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358 LESSON 27 08 2011 Cula Malunkyovada Sutta The Shorter Instructions to Malunkya FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org- Free Buddhist Studies for the students- Setting In Motion the Wheel of Truth (Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta [1])-To day you are invited for the unveiling of LORD BUDDHA STATUE by Mr.D Balasunder MD (BC) HAL & Ambedkar Jayanti on 27-8-2011@8AM@HAL SC/ST E&O Assn.-President BN Shivalinga-AWAKENED ONES and LOKPAL
Filed under: General
Posted by: @ 6:42 pm

358 LESSON 27 08 2011 Cula Malunkyovada Sutta The Shorter Instructions to
Malunkya
FREE ONLINE eNālandā
Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP
ELEPHANT to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org- Free
Buddhist Studies for the students-
Setting In Motion the Wheel of Truth (Dhammacakkappavattana
Sutta
[1])-AWAKENED ONES and LOKPAL


To day the 27-08-2011 Mr.D Balasunder MD (BC) HAL unveiled
LORD BUDDHA STATUE & celebrated 120th Babasaheb Dr.Ambedkar anniversary at
@HAL SC/ST E&O Association. Beautiful statue of Lord Buddha was gifted by
Dr. Balakrishna, Mr.Lingiah, Mr.Shivaram, Mr.Gangadhar, Nr.Muthuswamy, Mohan
and others who were felicitated. Mahabodhi Society, Bangalore Dhammacharis were
led by Ven. Bodhi Datta in the chantings.President BN Shivalinga and his team
performed a sarvajan event inviting the trade Union President Mr. Manohar, HOAG
President Mr. Gunasekaran and the entire HAL employees and Officers made the
function a grand success.








Bharat Ratna Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar(Babasaheb): SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend



An Indian nationalist, jurist, Dalit political leader and a Buddhist revivalist. (April 14, 1891 - December 6, 1956)

He was also the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. Born into
a poor Untouchable family, Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting
against social discrimination, the system of Chaturvarna - the Hindu
categorization of human society into four varnas - and the Indian caste
system. He is also credited with having sparked the Dalit Buddhist
movement. Ambedkar has been honoured with the Bharat Ratna, India’s
highest civilian award.



Overcoming numerous social and financial obstacles, Ambedkar became
one of the first “untouchables” to obtain a college education in India.
Eventually earning law degrees and multiple doctorates for his study and
research in law, economics and political science from Columbia
University and the London School of Economics, Ambedkar returned home a
famous scholar and practiced law for a few years before publishing
journals advocating political rights and social freedom for India’s
untouchables.


Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was born in the British-founded town and
military cantonment of Mhow in the Central Provinces (now in Madhya
Pradesh). He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal and
Bhimabai Murbadkar. His family was of Marathi background from the town
of Ambavade in the Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. They
belonged to the Hindu Mahar caste, who were treated as untouchables and
subjected to intense socio-economic discrimination. Ambedkar’s ancestors
had for long been in the employment of the army of the British East
India Company, and his father served in the Indian Army at the Mhow
cantonment. He had received a degree of formal education in Marathi and
English, and encouraged his children to learn and work hard at school.


Belonging to the Kabir Panth, Ramji Sakpal encouraged his children to
read the Hindu classics. He used his position in the army to lobby for
his children to study at the government school, as they faced resistance
owing to their caste. Although able to attend school, Ambedkar and
other Untouchable children were segregated and given no attention or
assistance by the teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the
class. Even if they needed to drink water somebody from a higher caste
would have to pour that water from a height as they were not allowed to
touch either the water or the vessel that contained it. This task was
usually performed for the young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if he
could not be found Ambedkar went without water.[2] Ramji Sakpal retired
in 1894 and the family moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after
their move, Ambedkar’s mother died. The children were cared for by their
paternal aunt, and lived in difficult circumstances. Only three sons -
Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao - and two daughters - Manjula and Tulasa -
of the Ambedkars would go on to survive them. Of his brothers and
sisters, only Ambedkar succeeded in passing his examinations and
graduating to a bigger school. His native village name was “Ambavade” in
Ratnagiri District so he changed his name from “Sakpal” to “Ambedkar”
with the recommendation and faith of Mahadev Ambedkar, a Deshasta
Brahmin teacher who believed in him.


Ramji Sakpal remarried in 1898, and the family moved to Mumbai (then
Bombay), where Ambedkar became the first untouchable student at the
Government High School near Elphinstone Road. Although excelling in his
studies, Ambedkar was increasingly disturbed by the segregation and
discrimination that he faced. In 1907, he passed his matriculation
examination and entered the University of Bombay, becoming
one of the first persons of untouchable origin to enter a college in
India. This success provoked celebrations in his community, and after a
public ceremony he was presented with a biography of the Buddha by his
teacher Krishnaji Arjun Keluskar also known as Dada Keluskar, a Maratha
caste scholar. Ambedkar’s marriage had been arranged the previous year
as per Hindu custom, to Ramabai, a nine-year old girl from Dapoli. In
1908, he entered Elphinstone College and obtained a scholarship of
twenty five rupees a month from the Gayakwad ruler of Baroda, Sahyaji
Rao III for higher studies in the USA. By 1912, he obtained his degree
in economics and political science, and prepared to take up employment
with the Baroda state government. His wife gave birth to his first son,
Yashwant, in the same year. Ambedkar had just moved his young family and
started work, when he dashed back to Mumbai to see his ailing father,
who died on February 2, 1913.




Fight against untouchability:
As a leading Indian scholar, Ambedkar had been invited to testify before
the Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India
Act 1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate
electorates and reservations for Dalits and other religious communities.
In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of
the Silent) in Mumbai. Attaining popularity,
Ambedkar used this journal to criticize orthodox Hindu politicians and a
perceived reluctance of the Indian political community to fight caste
discrimination. His speech at a Depressed Classes Conference in Kolhapur
impressed the local state ruler Shahu IV, who shocked orthodox society
by dining with Ambekdar . Ambedkar established a successful legal
practise, and also organised the Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha to promote
education and socio-economic uplifting of the depressed classes. In
1926, he became a nominated member of the Bombay Legislative Council. By
1927 Dr. Ambedkar decided to launch active movements against
untouchability. He began with public movements and marches to open up
and share public drinking water resources, also he began a struggle for
the right to enter Hindu temples. He led a satyagraha in Mahad to fight
for the right of the untouchable community to draw water from the main
water tank of the town.

He was appointed to the Bombay Presidency Committee to work with the
all-European Simon Commission in 1928. This commission had sparked great
protests across India, and while its report was ignored by most
Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a separate set of recommendations for
future constitutional reformers.



Poona Pact:
By now Ambedkar had become one
of the most prominent untouchable political figures of the time. He had
grown increasingly critical of mainstream Indian political parties for
their perceived lack of emphasis for the elimination of the caste
system. Ambedkar criticized the Indian National Congress and its leader
Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, whom he accused of reducing the untouchable
community to a figure of pathos. Ambedkar was also dissatisfied with the
failures of British rule, and advocated a political identity for
untouchables separate from both the Congress and the British. At a
Depressed Classes Conference on August 8, 1930 Ambedkar outlined his
political vision, insisting that the safety of the Depressed Classes
hinged on their being independent of the Government and the Congress
both:



We must shape our course ourselves and by ourselves… Political
power cannot be a panacea for the ills of the Depressed Classes. Their
salvation lies in their social elevation. They must cleanse their evil
habits. They must improve their bad ways of living…. They must be
educated…. There is a great necessity to disturb their pathetic
contentment and to instill into them that divine discontent which is the
spring of all elevation.

In this speech, Ambedkar criticized the Salt Satyagraha launched by
Gandhi and the Congress. Ambedkar’s criticisms and political work had
made him very unpopular with orthodox Hindus, as well as with many
Congress politicians who had earlier condemned untouchability and worked
against discrimination across India. This was largely because these
“liberal” politicians usually stopped short of advocating full equality
for untouchables. Ambedkar’s prominence and popular support amongst the
untouchable community had increased, and he was invited to attend the
Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931. Here he sparred
verbally with Gandhi on the question of awarding separate electorates to
untouchables. A fierce opponent of separate electorates on religious
and sectarian lines, Gandhi feared that separate electorates for
untouchables would divide Hindu society for future generations.


When the British agreed with Ambedkar and announced the awarding of
separate electorates, Gandhi began a fast-unto-death while imprisoned in
the Yeravada Central Jail of Pune in 1932. Exhorting orthodox Hindu
society to eliminate discrimination and untouchability, Gandhi asked for
the political and social unity of Hindus. Gandhi’s fast provoked great
public support across India, and orthodox Hindu leaders, Congress
politicians and activists such as Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar
Baloo organized joint meetings with Ambedkar and his supporters at
Yeravada. Fearing a communal reprisal and killings of untouchables in
the event of Gandhi’s death, Ambedkar agreed under massive coercion from
the supporters of Gandhi to drop the demand for separate electorates,
and settled for a reservation of seats, which although in the end
achieved more representation for the untouchables, resulted in the loss
of separate electorates that was promised through the British Communal
Award prior to Ambedkars meeting with Gandhi which would end his fast.
Ambedkar was later to criticise this fast of Gandhi’s as a gimmick to
deny political rights to the untouchables and increase the coercion he
had faced to give up the demand for separate electorates. 



Political career:
In 1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law College,
a position he held for two years. Settling in Mumbai, Ambedkar oversaw
the construction of a large house, and stocked his personal library with
more than 50,000 books. His wife Ramabai died after a long illness in
the same year. It had been her long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage
to Pandharpur, but Ambedkar had refused to let her go, telling her that
he would create a new Pandharpur for her instead of Hinduism’s
Pandharpur which treated them as untouchables. His own views and
attitudes had hardened against orthodox Hindus, despite a significant
increase in momentum across India for the fight against untouchability.
and he began criticizing them even as he was criticized himself by large
numbers of Hindu activists. Speaking at the Yeola Conversion Conference
on October 13 near Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert
to a different religion and exhorted his followers to leave Hinduism.
He would repeat his message at numerous public meetings across India.



In 1936, Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which won 15
seats in the 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly. He
published his book The Annihilation of Caste in the same year, based on
the thesis he had written in New York. Attaining immense popular
success, Ambedkar’s work strongly criticized Hindu religious leaders and
the caste system in general. He protested the Congress decision to call
the untouchable community Harijans (Children of God), a name coined by
Gandhi. Ambedkar served on the Defence Advisory Committee and the
Viceroy’s Executive Council as minister for labour.
Between 1941 and 1945, he published a large number of highly
controversial books and pamphlets, including Thoughts on Pakistan, in
which he criticized the Muslim League’s demand for a separate Muslim
state of Pakistan. With What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the
Untouchables, Ambedkar intensified his attacks on Gandhi and the
Congress, charging them with hypocrisy. In his work Who Were the
Shudras?, Ambedkar attempted to explain the formation of the Shudras
i.e. the lowest caste in hierarchy of Hindu caste system. He also
emphasised how Shudras are separate from Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw
the transformation of his political party into the All India Scheduled
Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in the elections held in
1946 for the Constituent Assembly of India. In writing a sequel to Who
Were the Shudras? in 1948, Ambedkar lambasted Hinduism in the The
Untouchables: A Thesis on the Origins of Untouchability:



Architect of India’s constitution:
Upon India’s independence on August 15, 1947, the new Congress-led
government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation’s first law minister,
which he accepted. On August 29, Ambedkar was appointed chairman of the
Constitution Drafting Committee, charged by the Assembly to write free
India’s new Constitution. Ambedkar won great praise from his colleagues
and contemporary observers for his drafting work. In this task
Ambedkar’s study of sangha practice among early Buddhists and his
extensive reading in Buddhist scriptures was to come to his aid. Sangha
practice incorporated voting by ballot, rules of debate and precedence
and the use of agendas, committees and proposals to conduct business.
Sangha practice itself was modelled on the oligarchic system of
governance followed by tribal republics of ancient India such as the
Shakyas and the Lichchavis. Thus, although Ambedkar used Western models
to give his Constitution shape, its spirit was Indian and, indeed,
tribal.

The text prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional guarantees and
protections for a wide range of civil liberties for individual citizens,
including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability and the
outlawing of all forms of discrimination Ambedkar argued for extensive
economic and social rights for women, and also won the Assembly’s
support for introducing a system of reservations of jobs in the civil
services, schools and colleges for members of scheduled castes and
scheduled tribes, a system akin to affirmative action. India’s lawmakers
hoped to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of
opportunities for India’s depressed classes through this measure, which
had been originally envisioned as temporary on a need basis. The
Constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949 by the Constituent
Assembly. Speaking after the completion of his work, Ambedkar said:

Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951 following the stalling in
parliament of his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to expound
gender equality in the laws of inheritance, marriage and the economy.
Although supported by Prime Minister Nehru, the cabinet and many other
Congress leaders, it received criticism from a large number of members
of parliament. Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to
the lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha but was defeated. He was
appointed to the upper house of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March
1952 and would remain a member until his death.


Conversion to Buddhism:
In the 1950s, Ambedkar turned his attention to Buddhism and travelled to
Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) to attend a convention of Buddhist scholars and
monks. While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near Pune, Ambedkar
announced that he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that as soon as it
was finished, he planned to make a formal conversion to Buddhism.
Ambedkar twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time in order to attend
the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Rangoon.
In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the Buddhist
Society of India. He completed his final work, The Buddha and His
Dhamma, in 1956. It was published posthumously.

After meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa,
Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his
supporters in Nagpur on October 14, 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges
and Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the traditional manner,
Ambedkar completed his own conversion. He then proceeded to convert an
estimated 500,000 of his supporters who were gathered around him.
Taking the 22 Vows, Ambedkar and his supporters explicitly condemned and
rejected Hinduism and Hindu philosophy. He then traveled to Kathmandu
in Nepal to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference. He completed
his final manuscript, The Buddha or Karl Marx on December 2, 1956.



Death / Mahanirvana:
Since 1948, Ambedkar had been suffering from diabetes. He was bed-ridden
from June to October in 1954 owing to clinical depression and failing
eyesight.[7] He had been increasingly embittered by political issues,
which took a toll on his health. His health worsened as he furiously
worked through 1955. Just three days after completing his final
manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, it is said that Ambedkar died in
his sleep on December 6, 1956 at his home in Delhi.

Since the Caste hindus denied the cremation at Dadar crematorium, A
Buddhist-style cremation was organised for him at Chowpatty beach on
December 7, attended by hundreds of thousands of supporters, activists
and admirers.
Ambedkar was survived by his second wife Savita Ambedkar, born as a
caste Brahmin and converted to Buddhism with him. His wife’s name before
marriage was Sharda Kabir. Savita Ambedkar died as a Buddhist in 2002.
Ambedkar’s grandson, Prakash Yaswant Ambedkar leads the Bharipa Bahujan
Mahasangha and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament. 


A number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found
among Ambedkar’s notes and papers and gradually made available. Among
these were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935-36 and is
an autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of
India’s Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.

A memorial for Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur
Road. His birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar
Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India’s highest civilian honour,
the Bharat Ratna in 1990. Many public institutions are named in his
honour, such as the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University in Hyderabad,
Andhra Pradesh, B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University, Muzaffarpur, the other
being Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur, which was
otherwise known as Sonegaon Airport. A large official portrait of
Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building.

On the anniversary of his birth (14 April) and death (6 December) and on
Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din, 14th Oct at Nagpur, at least half a
million people gather to pay homage to him at his memorial in Mumbai.
Thousands of bookshops are set up, and books are sold.

His message to his followers was ” Educate!!!, Organize!!!, Agitate!!!”.





Memories of Baba Sahab Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar


To name the few of these include pen case, a conch shell, some
chinaware, a kettle and a cup and saucer, a lamp, a statue of the Buddha
and an ashtray. Babasaheb used to like having his tea in British Style,
with tea in a kettle, milk and sugar separate, a habit he had picked up
while he was abroad. In the same enclosure we also see a colourful
Japanese umbrella presented to Babasaheb during his visit to Rangoon.



Marble Bust of Dr. Ambedkar and

Personal belongings of Dr. Ambedkar


The chair on which Dr.Ambedkar sat when he handed over
the
Constitution of India & Resting Chair of Dr. Ambedkar


Clothes of Dr. Ambedkar

 

Violin & Shoes of Dr. Ambedkar


Dining table


A bed on which Dr. Ambedkar breathed his last




All photos provided by: Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Musseum & Memorial





MN 63


PTS: M i 426


Cula-Malunkyovada Sutta:
The Shorter Instructions to Malunkya


translated from the Pali
by


Thanissaro Bhikkhu


© 1998–2011


I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying
near Savatthi at Jeta’s Grove, Anathapindika’s
monastery. Then, as Ven. Malunkyaputta was alone in seclusion, this train of
thought arose in his awareness: “These positions that
are undeclared, set aside, discarded by the Blessed One — ‘The cosmos is
eternal,’ ‘The cosmos is not eternal,’ ‘The cosmos is finite,’ ‘The cosmos is
infinite,’ ‘The soul & the body are the same,’ ‘The soul is one thing and
the body another,’ ‘After death a Tathagata exists,’ ‘After death a Tathagata
does not exist,’ ‘After death a Tathagata both exists & does not exist,’
‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist’ — I don’t approve,
I don’t accept that the Blessed One has not declared them to me. I’ll go ask
the Blessed One about this matter. If he declares to me that ‘The cosmos is
eternal,’ that ‘The cosmos is not eternal,’ that ‘The cosmos is finite,’ that
‘The cosmos is infinite,’ that ‘The soul & the body are the same,’ that
‘The soul is one thing and the body another,’ that ‘After death a Tathagata
exists,’ that ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist,’ that ‘After death a
Tathagata both exists & does not exist,’ or that ‘After death a Tathagata
neither exists nor does not exist,’ then I will live the holy life under him.
If he does not declare to me that ‘The cosmos is eternal,’… or that ‘After
death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist,’ then I will renounce the
training and return to the lower life.”


Then, when it was evening, Ven. Malunkyaputta arose from
seclusion and went to the Blessed One. On arrival, having bowed down, he sat to
one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One, “Lord, just
now, as I was alone in seclusion, this train of thought arose in my awareness:
‘These positions that are undeclared, set aside, discarded by the Blessed
One… I don’t approve, I don’t accept that the Blessed One has not declared
them to me. I’ll go ask the Blessed One about this matter. If he declares to me
that “The cosmos is eternal,”… or that “After death a
Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist,” then I will live the holy
life under him. If he does not declare to me that “The cosmos is
eternal,”… or that “After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does
not exist,” then I will renounce the training and return to the lower
life.’


“Lord, if the Blessed One knows that ‘The cosmos is
eternal,’ then may he declare to me that ‘The cosmos is eternal.’ If he knows
that ‘The cosmos is not eternal,’ then may he declare to me that ‘The cosmos is
not eternal.’ But if he doesn’t know or see whether the cosmos is eternal or
not eternal, then, in one who is unknowing & unseeing, the straightforward
thing is to admit, ‘I don’t know. I don’t see.’… If he doesn’t know or see
whether after death a Tathagata exists… does not exist… both exists &
does not exist… neither exists nor does not exist,’ then, in one who is unknowing
& unseeing, the straightforward thing is to admit, ‘I don’t know. I don’t
see.’”


“Malunkyaputta, did I ever say to you, ‘Come,
Malunkyaputta, live the holy life under me, and I will declare to you that ‘The
cosmos is eternal,’ or ‘The cosmos is not eternal,’ or ‘The cosmos is finite,’
or ‘The cosmos is infinite,’ or ‘The soul & the body are the same,’ or ‘The
soul is one thing and the body another,’ or ‘After death a Tathagata exists,’
or ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist,’ or ‘After death a Tathagata both
exists & does not exist,’ or ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor
does not exist’?”


“No, lord.”


“And did you ever say to me, ‘Lord, I will live the holy
life under the Blessed One and [in return] he will declare to me that ‘The
cosmos is eternal,’ or ‘The cosmos is not eternal,’ or ‘The cosmos is finite,’
or ‘The cosmos is infinite,’ or ‘The soul & the body are the same,’ or ‘The
soul is one thing and the body another,’ or ‘After death a Tathagata exists,’
or ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist,’ or ‘After death a Tathagata both
exists & does not exist,’ or ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor
does not exist’?”


“No, lord.”


“Then that being the case, foolish man, who are you to be
claiming grievances/making demands of anyone?


“Malunkyaputta, if anyone were to say, ‘I won’t live the
holy life under the Blessed One as long as he does not declare to me that
“The cosmos is eternal,”… or that “After death a Tathagata
neither exists nor does not exist,”‘ the man would die and those things would
still remain undeclared by the Tathagata.


“It’s just as if a man were wounded with
an arrow thickly smeared with poison. His friends & companions, kinsmen
& relatives would provide him with a surgeon, and the man would say, ‘I
won’t have this arrow removed until I know whether the man who wounded me was a
noble warrior, a priest, a merchant, or a worker.’ He would say, ‘I won’t have
this arrow removed until I know the given name & clan name of the man who
wounded me… until I know whether he was tall, medium, or short… until I
know whether he was dark, ruddy-brown, or golden-colored… until I know his
home village, town, or city… until I know whether the bow with which I was
wounded was a long bow or a crossbow… until I know whether the bowstring with
which I was wounded was fiber, bamboo threads, sinew, hemp, or bark… until I
know whether the shaft with which I was wounded was wild or cultivated… until
I know whether the feathers of the shaft with which I was wounded were those of
a vulture, a stork, a hawk, a peacock, or another bird… until I know whether
the shaft with which I was wounded was bound with the sinew of an ox, a water
buffalo, a langur, or a monkey.’ He would say, ‘I won’t have this arrow removed
until I know whether the shaft with which I was wounded was that of a common
arrow, a curved arrow, a barbed, a calf-toothed, or an oleander arrow.’ The man
would die and those things would still remain unknown to him.


“In the same way, if anyone were to say, ‘I won’t live the
holy life under the Blessed One as long as he does not declare to me that ‘The
cosmos is eternal,’… or that ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does
not exist,’ the man would die and those things would still remain undeclared by
the Tathagata.


“Malunkyaputta, it’s not the case that when there is the
view, ‘The cosmos is eternal,’ there is the living of the holy life. And it’s
not the case that when there is the view, ‘The cosmos is not eternal,’ there is
the living of the holy life. When there is the view, ‘The cosmos is eternal,’
and when there is the view, ‘The cosmos is not eternal,’ there is still the
birth, there is the aging, there is the death, there is the sorrow,
lamentation, pain, despair, & distress whose destruction I make known right
in the here & now.


“It’s not the case that when there is the view, ‘The cosmos
is finite,’ there is the living of the holy life. And it’s not the case that
when there is the view, ‘The cosmos is infinite,’ there is the living of the
holy life. When there is the view, ‘The cosmos is finite,’ and when there is
the view, ‘The cosmos is infinite,’ there is still the birth, there is the
aging, there is the death, there is the sorrow, lamentation, pain, despair,
& distress whose destruction I make known right in the here & now.


“It’s not the case that when there is the view, ‘The soul
& the body are the same,’ there is the living of the holy life. And it’s
not the case that when there is the view, ‘The soul is one thing and the body
another,’ there is the living of the holy life. When there is the view, ‘The
soul & the body are the same,’ and when there is the view, ‘The soul is one
thing and the body another,’ there is still the birth, there is the aging,
there is the death, there is the sorrow, lamentation, pain, despair, &
distress whose destruction I make known right in the here & now.


“It’s not the case that when there is the view, ‘After
death a Tathagata exists,’ there is the living of the holy life. And it’s not
the case that when there is the view, ‘After death a Tathagata does not exist,’
there is the living of the holy life. And it’s not the case that when there is
the view, ‘After death a Tathagata both exists & does not exist,’ there is
the living of the holy life. And it’s not the case that when there is the view,
‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist’ there is the living
of the holy life. When there is the view, ‘After death a Tathagata exists’…
‘After death a Tathagata does not exist’… ‘After death a Tathagata both
exists & does not exist’… ‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor
does not exist,’ there is still the birth, there is the aging, there is the
death, there is the sorrow, lamentation, pain, despair, & distress whose
destruction I make known right in the here & now.


“So, Malunkyaputta, remember what is undeclared by me as
undeclared, and what is declared by me as declared. And what is undeclared by
me? ‘The cosmos is eternal,’ is undeclared by me. ‘The cosmos is not eternal,’
is undeclared by me. ‘The cosmos is finite’… ‘The cosmos is infinite’… ‘The
soul & the body are the same’… ‘The soul is one thing and the body
another’… ‘After death a Tathagata exists’… ‘After death a Tathagata does
not exist’… ‘After death a Tathagata both exists & does not exist’…
‘After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist,’ is undeclared by
me.


“And why are they undeclared by me? Because they are not
connected with the goal, are not fundamental to the holy life. They do not lead
to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, calming, direct knowledge,
self-awakening, Unbinding. That’s why they are undeclared by me.


“And what is declared by me? ‘This is stress,’ is declared
by me. ‘This is the origination of stress,’ is declared by me. ‘This is the
cessation of stress,’ is declared by me. ‘This is the path of practice leading
to the cessation of stress,’ is declared by me. And why are they declared by
me? Because they are connected with the goal, are fundamental to the holy life.
They lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, calming, direct knowledge,
self-awakening, Unbinding. That’s why they are declared by me.


“So, Malunkyaputta, remember what is undeclared by me as
undeclared, and what is declared by me as declared.”


That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, Ven. Malunkyaputta
delighted in the Blessed One’s words.



Setting In Motion the Wheel of Truth (Dhammacakkappavattana
Sutta
[1])

(The First Sermon of the Buddha)

For seven weeks immediately
following the enlightenment, the

Buddha spent his time in
lonely retreat. At the close of this period he

decided to proclaim the
doctrine (dhamma), he had realized, to those

five ascetics who were once
struggling with him for enlightenment.

Knowing that they were living
at Isipatana (modern Sarnath), still

steeped in the unmeaning
rigours of extreme asceticism, the master

left Gaya, where he attained
enlightenment, for distant Varanasi,

India’s holy city. There at
the Deer Park he rejoined them.

Thus have I heard:

On one occasion the Blessed
One was living in the Deer

Park at Isipatana (the Resort
of Seers) near Varanasi

(Benares). Then he addressed
the group of five monks

(bhikkhus):

“Monks, these two extremes
ought not to be practiced by

one who has gone forth from
the household life. (What are

the two?) There is addiction
to indulgence of sensepleasures,

which is low, coarse, the way
of ordinary

people, unworthy, and
unprofitable; and there is addiction

to self-mortification, which
is painful, unworthy, and

unprofitable.

“Avoiding both these
extremes, the Tathagata (The Perfect

One)[2] has realized the
Middle Path; it gives vision, gives

knowledge, and leads to calm,
to insight, to enlightenment

and to Nibbana. And what is
that Middle Path realized by

the Tathagata…? It is the
Noble Eightfold path, and nothing

else, namely: right
understanding, right thought, right

speech, right action, right
livelihood, right effort, right

mindfulness and right
concentration. This is the Middle

Path realized by the
Tathagata which gives vision, which

gives knowledge, and leads to
calm, to insight, to

enlightenment, and to
Nibbana.

“The Noble Truth of Suffering
(dukkha), monks, is this:

Birth is suffering, aging is
suffering, sickness is suffering,

death is suffering,
association with the unpleasant is

suffering, dissociation from the
pleasant is suffering, not to

receive what one desires is
suffering — in brief the five

aggregates subject to
grasping are suffering.

“The Noble Truth of the
Origin (cause) of Suffering is this:

It is this craving (thirst)
which produces re-becoming

(rebirth) accompanied by
passionate greed, and finding

fresh delight now here, and
now there, namely craving for

sense pleasure, craving for
existence and craving for nonexistence

(self-annihilation).

“The Noble Truth of the
Cessation of Suffering is this: It is

the complete cessation of
that very craving, giving it up,

relinquishing it, liberating
oneself from it, and detaching

oneself from it.

“The Noble Truth of the Path
Leading to the Cessation of

Suffering is this: It is the
Noble Eightfold Path, and

nothing else, namely: right
understanding, right thought,

right speech, right action,
right livelihood, right effort,

right mindfulness and right
concentration. [3]

“ ‘This is the Noble Truth of
Suffering’: such was the

vision, the knowledge, the
wisdom, the science, the light

that arose in me concerning
things not heard before. ‘This

suffering, as a noble truth,
should be fully realized’: such

was the vision, the
knowledge, the wisdom, the science,

the light that arose in me
concerning things not heard

before. ‘This suffering, as a
noble truth has been fully

realized’: such was the
vision, the knowledge, the wisdom,

the science, the light that
arose in me concerning things not

heard before.

“ ‘This is the Noble Truth of
the Origin (cause) of

Suffering’: such was the
vision, the knowledge, the

wisdom, the science, the
light that arose in me concerning

things not heard before.
‘This Origin of Suffering as a

noble truth should be
eradicated’: such was the vision, the

knowledge, the wisdom, the
science, the light that arose in

me concerning things not
heard before. ‘This Origin of

suffering as a noble truth
has been eradicated’: such was

the vision, the knowledge,
the wisdom, the science, the

light that arose in me
concerning things not heard before.

“ ‘This is the Noble Truth of
the Cessation of Suffering’:

such was the vision, the
knowledge, the wisdom, the

science, the light that arose
in me concerning things not

heard before. ‘This Cessation
of suffering, as a noble truth,

should be realized’: such was
the vision, the knowledge,

the wisdom, the science, the
light that arose in me

concerning things not heard
before. ‘This Cessation of

suffering, as a noble truth
has been realized’: such was the

vision, the knowledge, the
wisdom, the science, the light

that arose in me concerning
things not heard before.

“ ‘This is the Noble Truth of
the Path leading to the

cessation of suffering’: such
was the vision, the

knowledge, the wisdom, the
science, the light that arose in

me concerning things not
heard before. ‘his Path leading to

the cessation of suffering,
as a noble truth, should be

developed’: such was the
vision, the knowledge, the

wisdom, the science, the
light that arose in me concerning

things not heard before.
‘This Path leading to the cessation

of suffering, as a noble
truth has been developed’: such

was the vision, the
knowledge, the wisdom, the science,

the light that arose in me
concerning things not heard

before.

“As long as my knowledge of
seeing things as they really

are, was not quite clear in
these three aspects, in these

twelve ways, concerning the
Four Noble Truths[4], I did

not claim to have realized
the matchless, supreme

Enlightenment, in this world
with its gods, with its Maras

and Brahmas, in this
generation with its recluses and

brahmanas, with its Devas and
humans. But when my

knowledge of seeing things as
they really are was quite

clear in these three aspects,
in these twelve ways,

concerning the Four Noble
Truths, then I claimed to have

realized the matchless,
supreme Enlightenment in this

world with its gods, with its
Maras and Brahmas, in this

generation with its recluses
and brahmanas, with its Devas

and humans. And a vision of
insight arose in me thus:

‘Unshakable is the
deliverance of my heart. This is the last

birth. Now there is no more
re-becoming (rebirth).’ ”

This the Blessed One said.
The group of five monks was

glad, and they rejoiced at
the words of the Blessed One.

When this discourse was thus
expounded there arose in the

Venerable Kondañña the
passion-free, stainless vision of

Truth (dhamma-cakkhu; in other words, he attained

sotapatti, the
first stage of sanctity, and realized:

“Whatever has the nature of
arising, has the nature of

ceasing.”

Now when the Blessed One set
in motion the Wheel of

Truth, the Bhummattha devas
(the earth deities)

proclaimed: “The Matchless
Wheel of Truth that cannot be

set in motion by recluse,
brahmana, deva, Mara, Brahma,

or any one in the world, is
set in motion by the Blessed

One in the Deer Park at
Isipatana near Varanasi.”

Hearing these words of the
earth deities, all the

Catummaharajika devas
proclaimed: “The Matchless

Wheel of Truth that cannot be
set in motion by recluse,

brahmana, deva, Mara, Brahma,
or any one in the world, is

set in motion by the Blessed
One in the Deer Park at

Isipatana near Varanasi.”
These words were heard in the

upper deva realms, and from
Catummaharajika it was

proclaimed in Tavatimsa…
Yama… Tusita…

Nimmanarati…
Paranimmita-vasavatti… and the Brahmas

of Brahma Parisajja… Brahma
Purohita… Maha Brahma…

Parittabha… Appamanabha…
Abhassara… Parittasubha…

Appamana subha…
Subhakinna… Vehapphala… Aviha…

Atappa… Sudassa…
Sudassi… and in Akanittha: “The

Matchless Wheel of Truth that
cannot be set in motion by

recluse, brahmana, deva,
Mara, Brahma, or any one in the

world, is set in motion by
the Blessed One in the Deer Park

at Isipatana near Varanasi.”

Thus at that very moment, at
that instant, the cry (that the

Wheel of Truth is set in
motion) spread as far as Brahma

realm, the system of ten
thousand worlds trembled and

quaked and shook. A boundless
sublime radiance

surpassing the effulgence
(power) of devas appeared in the

world.

Then the Blessed One uttered
this paeon of joy: “Verily

Kondañña has realized; verily
Kondañña has realized (the

Four Noble Truths).” Thus it
was that the Venerable

Kondañña received the name,
‘Añña Knondañña’ –

Kondañña who realizes.

With the proclamation of the
Dhamma, for the first time, and with the

conversion of the five
ascetics, the Deer Park at Isipatana became the

birth place of the Buddha’s
Dispensation (Buddha-sasana), and the

Sangha, the community of
monks, the ordained disciples.

Emperor Asoka, 281 years
after the event, came on pilgrimage to this

holy spot and caused a series
of monuments and a commemorative

pillar with the lion capital
to be erected. This capital with its four

magnificent lions upholding
the “Dhamma Cakka”, the “Wheel of

Dhamma” now stands in the
museum of Sarnath, and is today the

official crest of India. The
“Dhamma-Cakka” festival is still

maintained in Sri Lanka
(Ceylon).

Jawaharlal Nehru, the late
prime Minister of India, writes: “At Sarnath

near Benares, I would almost
see the Buddha preaching his first

sermon, and some of his
recorded words would come like a distant

echo to me through
two-thousand five hundred years. Asoka’s pillars

of stone with their
inscriptions would speak to me in their magnificent

language and tell me of a man
who, though an emperor, was greater

than any king or emperor.” –
The Discovery of India (The Signet

Press, Calcutta), p. 44.


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