Analytic Insight Net - FREE Online Tipiṭaka Research & Practice Universitu 
in
 112 CLASSICAL LANGUAGES
Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
Categories:

Archives:
Meta:
December 2016
M T W T F S S
« Nov   Jan »
 1234
567891011
12131415161718
19202122232425
262728293031  
12/23/16
2087 Sat 24 Dec 2016 LESSONS from Rector JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan of Free Online Buddhism - World Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506Awaken One With Awareness Mind (A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things) - the art of Giving, taking and Living to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM). Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by Start using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF. Practice Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing, lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for health mind in a healthy body. from INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF) https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up free online university research practice up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/ email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card modinotourpm@gmail.com jchandra1942@icloud.com sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal BSP is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies (sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay. http://indianexpress.com/…/uttar-pradesh-opppsition-forces…/ Uttar Pradesh: Opppsition forces adjournment over ‘poor’ law and order http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/modi-demonetis…/1/841741.html Approaching deadline: What happens after Murderer of democratic institutions(Mod’s 50-day promise to eradicate black money from India https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyZ2pTNmd4cjQ3anM/vie Electronic Voting Systems: the Good, the Bad, and the Stupid
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 9:48 pm



2087 Sat 24 Dec 2016


LESSONS


from

Rector
JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart

an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan
of


Free Online
Buddhism - World

Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506
Awaken One With Awareness Mind
(A1wAM)
+ ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss
as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on
Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic
Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM).


Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by

Start
using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use
of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru
FOA1TRPUVF.

Practice
Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,
lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for
health mind in a healthy body.



 from

INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)

https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up


free online university research practice









up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/












email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card


modinotourpm@gmail.com
jchandra1942@icloud.com
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in



is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages.


Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and

to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal

BSP
is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies
(sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay.

http://indianexpress.com/…/uttar-pradesh-opppsition-forces…/

Uttar Pradesh: Opppsition forces adjournment over ‘poor’ law and order

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/modi-demonetis…/1/841741.html


Approaching deadline: What happens after Murderer of democratic
institutions(Mod’s 50-day promise to eradicate black money from India

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyZ2pTNmd4cjQ3anM/vie


Electronic Voting Systems: the Good, the Bad, and the Stupid


http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif


http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

http://indianexpress.com/…/uttar-pradesh-opppsition-forces…/

Uttar Pradesh: Opppsition forces adjournment over ‘poor’ law and order


BSP members demanded that the Chairman immediately initiate a
discussion on law and order arguing that the situation in the state had
worsened. Chairman Ramesh Yadav asked BSP members to raise their issues
during Zero Hour but, when members did not relent, he adjourned the
House.

When the House resumed, BSP members sought adjournment for
discussion on the alleged murder of one Nasir Khan in Meerut on
December 9. After a reply from Leader of the House Ahmed Hasan, the
chairman rejected the adjournment and directed the government for
necessary action. However, BSP members again demanded a discussion on
the matter. Meanwhile, SP member Shatrudra Prakash raised a point of
order over Siddiqui’s speech, to which BSP members objected, and trooped
into the well and raised slogans. The chairman then adjourned the House
upto 3.30 pm.

When the house met again, it was adjourned sine die.



http://www.india.com/…/uttar-pradesh-governments-assent-to…/

Mayawati slams Akhilesh Yadav, says Uttar Pradesh government’s assent to include 17 castes in Schedule Caste mere drama


UP Cabinet’s assent for inclusion of 17 OBCs in SC list is a mere drama
played just before the Assembly elections in the state, Mayawati said,
adding this decision is both unfortunate and condemnable, aimed at
deceiving these castes.

Lucknow,
Dec 22: BSP supremo Mayawati on Thursday terming the Akhilesh Yadav
government’s assent to include 17 Other Backward Castes in the SC list
as a “mere drama” said the decision is both “unfortunate and
condemnable” and aimed at deceiving these communities. “After having
neglected all the backward castes barring one in the past five years of
its rule, the SP government is out to mislead them in the same vein as
was done by the then Mulayam Singh Yadav government,” she said in a
statement.

UP Cabinet’s assent for inclusion of 17 OBCs in SC
list is a mere drama played just before the Assembly elections in the
state, Mayawati said, adding this decision is both unfortunate and
condemnable, aimed at deceiving these castes. This decision is against
the law as it is only the Central government which can include any caste
in the SC list, she said, adding after Mulayam government’s decision on
this issue, these castes were left in the lurch for they then belonged
neither in the OBC nor in the SC list.

She claimed that it was
the BSP government that succeeded the Mulayam Singh Yadav government
which reverted the decision bringing the castes back in the backward
list and sent a proposal to the Centre for inclusion only on condition
of increasing the quota of the SC. This decision has been taken in
perhaps the last Cabinet meeting of this government, Mayawati remarked. A
Cabinet meeting presided over by Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav this
morning cleared the proposal to include Kahar, Kashyap, Kewat, Nishad,
Bind, Bhar, Prajapati, Rajbhar, Batham, Gaur, Tura, Majhi, Mallah,
Kumhar, Dheemar and Machua sub-castes in the Scheduled Caste categor


http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/modi-demonetis…/1/841741.html


Approaching deadline: What happens after Murderer of democratic
institutions(Mod’s 50-day promise to eradicate black money from India


Deaths and scarcity of new notes among other inconveniences faced by
people were reported following the demonetisation move. After 50 days of
note ban, what will become of India is what we all have been thinking
about.

The hands of the clock ticking showed it was 8 in the
evening. The stage was set and people were glued to their television
sets, reminding a scene from the past when Chitrahaar on Doordarshan
vacated roads.

Instead of old Bollywood songs, Modi appeared and
made an announcement. In five minutes, the world’s largest democracy was
running blind. Once a legal tender, Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 notes, which
made up 86 per cent of India’s cash economy, were rendered impotent.
Cutting the long story short, Modi asked for 50 days to transform our
nation into a corruption-free economy.

Along with a bureaucrat –
Hasmukh Adhia — who served as Modi’s principal secretary when Modi was
Gujarat’s chief minister, and with a special team of trusted
researchers, Modi came out with a plan to demonetise Rs 500 and Rs 1,000
notes to bring out black money from the ’shadow economy’ of the
country.

The move drew global attention. The demonetisation
drive was condemned by even more. Banks started to slog, cash counters
and ATM queues clogged up with people, all reaching for an epilogue,
which was to come after 50 days since November 8, 2016, when Modi’s
demonetisation drive was put in the first gear.

Amid countless
media reports — reports of people losing their lives standing in long
queues because of Modi’s QUEUE INDIA MOVEMENT bank employees dying due
to work overload, income tax raids seizing close to Rs 230 crore in new
currency, the bane — was a question. ‘What happens after 50 days?’

Modi under note ban ordered a withdrawal of more than 2,200 crore notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 denominations, as per estimates.


Out of Rs 16 lakh crore, which was part of our cash-based economy, a
staggering 86 per cent of the cash in our country, which is Rs 14.18
lakh crore worth of notes, was discontinued. This cash includes both the
legitimate money of taxpayers, and cash with black money hoarders.


The residual currency amounted to Rs 2.2 lakh crore, which was the
remaining 14 per cent of the cash-based economy out of 86 per cent.


After the withdrawal of old notes from the country, RBI started to
print new notes of Rs 500 and Rs 2,000. An amount equal to Rs 1.5 lakh
crore worth of new notes was printed which supplemented the Rs 2.2 lakh
crore of the residual currency (other than Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 notes)
already in circulation.

A November 25, 2016 research report by
Credit Suisse suggests that new notes worth only Rs 1.5 lakh crore have
come into circulation so far.

According to another media report,
for RBI, it could take several months to fill the hole left behind, by
the withdrawal of notes worth Rs 14.18 lakh crore.

“To meet the
new currency demand, industry estimates indicate that the RBI has
already been able to print Rs 3 lakh crore worth of new currency.
However, these notes being high value and with remaining currency which
is less that 15 per cent of the total currency, they are unable to
provide enough liquidity to transact,” an Indian Express said.


According to an IndiaToday business expert, to fill the gap in the
economy, 3.5 billion notes of Rs 2,000 were to be printed, for which it
takes close to three months. Out of that, 1.5 billion Rs 2,000 notes
have been printed.

For Rs 500 notes, 16 billion pieces were to be
printed for the hole in the economy to be filled, and out of that, 7
billion notes worth Rs 500 have been printed.

Taking into
consideration the withdrawal limits till December 30, once the
limitations receive relaxation, the demand for new currency will go up.


“The requirement of notes could be higher if normal demand for currency
picks up as and when the government relaxes withdrawal limits and more
ATMs become operational,” the Credit Suisse report said.

WHAT HAPPENS AFTER 50 DAYS - HAPPY NEW YEAR


Experts are of the view that the pace at which Reserve Bank of India is
working, the situation can continue to be the same, up until March or
April of 2017.

“It is possible that the circulation normalises
before January 2017 but for that the presses would need to operate at
more than 150 per cent capacity utilisation, which might be physically
improbables¦,” the Credit Suisse report said.

According to an
Indian Express report, ICICI Securities estimates, that the cash crunch
might go on for longer than promised, even if Modi works at its 100 per
cent capacity to fill the void, and the same report also suggests that
‘normalcy might not be restored until March of 2017′.

DEMONETISATION HURTING WHERE IT HURTS THE MOST


In the past, countless reports have stated the misery of farmers in
India. With prices in a free-fall due to demonetisation, small farmers
have seen their produce suffer, as many failed to get a legitimate price
for the same.

The cash crunch compelled many farmers and farm
traders to experience the scarcity of cash, which led to a chaos in the
business and trade.

In December 2016, Chhattisgarh farmers
crushed their produce under trucks after getting 50 paise a kilo for
their yield. In another IndiaToday report, onion farmers dumped their
produce when they received a mere 50 paise a kilo for their onions.


Modi’s demonetisation drive started with crackdown against black money
hoarders, which soon turned into action against terrorism, which later
was termed an initiative towards making India a cashless economy.

This particular move gave e-commerce a spike in their business.


On the other hand, many have been speculating that India is not yet
ready for a cashless future where poor internet penetration and
networking infrastructure will hold India back, as a majority of the
people still don’t posses debit cards or credits cards in the country.


India’s cyber security is a big issue as in the past. And that’s just
social media under threat and not how big the impact of rogue hacking
will be, if it comes to online transactions, especially in a nation
where rural population has no clue of online payments whatsoever.


The stats and figures in the story give a close idea of what has been
up with the economy of India post Modi’s demonetisation drive.

There have been several incidents which prove that India’s currency-ban decision has made people suffer.


The move has received serious criticism with the latest coming from
Chief Executive of Forbes who called Modi’s demonetisation drive an
‘immoral theft of people’s property’.


Narendra
Modi on November 8 announced a nationwide currency ban. Asking for 50
days to transform our country, now the date is near which will decide
the fate of the…
indiatoday.intoday.in

http://nationalinterest.org/…/washington-watching-the-5-dea…

http://www.assam123.com/america-enlisted-rss-one-biggest-t…/

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/…/One-village-one-one-crematoriu…


Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) is a non-entity which do not believe in
our Modern Constitution but in a stealth, shadowy discriminating
hindutva cult rashtra. Their leaders are not elected in a democratic
manner but are selected among the inner circle of just 1% intolerant,
shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, cannibal psychopath
chitpawan brahmins who believe in brahmins as 1st rate athmas,
kshatriyas as 2nd rate, vysias as 3rd rate, shudhras as 4th rate souls
and the aboriginal panchamas (SC/STs0 have no soul, so that they cand
commit any crime on them. But the Buddha never believed in any soul. He
said all are equal. Hence Babasaheb returned back with millions of
people back to their original home Buddhism. According to the Architect
of the Modern Constitution Dr BR Ambedkar, irrespect of caste,
religion, creed and colour anyone can acquire education and not just the
brahmins as per manuvad, Anyone can rule this country unlike the
kashatrias as per manu. Anyone can do trade and business unlike vysias
as per manuvad. As mer manu women has no right like the men. But the
modern constitution made provisions for women even to become rulers. Ex
Indira gandhi, Jayalilita, Mamata Banerji etc., But for Dr Ambedkar they
would have not been recognised. Irrespect of caste and religion
Devegowda etc., would have not become the PM of this country.

This is intolerated by RSS which is opposed to reservation.

http://www.assam123.com/america-enlisted-rss-one-biggest-t…/

RSS is one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisations in the World. They are
Mad Horrorists threat group - shadowy, stealth and discriminatory group
trying to establish hindutva cult.

New Delhi: A US-based risk management and consulting company has put the
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) because RSS is killing so many people
and bombing and cutting of people and using suicide bombing techniques
and raping and honor killing women … it all happened in Gujrat and
happening in parts of the country.. Go get a life and become a Hindu
mr…. What is it? the one who have at least common sense, do u think he
or she become hindu? do u think that? Most of the people in the world
becoming muslim without any pressure, force or demand… think about
that…. See that RSS gentleman who studied about islam to oppose them and
became a muslim…. use your common sense and refrain from your bad
thoughts and paths.�They will have the end.. Rss have to be banned in
india with its.. hindhuthuva branches.. in south tamilnadu.. this rss
and hindhutva terrorist and Horrorist gang made problem to the people
who celebrating new year of 2015 night..

Increasing threats to the democratic-secular Indian polity from the Hindutva
organizations - a concise document on the anti-national game-plan of the
RSS.

Hence this technological game of 1% Chitpawan RSS plan has to be defeated by
strengthening the 99% intellectuals by exposing the fradulent EVMs as
done by 80 democracies of the world in the larger interest of Sarvajan
Hitaye Sarvajan Sukhaye i.e., for the peace, happiness and welfare of
all societies including SC/STs/ OBCs/ Minorities and the poor brahmins
and baniyas for distributing the wealth of this country among all
sections of the society as enshrined in the Constitution by making the
Supreme Court to pass orders to replace all fradulent EVMs and till such
time to scrap all elections conducted by these fradulent EVMs and then
to conduct elections with tamper proof voting system to save democracy,
equality, fraternity and liberty.

RSS means Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks in a non -entity undemocratic organisation
with all its 40 avathars VHP (Visha Hindutva Psychopaths), BJP (Bahuth
Jiyadha Psychopaths), BMS (Bhramin Masdoor Sangh), ABVP (All Brahmin
Venomous Psychopaths), Bhajan Dal, Terrorist Sanstha Sangatan, eic.,
that become active during all elections for the greed of power for
Murderer of democratic instituitions (Modi) who is just a meant time
stooge of the 1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching,
lunatic, mentally retarded cannibal chitpawan brahmin psychopaths who
always keep heckling and giggling like mad people thinking that they are
great achievers.Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) and all its
associate avathars are shani and peda of the nation which is eclipsing
the development and progress as enshrined in the modern Constitution
whose architect is Dr BR Ambedkar.

After gobbling the MASTER KEY by tampering the fraud EVMs for Murderer of
democratic institutions (Modi) remotely controlled by RSS meaning
Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks, a non -entity undemocratic organisation with all
its 40 avathars VHP (Visha Hindutva Psychopaths), BJP (Bahuth Jiyadha
Psychopaths), BMS (Bhramin Masdoor Sangh), ABVP (All Brahmin Venomous
Psychopaths), Bhajan Dal, Terrorist Sanstha Sangatan, eic., that become
active during all elections for the greed of power for Murderer of
democratic instituitions (Modi) who is just a meant time stooge of the
1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally
retarded cannibal chitpawan brahmin psychopaths who always keep heckling
and giggling like mad people thinking that they are great achievers.

They are Shani and Pedal of the nation trying to bury the
Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement
and the teachings of the Awaken One with Awareness without knowing that
they are seeds that keep sprouting as Bodhi Trees.

If all the fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots they will not even get 1% of the votes.

Only Ms Mayawati’s BSP which got majority of the seats in UP Panchayat
Elections with these paper ballots will the not only become the CM of UP
but also the next PM of Prabuddha Bharath.

RSS’s Mohan Bhagwat,Bhaiyyaji Joshi and 41 regional pracharaks are all drop
outs including Mohan Agarwal.Also Ram Lal and Ram Madhav,Rajnath Singh
and Amit Shahlike doubtful education of Murderer of democratic
institutions (Modi).

Caste by caste, BSP fields ‘bhaichara coordinators’

Satish Chandra Misra, the BSP’s Brahmin face, has been assigned the reserved seats in
eastern UP, central UP and Bundelkhand, and MLA Ramvir Upadhyay the
reserved seats of western UP.

The BSP has fielded some of its most prominent non-SC/ST leaders to
reach out to the communities they represent. Ahead of the UP elections,
the BSP has assigned specific regions to these bhaichara coordinators.

Satish Chandra Misra, the BSP’s Brahmin face, has been assigned the
reserved seats in eastern UP, central UP and Bundelkhand, and MLA Ramvir
Upadhyay the reserved seats of western UP. Misra addressed a rally in
Gorakhpur’s Khajani Sunday, with BSP candidates from seven reserved
seats attending. Statewide, Misra will be assisted by other Brahmin
leaders including his son-in-law Paresh and former MLC Gopal Narain
Mishra.

For Muslims, the BSP has chosen party general secretary Naseemuddin
Siddiqui for western UP where he is addressing meetings, Rajya Sabha MP
Munquad Ali for Varanasi, Allahabad and Mirzapur divisions, and Naushad
Ali for Bundelkhand, and Athar Khan in Faizabad and Devipatan.

Among OBC leaders, state BSP chief Ram Achal Rajbhar and former
Speaker Sukhdeo Rajbhar have begun addressing sammelans in eastern UP,
while former MLC R S Kushwaha is trying to attract Kushwahas in central
UP. Pratap Singh Baghel is wooing the Gaderiya (Pal) community in Agra
region, former minister Lalji Verma addressing Kurmis in eastern UP and
Terai, and former MP R K Singh Patel is in Bundelkhand and Allahabad.

Former minister Jaivir Singh will work among Thakurs in western UP,
former MLA Jitendra Singh Babloo has been addressing sammelans in
Faizabad and Basti, and Rasra MLA Umashankar Singh in Azamgarh.

http://news.webindia123.com/…/A…/India/20100828/1575461.html
Demonetisation: Continuous cash crunch can adversely impact BJP’s prospects in Uttar Pradesh polls, believes RSS
With the gradual shifting of common people from supporting the
demonetisation to criticising it taking note of the continuous cash
crunch even over a month of its announcement, several units and
affiliates of the RSS believed it could adversely impact the chances of
BJP to win.

Soon after Murderer of democratic institutions
(Modi)’s announcement of demonetisation, the banks and ATMs witnessed
long queues of people waiting to either withdraw lower denomination of
banknotes or to exchange their high-value currencies with it.


With the gradual shifting of common people from supporting the
demonetisation to criticising it taking note of the continuous cash
crunch even over a month of its announcement, several units and
affiliates of the Rakshasa Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) believed it could
adversely impact the chances of Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths (BJP) to win.
They have reportedly suggested senior functionaries of the Sangh and
the BJP that either cash inflow should be increased at the earliest or
the Uttar Pradesh elections


“Like
it or not, terrorism will continue to be a problem for the United
States, its allies, and the rest of the international community. “
nationalinterest.org

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyZ2pTNmd4cjQ3anM/vie



Electronic Voting Systems: the Good, the Bad, and the Stupid


Page 1 of 11

Electronic Voting Systems: the Good, the Bad, and the Stupid

Barbara Simons

“Those who cast the votes decide nothing; those who count the votes decide everything.”

Joseph Stalin

“We always pray for large margins.” Theresa LePore, designer of the “butterfly” ballot.

As a result of Florida 2000, some people concluded that paper ballots simply couldn’t be

counted1

, even though businesses, banks, racetracks, lottery systems, and other entities in

our society count and deal with paper all the time. Instead, paperless computerized

voting systems (Direct Recording Electronic or DREs) were touted as the solution to “the

Florida problem.” Replacing hanging chads with 21st century technology, proponents

claimed, would result in accurate election counts and machines that would be impossible

to rig. Furthermore, with nothing to hand-count and no drawn-out recounts,

computerized voting systems could report results shortly after the polls close. Many

election officials loved the idea, believing the new machines would be cheaper and more

reliable than the old systems. Also, the lack of recounts meant that they could go home

early on Election Day. Vendor enthusiasm was enhanced by the almost $4 billion of US

government money that was promised in the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), passed in

2002. Yet now, two years after the passage of HAVA, voter verifiable paper trails are

being demanded by numerous public interest groups, computing professionals, and

members of Congress. Where did things go wrong?

Electronic voting machine software is proprietary, the certification testing process is both

secret and incomplete, and the test results are secret. The tests check only for

requirements in the Federal Election Commission (FEC) guidelines. To top things off,

Commercial Off The Shelf software (COTS) contained in voting systems is not examined

in any of the testing, simply because FEC guidelines don’t require it.

For years, prominent computer security experts have been arguing that paperless DRE

machines present major security problems, including buggy software and the risk of

malicious code affecting the outcome of an election. But the warnings of experts such as

Rebecca Mercuri (http://www.notablesoftware.com/evote.html) and Peter Neumann

(http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/neumann.html#5) were largely unheeded by

election officials and the public until David Dill created a petition

1

The most outspoken advocate of paperless DREs is Jim Dickson, Vice-President of the

American Association of People with Disabilities. According to the NY Times, the

AAPD received $26,000 from vendors this year. (The National Federation for the Blind

received a million dollars from Diebold in settlement of a lawsuit). The League of

Women Voters also lobbied on behalf of paperless DREs. However, the national office

retracted its support of DREs when the members revolted at the recent LWV convention.


https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyZ2pTNmd4cjQ3anM/view


Electronic Voting Systems: the Good, the Bad, and the Stupid

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyZ2pTNmd4cjQ3anM/view

Page
1
/
11

Page 1 of 11

Electronic Voting Systems: the Good, the Bad, and the Stupid

Barbara Simons

“Those who cast the votes decide nothing; those who count the votes decide everything.”

Joseph Stalin

“We always pray for large margins.” Theresa LePore, designer of the “butterfly” ballot.

As a result of Florida 2000, some people concluded that paper ballots simply couldn’t be

counted1

, even though businesses, banks, racetracks, lottery systems, and other entities in

our society count and deal with paper all the time. Instead, paperless computerized

voting systems (Direct Recording Electronic or DREs) were touted as the solution to “the

Florida problem.” Replacing hanging chads with 21st century technology, proponents

claimed, would result in accurate election counts and machines that would be impossible

to rig. Furthermore, with nothing to hand-count and no drawn-out recounts,

computerized voting systems could report results shortly after the polls close. Many

election officials loved the idea, believing the new machines would be cheaper and more

reliable than the old systems. Also, the lack of recounts meant that they could go home

early on Election Day. Vendor enthusiasm was enhanced by the almost $4 billion of US

government money that was promised in the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), passed in

2002. Yet now, two years after the passage of HAVA, voter verifiable paper trails are

being demanded by numerous public interest groups, computing professionals, and

members of Congress. Where did things go wrong?

Electronic voting machine software is proprietary, the certification testing process is both

secret and incomplete, and the test results are secret. The tests check only for

requirements in the Federal Election Commission (FEC) guidelines. To top things off,

Commercial Off The Shelf software (COTS) contained in voting systems is not examined

in any of the testing, simply because FEC guidelines don’t require it.

For years, prominent computer security experts have been arguing that paperless DRE

machines present major security problems, including buggy software and the risk of

malicious code affecting the outcome of an election. But the warnings of experts such as

Rebecca Mercuri (http://www.notablesoftware.com/evote.html) and Peter Neumann

(http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/neumann.html#5) were largely unheeded by

election officials and the public until David Dill created a petition

1

The most outspoken advocate of paperless DREs is Jim Dickson, Vice-President of the

American Association of People with Disabilities. According to the NY Times, the

AAPD received $26,000 from vendors this year. (The National Federation for the Blind

received a million dollars from Diebold in settlement of a lawsuit). The League of

Women Voters also lobbied on behalf of paperless DREs. However, the national office

retracted its support of DREs when the members revolted at the recent LWV convention.

Page 1 of 11
Page 2 of 11

(http://www.verifiedvoting.org/index.asp) calling for voter verifiable audit trails for

voting systems. The core idea behind the Dill petition is that the voters should be able to

verify that their ballots have been correctly recorded; also, it should be possible to

conduct a meaningful recount.2

A few horror stories

Because of the secrecy surrounding almost every aspect of e-voting – along with a lack of

public national incident reporting – independent computing technologists can provide

only limited analyses of problems relating to hardware, software, testing, security, and

human factors. Nonetheless, evidence of these problems is widespread and varied. A

few representative examples follow.

In January 2004 a special election was held in Broward County, Florida. Only one

contest was included on the ballot. Yet, of the 10,844 votes cast on ES&S (Election

Systems & Software) paperless touch screen voting machines, 134 were … for no one at

all. Since the winning candidate won by only 12 votes, people understandably wondered

what had become of those 134 votes; there was no way of telling if some had been lost by

the computer. The mayor of Broward is now calling for paper ballots.

In November 2003 in Boone County, Indiana over 144,000 votes were cast even though

Boone County contains fewer than 19,000 registered voters. And, of those, only 5,532

actually voted. The county clerk stated that the problem was caused by a “glitch in the

software.” Updated results then were obtained that were consistent with the number of

people who had actually voted, and the public was reassured that the new electronic tally

was accurate. Still, because the county used paperless MicroVote (an Indiana company)

DREs, it was impossible to verify independently that the updated results were indeed

correct.

When the polls opened in Hinds County, Mississippi in November 2003, voters arrived to

find the WINvote DREs at the polls were down. Worse yet, there were no paper ballots

available. By mid-morning, some machines were still down. Voters complained about

waiting in long lines and of having to complete makeshift paper ballots – some being

nothing more than scraps of paper – without adequate privacy. At 8 p.m., there were still

voters standing in line. One report claimed the machines had overheated. Subsequently,

the Mississippi State Senate declared the results in that district invalid and scheduled a

new election. Had paper ballots been made available to voters, the machine related

problems could have been bypassed.

Diebold – a case study in incompetence

2

To avoid the risk that the machine prints the correct result but stores an incorrect result

in computer memory, some number of paper ballots randomly selected should be

manually recounted as a check on the machines.

Page 2 of 11
Page 3 of 11

Diebold, which has been manufacturing ATMs for years and is one of the major DRE

vendors, has become the poster child of all that is wrong with DREs. Diebold’s

involvement with voting machines received significant national press when the CEO of

Diebold, Walden O’Dell, stated in an August 14, 2003 letter to Central Ohio Republicans

that he was “committed to helping Ohio deliver its electoral votes to the President next

year.”

However, the PR problem triggered by O’Dell’s statement pales in comparison to the

technical incompetence of Diebold uncovered when Bev Harris

(http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0302/S00036.htm) announced in February,

2003 that she had discovered Diebold voting machine software on an open FTP website.

Computer science professors Avi Rubin and Dan Wallach, and their students Tadayoshi

Kohno and Adam Stubblefield, subsequently analyzed some of that software and

published a security analysis in a paper that is sometimes referred to as the “Hopkins

paper” (http://avirubin.com/vote/analysis/index.html). One of the more shocking

revelations was that Diebold used a single DES key (F2654hD4) to encrypt all of the data

on a storage device. Consequently, an attacker with access to the source code would

have the ability to modify voting and auditing records. Perhaps even more surprising,

Diebold had been warned in 1997 about their sloppy key management by Douglas Jones,

a professor of computer science at the University of Iowa and a member of the Iowa

Board of Examiners for Voting Machines and Electronic Voting Equipment:

[N]either the technical staff nor salespeople at Global Election Systems

[purchased by Diebold in 2001] understood cryptographic security. They were

happy to assert that they used the Federally approved Data Encryption Standard,

but nobody seemed to understand key management, in fact, the lead programmer

to whom my question was forwarded, by cell-phone, found the phrase key

management to be unfamiliar and he needed explanation. On continued

questioning, it became apparent that there was only one key used, company wide,

for all of their voting products. The implication was that this key was hard-coded

into their source code!3

Because of the security issues raised in the Hopkins paper, the State of Maryland, which

had just committed to purchasing Diebold DREs, commissioned a study of Diebold

machines by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SAIC report

(http://www.dbm.maryland.gov/DBM%20Taxonomy/Technology/Policies%20&%20Pub

lications/State%20Voting%20System%20Report/stateVotingSystemReport.html) is a

very fast read, since only about 1/3 of it was made public – the rest was redacted.4

But

even the limited amount of information that was released in the report is quite damning.

For example, the report states that the Diebold system is so complicated that even if all of

3

Doug Jones provides an excellent overview of the Diebold story at

http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting/dieboldftp.html. 4

According to Frank Schugar, project manager for SAIC, the report was redacted by

Maryland, not by SAIC. The Electronic Privacy Information Center has submitted a

public records request to obtain the full unredacted version.

Page 3 of 11
Page 4 of 11

the problems were fixed, there still could be security risks because of poorly trained

election officials.

Section 5 of the report, which “provides the risk assessment findings, including a

discussion of the SBE security requirements, threats to the implementation of the

AccuVote-TS, likelihood of exploitation of the threat, vulnerabilities, and mitigation

strategies and recommendations for improving the security posture” is completely

redacted.5

Even the name of the operating system being used is redacted (page 17): “The voting

terminal is an embedded device running Microsoft Windows [redacted] as its operating

system.” However, we know from internal Diebold emails that were posted on the web

that Diebold was running Windows CE 3.0.

Why, one might ask, would anyone feel the need to redact the name of the Windows

operating system being used by Diebold? A likely explanation is that Windows CE is a

modular OS tool kit that allows different operating systems to be assembled for different

embedded applications. Yet, the certification process treats Windows CE as being

equivalent to a non-modified operating system, which means that the actual code is never

examined.

In spite of the fact that even the redacted version of the SAIC report was very critical of

Diebold and supported the Hopkins report on most issues, both the State of Maryland and

Diebold claimed that the SAIC report vindicated the purchase of Diebold machines.

In November 2003, the Maryland Department of Legislative Services commissioned yet

another study of Diebold machines by RABA Technologies

(http://www.raba.com/text/press/TA_Report_AccuVote.pdf). The Trusted Agent report,

released in January 2004, based on a “red team” effort to hack Diebold voting systems,

revealed physical security problems such as the use of identical keys on security panels

covering PCMCIA and other sockets on the machines – as well as locks that could be

picked in a few seconds.

Unfortunately, when DRE vendors discuss the virtues of DREs to election officials, they

gloss over security issues related to short- and long-term storage of the machines, as well

as machine access control before and after elections.

Meanwhile, the State of Ohio, which had been considering the purchase of Diebold DREs

for the entire state6

, hired Compuware to test hardware and software,and InfoSentry to

conduct a security assessment. The Compuware study uncovered yet another hardwired

password, this time involving the supervisor’s card, used to start up each voting machine

on Election Day as well as to terminate the voting process at the end of the day. When

5

The description of Section 5 is on p. 2. It probably was supposed to have been redacted,

since the title of Section 5 is redacted in the Table of Contents.

6

Diebold is headquartered in Ohio.

Page 4 of 11
Page 5 of 11

the card is inserted into the DRE, the election official must enter the same password or

PIN7

that is hardwired into the card - but not into the voting software. Consequently,

someone who is able to obtain a supervisor’s card, or who manages to create a fake card

with a different password, would be able to conduct a denial of service attack by

prematurely halting the voting machines, thereby denying some voters the opportunity to

vote.

ES&S – a software bug prevents audits

An intriguing link had existed for a long time between Diebold and ES&S, another major

voting machine vendor, and had generated a great deal of criticism. Until very recently,

Bob Urosevich was the CEO of Diebold Election Systems (O’Dell is the CEO of the

parent Diebold company), and his brother Todd had been the vice-president of ES&S8

.

Together, DREs and optical scan voting systems manufactured by Diebold and ES&S

will count somewhere between two-thirds and 80% of the ballots in the November

election.9

There is also a connection between ES&S and Sen. Chuck Hagel

(http://www.csd.cq.com/senate_mem/s0531.html ). Until two weeks before he

announced his candidacy for the Senate in 1996, Sen. Hagel had been the CEO of

American Information Systems, Inc., a fact not mentioned in Hagel’s 1996 campaign

financial disclosure statements. AIS, founded by the Urosevich brothers, subsequently

purchased another company and become ES&S. AIS was used to count many of the

votes that elected Sen. Hagel to the Senate in 1996, the first Republican to have been

elected from Nebraska in twenty-four years. Hagel’s 2002 Democratic opponent, Charlie

Matulka, claims that Hagel owned 35% of ES&S, when ES&S machines were used to

count the votes in the 2002 Senate race.

More recently ES&S has been in the news, because a software bug had corrupted the

audit log and vote image report in ES&S machines used in Miami-Dade and many other

parts of the country. 10 An internal memo written in June 2003 by Orlando Suarez,

division manager of the county’s enterprise Technology Services Department and

obtained through a public records request made by the Miami-Dade Election Reform

Coalition, describes a discrepancy in the internal auditing mechanism of the ES&S

machines. Suarez stated that the software bug(s) make the audit reports “unusable for the

purpose that we were considering (audit an election, recount an election and if necessary,

use these reports to certify an election).” This information was not made public until it

7

The Compuware study discovered that the pin was 1111.

8

Whether they left their positions because of criticism from groups concerned about

collusion or for some other reasons is not known to this author.

9

See the attachments in http://www.electiondataservices.com/EDSInc_DREoverview.pdf

for a detailed breakdown by machine type.

10 For a detailed discussion of the ES&S bug, see

http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting/miami.pdf

Page 5 of 11
Page 6 of 11

was announced by the Coalition in April 2004, almost a year after the initial memo was

written.

The event log contained results for some nonexistent machines, and it also failed to report

all the results for the machines that were in operation. According to Doug Jones, there

were actually two bugs. One - triggered by a low battery condition - caused corruption in

the event log; the second caused the election management system to misread the

machine’s serial number in the face of this corruption. While the vote count was not

impacted, the problems uncovered are symptomatic of the kinds of anomalies that are not

tested for under the certification process, discussed below.11

On July 27, 2004 the Miami-Dade Election Reform Coalition announced that audit data

they had requested revealed that computer crashes had deleted all the election results

from the September 2002 gubernatorial race in Miami-Dade, as well as from several

more recent municipal elections. It appeared that no back-ups had been made, leading to

speculation that the loss of the ballot images could be a violation of Florida law regarding

the retention of ballots.12 After spending a few embarrassing days trying to explain how

election officials could have lost critical voting records, Miami-Dade County elections

supervisor Constance Kaplan announced on July 30 that her secretary had located a

computer disk containing the missing data in the conference room next to her office.13

In an interesting footnote to the Miami-Dade story, Florida Secretary of State defended

the paperless touch screen voting machines against criticism that she likened to

conspiracy theories by saying, “The touch-screen machines are not computers. You’d

have to go machine by machine, all over the state [to rig an election].”

How did such flawed machines become certified?

The first FEC standard for electronic voting machines, issued in 1990, was replaced in

2002 (http://www.fec.gov/pages/vssfinal/vss.html). Many voting systems in use today

were certified to the 1990 standards.

11 Quoting Jones, “As of midsummer, the state of Florida has approved a fix to the two

bugs that caused this problem, and in the pre-election testing conducted on August 13, the

event records were extracted from compact flash cards showed correct reports of low

battery conditions without any corruption of serial numbers. Curiously, it was a member

of the Miami-Dade coalition who found this evidence as she went over printouts of the

event logs generated from the compact flash cards.”

12 Amazingly, Miami-Dade officials chose to ignore a memo sent before the crashes

occurred in which Cathy Jackson of the county’s Audit and Management Services

Department warned of the lack of back-up and suggested burning all data to CD ROMs

after each election.

13 Quoting Jones, “The disk was a CD-R in a file folder. The county had only begun

making archival CD-R copies of the data after the county Audit and Management

Department suggested that they do so that summer. Apparently, although this was being

done, there was as yet no institutional memory of where these disks were being put.”

Page 6 of 11
Page 7 of 11

Machines are tested and certified by three private companies - Ciber, Wyle, and SysTest

– which are referred to as Independent Testing Authorities (ITAs). The ITAs themselves

are certified by the National Association of State Election Directors, but are not subjected

to any government oversight. Individual states may have additional requirements that are

certified by the ITAs. Vendors pay for all testing.

One of the bizarre aspects of the certification process is that distinguishes between

“firmware” and “software”, with “firmware” being defined as the software that runs in

the voting machines in the precinct, while “software” is used to refer to the code utilized

by the election management system. Wyle certifies only firmware, and Cyber certifies

only software. SysTest certifies the entire system.

Rather than checking the software for security flaws and attacking the software to see if it

can be compromised, the ITAs limit their tests strictly to items specifically required by

the FEC standards. Particularly prominent among these are control flow requirements,

with Do-While (False) constructs and intentional exceptions used as GoTos being

explicitly prohibited. The 2002 FEC standards also call for “effective password

management,” but the phrase is not defined. We can infer from the Diebold results,

however, that no one is checking to see if encryption keys have been hardwired into the

code. The testing also fails to check for exceptions, and there are no provisions for the

inspection of COTS code.

States typically are provided with only a one-page certificate saying that the software

satisfied the FEC standards. By contrast, vendors are given detailed test results. Some

states request the test results, but results have been provided only when the states or

election officials sign non-disclosure agreements. Not only should test results all be

made public, but there also should be a central data depository that collects all test results

and problem incidents from voting machines - much as is done for airplanes - so that the

government and election officials can check to make sure that all known problems have

been rectified.

Then there is the matter of ballot definition files (BDF). These files contain the

candidates and issues information for each election. Because BDFs tend to be difficult for

election officials to write, they frequently are prepared by the vendors. Whether the

BDFs are prepared by the vendor or by someone local, they can’t be produced until the

candidates and issues have all been decided.

Although critical to elections, BDFs are never independently inspected by an ITA. While

properly conducted pre-election testing should uncover errors in BDFs, such testing is not

routine in many jurisdictions, where state laws merely require that the tests include

casting at least one vote for each candidate in each race on the ballot, using each ballot

style in use in the jurisdiction. In Miami-Dade County, for example, there were 222

distinct ballot styles in the August 2004 primary.14

14 Private communication with Doug Jones.

Page 7 of 11
Page 8 of 11

When errors in BDFs do occur – leading, for example, to votes for one candidate being

credited to a different candidate – they can be detected with optical scan voting systems,

because anomalous computer-reported results can be discovered through manually

recounts of paper ballots. 15 With paperless DREs, however, there is no way to perform

such a recount.

Malicious code

While many obvious software bugs have been inferred or uncovered, to my knowledge

no clearly malicious code has been detected in voting machine software, though some

software bugs have behaved as if they were malicious. An obvious approach for dealing

with buggy or malicious code is the use of open, or at least public, source software.

Making software public would expose it to more eyes, thereby increasing the likelihood

of the bug detection. But there is still the risk that the software running on the voting

machines may not be identical to the software that was made public. Further, as we know

from Ken Thompson’s Turing Award speech “Reflections on Trusting Trust”

http://www.acm.org/classics/sep95/, it is possible to write a compiler that will insert

malicious code into object code.16

Even open source code can be vulnerable. A recent attempt to insert a two-lines-of-code

backdoor into Linux was caught by some observant programmers

http://kerneltrap.org/node/view/1584. But, the fact that this particular backdoor attempt

was stymied is no guarantee that some equally subtle future attempt will also be detected.

With inadequately tested secret code, one can only speculate about the likelihood that any

malicious code, especially code that is cleverly designed to resemble a software bug (e.g.

=, instead of ==), will go undetected.

Alternative models for voting design

Diebold, Sequoia, ES&S, and Hart InterCivic are the major manufacturers of paperless

DREs. Most DREs use touch screens as inputs, though Hart InterCivic uses a dial for

candidate selection. DREs also can be equipped with earphones and various devices,

typically hand-held, that allow voters with vision impairments to vote independently.

15 See http://www.votersunite.org/info/BallotProgramming.pdf for a detailed discussion

of BDFs.

16 Quoting Thompson, “You can’t trust code that you did not totally create yourself.

(Especially
code from companies that employ people like me.) No amount of source-
level verification or scrutiny will protect you from using untrusted
code. In demonstrating

the possibility of this kind of attack, I picked on the C compiler. I could have picked on

any program-handling program such as an assembler, a loader, or even hardware

microcode. As the level of program gets lower, these bugs will be harder and harder to

detect. A well installed microcode bug will be almost impossible to detect.”

Page 8 of 11
Page 9 of 11

DREs do not allow voters to select more candidates than allowed (overvotes) and alert

voters to omitted votes (undervotes). They also allow voters to review their ballots

before submitting them (second chance voting).

DREs that produce voter verifiable paper ballots. AccuPoll and Avante produce DRE

voting systems that print out ballots that voters can check to ensure that an accurate paper

record of their votes exists. Avante also manufactures an optical scan model that prints

optical scan ballots that sighted voters can mark, as well as an “accessible” optical voting

system that allows vision-impaired voters to print out optical scan ballots marked to

reflect their choices.

Optical scan voting machines. Besides avoiding many of the security problems

associated with paperless DREs, optical scan (or mark sense) systems are also less

expensive. Typically these systems require the voter to mark his or her ballot, in much

the same way that students taking standardized tests make computer-readable marks by

using number 2 pencils to fill in ovals.

Precinct-based optical scan systems require the voter to “test” his or her ballot by

submitting it to the scanner and having the scanner notify the voter if the ballot contains

overvotes. The voter is also notified if the ballot is blank. Ideally, at the end of Election

Day all the ballots are initially tallied in the precinct, and the ballots, together with the

results, are sent to the tabulation center. 17

The same vendors that produce the majority of DREs – ES&S, Sequoia, and Diebold –

also produce the majority of optical scan voting systems.

Hybrid models. Ballot marking systems are a cross between DREs and optical scan

systems. One, made by Vogue Election Systems (VES) and currently marketed by

ES&S, offers a touch screen like a DRE. The voter inserts a blank optical scan ballot into

the machine and then proceeds as he or she would if interacting with a DRE. Once the

voter has entered all of his or her choices, the machine marks the optical scan ballot

accordingly, avoiding overvotes and raising alerts to undervotes in the process. This also

serves to eliminate any stray pencil marks that could otherwise confuse the scanner.

Attached headphones provide an option that allow blind voters to vote without assistance.

Another system, produced by Populex, includes a screen that operates with an attached

stylus. The system prints out a completed ballot once the voter has entered all of his or

her choices. For human perusal, the ballot uses numbers to represent voter choices, along

with a corresponding bar code for the optical scanner’s benefit. The system has attached

headphones that allow blind voters to vote independently, and, like the Vogue system, it

also avoids overvotes and warns about undervotes. For both systems headphones

17 The chance that ballot boxes or tabulation sheets will be illegally manipulated are

reduced if local results are posted locally.

Page 9 of 11
Page 10 of 11

attached to the scanner would make it possible for vision-impaired voters, as well as the

sighted, to verify their ballots.18

Because paperless DREs provide no audit trail, it is imperative that DRE software be free

of malicious code and potentially damaging bugs. By contrast with paperless DREs,

DREs that produce voter verfiable paper ballots, optical scan systems, and hybrid systems

do not have the hidden expense of a huge testing and security overhead.

Cryptographic voting systems. Both VoteHere (http://www.votehere.net/ ) and David

Chaum (http://www.seas.gwu.edu/~poorvi/Chaum/chaum.pdf) have developed voting

systems that provide an encrypted receipt that voters can use to verify that their ballots

has been accurately counted. Chaum’s system is not currently being manufactured. A

problem common to both systems is that they offer no way to conduct a recount should it

be determined that a ballot tabulation problem has occurred, although individual ballots

can be corrected. Also, neither scheme is particularly easy for voters to understand.

Open source. The Open Voting Consortium (OVC)

(http://www.openvotingconsortium.org/) is a non-profit group of software engineers and

computer scientists working to build an open source voting system that will run on PC

hardware and produce a voter-verifiable paper ballot. They also hope to provide a

general for interoperable open source voting software. Their system is currently under

development.

Prudent precautionary measures for DREs

Because paperless DREs provide no audit trail, it’s imperative that they be extensively

tested before, during, and after each election. DREs must also be securely stored between

elections, as well as at polling sites before and during Election Day.

DREs should be extensively tested before, during, and after every election. Similarly, all

ballot definition files should be scrupulously tested — with all test results (not just results

from BDF tests) not only made public but also archived in a central repository. There

should also be a national repository of DRE problems, just as is done with aircraft.

Finally, paper ballots should be made available at every polling location that uses DREs,

both as backup in the case of failures of the DREs and to provide voters with the option

of voter-verifiable paper ballots,

None of these steps can ensure that DRE software is free of malicious code and

potentially damaging bugs. The best we can do is to attempt to reduce the risks

associated with these machines.

Conclusion

18 This option is not currently available.

Page 10 of 11
Page 11 of 11

The issue of e-voting should have been primarily a technological issue - one involving

computer security, human factors, reliability, and efficiency. Instead, because of the vast

sums of money involved, e-voting has been heavily politicized.

Election officials were told that DREs in the long run would be cheaper than alternative

voting systems. They were told that DREs had been extensively tested and that the

certification process guaranteed that the machines were reliable and secure. No mention

was made of the significant costs of testing and of secure storage of DREs; no mention

was made of the inadequacy of the testing and certification processes, to say nothing of

the difficulty of creating bug-free software.

Technologists are attempting to educate election officials, policy makers, and the public

about the risks of paperless DREs. It is critical for the continued existence of democracy

throughout the world that we succeed.

Acknowledgments.

Thanks to Dan Wallach, Tracy Volz, Laura Gould, Lynn Landes, Ellen Theisen, Rebecca

Mercuri, and Doug Jones for their very useful comments.

Page 11 of 11

comments (0)