat
for our rulers; thus there will be triumph, thus there will be defeat — he
abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting: there will be a lunar eclipse; there will be a solar eclipse;
there will be an occultation of an asterism; the sun and moon will go their
normal courses; the sun and moon will go astray; the asterisms will go their
normal courses; the asterisms will go astray; there will be a meteor shower;
there will be a darkening of the sky; there will be an earthquake; there will
be thunder coming from a clear sky; there will be a rising, a setting, a
darkening, a brightening of the sun, moon, and asterisms; such will be the
result of the lunar eclipse… the rising, setting, darkening, brightening of
the sun, moon, and asterisms — he abstains from wrong livelihood, from lowly
arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as
forecasting: there will be abundant rain; there will be a drought; there will
be plenty; there will be famine; there will be rest and security; there will be
danger; there will be disease; there will be freedom from disease; or they earn
their living by counting, accounting, calculation, composing poetry, or
teaching hedonistic arts and doctrines — he abstains from wrong livelihood,
from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:
calculating auspicious dates for marriages, betrothals, divorces; for
collecting debts or making investments and loans; for being attractive or
unattractive; curing women who have undergone miscarriages or abortions;
reciting spells to bind a man’s tongue, to paralyze his jaws, to make him lose
control over his hands, or to bring on deafness; getting oracular answers to
questions addressed to a mirror, to a young girl, or to a spirit medium;
worshipping the sun, worshipping the Great Brahma, bringing
forth flames from the mouth, invoking the goddess of luck — he abstains from
wrong livelihood, from lowly arts such as these.

“Whereas some priests and contemplatives, living off food
given in faith, maintain themselves by wrong livelihood, by such lowly arts as:
promising gifts to devas in return for favors; fulfilling such promises;
demonology; teaching house-protection spells; inducing virility and impotence;
consecrating sites for construction; giving ceremonial mouthwashes and
ceremonial bathing; offering sacrificial fires; administering emetics, purges,
purges from above, purges from below, head-purges; administering ear-oil,
eye-drops, treatments through the nose, ointments, and counter-ointments;
practicing eye-surgery (or: extractive surgery), general surgery, pediatrics;
administering root-medicines binding medicinal herbs — he abstains from wrong
livelihood, from lowly arts such as these. This, too, is part of his virtue.

“A monk thus consummate in virtue sees no danger anywhere
from his restraint through virtue. Just as a head-anointed
noble warrior king who has defeated his enemies sees no danger anywhere from
his enemies, in the same way the monk thus consummate in virtue sees no danger
anywhere from his restraint through virtue. Endowed with this noble aggregate
of virtue, he is inwardly sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless. This is
how a monk is consummate in virtue.

Sense
Restraint

“And how does a monk guard the doors of his senses? On
seeing a form with the eye, he does not grasp at any theme or details by which
— if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye — evil,
unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail him. On hearing a
sound with the ear… On smelling an odor with the nose… On tasting a flavor
with the tongue… On touching a tactile sensation with the body… On
cognizing an idea with the intellect, he does not grasp at any theme or details
by which — if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the
intellect — evil, unskillful qualities such as greed or distress might assail
him. Endowed with this noble restraint over the sense faculties, he is inwardly
sensitive to the pleasure of being blameless. This is how a monk guards the
doors of his senses.

Mindfulness
& Alertness

“And how is a monk possessed of mindfulness and alertness?
When going forward and returning, he acts with alertness. When looking toward
and looking away… when bending and extending his limbs… when carrying his
outer cloak, his upper robe, and his bowl… when eating, drinking, chewing,
and tasting… when urinating and defecating… when walking, standing, sitting,
falling asleep, waking up, talking, and remaining silent, he acts with
alertness. This is how a monk is possessed of mindfulness and alertness.

Contentedness

“And how is a monk content? Just as a bird,
wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden; so too is he content
with a set of robes to provide for his body and almsfood to provide for his
hunger. Wherever he goes, he takes only his barest necessities along. This is
how a monk is content.

Abandoning the
Hindrances

“Endowed with this noble aggregate of virtue, this noble
restraint over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness and alertness, and
this noble contentment, he seeks out a secluded dwelling: a forest, the shade
of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle
grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After his meal, returning from his alms
round, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and brings
mindfulness to the fore.

“Abandoning covetousness with regard to the world, he
dwells with an awareness devoid of covetousness. He cleanses his mind of
covetousness. Abandoning ill will and anger, he dwells with an awareness devoid
of ill will, sympathetic with the welfare of all living beings. He cleanses his
mind of ill will and anger. Abandoning sloth and drowsiness, he dwells with an
awareness devoid of sloth and drowsiness, mindful, alert, percipient of light.
He cleanses his mind of sloth and drowsiness. Abandoning restlessness and
anxiety, he dwells undisturbed, his mind inwardly stilled. He cleanses his mind
of restlessness and anxiety. Abandoning uncertainty, he dwells having crossed
over uncertainty, with no perplexity with regard to skillful mental qualities.
He cleanses his mind of uncertainty.

Suppose that a man, taking a loan,
invests it in his business affairs. His business affairs succeed. He repays his
old debts and there is extra left over for maintaining his wife. The thought
would occur to him, ‘Before, taking a loan, I invested it in my business
affairs. Now my business affairs have succeeded. I have repaid my old debts and
there is extra left over for maintaining my wife.’ Because of that he would
experience joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man falls sick — in
pain and seriously ill. He does not enjoy his meals, and there is no strength
in his body. As time passes, he eventually recovers from that sickness. He
enjoys his meals and there is strength in his body. The thought would occur to
him, ‘Before, I was sick… Now I am recovered from that sickness. I enjoy my
meals and there is strength in my body.’ Because of that he would experience
joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man is bound in
prison. As time passes, he eventually is released from that bondage, safe and
sound, with no loss of property. The thought would occur to him, ‘Before, I was
bound in prison. Now I am released from that bondage, safe and sound, with no
loss of my property.’ Because of that he would experience joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man is a slave,
subject to others, not subject to himself, unable to go where he likes. As time
passes, he eventually is released from that slavery, subject to himself, not
subject to others, freed, able to go where he likes. The thought would occur to
him, ‘Before, I was a slave… Now I am released from that slavery, subject to
myself, not subject to others, freed, able to go where I like.’ Because of that
he would experience joy and happiness.

Now suppose that a man, carrying money
and goods, is traveling by a road through desolate country. As time passes, he
eventually emerges from that desolate country, safe and sound, with no loss of
property. The thought would occur to him, ‘Before, carrying money and goods, I
was traveling by a road through desolate country. Now I have emerged from that
desolate country, safe and sound, with no loss of my property.’ Because of that
he would experience joy and happiness.

“In the same way, when these five hindrances are not
abandoned in himself, the monk regards it as a debt, a sickness, a prison,
slavery, a road through desolate country. But when these five hindrances are
abandoned in himself, he regards it as unindebtedness, good health, release
from prison, freedom, a place of security. Seeing that they have been abandoned
within him, he becomes glad. Glad, he becomes enraptured. Enraptured, his body
grows tranquil. His body tranquil, he is sensitive to pleasure. Feeling
pleasure, his mind becomes concentrated.

(The Four Jhanas)

“Quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful
mental qualities, he enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and
pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation.
He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills this very body with the rapture
and pleasure born from withdrawal. Just as if a skilled bathman
or bathman’s apprentice would pour bath powder into a brass basin and knead it
together, sprinkling it again and again with water, so that his ball of bath
powder — saturated, moisture-laden, permeated within and without — would
nevertheless not drip; even so, the monk permeates… this very body with the
rapture and pleasure born of withdrawal. There is nothing of his entire body
unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal.

“This is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible here
and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

“Furthermore, with the stilling of directed thoughts &
evaluations, he enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure
born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought and
evaluation — internal assurance. He permeates and pervades, suffuses and fills
this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure. Just
like a lake
with spring-water welling up from within, having no inflow from
the east, west, north, or south, and with the skies supplying abundant showers
time and again, so that the cool fount of water welling up from within the lake
would permeate and pervade, suffuse and fill it with cool waters, there being
no part of the lake unpervaded by the cool waters; even so, the monk
permeates… this very body with the rapture and pleasure born of composure.
There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by rapture and pleasure born of
composure.

“This, too, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

“And furthermore, with the fading of rapture, he remains
equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters
& remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, ‘Equanimous
& mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.’ He permeates and pervades, suffuses
and fills this very body with the pleasure divested of rapture. Just
as in a lotus pond
, some of the lotuses, born and growing in the water,
stay immersed in the water and flourish without standing up out of the water,
so that they are permeated and pervaded, suffused and filled with cool water
from their roots to their tips, and nothing of those lotuses would be
unpervaded with cool water; even so, the monk permeates… this very body with
the pleasure divested of rapture. There is nothing of his entire body
unpervaded with pleasure divested of rapture.

“This, too, is a fruit of the contemplative life, visible
here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.

“And furthermore, with the abandoning of pleasure and
stress — as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters
and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness,
neither-pleasure nor stress. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright
awareness. Just as if a man were sitting covered from head to
foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the
white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating the body with a
pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure,
bright awareness.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Insight
Knowledge

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He
discerns: ‘This body of mine is endowed with form, composed of the four primary
elements, born from mother and father, nourished with rice and porridge,
subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing, dissolution, and dispersion. And
this consciousness of mine is supported here and bound up here.’ Just
as if there were
a beautiful beryl gem of the purest water — eight faceted,
well polished, clear, limpid, consummate in all its aspects, and going through
the middle of it was a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread — and a man
with good eyesight, taking it in his hand, were to reflect on it thus: ‘This is
a beautiful beryl gem of the purest water, eight faceted, well polished, clear,
limpid, consummate in all its aspects. And this, going through the middle of
it, is a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.’ In the same way — with his
mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects,
pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk directs
and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He discerns: ‘This body of mine is
endowed with form, composed of the four primary elements, born from mother and
father, nourished with rice and porridge, subject to inconstancy, rubbing, pressing,
dissolution, and dispersion. And this consciousness of mine is supported here
and bound up here.’

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

The Mind-made
Body

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made body. From
this body he creates another body, endowed with form, made of the mind,
complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties. Just as
if a man
were to draw a reed from its sheath. The thought would occur to
him: ‘This is the sheath, this is the reed. The sheath is one thing, the reed
another, but the reed has been drawn out from the sheath.’ Or as
if a man
were to draw a sword from its scabbard. The thought would occur to
him: ‘This is the sword, this is the scabbard. The sword is one thing, the
scabbard another, but the sword has been drawn out from the scabbard.’ Or as if a man were to pull a snake out from its slough. The
thought would occur to him: ‘This is the snake, this is the slough. The snake
is one thing, the slough another, but the snake has been pulled out from the
slough.’ In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and
bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made
body. From this body he creates another body, endowed with form, made of the
mind, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Supranormal Powers

With his mind thus concentrated,
purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable,
steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the
modes of supranormal powers. He wields manifold supranormal powers. Having been
one he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes.
He goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space.
He dives in and out of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without
sinking as if it were dry land. Sitting cross-legged he flies through the air
like a winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and moon,
so mighty and powerful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the
Brahma worlds. Just as a skilled potter or his assistant
could craft from well-prepared clay whatever kind of pottery vessel he likes, or as a skilled ivory-carver or his assistant could craft from
well-prepared ivory any kind of ivory-work he likes, or as a
skilled goldsmith
or his assistant could craft from well-prepared gold any
kind of gold article he likes; in the same way — with his mind thus
concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant,
malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability — the monk directs and
inclines it to the modes of supranormal powers… He exercises influence with
his body even as far as the Brahma worlds.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Clairaudience

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element. He
hears — by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing the human —
both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or far. Just
as if a man
traveling along a highway were to hear the sounds of
kettledrums, small drums, conchs, cymbals, and tom-toms. He would know, ‘That
is the sound of kettledrums, that is the sound of small drums, that is the
sound of conchs, that is the sound of cymbals, and that is the sound of
tom-toms.’ In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and
bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to the divine
ear-element. He hears — by means of the divine ear-element, purified and
surpassing the human — both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or
far.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Mind Reading

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the awareness of
other beings. He knows the awareness of other beings, other individuals, having
encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a mind with passion as a
mind with passion, and a mind without passion as a mind without passion. He
discerns a mind with aversion as a mind with aversion, and a mind without
aversion as a mind without aversion. He discerns a mind with delusion as a mind
with delusion, and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion. He
discerns a restricted mind as a restricted mind, and a scattered mind as a
scattered mind. He discerns an enlarged mind as an enlarged mind, and an
unenlarged mind as an unenlarged mind. He discerns an excelled mind [one that
is not at the most excellent level] as an excelled mind, and an unexcelled mind
as an unexcelled mind. He discerns a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind,
and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind. He discerns a released
mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind as an unreleased mind. Just as if a young woman — or man — fond of ornaments,
examining the reflection of her own face in a bright mirror or a bowl of clear
water would know ‘blemished’ if it were blemished, or ‘unblemished’ if it were
not. In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
awareness of other beings. He knows the awareness of other beings, other
individuals, having encompassed it with his own awareness. He discerns a mind
with passion as a mind with passion, and a mind without passion as a mind
without passion… a released mind as a released mind, and an unreleased mind
as an unreleased mind.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

Recollection of Past Lives

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the recollection
of past lives (lit: previous homes). He recollects his manifold past lives,
i.e., one birth, two births, three births, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty,
forty, fifty, one hundred, one thousand, one hundred thousand, many aeons of
cosmic contraction, many aeons of cosmic expansion, many aeons of cosmic
contraction and expansion, [recollecting], ‘There I had such a name, belonged
to such a clan, had such an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of
pleasure and pain, such the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I
re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such
an appearance. Such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such
the end of my life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose here.’ Thus he
recollects his manifold past lives in their modes and details. Just
as if a man
were to go from his home village to another village, and then
from that village to yet another village, and then from that village back to
his home village. The thought would occur to him, ‘I went from my home village
to that village over there. There I stood in such a way, sat in such a way,
talked in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I
went to that village over there, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a
way, talked in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village
I came back home.’ In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified,
and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and
attained to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of
the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives… in
their modes and details.

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

The
Passing Away & Re-appearance of Beings

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge of the passing away
and re-appearance of beings. He sees — by means of the divine eye, purified and
surpassing the human — beings passing away and re-appearing, and he discerns
how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and
unfortunate in accordance with their kamma: ‘These beings — who were endowed
with bad conduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held
wrong views and undertook actions under the influence of wrong views — with the
break-up of the body, after death, have re-appeared in the plane of
deprivation, the bad destination, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings —
who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not
revile the noble ones, who held right views and undertook actions under the
influence of right views — with the break-up of the body, after death, have
re-appeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.’ Thus — by means
of the divine eye, purified and surpassing the human — he sees beings passing
away and re-appearing, and he discerns how they are inferior and superior,
beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma. Just as if there were a tall building in the central square
[of a town], and a man with good eyesight standing on top of it were to see
people entering a house, leaving it, walking along the street, and sitting in
the central square. The thought would occur to him, ‘These people are entering
a house, leaving it, walking along the streets, and sitting in the central
square.’ In the same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and
bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained
to imperturbability — the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge of the
passing away and re-appearance of beings. He sees — by means of the divine eye,
purified and surpassing the human — beings passing away and re-appearing, and
he discerns how they are inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate
and unfortunate in accordance with their kamma…

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more
sublime.

The
Ending of Mental Fermentations

“With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright,
unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to
imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the
ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to be, that
‘This is stress… This is the origination of stress… This is the cessation of
stress… This is the way leading to the cessation of stress… These are
mental fermentations… This is the origination of fermentations… This is the
cessation of fermentations… This is the way leading to the cessation of
fermentations.’ His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the
fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of
ignorance. With release, there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that
‘Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing
further for this world.’ Just as if there were a pool of water
in a mountain glen — clear, limpid, and unsullied — where a man with good
eyesight standing on the bank could see shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also
shoals of fish swimming about and resting, and it would occur to him, ‘This
pool of water is clear, limpid, and unsullied. Here are these shells, gravel,
and pebbles, and also these shoals of fish swimming about and resting.’ In the
same way — with his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished,
free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability
— the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental
fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to be, that ‘This is stress… This
is the origination of stress… This is the cessation of stress… This is the
way leading to the cessation of stress… These are mental fermentations…
This is the origination of fermentations… This is the cessation of
fermentations… This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.’
His heart, thus knowing, thus seeing, is released from the fermentation of
sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. With
release, there is the knowledge, ‘Released.’ He discerns that ‘Birth is ended,
the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this
world.’

“This, too, great king, is a fruit of the contemplative
life, visible here and now, more excellent than the previous ones and more sublime.
And as for another visible fruit of the contemplative life, higher and more
sublime than this, there is none.”

When this was said, King Ajatasattu said to the Blessed One:
Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to
place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way
to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes
could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One — through many lines of
reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the
Dhamma, and to the community of monks. May the Blessed One remember me as a lay
follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life.

“A transgression has overcome me, lord, in that I was so
foolish, so muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to kill my father — a righteous
man, a righteous king — for the sake of sovereign rulership. May the Blessed
One please accept this confession of my transgression as such, so that I may
restrain myself in the future.”

“Yes, great king, a transgression overcame you in that you
were so foolish, so muddle-headed, and so unskilled as to kill your father — a
righteous man, a righteous king — for the sake of sovereign rulership. But
because you see your transgression as such and make amends in accordance with
the Dhamma, we accept your confession. For it is a cause of growth in the
Dhamma & Discipline of the noble ones when, seeing a transgression as such,
one makes amends in accordance with the Dhamma and exercises restraint in the
future.”

When this was said, King Ajatasattu said to the Blessed One:
“Well, then, lord, I am now taking leave. Many are my duties, many my
responsibilities.”

“Then do, great king, what you think it is now time to
do.”

So King Ajatasattu, delighting and
rejoicing in the Blessed One’s words, rose from his seat, bowed down to him,
and — after circumambulating him — left. Not long after King Ajatasattu had
left, the Blessed One addressed the monks: “The king is wounded, monks.
The king is incapacitated. Had he not killed his father — that righteous man,
that righteous king — the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye would have arisen to
him as he sat in this very seat.”

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks
delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

Lesson 7: Three characteristics of life

1. What did the little
Siddhattha see during the Farming ceremony he

attended with his father, and
what did he think about?

2. Years later, what 4 sights
did Siddhatha see on his visits outside the

palace, and how did it affect
him? When he thought about those 4

sights, what do you think he
realised?

1.

a) Describe the 4 main stages
in peoples lives (childhood,

adolescence, maturity and old
age) and what people do and learn

during each stage. Discuss
how his or her body form, ability to move,

ability to speak and do
various things, and understanding of life

changes.

b) What is the maximum human
lifespan and what does it depend on?

2. Describe how you have
changed since you were a baby. Do you

sometimes wonder what it will
be like when you are very old?

3. One day your grandparents,
and then much later also your parents

will pass away. What do you
feel about that?

Three characteristics of life

The Buddha taught that all
living beings have 3 characteristics:

impermanence (anicca), not-self (anatta) and
suffering (dukkha).

The third characteristic is
very important to us, and the Buddha called

it The First Noble Truth. We
shall discuss it in the next lesson together

with the other 3 Noble
Truths.

Impermanence (change, anicca)

The Buddha taught that not
only all things, but also all living beings

are impermanent. They arise
(come into being), change and pass

away. They have beginning and
end. Whatever has a beginning also

has an end, that is a law of
nature.

If you find the questions
below too difficult, then just answer what

you can and ask others to
help you.

1. Describe what each of the
non-living things listed below is made of,

how it changes and how long
it can last:

a) Earth

b) Sun

c) rocks, water, air, fire,
wood

c) molecules

d) atoms

e) subatomic particles (e.g.
protons, electrons)

f) light energy (describe the
colour spectrum, and its characteristics)

g) a colour photo in a
magazine, and a picture on a TV screen

(describe the component
colours, and how is the picture made).

2. Describe the following
animals (their body parts, how they change

through life, and how long do
they live): a snail, crab, butterfly, fish,

frog, lizard, bird, dog,
monkey.

3. Describe yourself (your
body, mind and consciousness). Do you

know how long will each part
of you last? Can you find any part of

you that is not changing, is
permanent, may last forever?

Not-self (not a lasting self, anatta)

The Buddha taught that there
is not a permanent or lasting individual

self (atta). What people call a self, is just an aggregate
or a compound

of 5 changing and impermanent
things: body (form), bodily feelings

(sensations), sensory
perceptions (sights, sounds, smells, tastes,

contacts), mental formations
(thoughts, ideas, emotions), and

consciousness. They depend on
each other for existence, and do not

last forever. Therefore there
is no
atta, only anatta.

Modern scientists teach that
not only visible objects, but also their

component parts are compounds
and impermanent, all made of

energy. In a similar way, the
Buddha taught that the whole individual

and its parts (body, mind and
consciousness) are just compounds, and

do not last forever. He also
taught a theory of individual evolution –

individual development that
continues over a long series of lives,

according to the Law of
Kamma, and until the Supreme

Enlightenment. So he neither
taught that an individual being lives

forever, nor that an
individual ceases entirely when the body dies, as

some modern scientists do.

1. Can you find a lasting
part of you, your permanent self (
atta)?

a) Examine your body form,
feelings, sense-perceptions, and mental

formations. Is any of these
your lasting self (
atta), that will last

forever?

b) What is consciousness? You
may use a dictionary or other

resources to discuss this
phenomenon.

c) Describe what happens from
the time you go to sleep until the time

you wake up. Describe the
wakeful state, dreaming and deep sleep. Is

consciousness a lasting self
(
atta)?

d) Have you found any part of
you that may continue after the body

dies?

2.

a) What is light and what is
darkness? What is the electromagnetic

(EM) radiation or energy?
Name the main parts of the EM spectrum.

What range of the EM energy
do radios and TV sets receive? Which

part of the spectrum is a
visible radiation or light?

b) What EM range can animals
perceive? What EM range can people

perceive and how?

3.

a) In what ways is
consciousness similar to visible EM energy (light)?

b) The Buddha taught that
living beings are reborn and can recollect

their previous lives. But
what part of the being did he teach is reborn?

Use the Buddhist resources
listed in the References, and ask your

parents or a Buddhist teacher
to help you.

 Do you know that?

Your body is made of millions
of tiny cells, like bricks that make up a

house. These tiny cells are
made of molecules and the molecules are

made of atoms. Atoms are in
turn made of even smaller particles, and

these are composed of energy.
The energy itself is made of a spectrum

of photons with
characteristic wavelengths and frequencies. So the

whole body is just a complex
energy structure. Your body changes all

the time, and each day some
cells die and are replaced by new ones.

So every few years you have a
brand new body.

Many scientists teach that
our Universe began with Big Bang (or big

explosion of energy) several
billion years ago. Following that,

subatomic particles, atoms,
elements and molecules were formed, and

stars and planets were born.
One of those stars was Sun and one of

those planets was Earth. Then
as the Earth cooled, solid earth, oceans

and atmosphere formed, all
made of many different atoms and

molecules.

Then over many millions of
years complex molecules

(macromolecules) formed in
the oceans out of the simple molecules.

These macromolecules then
gradually developed to form single celled

(uni-cellular) organisms.
These one-celled organisms not only

multiplied, but also changed
and grouped to form multi-cellular

organisms – bodies of plants,
animals, and after many millions of

years, also people. So the
life forms slowly developed, or evolved,

over hundreds of millions of
years.

Scientists also study how
galaxies, stars and planets are born and die.

Based on that, they predict
that many millions of years from now, the

Sun will grow bigger, become
very red and then slowly die, turning

into a ball of hot ash. They
call such a ball of ash White Dwarf. When

that happens, all life on
Earth will also gradually die and Earth will

become a frozen planet.

Based on their present
understanding, scientists also teach that the

Universe is still expanding,
but one day it will begin to contract.

However they are not really
sure what will happen at the end, nor how

the Big Bang started.

As with other great
scientific theories, theory of the origin of our

Universe is based on a strong
basis of collective observation of the

natural world, and analysis of
the data. It cannot be fully proven, but

until evidence is shown
against it, for practical purposes we can

assume it is true.

Can possibly any thing or any
person be unchanging and last forever

in the Universe that is
constantly changing, and has a beginning and

an end?

 Lesson 8: The Four Noble Truths

1. Review the Buddha’s life
story, and then describe what he did, what

he abandoned (gave up) and
why, during the following stages of his

life: childhood, married
life, when he searched for truth and freedom,

after the Supreme
Enlightenment, last days of his life.

2. Use the Buddha’s life
story and Discourses to discuss:

a) various Siddhattha’s
qualities before he became Buddha; b) the

main qualities of the Buddha;
c) what does a spiritual awakening

mean.

3. Read the Buddha’s First
Discourse and Analysis of the 4 Noble

Truths, and discuss them with
your friends. If you have difficulties

understanding them, ask your
parents or other adults for help. Use

those discourses in the next
section, to discuss the 4 Noble Truths.

The 4 Noble Truths

Beginning at Isipatana, near
modern Sarnath, the Buddha taught

people the 4 Noble Truths:
the noble truth of suffering, causes of

suffering, end of suffering
and the way to the end of suffering.

The Noble Truth of Suffering

The Buddha taught that life
is, or contains, suffering (stress,
dukkha).

He taught that birth,
sickness, aging, death, not getting what we desire

or getting what we do not
desire is suffering.

As we grow and develop our
experience and understanding of the

world, and of happiness and
suffering, changes. What we once saw as

happiness we later may view
as suffering. According to the scriptures,

the Buddha had experienced
and understood what there was to be

experienced and understood in
all the realms of existence. Hence any

further rebirth was
unsatisfactory or
dukkha for
him.

1. Discuss birth, sickness,
injury, aging, not getting what we want, or

getting what we do not want.
Do they bring only suffering? What does

it depend on?

2. Describe how your interests,
desires and experience of suffering

have changed since you were a
baby.

3. What do you like doing in
your free time, and what would you like

to do when you leave school,
and why?

The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering

The Buddha taught that although
there are many outside causes of

suffering, the deepest causes
are in our minds. He taught that the

deepest cause of suffering is
craving (selfish desire,
tanha) and this

craving is a result of
ignorance (
avijja).
There are 3 basic kinds of

craving: craving for sense
pleasures, for existence (living) and for

non-existence (not living).
Desires are a natural part of life and they

do not stop by indulging or
repressing them. We must recognise which

ones we should keep away
from, and which ones we should act on to

live and develop, and then
act accordingly.

1. Discuss why some people:

a) start wars, kill or
deliberately injure other people; b) steal; c) lie or

hide truth; d) sexually abuse
other people, or are unfaithful to their

partners; e) make and use
illegal drugs and other intoxicants, or make

unhealthy foods; f) are
greedy, hate or get angry with others; g) follow

false beliefs.

2.

a) Name and discuss selfish
(bad) and unselfish (good) desires.

b) Can even good desires
bring suffering, and why?

c) Is it possible to feel
always happy?

3.

a) Review what you did today.
Did you feel happy, unhappy and why?

b) Recall the food you ate
today and desires for food you experienced.

Were they in harmony with
what you learnt is a good way of eating?

4. What desires should we
give up and what desires should we follow

to develop understanding and
to live in peace?

The Noble Truth of the End of Suffering

The Buddha taught that the
end of suffering is complete detachment

from and cessation of the
craving (
tanha). He fully realised this
state,

and called it Nibbana.

The Buddha used various
synonyms to describe the Nibbana to

different people: extinction
of greed, anger and delusion; liberation;

highest happiness; peace;
void; beyond birth and death. Since this

state is beyond all concepts
and emotions, the Buddha avoided lengthy

descriptions of it, and
rather guided people to realise it by themselves.

1.

a) Discuss what inner peace
and a peaceful world mean to you.

37

b) Describe your vision of a
future Earth, where people are not greedy,

do not hate others, and do
not hold onto delusions (false beliefs). Do

you think it is possible, and
how?

2. What would you like to be
freed from, and what would you like to

accomplish in your life?
Discuss, giving reasons. Then describe the

way to your goals.

The Noble Truth of the Way to the End of
Suffering

The Buddha taught that the
way to the end of suffering is the Middle

Way between the two extremes
of self-indulgence and self-injury. It is

the Noble Eightfold Path
(N8FP), consisting of the right (full,
samma)

understanding, thought,
speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness,

and concentration.

Traditionally, the path is
divided into 3 parts: morality (right action,

speech and livelihood),
meditation (right effort, mindfulness and

concentration) and wisdom
(right understanding and thought).

Students begin with the
development of a basic morality, then

meditation and finally
wisdom. This means that the training emphasis

shifts from the development
of morality, to observation (information

gathering), and finally to
contemplation on what we have observed.

While this division is
helpful initially, we always begin with some

understanding and thought,
and we are improving all the path factors

as we live and practice. So
the wheel is the best way to represent the

path.

The Buddhist path in its full
meaning is not an isolated activity

practiced only occasionally,
an hour each day or during intensive

retreats. It is a peaceful
way of life, an ongoing practice, every day

and all the time. That is the
only way to really live in peace, grow in

understanding and help others
skillfully.

We will discuss each path
factor more in the next lesson.

1.

a) Give examples of some
extremes to avoid.

b) Describe what is a right
path. What does it depend on?

c) Give examples from the
history of the right and wrong paths and

where they have lead to.

2. In what ways is the
traditional division of the N8FP into 3 trainings

similar to primary, secondary
and tertiary education training? What

qualities and skills are
students developing during these three levels of

education?

a) Describe your training at
school. What subjects you study, how you

do it, what you do during the
weekends and holidays.

b) Describe a sport, and an
artistic training: the prerequisites, stages

and what people do and learn
at each stage. Use examples to illustrate

your answers.

c) Describe a scientific and
a medical training, and how they are

similar to a Buddhist
training.

1. Use your school atlas or
other resources to review the current world

situation: pollution,
endangered species, poverty, health care and

education. Share your
findings with others and discuss why we have

such big global problems.

2. Discuss how understanding
of the 4 Noble Truths, and application

of that understanding in your
daily life, can help to make your home,


school, country and the whole
world a better place for everyone
.


http://ibnlive.in.com/news/mayawati-govt-bans-aarakshan-for-2-months-in-up/174686-3.html

Mayawati govt bans ‘Aarakshan’ for 2 months in
UP
Press Trust Of India
Posted on Aug 10, 2011 at 11:52pm IST

Lucknow/New Delhi: The Mayawati government on Wednesday night banned
the release of Prakash Jha’s controversial Hindi film
‘Aarakshan’(Reservation) in Uttar Pradesh for two months on the
grounds it would create law and order problem in the state.

A decision to ban the film which is due to hit the screens on Friday
was taken following a recommendation by a high level official
committee set up by the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) government.

The committee comprising Principal secretaries of Finance,
Information, Higher Education and Rural Development departments and an
official of Entertainment tax commttee had watched the Amitabh
Bachchan-Saif Ali Khan starrer and submitted their report to the state
government this evening.

Hours before the UP government imposed the ban, the National
Commission for Scheduled Castes asked the Censor Board to make
necessary changes in the film before its release, objecting to the
“derogatory way” the backward community has been featured in it.

The move by the Commission came after its members watched a special
screening in Delhi.

“The main theme of the movie is about commercialisation of education
followed by several objectionable dialogues gainst people from
backward communities. There is no discussion on reservation in its
second half. We have asked the Censor Board to make necessary changes
in it,” NCSC Chairman PL Punia told in Delhi.

Senior Maharashtra minister and OBC leader Chaggan Bhujbal also voiced
objections to certain scenes and dialogues in the film.

“Some scenes and dialogues in the film are objectionable and the film
can be released after deleting them,” Bhujbal said after a special
screening of the film was arranged by Jha in Mumbai.

After watching the movie, the official committee felt that its
screening would create law and order problem in UP due to alleged
objectionable dialogue in the film.

“The State exercising its power under the Clause 6(1)of state films
regulation act has banned screening of the film for two months,” a
senior official told in Lucknow.

The committee was of the view that the film’s dialogues could create
hatred in the society. Also, the highly charged dialogues of the
characters in the film could create an adverse reaction in the
society.

In New Delhi, Punia said the film needs some major revisions and its
release should be deferred keeping in mind the sensibilities of the
backward communities in the country, Punia said.

“The makers of this movie have made a mockery of the judgements passed
by courts and decisions taken by government by using objectionable
dialogues such as ‘Aarakshan hamara janamsiddh khairat hai and 50 per
cent mein kya hoga, ab 100 per cent quota le jao’,” Punia said.

Asked if the movie is released without recommended cuts, he said, “We
have requested them to make the cuts, our job ends here. We are not
going to fight. Being a Constitutional body it was our responsibility
and under Article 338, it comes in our purview.”

A nine-member team of the Censor Board had given a U/A certificate to
the film without any cuts.

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