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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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2088 SUN 25 Dec 2016 LESSONS from Rector JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan of Free Online Buddhism - World Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506Awaken One With Awareness Mind (A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things) - the art of Giving, taking and Living to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM). Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by Start using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF. Practice Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing, lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for health mind in a healthy body. from INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF) https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up free online university research practice up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/ email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card modinotourpm@gmail.com jchandra1942@icloud.com sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal BSP is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies (sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay. http://bestanimations.com/Holidays/Christmas/Christmas.html http://www.moddb.com/…/miscellaneous-p/images/relatable-post http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/demonetisation…/1/842292.html Indian cashless transaction is all about controlling others nothing else, once the govt. http://www.ndtv.com/…/amid-cash-crunch-a-mysterious-5-000-c… Amid Cash Crunch, A Mysterious ‘5,000 Crore’-Influx In Poll-Bound Uttar Pradesh http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/rss-uttar-prad…/1/841172.html http://nationalinterest.org/…/washington-watching-the-5-dea… http://www.assam123.com/america-enlisted-rss-one-biggest-t…/ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/…/One-village-one-one-crematoriu… Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) is a non-entity which do not believe in our Modern Constitution but in a stealth, shadowy discriminating hindutva cult rashtra.
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 11:43 pm



2088 SUN 25 Dec 2016


LESSONS


from

Rector
JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart

an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan
of


Free Online
Buddhism - World

Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506
Awaken One With Awareness Mind
(A1wAM)
+ ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss
as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on
Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic
Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM).


Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by

Start
using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use
of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru
FOA1TRPUVF.

Practice
Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,
lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for
health mind in a healthy body.



 from

INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)

https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up


free online university research practice









up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/












email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card


modinotourpm@gmail.com
jchandra1942@icloud.com
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in



is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages.


Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and

to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal

BSP
is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies
(sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay.

http://bestanimations.com/Holidays/Christmas/Christmas.html

http://www.moddb.com/…/miscellaneous-p/images/relatable-post

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/demonetisation…/1/842292.html

Indian cashless transaction is all about controlling others nothing else, once
the govt.

http://www.ndtv.com/…/amid-cash-crunch-a-mysterious-5-000-c…

Amid Cash Crunch, A Mysterious ‘5,000 Crore’-Influx In Poll-Bound Uttar Pradesh

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/rss-uttar-prad…/1/841172.html

http://nationalinterest.org/…/washington-watching-the-5-dea…

http://www.assam123.com/america-enlisted-rss-one-biggest-t…/

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/…/One-village-one-one-crematoriu…


Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) is a non-entity which do not believe in
our Modern Constitution but in a stealth, shadowy discriminating
hindutva cult rashtra.


http://bestanimations.com/Holidays/Christmas/Christmas.html

merry christmas gif images

http://www.moddb.com/…/miscellaneous-p/images/relatable-post

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/demonetisation…/1/842292.html

Indian


cashless transaction is all about controlling others nothing else, once
the govt. has the ability to do so….they will also have the ability
to switch off the software, if that be the case how will people have
access to their own money….vary valid point…….again if a charge is
fixed to people to make payment….people will not have the ability to
opt out of this operation…..basically people will be helpless to use
their own money……

HR

Through lottery, satta and
gambling into the mix of your scemes bjp. Also Through bhang, ganja and
desi alcohol into the mix. Make half zombie people full zombies. Don’t
stop till you create a full blown dystopia.


View the Mod DB Miscellaneous-P image Relatable Post
moddb.com




http://www.ndtv.com/…/amid-cash-crunch-a-mysterious-5-000-c…

Amid Cash Crunch, A Mysterious ‘5,000 Crore’-Influx In Poll-Bound Uttar Pradesh


When asked for the source of the information, the BJP said it’s based
on stories in local newspapers in the past few days, coinciding with
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)’s high decibel campaign in
Uttar Pradesh.

When NDTV checked
with the RBI, the spokesperson clarified that the bank does not release
any information on how much cash it distributes to states.

At a
State Bank of India branch in Kaudia village, two hours from Gorakhpur
in East UP, women queuing outside the bank told us they have been there
since 4 am. We met them at around noon, 8 hours later, and they had
barely moved forward.

One of them claims to being mistreated by
the bank staff. “The manager pushed me yesterday and grabbed my throat,”
said one of the women.

Soon, a trunk of cash appeared at the
bank branch. Heavily locked, it was dragged inside the bank’s chained
gate. It remains unclear whether this is a part of the supposed
election-time influx of new currency.

That seemed of little concern to the crowd as they surged forward, desperate to get a handful of their own hard-earned cash.


It
is late in the evening when Kamlesh Paswan, the BJP lawmaker from
Bansgaon in eastern Uttar Pradesh walks to an ATM queue in his
constituency. Here, his…
ndtv.com

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/…/rss-uttar-prad…/1/841172.html


http://nationalinterest.org/…/washington-watching-the-5-dea…

http://www.assam123.com/america-enlisted-rss-one-biggest-t…/

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/…/One-village-one-one-crematoriu…


Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) is a non-entity which do not believe in
our Modern Constitution but in a stealth, shadowy discriminating
hindutva cult rashtra. Their leaders are not elected in a democratic
manner but are selected among the inner circle of just 1% intolerant,
shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, cannibal psychopath
chitpawan brahmins who believe in brahmins as 1st rate athmas,
kshatriyas as 2nd rate, vysias as 3rd rate, shudhras as 4th rate souls
and the aboriginal panchamas (SC/STs0 have no soul, so that they cand
commit any crime on them. But the Buddha never believed in any soul. He
said all are equal. Hence Babasaheb returned back with millions of
people back to their original home Buddhism. According to the Architect
of the Modern Constitution Dr BR Ambedkar, irrespect of caste, religion,
creed and colour anyone can acquire education and not just the brahmins
as per manuvad, Anyone can rule this country unlike the kashatrias as
per manu. Anyone can do trade and business unlike vysias as per manuvad.
As mer manu women has no right like the men. But the modern
constitution made provisions for women even to become rulers. Ex Indira
gandhi, Jayalilita, Mamata Banerji etc., But for Dr Ambedkar they would
have not been recognised. Irrespect of caste and religion Devegowda
etc., would have not become the PM of this country.

This is intolerated by RSS which is opposed to reservation.

http://www.assam123.com/america-enlisted-rss-one-biggest-t…/

RSS is one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisations in the World. They are
Mad Horrorists threat group - shadowy, stealth and discriminatory group
trying to establish hindutva cult.

New Delhi: A US-based risk management and consulting company has put the
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) because RSS is killing so many people
and bombing and cutting of people and using suicide bombing techniques
and raping and honor killing women … it all happened in Gujrat and
happening in parts of the country.. Go get a life and become a Hindu
mr…. What is it? the one who have at least common sense, do u think he
or she become hindu? do u think that? Most of the people in the world
becoming muslim without any pressure, force or demand… think about
that…. See that RSS gentleman who studied about islam to oppose them and
became a muslim…. use your common sense and refrain from your bad
thoughts and paths.�They will have the end.. Rss have to be banned in
india with its.. hindhuthuva branches.. in south tamilnadu.. this rss
and hindhutva terrorist and Horrorist gang made problem to the people
who celebrating new year of 2015 night..

Increasing threats to the democratic-secular Indian polity from the Hindutva
organizations - a concise document on the anti-national game-plan of the
RSS.

Hence this technological game of 1% Chitpawan RSS plan has to be defeated by
strengthening the 99% intellectuals by exposing the fradulent EVMs as
done by 80 democracies of the world in the larger interest of Sarvajan
Hitaye Sarvajan Sukhaye i.e., for the peace, happiness and welfare of
all societies including SC/STs/ OBCs/ Minorities and the poor brahmins
and baniyas for distributing the wealth of this country among all
sections of the society as enshrined in the Constitution by making the
Supreme Court to pass orders to replace all fradulent EVMs and till such
time to scrap all elections conducted by these fradulent EVMs and then
to conduct elections with tamper proof voting system to save democracy,
equality, fraternity and liberty.

RSS means Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks in a non -entity undemocratic organisation
with all its 40 avathars VHP (Visha Hindutva Psychopaths), BJP (Bahuth
Jiyadha Psychopaths), BMS (Bhramin Masdoor Sangh), ABVP (All Brahmin
Venomous Psychopaths), Bhajan Dal, Terrorist Sanstha Sangatan, eic.,
that become active during all elections for the greed of power for
Murderer of democratic instituitions (Modi) who is just a meant time
stooge of the 1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching,
lunatic, mentally retarded cannibal chitpawan brahmin psychopaths who
always keep heckling and giggling like mad people thinking that they are
great achievers.Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) and all its
associate avathars are shani and peda of the nation which is eclipsing
the development and progress as enshrined in the modern Constitution
whose architect is Dr BR Ambedkar.

After gobbling the MASTER KEY by tampering the fraud EVMs for Murderer of
democratic institutions (Modi) remotely controlled by RSS meaning
Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks, a non -entity undemocratic organisation with all
its 40 avathars VHP (Visha Hindutva Psychopaths), BJP (Bahuth Jiyadha
Psychopaths), BMS (Bhramin Masdoor Sangh), ABVP (All Brahmin Venomous
Psychopaths), Bhajan Dal, Terrorist Sanstha Sangatan, eic., that become
active during all elections for the greed of power for Murderer of
democratic instituitions (Modi) who is just a meant time stooge of the
1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally
retarded cannibal chitpawan brahmin psychopaths who always keep heckling
and giggling like mad people thinking that they are great achievers.

They are Shani and Pedal of the nation trying to bury the
Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement
and the teachings of the Awaken One with Awareness without knowing that
they are seeds that keep sprouting as Bodhi Trees.

If all the fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots they will not even get 1% of the votes.

Only Ms Mayawati’s BSP which got majority of the seats in UP Panchayat
Elections with these paper ballots will the not only become the CM of UP
but also the next PM of Prabuddha Bharath.

RSS’s Mohan Bhagwat,Bhaiyyaji Joshi and 41 regional pracharaks are all drop
outs including Mohan Agarwal.Also Ram Lal and Ram Madhav,Rajnath Singh
and Amit Shahlike doubtful education of Murderer of democratic
institutions (Modi).

Caste by caste, BSP fields ‘bhaichara coordinators’

Satish Chandra Misra, the BSP’s Brahmin face, has been assigned the reserved seats in
eastern UP, central UP and Bundelkhand, and MLA Ramvir Upadhyay the
reserved seats of western UP.

The BSP has fielded some of its most prominent non-SC/ST leaders to
reach out to the communities they represent. Ahead of the UP elections,
the BSP has assigned specific regions to these bhaichara coordinators.

Satish Chandra Misra, the BSP’s Brahmin face, has been assigned the
reserved seats in eastern UP, central UP and Bundelkhand, and MLA Ramvir
Upadhyay the reserved seats of western UP. Misra addressed a rally in
Gorakhpur’s Khajani Sunday, with BSP candidates from seven reserved
seats attending. Statewide, Misra will be assisted by other Brahmin
leaders including his son-in-law Paresh and former MLC Gopal Narain
Mishra.

For Muslims, the BSP has chosen party general secretary Naseemuddin
Siddiqui for western UP where he is addressing meetings, Rajya Sabha MP
Munquad Ali for Varanasi, Allahabad and Mirzapur divisions, and Naushad
Ali for Bundelkhand, and Athar Khan in Faizabad and Devipatan.

Among OBC leaders, state BSP chief Ram Achal Rajbhar and former
Speaker Sukhdeo Rajbhar have begun addressing sammelans in eastern UP,
while former MLC R S Kushwaha is trying to attract Kushwahas in central
UP. Pratap Singh Baghel is wooing the Gaderiya (Pal) community in Agra
region, former minister Lalji Verma addressing Kurmis in eastern UP and
Terai, and former MP R K Singh Patel is in Bundelkhand and Allahabad.

Former minister Jaivir Singh will work among Thakurs in western UP,
former MLA Jitendra Singh Babloo has been addressing sammelans in
Faizabad and Basti, and Rasra MLA Umashankar Singh in Azamgarh.

http://news.webindia123.com/…/A…/India/20100828/1575461.html
Demonetisation: Continuous cash crunch can adversely impact BJP’s prospects in Uttar Pradesh polls, believes RSS
With the gradual shifting of common people from supporting the
demonetisation to criticising it taking note of the continuous cash
crunch even over a month of its announcement, several units and
affiliates of the RSS believed it could adversely impact the chances of
BJP to win.

Soon after Murderer of democratic institutions
(Modi)’s announcement of demonetisation, the banks and ATMs witnessed
long queues of people waiting to either withdraw lower denomination of
banknotes or to exchange their high-value currencies with it.


With the gradual shifting of common people from supporting the
demonetisation to criticising it taking note of the continuous cash
crunch even over a month of its announcement, several units and
affiliates of the Rakshasa Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) believed it could
adversely impact the chances of Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths (BJP) to win.
They have reportedly suggested senior functionaries of the Sangh and
the BJP that either cash inflow should be increased at the earliest or
the Uttar Pradesh elections
The 5 Deadliest Terrorist Groups on the Planet
“Like it or not, terrorism will continue to be a problem for the United
States, its allies, and the rest of the international community. “
nationalinterest.org


RSS
is all set to enter the Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections battleground
with special focus on reaching out to the Dalit communities to ensure
their votes.
indiatoday.intoday.in

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ELECTRONC VOTING MACHINE
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 6:31 pm

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyOWZYS2w0eUkwcnM/view

Page
1
/
9

Page 1 of 9

ELECTRONC VOTING MACHINE

Group No. 3

Pooja Nagle (07d04003)<npooja@ee.iitb.ac.in>

Neha Agarwal(07011023)< neha.ag@ee.iitb.ac.in >

Supervisor : PC Pandey

Abstract

The project is aimed to make an unsupervised Electronic Voting Machine, with no controls

required from the polling officer. It will be used to cast votes for multiple elections taking

place simultaneously. Each valid voter is provided with a unique voter ID and a pass code by

the election committee to be kept securely, which is used for the voter identification and

validation during vote casting. There is no restriction on the number of candidates standing

for a particular election. It will tally the votes and also have the facility of recording of actual

votes using real-time clock for time stamping of the votes, which will only be read accessible.

1. Introduction

We are fascinated by the fact that the World’s Largest Democracy implements elections

electronically, while on the contrary it is discouraged by the western countries even now.

When we did a comprehensive we came around following facts which are not a part of Indian

EVM’s driving as motivation for us to implement them in our design.

1. Election Transparency: all the processes of handling and counting ballots to be

completely open to public view. Nothing to be hidden or secret – except, of course, each

individual’s voting choices.

2. Trust of the voter in the EVM registering the vote : We plan to implement voter verifiable

paper record (vvpr) to which voter can look up instantly and decide on whether the vote he

casted is registered correctly in the system increasing the reliability of the system.

We have made a module which interfaces with the voter and directs to the procedure of

voting. The Liquid Crystal Display unit provides the voter friendly interface guiding through

the procedure of voting. The keypad is used to enter the details and other actions to be taken

by the voter, which are integrated with the display unit. We learnt a lot many aspects of

design and especially SD card interfacing is the most interesting part. Also the product can be

used for several types of elections not only just the State or Assembly Elections, discussed in

later sections.

2. Design Approach

Product Design

Flow Diagram: How voting will take place:

FRONT PANEL

Display Unit Keypad Unit

BACK PANEL

Sealed Slot for Memory CARD I and CARD II

Polling Officer sets up the

machine for voting. Now on

voting will be unsupervised.

Voter enters

A

Page 1 of 9

Page 2 of 9

no

yes

no yes

If VVPR

is implemented

3. Hardware Design

The hardware required for this design mainly needs to interface various blocks with each

other in synchronisation. These are as follows:

Reads the instructions

displayed on the screen.

The machine prompts for

the Voter ID and Pass code

Display the Eligible election List

Wait for voter to choose for the

Election to vote for

If the ID &

pass code

match &

voter hasn’t

voted?

Register the vote

Print out the VVPR

if correct

and verified

by voter

number of

attempts

>3?

Logout the Voter

Display Error Message

B

B

A

Page 2 of 9

Page 3 of 9

3.1 Memory Storage Components

We require a memory which is easy and fast in read write and easily detachable from the

system whenever required, without any changes to the internal circuitry. Memory

requirement is also high, as it stores a large database of the voters and other details.

Therefore, we decided to go for SD Cards. There are two sd cards in the proposed machine:

Card I: It is a Read Write Card that will have data from the Election Commission, serially

transferred to the card by the PC:

 Voter Details: Voter ID, Pass code, Election Eligibility.

 Candidate Details: Candidate Name, Party, ID, votes casted in favor,( symbol in case of

graphics display).

–Read Only: Voter details section

–R/W: No. of votes casted in the favour of a particular candidate will be updated during

voting.

Card II: It will have the stamped vote details, exactly as they are casted by the voters. Data

already written will be freeze, to keep details intact and non-modifiable at any point of time.

This card can be used in case of any legal concerns regarding the mismatch of the expected

and actual results, or if some malpractice is suspected in the tallying process.

3.2 Microcontroller

It will control the interfacing between various blocks as shown above in the machine. It has

the voting software programmed in it. We have chosen the Atmega 32 for our design. It has a

serial interface, two wire link interface, which are required for SD Card and RTC interfacing

respectively. Our system requires a uC with low computational speed, since they happen only

at the time votes are casted and that too are not prolonged, making us choose Atmega-32.

Initially, we used Atmega16, but due to larger RAM requirements of the software we moved

onto Atmega32.We have left many pins of uC unused, this is for further use of these port pins

to implement future works like biological unit, printer etc. Also on the same line we shifted

from 8bit to 4bit LCD interfacing.

3.3 Output Display Unit: LCD

This is the output unit of the machine. Voter Interface will be provided here. It displays all

the relevant details about the current election and voter can act accordingly and view the

options out here. We have implemented it on the 16X2 display currently since the display

items were not complex as we didn’t have symbol for a candidate in present machine.

3.4 Input Unit: Keypad

This is the input unit of the machine which takes various instructions from the voters, while

voting and also in configuring of the EVM before elections. The voter enters the details asked

for identification via voter ID and pass code, and moves further on to the process of voting.

Voter ID & Pass code will be in the form of numbers so as to remove any issues related

languages, and cultures. Other 4 keys will be as: arrow keys, enter key. This will be specified

on the hardware.

3.5 Real-Time Clock (RTC)

It is used for time stamping of votes on the SD Card II. It readily gives current time and date

whenever needed. Battery is needed for Real time clock so that in spite of power failure the

clock runs. Also there will less burden on the power supply. But we propose to implement it

in next stage of our design.

Page 3 of 9

Page 4 of 9

4. Software Design

The software will be programmed in the microcontroller. This will determine how casted

votes are handled by the system. The interfacing between various blocks is also integrated

with this. Also there will be some encryption for the Voter ID numbers which will be printed

on the Paper Record which we have proposed as extension. The software is being

implemented in 4 steps (4.1-4.4).

4.1 Validation of Voter

Voter is validated by checking the entered password from the corresponding voterid’s

passcode entered in voter.txt file.

4.2 Checking the status of vote

Checking the voter status: It first checks if the voter has voted for central elections by

searching for the voterID in the file centl.txt.

If no, he is asked to vote. If yes, we check if user is eligible for state election happening.

If the voter is not eligible, he is logged out.

If eligible, similar procedure as of central election is carried out.

4.3 Vote Registration

The list of candidates standing for election under consideration is displayed along with the

candidateID and the voter is asked for the candidateID he wish to vote for. The corresponding

count in ccand.txt gets incremented by one, thereby giving the count of votes received by a

particular candidate. Same procedure is followed for state elections as well.

4.4 Time stamping of vote

Time stamping of vote is done to avoid bogus voting and track them. The vote casted by a

voter gets registered at mini SD, in the file centl.txt. Details of the vote casted are given in

description of centl.txt file

4.5 File Structure

4.5.1 Card-I (micro SD)

a).Voter.txt – This file has the attributes of the voter namely voterid, voter passcode, voter

name and his state of eligibility. All the attributes of one voter are separated by a ‘|’ character

and each voter record comes in next line.

The file ends with a ~ character.

For eg. – 1|9|assam|ram means voterid is 1, passcode is 9, voter state is assam and name is

ram.

b). Cand.txt – Contains the list of candidates standing for central elections. Each row

corresponds to one candidate and has the candidateID, candidate name and number of votes

casted for the candidate.

c). Scand.txt – Same as cand.txt but for state elections.

d). Sdet.txt – This stores the name of state in which elections are happening.

4.5.2 Card-II (miniSD)

a). Centl.txt – Stores the vote casted for central elections. Format in which it gets stored is:

voterID|candidateID|time at which vote casted|date at which vote casted*

Each vote is separated by a *, and the end of file is marked by ~.

b). State.txt – Same for state elections.

Page 4 of 9

Page 5 of 9

4.6 Assumptions and Constraints of file storage

1. VoterID and candidateID should start from one and be consecutive integers.

2. VoterID and passcode can be of maximum 19 characters.

3. CandidateID of 2 characters, candidate name is 30 characters and vote casted is 5

characters.

4. The record of each candidate in cand.txt and scand.txt is occupied fully. That is, if a

candidate name is of 10 characters only, still 30 characters should be full. Rest 20 are written

by a dummy character, say $. Similar is for all fields in this file. This is done since for

updating a file from mid, we need to know the exact character position from where the vote

count should be updated.

5. No votes for a candidate has to be represented by a 0.

5. Block Wise Testing

5.1 Secure Digital Card

 Micro SD Card: 2GB

 Mini SD Card: 2GBB

 Serial Clock Frequency (SCK): 0.5 MHz

 Protocol – Interfaced with Atmega16 through the SPI peripheral. The card is acting as

slave and uC as master.

SD card is interfaced with the atmega16 using FAT32 filesystem. Two pins are used as chip

select for selecting between the cards and hence the communication is done independently

between them. Since two cards were used, MISO, MOSI and SCK pins of uC are multiplexed

to both the cards. Communication is done block wise at a time and each block size is 512

bytes. The resistors at these pins are provided to match the current specifications of SDcard.

SDcard runs on a supply voltage of 2.7-3.6V, we have used a fixed voltage regulator of

3.3V(LM1117).

5.2 Keypad

We have used the logic of scanning the rows and columns of the 4X4 matrix keypad by

pulling rows low one by one and then checking the corresponding column press for that low

row. If a key in that row is presses then a column intersecting with that row will be low,

hence key detection was done. Also we introduced a delay of 20us in order to check that

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really a key was pressed and hence again took the input for that key. The program flow

diagram is as follows:

 Select a 8bit Port for attaching keypad

 Set 4 bits for row connection: output pin configuration

 Set remaining 4 for column connection: input pin configuration

 Initialize output pins as all 1’s

 Run a loop in which each row is pulled down at a time

 Check for column and wait for key de-bouncing time and then again read the input pins.

 Wait for input port to settle

 Then according to the read value assign the symbol to that key using a switch case.

5.3 LCD Interfacing

 16X2 Hitachi HD44780

LCD is interfaced in 4 bit mode, that is we have used only 6 pins of uC:

4: data line (DB7-DB4)

2: control pins RS(register select) and E(enable)

We only write data onto LCD. Instead of 8bit mode 4bit was chosen since our application is

not high speed and delays due to the introduction of multiplexing data line twice, doesn’t

affect the system speed pertaining to our requirement. Its important to note down the

sequence of instructions to be followed, else the 4bit implementation won’t give correct

results. The program flow diagram is as follows:

 There’s an initialization sequence to be followed mentioned in the datasheet, as a 8 bit

interface to set the LCD in 4 bit interfacing, done in init_lcd() function.

 Define 2 functions for writing data and command words by selecting data and instruction

register respectively.

 Sequence of instruction to be followed is:

1. Put the word to be written in the respective register on data lines.

2. Select the data/instruction register to be written in.

3. Strobe the enable line.

Repeat this for lower nibble of the 8bit word.

 Also define a function for selecting the position on the LCD to be written, move_to(x,y).

This function writes the DDRAM address to position the cursor. As mentioned in datasheet

for 16X2, 2 line display address are as follows.

5.4 Real Time Clock

Chip used: Maxim DS 1307

Protocol: Serial interface using Two-Wire interface using Inter-Integrated Circuit(I

2C)

multi-master serial bus.

RTC interfaced with LCD.

Specifications of communication:

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RTC

 uC Frequency : 1MHz

 Serial Clock Frequency (SCL): 28KHz (calculated from data sheet).

 Serial Data Line: SDA

Currently RTC resets on each power shut down since there is no back battery put into the

system.

6. Test Results and Discussions

The blocks tested are running successfully:

 Serial communication with the PC from the uC is implemented successfully (serial port

used). This was performed in 3 steps- character by character mirroring, buffer

transmission, modify the received buffer and then transmit. We observed this

transmission on the DSO as well to verify whether the serial communication is working

perfectly or not.

 MicroSD card interfaced with uC and following steps were executed.

1) A single block was read/write/deleted from the card.

2) Card was formatted in FAT32 and then the files were read/write/deleted from the uC.

 LM317 was used first which is a variable regulator due to ease of access. It did work out

for while we used only one card in the circuit. But on introduction of second card in the

system, loading occurred and the supply voltage of regulator was not within the range

2.7-3.6, though it was supposed to be at 3.3V(set voltage).

Due to this, one microSD card was blown. Hence, to account for the huge sensitivity of

microSD, we moved on to LM1117, for using this. These variations were removed by the

fixed voltage regulator LM1117.

 Before writing the EVM software, card to card communication was tested, as a

prerequisite step.

 Software issues :- “voter.txt” is not taken by the avr compiler and hence this was passed

character by character as ‘v’,’o’,’t’,’e’,’r’ .

 When we implemented the writing of data from one card to another, via the uC, we

encountered the problem of RAM flow. Each block is of 512 bytes and we required two

thereby leading to >1K of RAM. This caused RAM overflow of Atmega16 and problems

like main reset were encountered. Hence we switched to Atmega32, our final processor of

the EVM.

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7. Future Plans

1. Facility to provide printer extension in the machine, so that voter can be sure of his

vote casted after seeing it on a hard copy. This will help to track the malfunctioning of

EVM and have a backup of votes in that case.

Voter Verifiable Paper Record (VVPR): (if implemented)

It will have following details on it:

1. Candidate name for which voter voted

2. Encrypted Voter ID

We propose to have this paper record behind a glass shield so that voter doesn’t

tamper with it.

2. Graphics/touch screen implementation for display unit.

3. Facility of increased font size for poor eyesight voters.

4. Biometric Voter Identification.

5. LAN connectivity of the machine.

8. References

1. Datasheets: Atmega16,32, DS1307, LCD: Hitachi HD44780, max232, voltage

regulator 7805, Low drop out linear regulator 1117

2. Web sources :

http://www.dharmanitech.com/,

http://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2004/11/the_problem_wit.html

http://www.tiresias.org/research/guidelines/evoting_projects.htm#australia

3. Comprehensive Study: Documents in pdf format as follows

a) FAQ’s: Indian EVM

Published by: Election Commission of India

b) Electronic Voting Machines from Bharat Electronics Limited, India

c) Facts About Electronic Elections: www.VotersUnite.Org

d) Paper: On Voting Machine Design for Verification and Testability

Authors: Cynthia Sturton, SusmitJha, SanjitA.Seshia, DavidWagner

e) Report: Electronic voting – challenges and opportunities

Published by: Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development, Norway

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9. Appendix

9A Schematic Developed

9B Cost Estimation

Components Qty Cost(Rs.)

Mini SD 1 450

Micro SD 1 300

Card Holder 2 100

Atmega32 1 170

LM 1117 1 100

LCD 16X2 1 100

Relimate Buses 2 50

RTC Battery + Holder 1 40

RTC DS1307 1 30

Max232 1 18

Keypad 4X4 1 16

7805 1 6

Total 1380

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