2088 SUN 25 Dec 2016
is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages.
Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and
to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal
is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies
(sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay.
Indian cashless transaction is all about controlling others nothing else, once
Amid Cash Crunch, A Mysterious ‘5,000 Crore’-Influx In Poll-Bound Uttar Pradesh
cashless transaction is all about controlling others nothing else, once
the govt. has the ability to do so….they will also have the ability
to switch off the software, if that be the case how will people have
access to their own money….vary valid point…….again if a charge is
fixed to people to make payment….people will not have the ability to
opt out of this operation…..basically people will be helpless to use
their own money……
Through lottery, satta and
gambling into the mix of your scemes bjp. Also Through bhang, ganja and
desi alcohol into the mix. Make half zombie people full zombies. Don’t
stop till you create a full blown dystopia.
Amid Cash Crunch, A Mysterious ‘5,000 Crore’-Influx In Poll-Bound Uttar Pradesh
When asked for the source of the information, the BJP said it’s based
on stories in local newspapers in the past few days, coinciding with
Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi)’s high decibel campaign in
When NDTV checked
with the RBI, the spokesperson clarified that the bank does not release
any information on how much cash it distributes to states.
State Bank of India branch in Kaudia village, two hours from Gorakhpur
in East UP, women queuing outside the bank told us they have been there
since 4 am. We met them at around noon, 8 hours later, and they had
barely moved forward.
One of them claims to being mistreated by
the bank staff. “The manager pushed me yesterday and grabbed my throat,”
said one of the women.
Soon, a trunk of cash appeared at the
bank branch. Heavily locked, it was dragged inside the bank’s chained
gate. It remains unclear whether this is a part of the supposed
election-time influx of new currency.
That seemed of little concern to the crowd as they surged forward, desperate to get a handful of their own hard-earned cash.
Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) is a non-entity which do not believe in
our Modern Constitution but in a stealth, shadowy discriminating
hindutva cult rashtra. Their leaders are not elected in a democratic
manner but are selected among the inner circle of just 1% intolerant,
shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally retarded, cannibal psychopath
chitpawan brahmins who believe in brahmins as 1st rate athmas,
kshatriyas as 2nd rate, vysias as 3rd rate, shudhras as 4th rate souls
and the aboriginal panchamas (SC/STs0 have no soul, so that they cand
commit any crime on them. But the Buddha never believed in any soul. He
said all are equal. Hence Babasaheb returned back with millions of
people back to their original home Buddhism. According to the Architect
of the Modern Constitution Dr BR Ambedkar, irrespect of caste, religion,
creed and colour anyone can acquire education and not just the brahmins
as per manuvad, Anyone can rule this country unlike the kashatrias as
per manu. Anyone can do trade and business unlike vysias as per manuvad.
As mer manu women has no right like the men. But the modern
constitution made provisions for women even to become rulers. Ex Indira
gandhi, Jayalilita, Mamata Banerji etc., But for Dr Ambedkar they would
have not been recognised. Irrespect of caste and religion Devegowda
etc., would have not become the PM of this country.
This is intolerated by RSS which is opposed to reservation.
RSS is one of the Biggest Terrorist Organisations in the World. They are
Mad Horrorists threat group - shadowy, stealth and discriminatory group
trying to establish hindutva cult.
New Delhi: A US-based risk management and consulting company has put the
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) because RSS is killing so many people
and bombing and cutting of people and using suicide bombing techniques
and raping and honor killing women … it all happened in Gujrat and
happening in parts of the country.. Go get a life and become a Hindu
mr…. What is it? the one who have at least common sense, do u think he
or she become hindu? do u think that? Most of the people in the world
becoming muslim without any pressure, force or demand… think about
that…. See that RSS gentleman who studied about islam to oppose them and
became a muslim…. use your common sense and refrain from your bad
thoughts and paths.�They will have the end.. Rss have to be banned in
india with its.. hindhuthuva branches.. in south tamilnadu.. this rss
and hindhutva terrorist and Horrorist gang made problem to the people
who celebrating new year of 2015 night..
Increasing threats to the democratic-secular Indian polity from the Hindutva
organizations - a concise document on the anti-national game-plan of the
Hence this technological game of 1% Chitpawan RSS plan has to be defeated by
strengthening the 99% intellectuals by exposing the fradulent EVMs as
done by 80 democracies of the world in the larger interest of Sarvajan
Hitaye Sarvajan Sukhaye i.e., for the peace, happiness and welfare of
all societies including SC/STs/ OBCs/ Minorities and the poor brahmins
and baniyas for distributing the wealth of this country among all
sections of the society as enshrined in the Constitution by making the
Supreme Court to pass orders to replace all fradulent EVMs and till such
time to scrap all elections conducted by these fradulent EVMs and then
to conduct elections with tamper proof voting system to save democracy,
equality, fraternity and liberty.
RSS means Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks in a non -entity undemocratic organisation
with all its 40 avathars VHP (Visha Hindutva Psychopaths), BJP (Bahuth
Jiyadha Psychopaths), BMS (Bhramin Masdoor Sangh), ABVP (All Brahmin
Venomous Psychopaths), Bhajan Dal, Terrorist Sanstha Sangatan, eic.,
that become active during all elections for the greed of power for
Murderer of democratic instituitions (Modi) who is just a meant time
stooge of the 1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching,
lunatic, mentally retarded cannibal chitpawan brahmin psychopaths who
always keep heckling and giggling like mad people thinking that they are
great achievers.Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) and all its
associate avathars are shani and peda of the nation which is eclipsing
the development and progress as enshrined in the modern Constitution
whose architect is Dr BR Ambedkar.
After gobbling the MASTER KEY by tampering the fraud EVMs for Murderer of
democratic institutions (Modi) remotely controlled by RSS meaning
Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks, a non -entity undemocratic organisation with all
its 40 avathars VHP (Visha Hindutva Psychopaths), BJP (Bahuth Jiyadha
Psychopaths), BMS (Bhramin Masdoor Sangh), ABVP (All Brahmin Venomous
Psychopaths), Bhajan Dal, Terrorist Sanstha Sangatan, eic., that become
active during all elections for the greed of power for Murderer of
democratic instituitions (Modi) who is just a meant time stooge of the
1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching, lunatic, mentally
retarded cannibal chitpawan brahmin psychopaths who always keep heckling
and giggling like mad people thinking that they are great achievers.
They are Shani and Pedal of the nation trying to bury the
Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement
and the teachings of the Awaken One with Awareness without knowing that
they are seeds that keep sprouting as Bodhi Trees.
If all the fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots they will not even get 1% of the votes.
Only Ms Mayawati’s BSP which got majority of the seats in UP Panchayat
Elections with these paper ballots will the not only become the CM of UP
but also the next PM of Prabuddha Bharath.
RSS’s Mohan Bhagwat,Bhaiyyaji Joshi and 41 regional pracharaks are all drop
outs including Mohan Agarwal.Also Ram Lal and Ram Madhav,Rajnath Singh
and Amit Shahlike doubtful education of Murderer of democratic
Caste by caste, BSP fields ‘bhaichara coordinators’
Satish Chandra Misra, the BSP’s Brahmin face, has been assigned the reserved seats in
eastern UP, central UP and Bundelkhand, and MLA Ramvir Upadhyay the
reserved seats of western UP.
The BSP has fielded some of its most prominent non-SC/ST leaders to
reach out to the communities they represent. Ahead of the UP elections,
the BSP has assigned specific regions to these bhaichara coordinators.
Satish Chandra Misra, the BSP’s Brahmin face, has been assigned the
reserved seats in eastern UP, central UP and Bundelkhand, and MLA Ramvir
Upadhyay the reserved seats of western UP. Misra addressed a rally in
Gorakhpur’s Khajani Sunday, with BSP candidates from seven reserved
seats attending. Statewide, Misra will be assisted by other Brahmin
leaders including his son-in-law Paresh and former MLC Gopal Narain
For Muslims, the BSP has chosen party general secretary Naseemuddin
Siddiqui for western UP where he is addressing meetings, Rajya Sabha MP
Munquad Ali for Varanasi, Allahabad and Mirzapur divisions, and Naushad
Ali for Bundelkhand, and Athar Khan in Faizabad and Devipatan.
Among OBC leaders, state BSP chief Ram Achal Rajbhar and former
Speaker Sukhdeo Rajbhar have begun addressing sammelans in eastern UP,
while former MLC R S Kushwaha is trying to attract Kushwahas in central
UP. Pratap Singh Baghel is wooing the Gaderiya (Pal) community in Agra
region, former minister Lalji Verma addressing Kurmis in eastern UP and
Terai, and former MP R K Singh Patel is in Bundelkhand and Allahabad.
Former minister Jaivir Singh will work among Thakurs in western UP,
former MLA Jitendra Singh Babloo has been addressing sammelans in
Faizabad and Basti, and Rasra MLA Umashankar Singh in Azamgarh.
Demonetisation: Continuous cash crunch can adversely impact BJP’s prospects in Uttar Pradesh polls, believes RSS
With the gradual shifting of common people from supporting the
demonetisation to criticising it taking note of the continuous cash
crunch even over a month of its announcement, several units and
affiliates of the RSS believed it could adversely impact the chances of
BJP to win.
Soon after Murderer of democratic institutions
(Modi)’s announcement of demonetisation, the banks and ATMs witnessed
long queues of people waiting to either withdraw lower denomination of
banknotes or to exchange their high-value currencies with it.
With the gradual shifting of common people from supporting the
demonetisation to criticising it taking note of the continuous cash
crunch even over a month of its announcement, several units and
affiliates of the Rakshasa Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) believed it could
adversely impact the chances of Bahuth Jiyadha Psychopaths (BJP) to win.
They have reportedly suggested senior functionaries of the Sangh and
the BJP that either cash inflow should be increased at the earliest or
the Uttar Pradesh elections
The 5 Deadliest Terrorist Groups on the Planet
“Like it or not, terrorism will continue to be a problem for the United
States, its allies, and the rest of the international community. “
ELECTRONC VOTING MACHINE
Group No. 3
Pooja Nagle (07d04003)<email@example.com>
Neha Agarwal(07011023)< firstname.lastname@example.org >
Supervisor : PC Pandey
The project is aimed to make an unsupervised Electronic Voting Machine, with no controls
required from the polling officer. It will be used to cast votes for multiple elections taking
place simultaneously. Each valid voter is provided with a unique voter ID and a pass code by
the election committee to be kept securely, which is used for the voter identification and
validation during vote casting. There is no restriction on the number of candidates standing
for a particular election. It will tally the votes and also have the facility of recording of actual
votes using real-time clock for time stamping of the votes, which will only be read accessible.
We are fascinated by the fact that the World’s Largest Democracy implements elections
electronically, while on the contrary it is discouraged by the western countries even now.
When we did a comprehensive we came around following facts which are not a part of Indian
EVM’s driving as motivation for us to implement them in our design.
1. Election Transparency: all the processes of handling and counting ballots to be
completely open to public view. Nothing to be hidden or secret – except, of course, each
individual’s voting choices.
2. Trust of the voter in the EVM registering the vote : We plan to implement voter verifiable
paper record (vvpr) to which voter can look up instantly and decide on whether the vote he
casted is registered correctly in the system increasing the reliability of the system.
We have made a module which interfaces with the voter and directs to the procedure of
voting. The Liquid Crystal Display unit provides the voter friendly interface guiding through
the procedure of voting. The keypad is used to enter the details and other actions to be taken
by the voter, which are integrated with the display unit. We learnt a lot many aspects of
design and especially SD card interfacing is the most interesting part. Also the product can be
used for several types of elections not only just the State or Assembly Elections, discussed in
2. Design Approach
Flow Diagram: How voting will take place:
Display Unit Keypad Unit
Sealed Slot for Memory CARD I and CARD II
Polling Officer sets up the
machine for voting. Now on
voting will be unsupervised.
3. Hardware Design
The hardware required for this design mainly needs to interface various blocks with each
other in synchronisation. These are as follows:
Reads the instructions
displayed on the screen.
The machine prompts for
the Voter ID and Pass code
Display the Eligible election List
Wait for voter to choose for the
Election to vote for
If the ID &
Register the vote
Print out the VVPR
Logout the Voter
Display Error Message
3.1 Memory Storage Components
We require a memory which is easy and fast in read write and easily detachable from the
system whenever required, without any changes to the internal circuitry. Memory
requirement is also high, as it stores a large database of the voters and other details.
Therefore, we decided to go for SD Cards. There are two sd cards in the proposed machine:
Card I: It is a Read Write Card that will have data from the Election Commission, serially
transferred to the card by the PC:
Voter Details: Voter ID, Pass code, Election Eligibility.
Candidate Details: Candidate Name, Party, ID, votes casted in favor,( symbol in case of
–Read Only: Voter details section
–R/W: No. of votes casted in the favour of a particular candidate will be updated during
Card II: It will have the stamped vote details, exactly as they are casted by the voters. Data
already written will be freeze, to keep details intact and non-modifiable at any point of time.
This card can be used in case of any legal concerns regarding the mismatch of the expected
and actual results, or if some malpractice is suspected in the tallying process.
It will control the interfacing between various blocks as shown above in the machine. It has
the voting software programmed in it. We have chosen the Atmega 32 for our design. It has a
serial interface, two wire link interface, which are required for SD Card and RTC interfacing
respectively. Our system requires a uC with low computational speed, since they happen only
at the time votes are casted and that too are not prolonged, making us choose Atmega-32.
Initially, we used Atmega16, but due to larger RAM requirements of the software we moved
onto Atmega32.We have left many pins of uC unused, this is for further use of these port pins
to implement future works like biological unit, printer etc. Also on the same line we shifted
from 8bit to 4bit LCD interfacing.
3.3 Output Display Unit: LCD
This is the output unit of the machine. Voter Interface will be provided here. It displays all
the relevant details about the current election and voter can act accordingly and view the
options out here. We have implemented it on the 16X2 display currently since the display
items were not complex as we didn’t have symbol for a candidate in present machine.
3.4 Input Unit: Keypad
This is the input unit of the machine which takes various instructions from the voters, while
voting and also in configuring of the EVM before elections. The voter enters the details asked
for identification via voter ID and pass code, and moves further on to the process of voting.
Voter ID & Pass code will be in the form of numbers so as to remove any issues related
languages, and cultures. Other 4 keys will be as: arrow keys, enter key. This will be specified
on the hardware.
3.5 Real-Time Clock (RTC)
It is used for time stamping of votes on the SD Card II. It readily gives current time and date
whenever needed. Battery is needed for Real time clock so that in spite of power failure the
clock runs. Also there will less burden on the power supply. But we propose to implement it
in next stage of our design.
4. Software Design
The software will be programmed in the microcontroller. This will determine how casted
votes are handled by the system. The interfacing between various blocks is also integrated
with this. Also there will be some encryption for the Voter ID numbers which will be printed
on the Paper Record which we have proposed as extension. The software is being
implemented in 4 steps (4.1-4.4).
4.1 Validation of Voter
Voter is validated by checking the entered password from the corresponding voterid’s
passcode entered in voter.txt file.
4.2 Checking the status of vote
Checking the voter status: It first checks if the voter has voted for central elections by
searching for the voterID in the file centl.txt.
If no, he is asked to vote. If yes, we check if user is eligible for state election happening.
If the voter is not eligible, he is logged out.
If eligible, similar procedure as of central election is carried out.
4.3 Vote Registration
The list of candidates standing for election under consideration is displayed along with the
candidateID and the voter is asked for the candidateID he wish to vote for. The corresponding
count in ccand.txt gets incremented by one, thereby giving the count of votes received by a
particular candidate. Same procedure is followed for state elections as well.
4.4 Time stamping of vote
Time stamping of vote is done to avoid bogus voting and track them. The vote casted by a
voter gets registered at mini SD, in the file centl.txt. Details of the vote casted are given in
description of centl.txt file
4.5 File Structure
4.5.1 Card-I (micro SD)
a).Voter.txt – This file has the attributes of the voter namely voterid, voter passcode, voter
name and his state of eligibility. All the attributes of one voter are separated by a ‘|’ character
and each voter record comes in next line.
The file ends with a ~ character.
For eg. – 1|9|assam|ram means voterid is 1, passcode is 9, voter state is assam and name is
b). Cand.txt – Contains the list of candidates standing for central elections. Each row
corresponds to one candidate and has the candidateID, candidate name and number of votes
casted for the candidate.
c). Scand.txt – Same as cand.txt but for state elections.
d). Sdet.txt – This stores the name of state in which elections are happening.
4.5.2 Card-II (miniSD)
a). Centl.txt – Stores the vote casted for central elections. Format in which it gets stored is:
voterID|candidateID|time at which vote casted|date at which vote casted*
Each vote is separated by a *, and the end of file is marked by ~.
b). State.txt – Same for state elections.
4.6 Assumptions and Constraints of file storage
1. VoterID and candidateID should start from one and be consecutive integers.
2. VoterID and passcode can be of maximum 19 characters.
3. CandidateID of 2 characters, candidate name is 30 characters and vote casted is 5
4. The record of each candidate in cand.txt and scand.txt is occupied fully. That is, if a
candidate name is of 10 characters only, still 30 characters should be full. Rest 20 are written
by a dummy character, say $. Similar is for all fields in this file. This is done since for
updating a file from mid, we need to know the exact character position from where the vote
count should be updated.
5. No votes for a candidate has to be represented by a 0.
5. Block Wise Testing
5.1 Secure Digital Card
Micro SD Card: 2GB
Mini SD Card: 2GBB
Serial Clock Frequency (SCK): 0.5 MHz
Protocol – Interfaced with Atmega16 through the SPI peripheral. The card is acting as
slave and uC as master.
SD card is interfaced with the atmega16 using FAT32 filesystem. Two pins are used as chip
select for selecting between the cards and hence the communication is done independently
between them. Since two cards were used, MISO, MOSI and SCK pins of uC are multiplexed
to both the cards. Communication is done block wise at a time and each block size is 512
bytes. The resistors at these pins are provided to match the current specifications of SDcard.
SDcard runs on a supply voltage of 2.7-3.6V, we have used a fixed voltage regulator of
We have used the logic of scanning the rows and columns of the 4X4 matrix keypad by
pulling rows low one by one and then checking the corresponding column press for that low
row. If a key in that row is presses then a column intersecting with that row will be low,
hence key detection was done. Also we introduced a delay of 20us in order to check that
really a key was pressed and hence again took the input for that key. The program flow
diagram is as follows:
Select a 8bit Port for attaching keypad
Set 4 bits for row connection: output pin configuration
Set remaining 4 for column connection: input pin configuration
Initialize output pins as all 1’s
Run a loop in which each row is pulled down at a time
Check for column and wait for key de-bouncing time and then again read the input pins.
Wait for input port to settle
Then according to the read value assign the symbol to that key using a switch case.
5.3 LCD Interfacing
16X2 Hitachi HD44780
LCD is interfaced in 4 bit mode, that is we have used only 6 pins of uC:
4: data line (DB7-DB4)
2: control pins RS(register select) and E(enable)
We only write data onto LCD. Instead of 8bit mode 4bit was chosen since our application is
not high speed and delays due to the introduction of multiplexing data line twice, doesn’t
affect the system speed pertaining to our requirement. Its important to note down the
sequence of instructions to be followed, else the 4bit implementation won’t give correct
results. The program flow diagram is as follows:
There’s an initialization sequence to be followed mentioned in the datasheet, as a 8 bit
interface to set the LCD in 4 bit interfacing, done in init_lcd() function.
Define 2 functions for writing data and command words by selecting data and instruction
Sequence of instruction to be followed is:
1. Put the word to be written in the respective register on data lines.
2. Select the data/instruction register to be written in.
3. Strobe the enable line.
Repeat this for lower nibble of the 8bit word.
Also define a function for selecting the position on the LCD to be written, move_to(x,y).
This function writes the DDRAM address to position the cursor. As mentioned in datasheet
for 16X2, 2 line display address are as follows.
5.4 Real Time Clock
Chip used: Maxim DS 1307
Protocol: Serial interface using Two-Wire interface using Inter-Integrated Circuit(I
multi-master serial bus.
RTC interfaced with LCD.
Specifications of communication:
uC Frequency : 1MHz
Serial Clock Frequency (SCL): 28KHz (calculated from data sheet).
Serial Data Line: SDA
Currently RTC resets on each power shut down since there is no back battery put into the
6. Test Results and Discussions
The blocks tested are running successfully:
Serial communication with the PC from the uC is implemented successfully (serial port
used). This was performed in 3 steps- character by character mirroring, buffer
transmission, modify the received buffer and then transmit. We observed this
transmission on the DSO as well to verify whether the serial communication is working
perfectly or not.
MicroSD card interfaced with uC and following steps were executed.
1) A single block was read/write/deleted from the card.
2) Card was formatted in FAT32 and then the files were read/write/deleted from the uC.
LM317 was used first which is a variable regulator due to ease of access. It did work out
for while we used only one card in the circuit. But on introduction of second card in the
system, loading occurred and the supply voltage of regulator was not within the range
2.7-3.6, though it was supposed to be at 3.3V(set voltage).
Due to this, one microSD card was blown. Hence, to account for the huge sensitivity of
microSD, we moved on to LM1117, for using this. These variations were removed by the
fixed voltage regulator LM1117.
Before writing the EVM software, card to card communication was tested, as a
Software issues :- “voter.txt” is not taken by the avr compiler and hence this was passed
character by character as ‘v’,’o’,’t’,’e’,’r’ .
When we implemented the writing of data from one card to another, via the uC, we
encountered the problem of RAM flow. Each block is of 512 bytes and we required two
thereby leading to >1K of RAM. This caused RAM overflow of Atmega16 and problems
like main reset were encountered. Hence we switched to Atmega32, our final processor of
7. Future Plans
1. Facility to provide printer extension in the machine, so that voter can be sure of his
vote casted after seeing it on a hard copy. This will help to track the malfunctioning of
EVM and have a backup of votes in that case.
Voter Verifiable Paper Record (VVPR): (if implemented)
It will have following details on it:
1. Candidate name for which voter voted
2. Encrypted Voter ID
We propose to have this paper record behind a glass shield so that voter doesn’t
tamper with it.
2. Graphics/touch screen implementation for display unit.
3. Facility of increased font size for poor eyesight voters.
4. Biometric Voter Identification.
5. LAN connectivity of the machine.
1. Datasheets: Atmega16,32, DS1307, LCD: Hitachi HD44780, max232, voltage
regulator 7805, Low drop out linear regulator 1117
2. Web sources :
3. Comprehensive Study: Documents in pdf format as follows
a) FAQ’s: Indian EVM
Published by: Election Commission of India
b) Electronic Voting Machines from Bharat Electronics Limited, India
c) Facts About Electronic Elections: www.VotersUnite.Org
d) Paper: On Voting Machine Design for Verification and Testability
Authors: Cynthia Sturton, SusmitJha, SanjitA.Seshia, DavidWagner
e) Report: Electronic voting – challenges and opportunities
Published by: Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development, Norway
9A Schematic Developed
9B Cost Estimation
Components Qty Cost(Rs.)
Mini SD 1 450
Micro SD 1 300
Card Holder 2 100
Atmega32 1 170
LM 1117 1 100
LCD 16X2 1 100
Relimate Buses 2 50
RTC Battery + Holder 1 40
RTC DS1307 1 30
Max232 1 18
Keypad 4X4 1 16
7805 1 6