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September 2012
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19912 Wednesday LESSON 705 Vinaya Pitaka from FREE ONLINE eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org
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19912 Wednesday LESSON 705 Vinaya Pitaka from FREE ONLINE  eNālāndā Research and Practice UNIVERSITY through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org

Vinaya Pitaka

The Vinaya pitaka, which is regarded as the sheet anchor of the Holy
Order, deals mainly with the rules and regulations of the Order of Bhikkhus (monks)
and Bhikkhunis (nuns). For nearly twenty years after the Awakenment
of the Buddha, no definite rules were laid down for control and discipline of
the Sangha (Order). Subsequently as occasion arose, the Buddha
promulgated rules for the future discipline of the Sangha. Reasons for the
promulgation of rules, their various implications, and specific Vinaya
ceremonies of the Sangha are fully described in the Vinaya pitaka. The history
of the gradual development of Sāsana [5]
from its very inception, a brief account of the life and ministry of the
Buddha, and details of the three Councils are some other additional relevant
contents of the Vinaya Pitaka. Indirectly it reveals useful information about
ancient history, Indian customs, ancient arts and sciences. One who reads the
Vinaya Pitaka cannot but be impressed by the democratic constitution of the
Sangha, their holding of possessions in common, the exceptionally high moral
standard of the Bhikkhus, and the unsurpassed administrative abilities of the
Buddha, who anticipated even the present Parliamentary system. Lord Zetland
writes; “And it may come as a surprise to many to learn that in the
Assemblies of the Buddhists in India two thousand years and more ago are to be
found the rudiments of our own Parliamentary practice of the present day. [6]

The Vinaya Pitaka consists of the following five books:

1. Pārājika Pāli


(Major Offences)

2. Pācittiya Pāli

(Minor Offences)

3. Mahāvagga Pāli


(Greater Section)

4. Cullavagga Pāli

(Lesser Section)

5. Parivāra Pāli

(Epitome of the Vinaya)

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the world is to change the nature of man,”that offers Insight to Improve
Conditions for Planet, Inhabitants.

The world needs waves
of reforms.

Generate an opportunity to set the world on a more equitable and sustainable
path of development.
CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART much to offer that
 assert that, “The way to change the world
is to change the nature of man,” offers a critical insight into how to
improve conditions for our planet and its inhabitants.

The spirit to care not just for ourselves but for others, based on an awareness
of our interlinked fates, lies at the heart of CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART - and,
indeed, all of the world’s great religions.

These thoughts challenge families, communities and nations to act in concert
for the advancement of our common well-being. That is the best way to secure
individual and collective progress in an interdependent world.

We must also change longstanding assumptions and open our minds to new ideas
and possible solutions if we are to address major global threats, from the
proliferation of deadly weapons to intolerance and inequality.

We must invite Awaken Ones with Awareness and people of all traditions to use
the occasion to reflect on how we can change our actions to pave the way for a
more sustainable future.

Awakened One with Awareness bequeathed to humanity profound thoughts that can
guide our efforts to resolve the severe problems facing today’s world.

Injunction against the three poisons of greed, anger and ignorance is
especially relevant to multilateral efforts to overcome the hunger that
needlessly affects nearly a billion people in a world of plenty, the brutal
violence that takes millions of lives each year, and the senseless environmental
damage that humans cause to our only home, the planet Earth.

 Socio-economic development may
sound modern, but its core is the very problem of human suffering that was
addressed more than 2,500 years ago.

Numerous Awakened One With Awareness organizations are putting these thoughts
into practice. Their support is for activities to achieve the Millennium
Development Goals, our blueprint for enabling all people to enjoy lives of
dignity and opportunity.

Let us draw on the universal values of Awakened Ones With Awareness to act in
solidarity with those who are suffering, thereby contributing to a more
compassionate and awakened world for all.

provide all people with a minimum income.

Radiation theory sees the economy prospering through the virtuous actions of
individuals following the moral law.

existing political and economic institutions, even while providing a democratic
social ethos revolutionary for its time.

King Asoka, greatest of all Indian emperors, pursued a highly activist fiscal
policy even though he believed only meditation could help people to advance in
moral living.

stress on gift giving.

Income Redistribution in the Ideal State

Through the laws of cause and condition there is a distributive cycle of one’s
current social and economic position is due to one’s good cause and condition
accumulated in the past. This does not mean indifference to the poor, for one’s
economic status is not only dependent on the laws of cause and condition, but
is also complemented by the moral virtues of compassion and generosity.’ Alms
giving to the poor is regarded as increasing one’s merit. The importance of our
active intervention has some important implications for behavior of the
“righteous ruler” as well.

known for the financial aid which they provided for the poor; indeed, the kings
were advised to give their gifts to all who are poor. Moreover, gifts to the
those who practice CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  do not prevent them from providing a refuge
for the destitute or from redistributing such beneficence to the indigent.

Redistribution of income, either through the public or private, sectors, is
certainly regarded in a favorable light. In order to favor the spiritual improvement
of the population, the State is justified in taking steps to provide all people
with a minimum income.

Radiation: Virtue as a Positive Externality

radiation sees the economy prospering through the collective impact of the
virtuous actions of individuals.

since the economy can ultimately prosper only through virtuous action,
ultimately the only hope for prosperity lies in a regeneration of human kind,
e.g., through the cultivation of the Four Sublime Abodes (loving kindness,
compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity). Any appropriate good action
inevitably leads to an increase of the material wealth of the community.

Trade Through the Market

right livelihood prohibits trade in certain goods and services, which means
that all other types of trade are apparently allowed (but not explicitly
approved). In an interesting
comparison between trading and agriculture as means of livelihood, the CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART  also notes that both can
bring high or low returns, depending on the circumstances; however, trading is
an occupation with little to do, few duties, a small administration, and small
problems, while agriculture is the reverse. The capable merchant is approvingly
said to know the value of goods and prices and the profits he obtains; and to
buy where the price is low and to sell where the price is high.

A merchant who was generous to the cause was highly praised for his piety.

competition in general in the sense that it is possible to compete without
hurting others,excel in virtue.

“prizes in the school of life that each may strive for to obtain…. If a
man chooses to interpret this as free competition, it is still competition
without rivalry, for victory to oneself does not mean the defeat of someone

Economic Policies

Description of the origins of property also discusses the origins of the State.
As crime increased after the division of the land, the people elected a king to
maintain law and order, paying him for his troubles. This suggests a type of
social contract theory, which means that the king has important obligations
toward the people.

Some of the discussion about economic policy are traditional Ten Royal Precepts
of Kingship: generosity, morality, liberality, uprightness, gentleness,
self-restraint, non-anger, non-hurtfulness, forbearance, and non-opposition.

However, more practical advice can also be found. For instance, one of the
sources, speaks of the Royal Acts to increase prosperity which include giving
of seed corn and food to farmers and of capital to merchants to start or
increase their business. The particular source emphasizes that if prosperity
increases, economic disorders and crime such as theft decrease.

Additional insight into State economic activities can be gained by examining
the records of some of the “righteous rulers” who are revered by the CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART . It should be noted that because of the participation of the
State in the operations of the irrigation systems in many of these countries,
the crown had a fairly active role in the economy.

The prototypical important righteous ruler was the revered King Asoka (Ashoka)
(ca. 274-232 B.C.E.), the grandson of the founder of the Mauryan dynasty in
indict and one of the greatest of the Indian emperors.2 From Asoka’s edicts it
appears that he generally accepted the economic and political institutions of
his time.

However, he also took as the goal of statecraft the welfare and happiness of
the people. He adopted a highly activist fiscal policy, both with regard to
current and capital expenditures. For instance, he gave gifts to the aged,
other needy, and religious orders; he set up public education courses to teach
the doctrines of Rule of the Law; he cut back on large public festivals; he
imported and planted medicinal herbs; and he carried out various public works
projects such as digging of wells, planting of trees, construction of rest
houses and animal watering stations along main roads in the empire. Some of his
edicts appeared to enforce traditional CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  beliefs, e.g, bans on slaughtering various
animals. The funds spent on the maintenance of the crown and good works were
high, e.g., taxes were apparently about one fourth of the revenue of land.

Still another righteous ruler was King Ruang  who lived in the 14th century
in Thailand, long after the canonical scriptures had been completed. Ruang
stated quite clearly that a righteous king brings prosperity to his subjects.
He apparently had a much less luxurious court or a less activist governmental
expenditure policy than Asoka, since he advised that taxes should be less than
10 percent of the crop (and less in a drought) and that such taxes should never
be higher than those of the preceding king. He also urged that the State
provide interest free loans to those wishing to engage in commerce and that no
profit taxes should be placed upon such commercial activities.

Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ) and Politics
The Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ) had gone beyond all
worldly affairs, but still gave advice on good government.

a warrior caste and was naturally brought into association with kings, princes
and ministers. Despite His origin and association, He never resorted to the
influence of political power to introduce His thoughts nor allowed His Thoughts
to be misused for gaining political power. But today, many politicians try to
drag the CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ’s name into politics by introducing Him as
a communist, capitalist, or even an imperialist. They have forgotten that the
new political philosophy as we know it really developed in the West long after
the CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ’s time. Those who try to make use of the good
name of the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  for their own personal advantage must remember
that the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  was the Supremely Awaken One who had gone
beyond all worldly concerns.

There is an inherent problem of trying to intermingle religion with politics.
The basis of religion is morality, purity and faith, while that for politics is
power. In the course of history, religion has often been used to give
legitimacy to those in power and their exercise of that power. Religion was
used to justify wars and conquests, persecutions, atrocities, rebellions,
destruction of works of art and culture.
When religion is used to pander to political whims, it has to forego its high
moral ideals and become debased by worldly political demands.

The thrust of the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  Rule of Law is not directed to the creation of
new political institutions and establishing political arrangements. Basically,
it seeks to approach the problems of society by reforming the individuals
constituting that society and by suggesting some general principles through
which the society can be guided towards greater humanism, improved welfare of
its members, and more equitable sharing of resources.

There is a limit to the extent to which a political system can safeguard the
happiness and prosperity of its people. No political system, no matter how
ideal it may appear to be, can bring about peace and happiness as long as the
people in the system are dominated by greed, hatred and delusion. In addition,
no matter what political system is adopted, there are certain universal factors
which the members of that society will have to experience: the effects of good
and bad Cause and Condition, the lack of real satisfaction or everlasting
happiness in the world characterized by unsatisfactoriness, impermanence), and
egolessness. To the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART , nowhere in Samsara is
there real freedom, not even in the heavens or the world of Brahama.

Although a good and just political system which guarantees basic human rights
and contains checks and balances to the use of power is an important condition
for a happy in society, people should not fritter away their time by endlessly
searching for the ultimate political system where men can be completely free,
because complete freedom cannot be found in any system but only in minds which
are free. To be free, people will have to look within their own minds and work
towards freeing themselves from the chains of ignorance and craving. Freedom in
the truest sense is only possible when a person uses Rule of Law to develop his
character through good speech and action and to train his mind so as to expand
his mental potential and achieve his ultimate aim of awaken-ness.

While recognizing the usefulness of separating religion from politics and the
limitations of political systems in bringing about peace and happiness, there
are several aspects of the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ’s thoughts which
have close correspondence to the political arrangements of the present day.
Firstly, the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  spoke about the equality of all human beings
long before Abraham Lincoln, and that classes and castes are artificial
barriers erected by society. The only classification of human beings, according
to the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART , is based on the quality of their moral
conduct. Secondly, the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  encouraged the spirit of social -co-operation
and active participation in society. This spirit is actively promoted in the
political process of modern societies. Thirdly, since no one was appointed as
the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ’s successor, the members of the Order were
to be guided by the Rule of Law. Until today very member of the Order is to
abide by the Rule of Law which governs and guides their conduct.

Fourthly, the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  encouraged the spirit of consultation and the
democratic process. This is shown within the community of the Order in which
all members have the right to decide on matters of general concern. When a
serious question arose demanding attention, the issues were put before the
monks and discussed in a manner similar to the democratic parliamentary system
used today. This self-governing procedure may come as a surprise to many to
learn that in the assemblies of  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART s in India
2,500 years and more ago are to be found the rudiments of the parliamentary
practice of the present day. A special officer similar to ‘Mr. Speaker’ was
appointed to preserve the dignity of the Parliamentary Chief Whip, was also
appointed to see if the quorum was secured. Matters were put forward in the
form of a motion which was open to discussion. In some cases it was done once,
in others three times, thus anticipating the practice of Parliament in
requiring that a bill be read a third time before it becomes law. If the
discussion showed a difference of opinion, it was to be settled by the vote of
the majority through balloting.

The  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach to political power is the
moralization and the responsible use of public power. The  CYBERNETIC FAIR
SALE MART  preached non-violence and
peace as a universal message. He did not approve of violence or the destruction
of life, and declared that there is no such thing as a ‘just’ war. He taught:
‘The victor breeds hatred, the defeated lives in misery. He who renounces both
victory and defeat is happy and peaceful.’ Not only did the Buddha teach
non-violence and peace, He was perhaps the first and only religious teacher who
went to the battlefield personally to prevent the outbreak of a war. He
diffused tension between the Sakyas and the Koliyas who were about to wage war
over the waters of Rohini. He also dissuaded King Ajatasattu from attacking the
Kingdom of the Vajjis.

The  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART discussed the importance and the
prerequisites of a good government. He showed how the country could become
corrupt, degenerate and unhappy when the head of the government becomes corrupt
and unjust. He spoke against corruption and how a government should act based
on humanitarian principles.

said, ‘When the ruler of a country is just and good, the ministers become just
and good; when the ministers are just and good, the higher officials become
just and good; when the higher officials are just and good, the rank and file
become just and good; when the rank and file become just and good, the people
become just and good.

that immorality and crime, such as theft, falsehood, violence, hatred, cruelty,
could arise from poverty. Kings and governments may try to suppress crime
through punishment, but it is futile to eradicate crimes through force.

The  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  suggested economic development instead of
force to reduce crime. The government should use the country’s resources to
improve the economic conditions of the country. It could embark on agricultural
and rural development, provide financial support to entrepreneurs and business,
provide adequate wages for workers to maintain a decent life with human

gtiven to rules for Good Government.  These ten rules can be applied even
today by any government which wishes to rule the country peacefully. The rules
are as follows:

1) be liberal and avoid selfishness,
2) maintain a high
moral character,

3) be prepared to sacrifice
own pleasure for the well-being of the subjects,

4) be honest and maintain absolute

5) be kind and gentle,
6) lead a simple life for the subjects to emulate,
7) be free from hatred of any kind,8) exercise
9) practice patience,
10) respect public opinion to
promote peace and harmony.

Regarding the behavior of rulers, He further advised:

- A good ruler should act impartially and should not be biased and discriminate
between one particular group of subjects against another.

- A good ruler should not harbor any form of hatred against any of his

- A good ruler should show no fear whatsoever in the enforcement of the law, if
it is justifiable.

- A good ruler must possess a clear understanding of the law to be enforced. It
should not be enforced just because the ruler has the authority to enforce the
law. It must be done in a reasonable manner and with common sense.

‘If a man, who is unfit, incompetent, immoral, improper, unable and unworthy of
kingship, has enthroned himself a king or a ruler with great authority, he is
subject to be tortured‚ to be subject to a variety of punishment by the people,
because, being unfit and unworthy, he has placed himself unrighteously in the
seat of sovereignty. The ruler, like others who violate and transgress moral
codes and basic rules of all social laws of mankind, is equally subject to
punishment; and moreover, to be censured is the ruler who conducts himself as a
robber of the public. It is mentioned that a ruler who punishes innocent people
and does not punish the culprit is not suitable to rule a country.

The king always improves himself and carefully examines his own conduct in
deeds, words and thoughts, trying to discover and listen to public opinion as
to whether or not he had been guilty of any faults and mistakes in ruling the
kingdom. If it is found that he rules unrighteously, the public will complain
that they are ruined by the wicked ruler with unjust treatment, punishment,
taxation, or other oppressions including corruption of any kind, and they will
react against him in one way or another. On the contrary, if he rules
righteously they will bless him: ‘Long live His Majesty.’ (Majjhima Nikaya)

The CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ’s emphasis on the moral duty of a ruler to use
public power to improve the welfare of the people had inspired Emperor Asoka in
the Third Century B.C. to do likewise. Emperor Asoka, a sparkling example of
this principle, resolved to live according to and preach the Rule of Law and to
serve his subjects and all humanity. He declared his non-aggressive intentions
to his neighbors, assuring them of his goodwill and sending envoys to distant
kings bearing his message of peace and non-aggression. He promoted the
energetic practice of the socio-moral virtues of honesty, truthfulness, compassion,
benevolence, non-violence, considerate behavior towards all, non-extravagance,
non-acquisitiveness, and non-injury to animals. He encouraged religious freedom
and mutual respect for each other’s creed. He went on periodic tours preaching
the Rule of Law to the rural people. He undertook works of public utility, such
as founding of hospitals for men and animals, supplying of medicine, planting
of roadside trees and groves, digging of wells, and construction of watering
sheds and rest houses. He expressly forbade cruelty to animals.

Sometimes the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  is said to be a social reformer. Among other
things, He condemned the caste system, recognized the equality of people, spoke
on the need to improve socio-economic conditions, recognized the importance of
a more equitable distribution of wealth among the rich and the poor, raised the
status of women, recommended the incorporation of humanism in government and
administration, and taught that a society should not be run by greed but with
consideration and compassion for the people. Despite all these, His
contribution to mankind is much greater because He took off at a point which no
other social reformer before or ever since had done, that is, by going to the
deepest roots of human ill which are found in the human mind. It is only in the
human mind that true reform can be effected. Reforms imposed by force upon the
external world have a very short life because they have no roots. But those
reforms which spring as a result of the transformation of man’s inner consciousness
remain rooted. While their branches spread outwards, they draw their
nourishment from an unfailing source — the subconscious imperatives of the
life-stream itself. So reforms come about when men’s minds have prepared the
way for them, and they live as long as men revitalize them out of their own
love of truth, justice and their fellow men.

The doctrine preached by the  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  is not one based on ‘Political Philosophy’.
Nor is it a doctrine that encourages men to worldly pleasures. It sets out a
way to attain Eternal Bliss. In other words, its ultimate aim is to put an end
to craving  that keeps them in bondage to this world.’The path that leads
to worldly gain is one, and the path that leads to Eternal Bliss (by leading a
religious life)is another.’

However, this does not mean that  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART s cannot or
should not get involved in the political process, which is a social reality.
The lives of the members of a society are shaped by laws and regulations,
economic arrangements allowed within a country, institutional arrangements,
which are influenced by the political arrangements of that society.
Nevertheless, if a  CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART wishes to be involved in
politics, he should not misuse religion to gain political powers, nor is it
advisable for those who have renounced the worldly life to lead a pure,
religious life to be actively involved in politics.

Putting Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ) to Work:

A New Approach to Management and Business

Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ) Economics: The Emerging
Middle Path between Capitalism and Socialism.

A novel approach to economic management that goes beyond socialism and
capitalism. The proposed economics for the 21st century is ‘Awaken One with
Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ) Economics’.

Based on the insight of the Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE
MART ) that spiritual liberation is attained by avoiding extremes, whether by
indulgence in worldly pleasures or severe asceticism, and treading namely ‘ the
Middle Way ‘,  ‘Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART )
Economics ‘ is recommended as the ideal middle path between the competing
models of capitalism and socialism. Both these systems, have failed to contain
the relentless destruction of the natural environment and the human community,
thereby forcing leading executives and planners to search for new solutions for
planetary problems.

Best aspects of both capitalist and socialist economic systems is drawn
in  ‘ Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ) Economics ‘
model. It supports the conventional forces of a free market and competition
without destroying either nature or human society. Alternate vision of
sustainable economics is meant to be more just and more ecologically sound.

Inspired by the fundamental CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  insight of the inter-connectedness existing
among all living things, that CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART , Economics and Ecology
are all inter-related. There is a heavy emphasis on the concept of freedom as
understood in CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  in contrast to the Western concept of
‘freedom’. In the West ‘freedom’ revolves around the rights of the individual
i.e. freedom to do what one wishes. In CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART , ‘freedom’
means freedom from personal desires or attachments.

economics requires an understanding that economics and a moral and spiritual
life are neither separate nor mutually exclusive. The 20th Century has been
ravaged by a materialistic, self-centered consumerism. The next century needs
to focus on the quality and spirituality of life itself. CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE
MART , which advocates the ‘Middle Path’, serves as an important resource to
pursue an alternative to the extremes of capitalism and socialism, or pure
self-interest and utter self-negation.

The Essence of Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ) Economics

Three key phrases are identified that underlie the model of Awaken One with
Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ) Economics.
They are:

1) an economics that benefits oneself and others

2) an economics of tolerance and peace

3) an economics that can save the earth.

An Economics that benefits oneself and others

Theory of free enterprise based on the concept of self-benefit is developed.
This led to people being more concerned with enriching themselves and
disregarding the interests of others. At the international level, major
colonial powers such as England, Netherlands, France, Portugal and Spain
developed their economies from the resources taken from other poorer regions,
without an adequate resulting benefit accruing to the colonies. In contrast,
the earlier CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  societies such as India during the time of the
during the time of Prince Shotuku ( 574 - 622 AD ) existed with a radically
different social approach. In Japanese society where the density of population
was high, human relations were tightly interwoven, and Japanese people were
encouraged to pay great attention to how other people thought or reacted. In
the Japanese world of business, earning the trust of others and entering into
mutually beneficial transactions have always been given priority. Such conduct
was the result of deep-seated CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  influence.

The Western obsession with ’self-benefit ‘ and indifference to the rights of
non-European people has been well analysed by former Indian diplomat
K.M.Panikkar in his ground breaking book ‘Asia and Western Domination - A
Survey of the Vasco De Gama Epoch of Asian History 1498 - 1945, published in
1953. Panikkar says that western colonial powers were reluctant to recognise
that doctrines of international law applied outside Europe or that European
nations had any moral obligations when dealing with Asian people. For example,
when Britain insisted on the opium trade against the laws of China in the 19th
Century, there was a prohibition by law on opium smoking in England. In
countries under direct British occupation eg. India, Ceylon and Burma, though
there were equal rights established by law, there was considerable reservation
in enforcing the law against Europeans. Maurice Collis, a British magistrate in
Burma, gives a rare candid account in his book ‘Trials in Burma’ ( 1938 ) about
the pressures brought upon him by the members of the Colonial Government and
the British expatriate community, to be partial towards Europeans in his
judgments. Panikkar avers that this doctrine of different rights (which made a
mockery of the concept of the Rule of Law) persisted to the very end of western
colonial domination and was a prime cause of Europe’s ultimate failure in Asia.

An Economics of Tolerance and Peace

The Indian Emperor Asoka established the world’s first welfare state in the
third century BC upon embracing CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach. He renounced the idea of conquest by
the sword. In contrast to the western concept of ‘ Rule of Law ‘, Asoka
embarked upon a ‘policy of piety or rule of righteousness’. The basic
assumption of this policy of piety was that the ruler who serves as a moral
model would be more effective than one who rules purely by strict law
enforcement. The right method of governing is not only by legislation and law
enforcement, but also by promoting the moral education of the people. Asoka
began by issuing edicts concerning the ideas and practice of Rule of Law,
dealing with universal law and social order. Realizing that poverty eroded the
social fabric, one of his first acts was to fund social welfare and other
public projects. Asoka’s ideals involved promoting policies for the benefit of
everyone in society, treating all his subjects as if they were his children and
protecting religion. He built hospitals, animal welfare shelters and enforced a
ban on owning slaves and killing. He gave recognition to animal rights in a
number of his rock edicts and accepted state responsibility for the protection
of animals. Animal sacrifice was forbidden by law.

An important aspect of Asoka’s economics of peace was tolerance. In one of his
rock edicts, Asoka calls for religious freedom and tolerance, and declares that
by respecting someone else’s religion, one brings credit to one’s own religion.
The idea of religious tolerance only emerged in the West in 1689 with the
publication of John Locke’s book ‘ A Letter Concerning Toleration ‘.

From a CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  perspective, politics can be summed up by the
wheel turner, which means a king or political ruler who protects his people and
the CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART t teachings. Asoka was the prototype of this
ruler whose political ideas were to inspire a countless number of other Asian
Emperors and rulers. One enthusiastic follower of Asoka in Japan was Prince
Shotuku. (574 - 622 AD ). An ardent believer in CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach, Shotukti drafted a 17 Article
Constitution (the first CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach Constitution of Japan), which was
promulgated in 604 AD. Shotuku appeals neither to ’self-evident truths ‘ (as in
the American Constitution ) nor to some divine right of kings as the basis of
law. Instead he begins pragmatically by stating that if society is to work
efficiently for the good of all, then people must restrain factionalism and
learn to work together. A key feature of this Constitution is the emphasis
placed on resolving differences by appeals to harmony and common good, using
the procedure of consensus. This approach is in marked contrast to the western
view that factions can be controlled only legally by a balance of powers.
Decision making by consensus is a significant characteristic of Japanese
society. Every effort is made to ensure that minority dissident factions are
not allowed to lose face.

The influence of CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach in Japan was such that in 792 AD
Emperor Kammu (781 - 806 AD) despite constant threats from Korea, abolished the
100 year old national army, except for one regiment to guard the region near
Korea. National security was maintained by sons of local clan leaders somewhat
similar to the present day police. Japan was effectively without an army until
the emergence of the new warrior class before the Kamakura, Shogunate (1192 -
1333 AD). Tibet is another example of demilitarisation (in the 17th century).
What is significant to note here is that long before the ideal of demilitarisation
was espoused in western countries, ancient Buddhist countries had already
implemented it. In Japan, beginning from the 9th century, the death penalty was
abolished for nearly three and a
half centuries.

An Economics to save the Earth

The practice of industrial societies indulging in a policy of take-and-take
from nature is criticized, despite economics being fundamentally about exchange
or give-and-take.A possible root cause of the western attitude towards nature.
This passage declares:
“So God created man in his own image, in the image created he him, male
and female created he them. And God blessed them, and God said unto them,
“Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth and subdue it, and have
dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every
living thing that moveth upon the earth”.

Some have interpreted this passage literally, as one giving divine sanction to
domination of the earth for the benefit of only human beings and disregarding
the interests of both plants and other living creatures of this world. In
contrast, CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach sacred texts are much more humble and
always emphasise the need to live in harmony with nature and peacefully
co-exist with other living creatures, as the ideal and noble way. In the CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART  approach worldview,
humans rather being masters of this earth, simply make up one tiny element in a
vast cosmos. In the CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach Economics that proposes, the earth
rather than human beings will be placed at the center of our worldview.

History of Economics

The major ideas in the theories of prominent economists such as Adam Smith
(1723 - 1790), David Ricardo (1772 - 1823), Karl, Marx (1818 - 1883), John
Keynes (1883 - 1946) Joan Robinson (1903 - 1983) and the German Economists
Friedrich von Hayek (1899 - 1992), Wilhelm Lopke (1899 - 1966) and Ludwig
Erhard (1897 - 1977) is examined.Lopke’s best-selling book ‘ Civitas Humanas
(Human Citizen) published in 1949 as laying the foundation for the new
humanistic school of economics is singled out.The concept of `social market
economics’ advocated by Ludwig Erhard in his 1957 book ‘Woffistand fur Alles
(Happiness for All ) as the precedent for developing the new CYBERNETIC FAIR
SALE MART  approach Economics is used.
Erhard called for the need to overcome the inherent tensions between the haves
and have-nots in society, through such governmental policies as the banning of
cartels, using government ‘price valuation’ to ensure fair pricing, rent
control and supporting people with disabilities.

Dr. E.F Schumacher’s book ‘Small is Beautiful’, which has a chapter on CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART  approach Economics is an
inspiration. Schumacher was heavily influenced by CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach meditation and wisdom during his time
in Myanmar (formerly Burma). Though Schumacher recommended a new approach to
economics based on CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach, that Schumacher’s ultimate solutions
were sought in Christian oriented ethics. Nevertheless, that Schumacher’s book
should serve as a wake up call for those living in CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approacht countries. He further says that
given the destruction of the natural environment that has taken place in the
industrial West, the time has come to use a


Historical Background of Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART )
The life story of the CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  offers a valuable lesson when focusing on CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART  approach economics. The
Prince rejected the material comforts of a royal life, and also realised the
futility of asceticism and denial of natural physical needs. ‘’The CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART  walked a fine line
between materialism and denial of the world, and this middle way or moderate
standpoint is fundamental to understanding CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  Economics’.

The ordinary public and the merchant class supported CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach from the very outset. As CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART  approach moved eastwards
over the centuries, to China, Korea and Japan it absorbed elements of the
culture of these countries and became transformed along the way. It also
managed to transform the societies and economies of these countries by
introducing ethical concepts into the pursuit of profit. In Japanese history
there has been substantial CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach support of commerce, which had come
to fruition during the Edo period (1603 - 1867). This period witnessed an
explosion of economic activity. Some sociologists have found interesting
parallels in the connections between the Protestant work ethic and capitalism,
and between the rise of Japanese Capitalism and the religious thought of the

Unrestrained Consumption

The world’s natural resources would be depleted if two factors are not
immediately addressed:

1) the ever increasing population growth, and

2) the mismanagement of desire ( particularly of
those people in the so-called advanced countries)

In the Ryoan-ji, the CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  Temple of Kyoto, famous for its stone and sand
garden, there is a poem carved on a stone, which says ‘ Know what one really
needs ‘. This is no simple injunction. To know what one really needs in life
requires great wisdom. But to have the strength to say ‘no’ to the unessential
products in life would release a person from the coils of consumption. This
view i.e. of wanting what is really essential reflects the CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE
MART  approach view of consumption and it
is the ideal attitude to be promoted in the coming century.

Right Livelihood

Right livelihood is one of the components of the Noble Eightfold Path. Its
importance lies in the fact that the work one does for a living influences a
person’s thinking. The CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  has named five types of occupations as
unwholesome ways of earning a living. They are 1) Selling liquor or being
connected with the production and sale of liquor 2) Sale of flesh or being
connected with the raising and killing of animals 3) Poison (includes drugs) 4)
Trading in living beings (includes slavery or for similar purposes) 5)
Dangerous weapons.

The layman’s code of discipline or gihi vinaya  is the premise for
developing the right work ethic for the next century. In one passage CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART  says “One should
work like a bee to earn one’s livelihood. Do not wait for others to help, nor
depend on others foolishly”.CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  showed his concern for the material welfare
and the spiritual development of his lay disciples. In the discourse to young
Sigala, the CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  explained the full range of duties owed by a
layman to all those with whom he interacts. The CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  also indicated how wealth has to be spent i.e.
one portion for one’s needs, which includes offerings to Order of CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART  and charity, two portions
on investment and the fourth portion to be kept for an emergency.

Japanese entrepreneurs who had incorporated CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  principles and meditation techniques in their
day to day work in an effort to develop a more humanistic and environmentalist
business ethic.

Awaken One with Awareness (CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART ) Economic Vision

Provides food for thought to anyone wishing to adopt an innovative approach to
Management and Business. However the greatest appeal of this highly readable
book lies in the elaborate development of Schumacher’s profound insight that
there is another way of approaching economics, based on the ideas taught in the
East 2500 years ago, particularly of the fundamental interconnectedness of
people and nature. It is upon this premise that the world can shift from a
throw-away culture to a more sustainable* civilisation. This work also throws a
challenge to governments in CYBERNETIC FAIR SALE MART  approach countries to develop a CYBERNETIC
FAIR SALE MART  economic vision as a part
of national planning, as we move towards a new millennium.

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