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359LESSON 28 08 2011 Vajjiya Sutta About Vajjiya FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT to attain Ultimate Bliss-Through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org- Free Buddhist Studies for the students- Discourse on The Analysis of the Truths (Saccavibhanga Sutta[1])
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359LESSON 28 08 2011 Vajjiya
Sutta About Vajjiya
FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and
BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS letter to VOTE for BSP ELEPHANT to attain Ultimate
Bliss-Through
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org- Free Buddhist
Studies for the students-
Discourse on The Analysis of the Truths (Saccavibhanga
Sutta
[1])


AN 10.94


PTS: A v 189


Vajjiya Sutta: About
Vajjiya


translated from the Pali
by


Thanissaro Bhikkhu


© 2000–2011


I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying
near Campa, on the shore of Gaggara Lake.
Then Vajjiya Mahita the householder left Campa in the
middle of the day to see the Blessed One, but the thought then occurred to him,
“Now is not the right time to see the Blessed One, for he is in seclusion.
And it is not the right time to see the monks who develop the mind, for they
are in seclusion. What if I were to visit the park of the wanderers of other
persuasions?” So he headed to the park of the wanderers of other
persuasions.


Now on that occasion the wanderers of other persuasions had come
together in a gathering and were sitting, discussing many kinds of bestial
topics,[1]

making a great noise & racket. They saw Vajjiya Mahita the householder
coming from afar, and on seeing him, hushed one another: “Be quiet, good
sirs. Don’t make any noise. Here comes Vajjiya Mahita the householder, a
disciple of Gotama the contemplative. He is one of those disciples of Gotama
the contemplative, clad in white, who lives in Savatthi.
These people are fond of quietude and speak in praise of quietude. Maybe, if he
perceives our group as quiet, he will consider it worth his while to come our
way.” So the wanderers fell silent.


Then Vajjiya Mahita the householder went
to where the wanderers of other persuasions were staying. On arrival he greeted
them courteously. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he
sat to one side. As he was sitting there, the wanderers said to him, “Is
it true, householder, that Gotama the contemplative criticizes all asceticism,
that he categorically denounces & disparages all ascetics who live the
rough life?”


“No, venerable sirs, the Blessed One does not criticize all
asceticism, nor does he categorically denounce or disparage all ascetics who
live the rough life. The Blessed One criticizes what should be criticized, and
praises what should be praised. Criticizing what should be criticized, praising
what should be praised, the Blessed One is one who speaks making distinctions,
not one who speaks categorically on this matter.”


When this was said, one of the wanderers said to Vajjiya Mahita
the householder, “Now wait a minute, householder. This contemplative
Gotama whom you praise is a nihilist, one who doesn’t declare anything.”


“I tell you, venerable sirs, that the Blessed One
righteously declares that ‘This is skillful.’ He declares that ‘This is
unskillful.’ Declaring that ‘This is skillful’ and ‘This is unskillful,’ he is
one who has declared [a teaching]. He is not a nihilist, one who doesn’t
declare anything.”


When this was said, the wanderers fell silent, abashed, sitting
with their shoulders drooping, their heads down, brooding, at a loss for words.
Vajjiya Mahita the householder, perceiving that the wanderers were silent,
abashed… at a loss for words, got up & went to the Blessed One. On
arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, he sat to one side. As he was
sitting there, he told the Blessed One the entirety of his conversation with
the wanderers.


[The Blessed One said:] “Well done, householder. Well done.
That is how you should periodically & righteously refute those foolish men.
I don’t say that all asceticism is to be pursued, nor do I say that all
asceticism is not to be pursued. I don’t say that all observances should be
observed, nor do I day that all observances should not be observed. I don’t say
that all exertions are to be pursued, nor do I say that all exertions are not
to be pursued. I don’t say that all forfeiture should be forfeited, nor do I
say that all forfeiture should not be forfeited. I don’t say that all release
is to be used for release, nor do I say that all release is not to be used for
release.


“If, when an asceticism is pursued, unskillful qualities
grow and skillful qualities wane, then I tell you that that sort of asceticism
is not to be pursued. But if, when an asceticism is pursued, unskillful
qualities wane and skillful qualities grow, then I tell you that that sort of
asceticism is to be pursued.


“If, when an observance is observed, unskillful qualities
grow and skillful qualities wane, then I tell you that that sort of observance
is not to be observed. But if, when an observance is observed, unskillful
qualities wane and skillful qualities grow, then I tell you that that sort of
observance is to be observed.


“If, when an exertion is pursued… a forfeiture is
forfeited…


“If, when a release is used for release, unskillful
qualities grow and skillful qualities wane, then I tell you that that sort of
release is not to be used for release. But if, when a release is used for
release, unskillful qualities wane and skillful qualities grow, then I tell you
that that sort of release is to be used for release.”


When Vajjiya Mahita the householder had been instructed, urged,
roused & encouraged by the Blessed One with a talk on Dhamma, he got up
from his seat and, having bowed down to the Blessed One, left, keeping the
Blessed One on his right side. Not long afterward, the Blessed One addressed
the monks: “Monks, even a monk who has long penetrated the Dhamma in this
Doctrine & Discipline would do well periodically & righteously to
refute the wanderers of other persuasions in just the way Vajjiya Mahita the
householder has done.”


Discourse on The Analysis of the Truths (Saccavibhanga
Sutta
[1])


 


Thus have I heard:


On one occasion the Blessed
One was living in the Deer


Park at Isipatana (the Resort
of Saints) near Varanasi


(Benares). Then he addressed
the monks saying: “O


Monks.” “Venerable Sir”,
replied those monks in assent to


the Blessed One. Thereupon he
said:


“The matchless Wheel of
Dhamma set in motion by the


Tathagata, [2] the Consummate
One, the supremely


Enlightened One, in the Deer
Park at Isipatana near


Varanasi, cannot be set in
motion by a recluse or brahmana


or Deva or Mara or Brahma or
by anyone in the world.


That is to say, it was a
proclamation of the Four Noble


Truths, by way of teaching,
laying down, establishing,


opening up, analyzing, and
elucidating them.


“Of what four: It was a
proclamation of the Noble Truth of


suffering (dukkha), by way of teaching… (as before) and


elucidating it; of the Noble
Truth of the arising (cause) of


suffering… of the Noble
Truth of the cessation of


suffering… of the Noble
Truth of the Path leading to the


cessation of suffering. This
matchless Wheel of Dhamma,


monks, set in motion by the
Tathagata, the Consummate


One, the supremely
Enlightened One, in the Deer Park at


Isipatana near Varanasi,
cannot be set in motion by a


recluse… or by anyone in
the world. That is to say, it was a


proclamation of the Four
Noble Truths, by way of


teaching, laying down,
establishing, opening up, analyzing,


and elucidating them.


“Monks, follow Sariputta and
Moggallana; associate with


Sariputta and Moggallana.
Wise monks do help (materially


and spiritually) those who
live the holy life. Monks,


Sariputta is like unto a
mother, Moggallana is like unto a


foster-mother to a child.
Sariputta, monks, trains (beings)


in the path[3] of
stream-attainment. Moggallana in the


highest goal (arahantship)[4].
Sariputta, monks, is able to


proclaim, teach, lay down,
establish, open up, analyze, and


elucidate the Four Noble
Truths.”


This the Blessed One said,
and having said so, the


Welcome Being (sugata)[5] rose from his seat and entered


(his) abode. Not long after
the Blessed One had departed,


the Venerable Sariputta
addressed the monks, saying:


“Reverend friends.” “Your
reverence”, the monks replied


the Venerable Sariputta in
assent.


This the Venerable Sariputta
said:


“Your reverence, the matchless
Wheel of Dhamma set in


motion by the Tathagata, the
Consummate One, the


supremely Enlightened One, in
the Deer Park, at Isipatana


near Varanasi, cannot be set
in motion by a recluse or


brahmana… (as before) in
the world. That is to say, it was a


proclamation of the Four
Noble Truths, by way of


teaching, laying down,
establishing, opening up, analyzing,


and elucidating them.


“Of what four? It was a
proclamation of the Noble Truth of


suffering (dukkha) by way of teaching… elucidating it; of


the Noble Truth of the
arising of suffering… of the Noble


Truth of the cessation of
suffering… of the Noble Truth of


the Path leading to the
cessation of suffering.


“What, your reverence, is the
Noble Truth of suffering?


Birth is suffering; aging is
suffering; death is suffering;


grief, lamentation, bodily
pain, mental pain and despair are


suffering; not getting what
one desires, that too is


suffering: In brief the five
aggregates subject to grasping


are suffering.


 “What is birth? It is the birth of beings in
the various


classes (planes) of beings;
the production, their conception,


coming into existence
(re-birth), the appearance of the


aggregates, acquiring of the
sense-bases. This is called


birth.


“What is aging? It is the
aging of beings in the various


classes of beings, their
decay, broken teeth, graying hair,


wrinkled skin, the dwindling
of the life-span, the wearing


out of the sense-organs. This
is called aging.


“What is death? It is the
passing away of beings in the


various classes of beings;
the falling away, the breaking


up, the disappearance, the
death, making end of life, the


breaking up of the
aggregates, the laying down of the body.


This is called death.


“What is grief? It is the
grief, sorrow, sorrowfulness, the


state of being sorry, inward
sorrow, inward intense sorrow


visited by some calamity or
other, smitten by some kind of


ill or other. This is called
grief.


“What is lamentation? It is
the crying, the wailing, the act


of crying, the act of
wailing, the state of crying, the state of


wailing of one visited by
some calamity or other, smitten


by some kind of ill or other.
This is called lamentation.


“What is suffering? It is
bodily suffering, bodily


unpleasantness, the painful
and unpleasant feeling


produced by bodily contact.
This is called suffering.


“What is misery? It is mental
suffering, unpleasantness, the


painful and unpleasant
feeling produced by mental contact.


This is called misery.


“What is despair? It is
despondency, despair, the state of


despondency, the state of
despair of one visited by some


calamity or other. This is
called despair.


 “What is meant by not getting what one
desires, that too is


suffering? To beings subject
to birth there comes desire: ‘O


might we not be subject to
birth, and birth not come to us.’


But this cannot be attained
by mere desiring. So not getting


what one desires, that too,
is suffering. To beings subject to


aging there comes the desire:
‘O might we not be subject to


aging, and aging not come to
us…’ (as before). To beings


subject to disease there comes
the desire: ‘O might we not


be subject to disease and
disease not come to us…’ To


beings subject to death there
comes the desire: ‘O might


we not be subject to death
and death not come to us…’ To


beings subject to sorrow,
lamentation, suffering, misery,


and despair there comes the
desire: ‘O might we not be


subject to sorrow,
lamentation, suffering, misery, and


despair, and sorrow,
lamentation, suffering, misery, and


despair not come to us.’ But
this cannot be attained by


merely desiring. So not getting
what one desires that too is


suffering.


“What, in brief, are the five
aggregates subject to grasping


that are suffering? These are
the aggregate of matter


subject to grasping, the
aggregate of feeling…, the


aggregate of perception…,
the aggregate of mental


(volitional) formations…,
the aggregate of consciousness


subject to grasping. These
are called, in brief, the five


aggregates subject to
grasping that are suffering. This is


called the Noble Truth of
suffering.


“What is the Noble Truth of
the arising of suffering? It is


this craving which produces
re-becoming (re-birth)


accompanied by passionate
greed, and finding delight now


here now there, namely the
craving for sense pleasures,


craving for existence and
craving for non-existence (selfannihilation).


This is called the Noble
Truth of the arising


of suffering.


“What is the Noble Truth of
the cessation of suffering? It is


the complete cessation of
that very craving, giving it up,


relinquishing it, liberating
oneself from it, and detaching


oneself from it. This is
called the Noble Truth of the


cessation of suffering.


“And what is the Noble Truth
of the Path leading to the


cessation of suffering? It is
this Noble Eightfold Path itself,


namely: right understanding,
right thought, right speech,


right action, right
livelihood, right effort, right


mindfulness, right
concentration.


“What is right understanding?
It is this knowledge of


suffering, knowledge of the
arising of suffering,


knowledge of the cessation of
suffering, knowledge of the


path leading to the cessation
of suffering — this is called


right understanding.


“What is right thought?
Thought of renunciation, thought


of goodwill, thought of not
harming — this is called right


thought.


“What is right speech?
Abstention from false speech,


abstention from tale-bearing,
abstention from harsh


(abusive) speech, abstention
from idle chatter (gossip), this


is called right speech.


“What is right action?
Abstention from killing, abstention


from stealing, abstention
from illicit sexual indulgence,


this is called right action.


“What is right livelihood?
Herein (in this dispensation) the


ariyan disciple avoiding
wrong livelihood, makes his living


by right livelihood, this is
called right livelihood.


“What is right effort? Herein
a monk puts forth will,


strives, stirs up energy,
strengthens his mind, exerts


himself to prevent the
arising of evil, of unwholesome


thoughts that have not yet
arisen; puts forth will… (as


before) to banish the evil,
unwholesome thoughts that have


already arisen; puts forth will…
to develop wholesome


thoughts that have not yet
arisen; and puts forth will,


strives, stirs up energy,
strengthens his mind, exerts


himself to maintain, to
preserve, increase, to bring them to


maturity, development, and to
complete the wholesome


thoughts that have arisen.
This is called right effort.


“What is right mindfulness?
Herein a monk lives practicing


body contemplation on the
body, ardent, clearly


comprehending and mindful (of
it), having overcome


covetousness and dejection
concerning the world (of the


body).


“He lives practicing
feeling-contemplation on the feelings,


ardent, clearly comprehending
and mindful (of it) having


overcome covetousness and
dejection concerning the world


(of feelings).


“He lives practicing
mind-contemplation on the mind,


ardent, clearly comprehending
and mindful (of it) having


overcome covetousness and
dejection concerning the world


(of the mind).


“He lives practicing
mind-object contemplation on the


mind objects, ardent, clearly
comprehending and mindful


(of it) having overcome
covetousness and dejection


concerning the world (of
mental objects). This is called


right mindfulness.


“And what is right
concentration? Herein a monk aloof


from sense desires, aloof
from unwholesome thoughts,


attains to and abides in the
first meditative absorption


(jhana) which
is detachment-born and accompanied by


applied thought, sustained
thought, joy, and bliss.


“By allaying applied and
sustained thought he attains to,


and abides in the second jhana which is inner tranquillity,


which is unification (of the
mind), devoid of applied and


sustained thought, and which
has joy and bliss.


 “By detachment from joy he dwells in
equanimity,


mindful, and with clear
comprehension and enjoys bliss in


body, and attains to and
abides in the third
jhana which
the


noble ones (ariyas) call:
‘Dwelling in equanimity,


mindfulness, and bliss.’


“By giving up of bliss and
suffering, by the disappearance


already of joy and sorrow, he
attains to, and abides in the


fourth jhana, which is neither suffering nor bliss, and


which is the purity of
equanimity-mindfulness. This is


called right concentration.


“This is called the Noble
Truth of the Path leading to the


cessation of suffering.


“Your reverence, the
matchless Wheel of Dhamma set in


motion by the Tathagata, the
Consumate One, the


supremely Enlightened One, in
the Deer Park, at Isipatana


near Varanasi, cannot be set
in motion by a recluse or


brahmana or deva or Brahma or
by anyone in the world.


That is to say, it was a
proclamation of the Four Noble


Truths, by way of teaching,
laying down, establishing,


opening up, analyzing, and
elucidating them.”


This the Venerable Sariputta
said. Those monks glad at


heart rejoiced at the words
of the Venerable Sariputta.


AWAKENED ONES and LOKPAL


From

Jagatheesan Chandrasekharan
FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS
letter
#668 5th A Main Road
8th Cross
HAL 3rd Stage
Bangalore-560075
Karnataka State
India

TO,
Respected Shri KP Singh,
Director, Rajya Sabha Secretariat,
201,Second Floor, Parliament House Annexe, New Delhi-110001
(Tel: 23034201, Fax: 23016784, E-mail: kpsingh@sansad.nic.in and rs-cpers@sansad.nic.in )

Respected Sir,

Sub: Memoranda containing Views from FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice
UNIVERSITY and BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS LETTER on the Lokpal Bill 2011

Following Views from FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY and
BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS LETTER on the Lokpal Bill 2011 is placed before
Parliamentary Standing Committee Chairman Abhishek Manu Singhvi for kind
perusal and favourable action.

Willing to appear before the Committee

with kind regards

your’s sincerly

J.Chandrasekharan

 


Memoranda
containing Views from
FREE ONLINE eNālandā Research and Practice
UNIVERSITY and


BUDDHIST GOOD NEWS LETTER on the Lokpal Bill 2011


The Awakened One had gone beyond all
worldly affairs, but still gave advice on good governance


 


The
Awakened One came from a warrior caste and was naturally brought into
association with kings, princes


and
ministers. Despite His origin and association, He never resorted to the
influence of political power to


introduce
His teaching, nor allowed His Teaching to be misused for gaining political
power. But today, many


politicians
try to drag the Awakened One’s name into politics by introducing Him as a
communist, capitalist,


or
even an imperialist. They have forgotten that the new political philosophy as
we know it really developed


in the
West long after the Awakened One’s time. Those who try to make use of the good
name of the


Awakened
One for their own personal advantage must remember that the Awakened One was
the Supremely


Awakened
One who had gone beyond all worldly concerns.


 


There
is an inherent problem of trying to intermingle religion with politics. The
basis of religion is morality,


purity
and faith, while that for politics is power. In the course of history, religion
has often been used to give


legitimacy
to those in power and their exercise of that power. Religion was used to
justify wars and conquests,


persecutions,
atrocities, rebellions, destruction of works of art and culture.


 


When
religion is used to pander to political whims, it has to forego its high moral
ideals and become debased


by
worldly political demands.


 


The
thrust of the Awakened One’s Dhamma is not directed to the creation of new
political institutions and


establishing
political arrangements. Basically, it seeks to approach the problems of society
by reforming the


individuals
constituting that society and by suggesting some general principles through
which the society can


be
guided towards greater humanism, improved welfare of its members, and more
equitable sharing of


resources.


 


 


There is a limit
to the extent to which a political system can safeguard the happiness and
prosperity of its


people. No
political system, no matter how ideal it may appear to be, can bring about
peace and happiness as


long as the
people in the system are dominated by greed, hatred and delusion. In addition,
no matter what


political system
is adopted, there are certain universal factors which the members of that
society will have to


experience: the
effects of good and bad kamma, the lack of real satisfaction or everlasting
happiness in the


world
characterized by dukkha (unsatisfactoriness), anicca
(impermanence), and anatta (egolessness). To the


Buddhist,
nowhere in Samsara is there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the
world of Brahama.


 


Although a good
and just political system which guarantees basic human rights and contains
checks and


balances to the
use of power is an important condition for a happy in society, people should
not fritter away


their time by
endlessly searching for the ultimate political system where men can be
completely free, because


complete freedom
cannot be found in any system but only in minds which are free. To be free,
people will


have to look
within their own minds and work towards freeing themselves from the chains of
ignorance and


craving. Freedom
in the truest sense is only possible when a person uses Dhamma to develop his
character


through good
speech and action and to train his mind so as to expand his mental potential
and achieve his


ultimate aim of
awaken-ness.


 


While recognizing
the usefulness of separating religion from politics and the limitations of
political systems in


bringing about
peace and happiness, there are several aspects of the Awakened One’s teaching
which have


close
correspondence to the political arrangements of the present day. Firstly, the Awakened
One spoke


about the
equality of all human beings long before Abraham Lincoln, and that classes and
castes are artificial


barriers erected
by society. The only classification of human beings, according to the Awakened
One, is based


on the quality
of their moral conduct. Secondly, the Awakened One encouraged the spirit of
social -co-


operation and
active participation in society. This spirit is actively promoted in the
political process of


modern
societies. Thirdly, since no one was appointed as the Awakened One’s successor,
the members of the


Order were to be
guided by the Dhamma and Vinaya, or in short, the Rule of Law. Until today very
member


of the Order is
to abide by the Rule of Law which governs and guides their conduct.


 


Fourthly, the Awakened
One encouraged the spirit of consultation and the democratic process. This is
shown


within the
community of the Order in which all members have the right to decide on matters
of general


concern. When a
serious question arose demanding attention, the issues were put before the
monks and


discussed in a
manner similar to the democratic parliamentary system used today. This
self-governing


procedure may
come as a surprise to many to learn that in the assemblies of Awakened Ones in
India 2,500


years and more
ago are to be found the rudiments of the parliamentary practice of the present
day. A special


officer similar
to ‘Mr. Speaker’ was appointed to preserve the dignity of the Parliamentary
Chief Whip, was


also appointed
to see if the quorum was secured. Matters were put forward in the form of a
motion which was


open to
discussion. In some cases it was done once, in others three times, thus
anticipating the practice of


Parliament in
requiring that a bill be read a third time before it becomes law. If the
discussion showed a


difference of
opinion, it was to be settled by the vote of the majority through balloting.


 


The Awakened
Ones approach to political power is the moralization and the responsible use of
public power.


The Awakened One
preached non-violence and peace as a universal message. He did not approve of
violence


or the
destruction of life, and declared that there is no such thing as a ‘just’ war.
He taught: ‘The victor


breeds hatred,
the defeated lives in misery. He who renounces both victory and defeat is happy
and peaceful.’


Not only did the
Awakened One teach non-violence and peace, He was perhaps the first and only
religious


teacher who went
to the battlefield personally to prevent the outbreak of a war. He diffused tension
between


the Sakyas and
the Koliyas who were about to wage war over the waters of Rohini. He also
dissuaded King


Ajatasattu from
attacking the Kingdom of the Vajjis.


 


The Awakened One
discussed the importance and the prerequisites of a good government. He showed
how


the country
could become corrupt, degenerate and unhappy when the head of the government
becomes


corrupt and
unjust. He spoke against corruption and how a government should act based on
humanitarian


principles.


 


The Awakened One
once said, ‘When the ruler of a country is just and good, the ministers become
just and


good; when the
ministers are just and good, the higher officials become just and good; when
the higher


officials are
just and good, the rank and file become just and good; when the rank and file
become just and


good, the people
become just and good.’(Anguttara Nikaya)


 


In the Cakkavatti
Sihananda Sutta
, the Awakened One said that immorality and crime, such as
theft,


falsehood,
violence, hatred, cruelty, could arise from poverty. Kings and governments may
try to suppress


crime through
punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes through force.


 


In the Kutadanta
Sutta,
the Awakened One suggested economic development instead of force to
reduce crime.


The government
should use the country’s resources to improve the economic conditions of the
country. It


could embark on
agricultural and rural development, provide financial support to entrepreneurs
and


business,
provide adequate wages for workers to maintain a decent life with human dignity.


 


1)be liberal and
avoid selfishness,



2) maintain a high moral character,



3) be prepared to sacrifice one’s own pleasure for the well-being of the
subjects,



4) be honest and maintain absolute integrity,



5) be kind and gentle,



6) lead a simple life for the subjects to emulate,



7) be free from hatred of any kind,



8) exercise non-violence,



9) practice patience, and



10) respect public opinion to promote peace and harmony


Regarding
the behavior of rulers, He further advised:


 


- A
good ruler should act impartially and should not be biased and discriminate
between one particular


group
of subjects against another.


 


- A
good ruler should not harbor any form of hatred against any of his subjects.


 


- A
good ruler should show no fear whatsoever in the enforcement of the law, if it
is justifiable.


 


- A
good ruler must possess a clear understanding of the law to be enforced. It
should not be enforced just


because
the ruler has the authority to enforce the law. It must be done in a reasonable
manner and with


common
sense. — (Cakkavatti Sihananda Sutta)


 


In the Milinda
Panha,
it is stated: ‘If a man, who is unfit, incompetent, immoral,
improper, unable and


unworthy of
kingship, has enthroned himself a king or a ruler with great authority, he is
subject to be


tortured‚ to be
subject to a variety of punishment by the people, because, being unfit and
unworthy, he has


placed himself
unrighteously in the seat of sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate
and transgress


moral codes and
basic rules of all social laws of mankind, is equally subject to punishment;
and moreover, to


be censured is
the ruler who conducts himself as a robber of the public.’ In a Jataka story,
it is mentioned


that a ruler who
punishes innocent people and does not punish the culprit is not suitable to
rule a country.


 


The king always
improves himself and carefully examines his own conduct in deeds, words and
thoughts,


trying to
discover and listen to public opinion as to whether or not he had been guilty
of any faults and


mistakes in
ruling the kingdom. If it is found that he rules unrighteously, the public will
complain that they


are ruined by
the wicked ruler with unjust treatment, punishment, taxation, or other
oppressions including


corruption of
any kind, and they will react against him in one way or another. On the
contrary, if he rules


righteously they
will bless him: ‘Long live His Majesty.’ (Majjhima Nikaya)


 


The
Awakened One’s emphasis on the moral duty of a ruler to use public
power to improve the welfare of the


people
had inspired Emperor Asoka in the Third Century B.C. to do likewise. Emperor
Asoka, a sparkling


example
of this principle, resolved to live according to and preach the Dhamma and to
serve his subjects and


all
humanity. He declared his non-aggressive intentions to his neighbors, assuring
them of his goodwill and


sending
envoys to distant kings bearing his message of peace and non-aggression. He
promoted the energetic


practice
of the socio-moral virtues of honesty, truthfulness, compassion, benevolence,
non-violence,


considerate
behavior towards all, non-extravagance, non-acquisitiveness, and non-injury to
animals. He


encouraged
religious freedom and mutual respect for each other’s creed. He went on
periodic tours preaching


the
Dhamma to the rural people. He undertook works of public utility, such as
founding of hospitals for men


and
animals, supplying of medicine, planting of roadside trees and groves, digging
of wells, and construction


of
watering sheds and rest houses. He expressly forbade cruelty to animals.


 


Sometimes
the Awakened One is said to be a social reformer. Among other things, He
condemned the caste


system,
recognized the equality of people, spoke on the need to improve socio-economic
conditions,


recognized
the importance of a more equitable distribution of wealth among the rich and
the poor, raised the


status
of women, recommended the incorporation of humanism in government and
administration, and


taught
that a society should not be run by greed but with consideration and compassion
for the people.


Despite
all these, His contribution to mankind is much greater because He took off at a
point which no other


social
reformer before or ever since had done, that is, by going to the deepest roots
of human ill which are


found
in the human mind. It is only in the human mind that true reform can be
effected. Reforms imposed by


force
upon the external world have a very short life because they have no roots. But
those reforms which


spring
as a result of the transformation of man’s inner consciousness remain rooted.
While their branches


spread
outwards, they draw their nourishment from an unfailing source — the
subconscious imperatives of


the
life-stream itself. So reforms come about when men’s minds have prepared the
way for them, and they


live
as long as men revitalize them out of their own love of truth, justice and
their fellow men.


 


The
doctrine preached by the Awakened One is not one based on ‘Political
Philosophy’. Nor is it a doctrine


that
encourages men to worldly pleasures. It sets out a way to attain Nibbana. In
other words, its ultimate


aim is
to put an end to craving (Tanha) that keeps them in bondage to this
world. A stanza from the


Dhammapada
best summarizes this statement: ‘The path that leads to worldly
gain is one, and the path that


leads
to Nibbana(by leading a religious life)is another.’


 


However,
this does not mean that Awakened Ones cannot or should not get involved in the
political process,


which
is a social reality. The lives of the members of a society are shaped by laws
and regulations, economic


arrangements
allowed within a country, institutional arrangements, which are influenced by
the political


arrangements
of that society. Nevertheless, if a Awakened One wishes to be involved in
politics, he should not


misuse
religion to gain political powers, nor is it advisable for those who have
renounced the worldly life to


lead a
pure, religious life to be actively involved in politics.


 


“As
you are, so is the world.”


 


Abiding
by a set of higher ethics makes them anxious that they will be prey to anyone
who is stronger, less


moral,
and capable of using violence without any sense of guilt or remorse. - Dukkha


 


But
Abiding by a set of higher ethics whose basis is compassion for other people
and reverence for life. –


Dukkha
Nirodha


 


Seeking
un-attachment makes people think they will be giving up worldly success and
comfort. Un-attaching


from
materialism has little appeal when people everywhere are pursuing materialism
with every breath. –


Dukkha


 


Becoming
un-attached from the self and realizing that the individual self is an illusion.
- Dukkha Nirodha


 


Pluck
out the seed of illusion, do not feed the mind with new ideals that would
succumb to corruption in the


inexorable
working of time.


 


Aim
for nothing less than an “inner revolution” . Coming in from the cold, people
yearn for this inner


revolution
because there is a hole inside them where god used to be. But in many ways that
god was only an


image.
Most people fail to find what they want from spirituality because they remove
one image of god only to


fill
in another (they even turn Buddha into a god, the very thing he denied).Inner
revolution, opening a path


to
liberation. Nothing less will cure the human disease.


 


If people could see that the human disease is temporary, the
whole world would be transformed. Despite the


burden of past beliefs that underlie a horrific conflict
like the one in the Middle East,
Awakened One’s cure is


taking hold, although we don’t know on what scale. Secular
spirituality forms a separate subculture in every


country where people have begun to seek a new way and a new
set of beliefs. Their way doesn’t have to travel


under the name of Awakened
One
.
The essence is about moving ahead, not about labels. Where the growth of


consciousness is being nourished anywhere in the world, the
following trends are evident:



 


There is no spiritual path that can succeed without
confronting the here and now.
Awakened One wanted us


to be mindful of who were are at this moment because in the
midst of disorder and confusion, which


dominates every moment, there is the seed of Awakened One nature, of awakening.


 


If you notice these seeds and give them value, they will
expand, and in time they will fill the holes of isolation


and meaninglessness. The path is subtle but natural, and
open to everyone. To notice who you are is simple,


not difficult. You can be gentle with yourself. There is no
timetable, no need for rigor or discipline.


 


Your job is to notice that there is light within you,
however small. A small candle is only different from the


blazing sun by a matter of degree. Both are light by nature.
Whatever makes your light grow will serve you.


Meditation will not be a practice set apart in your day; it
will become the normal state of self-awareness, of


being awake instead of asleep. For two thousand years nature
has held the cure for aloneness in its heart.


When you realize yourself as Awakened
One
,
you are still alone, but your aloneness fills every corner of


creation as far as the eye can see.


 


This
society had only adopted such innocuous dogmas like ‘ahimsa’ from Awakened One while
rejecting the


essence
of his philosophy
  of ‘equality’. Ahimsa
is a social structure based on inequality and enslavement of


the
‘Shudra’ and the women, amounted
  to
hinsa and this was sought to be camouflaged by the Hindu


adoption
of Awakened One’s Ahimsa.


 


Bills may include ministers, MPs for
any action outside Parliament, and Group A officers (and equivalent) of


the government.  The bill may
include a sitting prime minister.


 


May include any act of an MP in
respect of a speech or vote in Parliament (which is now protected by Article


105 of the Constitution).  May
include judges.


 


May include all government
officials, while the government bill including junior (below Group A) officials.


 


Bill may include officers of NGOs
who receive government funds or any funds from the public.


 


The bill may have a chairperson and members belonging to
SC/STs OBCs, Minorities and general categories


50% of them having judicial background.Chairperson and Members with any allegations may not be


included in the Lokpal.


 


A search committee mayshortlist potential candidates. The
search committee may have members belonging to


SC/STs OBCs, Minorities and general categories 50% of them having
judicial background.


 


Bill may require the judicial member to be a supreme court
judge or a high court chief justice.  For other


members, the government bill requires at least 25 years
experience in anti-corruption policy, public


administration, vigilance or finance. There must be a
combination of members belonging to SC/STs OBCs,


Minorities and general categories 50% of them having
judicial background.


 


Bill may permit the president to make a reference to the
Supreme Court for an inquiry, followed by removal


if the member is found to be biased or corrupt.  The
reference may be made by the president (a) on his own,


(a) on a petition signed by 100 MPs,or (c) on a petition by
a citizen if the President is then satisfied that it


should be referred.  The President may also remove any
member for insolvency, infirmity of mind or body, or


engaging in paid employment.


 


Bill may deal with offences under the Prevention of
Corruption Act, in addition, may include offences by


public servants under the Indian Penal Code, victimization
of whistleblowers and repeated violation of


citizen’s charter.


 


Bill may provide for an investigation wing under the Lok Pal
and that the CBI will be under the Lok Pal


while investigating corruption cases.


 


Bill may provide for a prosecution wing of the Lok Pal.And
the CBI’s prosecution wing under Lokpal may


conduct this function.


 


The process for prosecution in the bill, the Lok Pal may
initiate prosecution in a special court.  A copy of the


report may be sent to the competent authority.  No
prior sanction is required.  Prosecution of the prime


minister, ministers, MPs and judges of supreme court and
high courts may be initiated as per the


Constitution of India.


 


May deal with grievance redressal of citizens, in addition
to the process for prosecuting corruption


cases. Every public authority may publish citizen’s
charters listing its commitments to citizens. 


 


All the above mentioned points may be included in the bill as
laid in the Constitution of India, since the


Constitution has stood the test of time.


-ooOoo-

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