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Paṭisambhidā Jāla-Abaddha Paripanti Tipiṭaka Anvesanā ca Paricaya Nikhilavijjālaya ca ñātibhūta Pavatti Nissāya 
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org anto 105 Seṭṭhaganthāyatta Bhāsā
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2092 Thu 29 Dec 2016 LESSONS from Rector JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan of Free Online Buddhism - World Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506Awaken One With Awareness Mind (A1wAM)+ ioT (insight-net of Things) - the art of Giving, taking and Living to attain Eternal Bliss as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM). Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by Start using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru FOA1TRPUVF. Practice Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing, lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for health mind in a healthy body. from INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF) https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up free online university research practice up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/ email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card modinotourpm@gmail.com jchandra1942@icloud.com sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages. Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and propagation entitles to become a Stream Enterer (Sottapanna) and to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal BSP is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies (sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvajan Hitay sarvajan Sukhay. http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif UP Assembly election: Advantage BSP, while uncle Shivpal has the last laugh over nephew Akhilesh The BSP will turn out to be the biggest beneficiary in this tug of war within the Yadav family. The CEC had announced that the entire EVMs would be replaced only in 2019. Till such time paper ballots must be used. Magadhi [Pali] Prakrit of the Thervadin Buddhists Of all the Buddhists Traditions, Theravada was the only sect to preserve the usage of Magadhi Prakrit in its literature. [The term “Pali” was traditionally used for denoting the Texts in the language, the language is itself referred to as Magadhi in Theravadin literature]. https://www.reddit.com/…/what_language_did_siddhartha_gau…/… TRIKURAL AND TRIVALLUVAR The Tripitaka, the earliest collection of Buddhist teachings and the only text recognized as canonical by Theravada Buddhists Please visit http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for animated yoga postures http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org/?m=201206 http://yoga.org.nz/postures.htm-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ojHBcT5e_M8 Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya DN 16 - (D ii 137) Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
Filed under: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka, Tipiṭaka
Posted by: site admin @ 7:30 pm



2092 Thu 29 Dec 2016


LESSONS


from

Rector
JCMesh J Alphabets Letter Animation ClipartMesh C Alphabets Letter Animation Clipart

an expert who identifies experts influenced by Expert and Infulencer Sashikanth Chandrasekharan
of


Free Online
Buddhism - World

Religions for Kidshttps://drambedkarbooks.com/2015/03/14/the-chamcha-age-by-saheb-kanshi-ram/#more-1506
Awaken One With Awareness Mind
(A1wAM)
+ ioT (insight-net of Things)  - the art of Giving, taking and Living   to attain Eternal Bliss
as Final Goal through Electronic Visual Communication Course on
Political Science -Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic
Emancipation Movement (TPSTEEM).


Struggle hard to see that all fraud EVMs are replaced by paper ballots by

Start
using Internet of things by creating Websites, blogs. Make the best use
of facebook, twitter etc., to propagate TPSTEEM thru
FOA1TRPUVF.

Practice
Insight Meditation in all postures of the body - Sitting, standing,
lying, walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, martial arts etc., for
health mind in a healthy body.



 from

INSIGHT-NET-Hi Tech Radio Free Animation Clipart Online A1 (Awakened One) Tipiṭaka Research & Practice University
in Visual Format (FOA1TRPUVF)

https://archive.org/stream/DhammapadaIllustrated/dhammapada_illustrated#page/n1/mode/2up


free online university research practice









up a level through http://sarvajan.ambedkar.orgup a level



https://awakenmediaprabandhak. wordpress.com/












email-0565.gif from 123gifs.eu Download & Greeting Card


modinotourpm@gmail.com
jchandra1942@icloud.com
sarvajanow@yahoo.co.in



is the most Positive Energy of informative and research oriented site propagating the teachings of the Awakened One with Awareness the Buddha and on Techno-Politico-Socio Transformation and Economic Emancipation Movement followed by millions of people all over the world in 105 Classical languages.


Rendering exact translation as a lesson of this
University in one’s mother tongue to this Google Translation and
propagation entitles to become a Stream
Enterer (Sottapanna) and

to attain Eternal Bliss as a Final Goal

BSP
is the Number One Largest Party in the Country with all societies
(sarvajan Samaj ) supporting it for Sarvaj
an Hitay sarvajan Sukhay.

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

UP Assembly election: Advantage BSP, while uncle Shivpal has the last laugh over nephew Akhilesh

The BSP will turn out to be the biggest beneficiary in this tug of war within the Yadav family.
The CEC had announced that the entire EVMs would be replaced only in 2019. Till such time paper ballots must be used.

Magadhi [Pali] Prakrit of the Thervadin Buddhists


Of all the Buddhists Traditions, Theravada was the only sect to
preserve the usage of Magadhi Prakrit in its literature. [The term
“Pali” was traditionally used for denoting the Texts in the language,
the language is itself referred to as Magadhi in Theravadin literature].


https://www.reddit.com/…/what_language_did_siddhartha_gau…/…

TRIKURAL AND TRIVALLUVAR

The Tripitaka, the earliest collection of Buddhist teachings and the only text recognized as canonical by Theravada Buddhists

Please visit http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org for animated yoga postures
http://sarvajan.ambedkar.org/?m=201206

http://yoga.org.nz/postures.htm

Summary of the Problem with Electronic Voting
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyZWVzSnVBcVY4a28/view


http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

http://www.ambedkar.org/gifimages/voteforBSP.gif

UP Assembly election: Advantage BSP, while uncle Shivpal has the last laugh over nephew Akhilesh

The BSP will turn out to be the biggest beneficiary in this tug of war within the Yadav family.


Marginalised by his own father and subdued by his own uncle, a
seemingly fuming but apparently helpless Akhilesh Yadav may be talking
of persuading Mulayam to rethink on the list, but the announcement has
already been made undermining his authority.

It’s clear that his
uncle Shivpal Yadav has had the last laugh, but possibly after the
Assembly elections in UP, the BSP will turn out to be the biggest
beneficiary in this tug of war within the Yadav family.


Meanwhile, BSP supremo Mayawati has been alleging that a tie-up between
Congress and the SP was being engineered by the BJP after the
demonetisation. But ‘Netaji’ Mulayam Singh Yadav put to rest all such
speculations. He categorically stated that Samajwadi Party will go it
alone and have no tie up with anyone in the elections. He also said that
the Samajwadi Party’s nominations for 325 seats were made by him, and
his was the final word.

Today’s development will comfort the BSP
especially since UP’s ruling party is a divided house in itself and that
the ambitious plans of Akhilesh to have a tie up with the Congress has
now been rubbished by Mulayam.

While Mayawati have benefited greatly, BJP’s own prospects have diminished considerably too.

AKHILESH’S AUTHORITY QUESTIONED


The Chacha-Bhatija wedge is threatening to get deeper after several
names in Akhilesh’s own list have been omitted in party nominations.
This coupled with the fact that don-turned politician Atik Ahmed,
despite thumbing his nose several times at Akhilesh, managed to secure
his Kanpur Cantt seat nomination.

Several of those close to
Akhilesh have been dropped from nominations. This has created a question
mark on Akhilesh’s say in party matters.

SP supremo Mulayam
seems to have put aside Akhilesh’s ‘Kaam Bolta Hai’ push, while on an
inauguration spree, and given credence to his younger brother Shivpal. A
deeper chasm in the party coming to the fore might not augur well for
SP, as divisive forces and conflicting interests may act as loggerheads.

In the meantime, it is advantage BSP. Especially, post demonetisation.

The CEC had announced that the entire EVMs would be replaced only in 2019. Till such time paper ballots must be used.


The ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by
ordering that the EVMs would be replaced in a phased manner as suggested
by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores involved in
entire replacement.In the 2014 Lok Sabha elections only 8 out of 543
seats were replaced to benefit BJP. They never ordered for using paper
ballots until the entire EVMs were replaced.

Ms Mayawati’s BSP
lost all the Lok Sabha seats because of these EVMs and BSP won majority
of the seats in UP Panchayat elections conducted with paper ballots as
followed by 80 democracies of the world.

All people having faith
in democracy, the present CJI and CEC must dissolve the central and
state governments selected by these fraud EVMs and go for polls with
paper ballots to save equality, liberty and fraternity as enshrined in
our modern constitution for Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhaya i.e., for
the welfare, happiness and peace of all societies.

http://www.firstpost.com/…/uttar-pradesh-assembly-election-…

Uttar Pradesh Assembly Election 2017: Mayawati alleges BJP of SC/ST discrimination


Murderer of democratic institutions (Modi) -led BJP (Bajuth Jiyadha
Psychopaths) is targetting her because of she is a Aboriginal Scheduled
caste as well as the ‘master key’ to unlocking the upcoming Uttar
Pradesh Assembly election.


Alleging that the BJP has an anti-SC/ST mindset and is being casteist,
Mayawati said, “They don’t like that a Aboriginal Scheduled Caste
daughter working for the upliftment of all societies ,” Mayawati said in
a special press conference on Tuesday.

She said that the Modi is
afraid of Mayawati’s popularity: “Mayawati is the master key to UP
Assembly election and the BJP is shaken.”

Modi must know that the Aboriginal Inhabitants Scheduled Caste is the Mother Caste of all other castes. They are the HRD & D (Human Resource Developers and Distributors) and he must know that all the people belong to a single same race irrespective of castes, creeds, colours and relegions.

The BSP chief
reiterated how the BSP was the first party to oppose demonetisation, and
that Modi is targetting her and the party because it blames her for
fuelling opposition parties to rise up against the move.

She also
clarified on the Rs 100 crore deposited in a BSP account stating that
the party has all the records of the deposits made into its accounts
after demonetisation, and the money was deposited as per the rules of
the BSP. “All the money has been collected after 21 August. We convert
all the donations into notes of higher denominations because it’s easier
to transport. All the donations are collected in Delhi for final
accounting. It’s deposited in banks only after final accounting in my
presence. We were unable to deposit earlier because I was unable to go
to Delhi,” she said.

On a sarcastic note, the BSP chief thanked
the Modi and party president Amit Shah, stating that the tactics of
Modi, Amit Shah of BJP will get her gain full majority in the upcoming
election, just like allegations towards her helped win the election in
2007. “Modi is targetting me and senior members of the party along with
my friends and relatives for political gains. Shah is maligning my
reputation by talking about the ghotalas, and the Taj Corridor. I want
to tell you that most parties in power do that. The BJP especially.
There’s not a single file on the project that went through me. I have
not signed on a single file. They maligned by name between 2003 and
2007, but I got an absolute majority. They are doing it again. And I am
sure the BSP will form a government again with an absolute majority. I
am grateful to them(!)”

Mayawati also challenged the Modi to
divulge records of all bank deposits and purchases made by the party
before and after 8 November.

Taking a jibe at the Modi on
demonetisation, the BSP chief said, “I pray to God that they take a
couple of more decisions like demonetisation and make it easier for us
to form government. I won’t even have to go to the 75 districts for poll
campaigning. I will win sitting at home.”


A day after reports emerged of deposits worth Rs 100 crore in old notes of Rs 1,000 made in Bahujan…
firstpost.com


http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/narendra-modi-and-his-ministers-declare-assets-heres-what-they-own/




 Modi

Age
66
Marital Status
Separated

Modi and his party declare assets: Here’s what they own



The richest among
Modi’s friends Arun Jaitley, who along with
his wife, has assets worth Rs 72.10 crore.

Modi owns movable assets worth Rs 26,12,288 and immovable assets worth Rs 1 crore.

Rajnath Singh,
who also features in the list, is richer than Modi. He
owns movable assets worth Rs 66,41,260.33 and immovable assets worth Rs
1,90,00,000. He has also declared the wealth owned by his
wife, and it’s worth Rs 40,88,871.

Sushma Swaraj has declared her wealth worth Rs 2,98,48,485, in addition
to an ancestral land in Palwal, Haryana. Her husband, Swaraj Kaushal,
has movable assets worth Rs 8,88,91,635 and immovable worth Rs
3,18,90,050 (total wealth worth Rs 12,07,81,685).

The list further has declaration of assets by all the friends of Modi .

What about undeclared asets ?

Why do they need our currency.They were in foreign countries last year!!!!

Rs
5000 crore spent by Modi in election campaining…..can modi remotely
controlled by Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) declare the source of
funding.

Mark
 

Modi has only 1.3cr.huh What a joke..

Citizen
 Good
at last a beginning is made now it is for the citizens to keep track
and be vigilant on these things to find any wrong doing by these guys
so that some good advocate/group can file a PIL in the courts to haul
them up.



http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2016/12/02/modis-demonetization-is-a-cure-worse-than-the-disease-for-india/#344d205a5c58
In November 2016 he unexpectedly announced plans to eliminate Country’s
two largest bank notes in a bid to reduce money laundering and
corruption, creating a nationwide frenzy to quickly swap out the bills.

Modi’s Demonetization Is a Cure Worse Than The Disease For The Country

Tuesday  marked four weeks since Modi
made his surprise demonetization announcement that has sent shockwaves
throughout the South Asian country’s economy.

In an effort by Modi to combat black money and put Rs 15 lakhs in every citizens bank accounts all
500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes are no longer recognized as legal tender.

Inevitably, low-income and rural households have been hardest hit by
Modi’s currency reform. Barter economies have reportedly sprung up in
many towns and villages. Banks have limited the amount that can be
withdrawn. Scores of weddings have been called off. Indian stocks
plunged below their 200-day moving average.


indian stocks tumble following modis demonetization announcement




Buys, holds, and hopes

Frank Holmes Frank Holmes, Contributor

Next
Tuesday will mark four weeks since Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi
made his surprise demonetization announcement that has sent shockwaves
throughout the South Asian country’s economy.

overnight indian prime minister narendra modi killed 90 nations currency

In an effort to combat corruption, tax evasion and counterfeiting,
all 500 and 1,000 rupee banknotes are no longer recognized as legal
tender.

I’ve previously written about the possible ramifications of the “war on cash,”
which is strengthening all over the globe, even here in the U.S. Many
policymakers, including former Treasury Secretary Larry Summers, are in
favor of axing the $100 bill. In May, the European Central Bank (ECB)
said it would stop printing the 500 euro note, though it will still be
recognized as legal currency. The decision to scrap the “Bin Laden”
banknote, as it’s sometimes called, hinged on its association with money
laundering and terror financing.

Electronic payment systems are convenient, fast and easy, but when a government imposes this decision on you, your economic liberty is debased.
In a purely electronic system, every financial transaction is not only
charged a fee but can also be tracked and monitored. Taxes can’t be
levied on emergency cash that’s buried in the backyard. Central banks
could drop rates below zero, essentially forcing you to spend your money
or else watch it rapidly lose value.

Inevitably, low-income and rural households have been hardest hit by
Modi’s currency reform. Barter economies have reportedly sprung up in
many towns and villages. Banks have limited the amount that can be
withdrawn. Scores of weddings have been called off. Indian stocks
plunged below their 200-day moving average.

indian stocks tumble following modis demonetization announcement

Recommended by Forbes

Demonetization has also weighed heavily on the country’s
manufacturing sector. The Nikkei India Manufacturing PMI fell to 52.3 in
November from October’s 54.4. Although still in expansion mode,
manufacturing production growth slowed, possibly signaling further
erosion in the coming months.

Indian Manufacturing Cools in December


The Country Runs on Cash


The two Country’s bills in question, worth $7.50 and $15, represented an
estimated 86 percent of all cash in circulation by value. No two bills
in the U.S. so dominate transactions quite like the Rs500 and Rs1,000
notes, but imagine if tomorrow the Treasury Department killed everything
north of the $20 bill. Despite the widespread availability and
acceptability of electronic payment systems, this would be devastating
to many American consumers who prefer cash or who are underbanked.


Because Country’s economy relies predominantly on cash, the effects
will be far greater. ATMs are scarce, and few rural Indians have a
credit or debit card. An estimated 600 million Indians—nearly half the
country’s population—are without a bank account. Three hundred million
have no government identification, necessary to open an account. By
comparison, about
7 percent of Americans are unbanked, with an additional 20 percent underbanked, according to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).

In india cash is king


This is one of the main reasons why the Country’s people have traditionally held
gold in such high demand. Many have little faith in banks and other
financial institutions, preferring instead to store their wealth in
something more reliable and tangible. So great is Countrys’ appetite for
the yellow metal that prices have
historically surged in September,
following the end of the monsoon season and ahead of Diwali and the
wedding season, when gifts of gold jewelry are typically given.


“Gold is a need of the [the Country’s] people,” says Suresh Jain, owner of India’s B.J. Jain Jewellers, as quoted in the Financial Times. “It is not a luxury item. It is essential.”


Ironically, though, Modi’s demonetization scheme will likely hurt
gold demand in the long run, “by dramatically reducing the stock of
black money hitherto used in a large chunk of purchases,” according to
the Financial Times.

As per the article in Forbes and Ms Mayawati
we are already in a worst than emergency days. 99% of the people are
affected by this economic emergency. May be Modi is trying through such
polls to officially declare emergency.

The nut wants the dictator coconut to declare emergency that is already there.

Just
1% intolerant, violent, militant, shooting, lynching, cannibal
chitpawan brahmin Rakshasa Swayam Sevaks (RSS) psychopaths are for
emergency for their stealth, shadowy discriminating hindutva cult
rashtra. But the 99% Sarvajan Samaj like our Chief Architect of Modern
Constitution Dr BR Ambedkar which is for equality, liberty and
farternity opposed to manuvad that believes in brahmins as 1st rate,
kshatras as 2nd, Vyshayas as 3rd and Shudras as 4th rate athmas (Souls )
and the aboriginal inhabitant SC?STs having no souls so that any crime
cand be done for them. But the Buddha never believed in any soul. He
said all are equal and that is enshrined in our modern constitution for
Sarvajan Hitay Sarvajan Sukhaya i.e., for the welfare, happiness and
peace for all societies.


overnight indian prime minister narendra modi killed 90 nations currency


The CEC had announced that the entire EVMs would be replaced only in 2019. Till such time paper ballots must be used.


The ex CJI Sathasivam had committed a grave error of judgement by
ordering that the EVMs would be replaced in a phased manner as suggested
by the ex CEC Sampath because of the cost of Rs 1600 crores involved in
entire replacement.In the 2014 Lok Sabha elections only 8 out of 543
seats were replaced to benefit BJP. They never ordered for using paper
ballots until the entire EVMs were replaced.


Ms Mayawati’s BSP lost all the Lok Sabha seats because of these EVMs
and BSP won majority of the seats in UP Panchayat elections conducted
with paper ballots as followed by 80 democracies of the world.


All people having faith in democracy, the present CJI and CEC must
dissolve the central and state governments selected by these fraud EVMs
and go for polls with paper ballots to save equality, liberty and
fraternity as enshrined in our modern constitution for Sarvajan Hitay
Sarvajan Sukhaya i.e., for the welfare, happiness and peace of all
societies.

Magadhi [Pali] Prakrit of the Thervadin Buddhists


Of all the Buddhists Traditions, Theravada was the only sect to
preserve the usage of Magadhi Prakrit in its literature. [The term
“Pali” was traditionally used for denoting the Texts in the language,
the language is itself referred to as Magadhi in Theravadin literature].

The usage of Pali is still strong among the native Buddhists.
This serves as the strong example for the bonding between the Magadhi
Language & Theravada.

The Theravadins also held the view that their language is
the most natural language and original language.

The fifth century Visuddhimagga by Buddhaghosa declares:


Magadhi is the root of all dialects, which was spoken by Brahmas, by
men before the present kalpa, by those who had neither heard nor uttered
human accent, and also by supreme Buddhas

sā māgadhī mūla bhāsā nārā yā yādi kappikā
brahmānochassutālāpā sambuddhā ehāpi bāsare

The Atthagatha (commentary) of Abhidhamma Vibhanga, states the below as the view of the Buddha Bhikshu Tissadatta Thera:

seated_buddha_in_bhumisparshamudra_rm56


If a new born baby is kept isolated and but not hear any language
spoken by any one, he would speak the Magadhl If, again, a person in an
uninhabited forest, in which no speech (is heard), should intuitively
attempt to articulate words, he would speak the very Magadhi.

It predominates in all regions (such as) Hell; the animal kingdom; the
Preta sphere ; the human world ; and the world of the devas. The rest
of the eighteen languages—Otta, Kirata, Andhaka, Yonaka, Damila, etc.,
undergo changes —but the Magadhi does not, which alone is unchangeable,
and is said to be the speech of Brahmans and Ariyas.

Even Buddha,
who rendered his tipitaka words into texts, did so by means of the very
Magadhi ; and why ? Because by doing so it (was) easy to acquire their
(true) significations. Moreover, the sense of the words of Buddha which
are rendered into doctrines by means of the Magadhi language, is
conceived in hundreds and thousands of ways by those who have attained
the patisambhida, so soon as they reach the ear, or the instant the ear
comes in contact with them ; but discourses rendered into other
languages are acquired with much difficulty.

It (i.e. Magadhi) was first predominant in the hells and in the world of
men and that of the gods. And afterwards the regional languages such as
Andhaka, Yonaka, Damila, etc., as well as the eighteen great languages,
Sanskrit, etc., arose out of it.


va apāyesuu manusse devaloke c’eva paṭhamam ussannā | pacchā ca tato
andhaka yonaka damiḽādi desabhāsā c’eva sakkaṭadi aṭṭhārasa mahābhāsā ca
nibattā |


As the grand finale, here to the view converges to considering Pali as
the source language of all. One interesting point to note that it
considers the Greek Language (Yonaka) as being born from Pali
.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magadhi_Prakrit

Magadhi Prakrit


Magadhi Prakrit (Ardhamāgadhī) is of one of the three Dramatic
Prakrits, the written languages. Magadhi Prakrit was spoken in the
eastern Indian subcontinent, in a region spanning what is now eastern
India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. It is believed to be the language spoken
by the important religious figures Gautama Buddha and Mahavira and was
also the language of the courts of the Magadha mahajanapada and the
Maurya Empire; the edicts of Ashoka were composed in it.

Magadhi
Prakrit later evolved into the Eastern Zone Indo-Aryan languages,
including Assamese, Bengali, Odia and the Bihari languages (Bhojpuri,
Maithili, and Magahi languages, among others).
Pali and Ardhamāgadhī


Theravada Buddhist tradition has long held that Pali was synonymous
with Magadhi and there are many analogies between it and an older form
of Magadhi called Ardhamāgadhī “Proto-Magadhi”. Ardhamāgadhī was
prominently used by Jain scholars and is preserved in the Jain Agamas.
Both Gautama Buddha and the tirthankara Mahavira preached in Magadha.

Pali: Dhammapada 103:

Yo sahassaṃ sahassena, saṅgāme mānuse jine;

Ekañca jeyyamattānaṃ, sa ve saṅgāmajuttamo.

Greater in battle than the man who would conquer a thousand-thousand men, is he who would conquer just one — himself.

http://manipurinfo.tripod.com/


W.Shaw and Raj Mohan Nath , two eminent scholars are of the view that ”
Bishnupriya ” with its Devanagari script had been language of ancient
Manipur.(18)

On the other hand, some other Bishnupriya Scholars
like Dr. K.P. Sinha has objected to claim of Manipur to the alleged
connection of Hindu legend. Dr. Sinha tried to prove his theory on the
basis that Bishnupriya Manipuri language as a resultant language of
Magadhi Prakrit.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magadhi_Prakrit


https://www.reddit.com/…/what_language_did_siddhartha_gau…/…

TRIKURAL AND TRIVALLUVAR

The Tripitaka, the earliest collection of Buddhist teachings and the only text recognized as canonical by Theravada Buddhists.

Trikural, Trimandiram, Trivasagam, Trivennba, Trimaalai, Trikadugam, was later replaced by Thiru and became Thirukural etc.


Pāḷi means “Buddha Vacanam”, the word of the Buddha consisting the
texts of the Tripitaka, the sacred Buddhist Canon, containing the
original teachings of the Buddha. The home of Pāḷi is Magadha. That
is why it is also known as Māgadhi.

The Buddha purposely did not speak in Chandas, the language
of Vedas, also called as Vedic Sanskrit. He spoke in the language of the common people.


“Anujānāmi bhikkhave sakāyaniruttiā Buddhavacanaṁ pariyāpunitaṁ -
Monks, I instruct that the words of the Buddha are learnt in the
standard vernacular of the masses.”

In the latest research when a
just born baby is separated and kept alone it will speak a natural
language of humans that is Magadhi/prakruth/ Pali like all other spices
like birds, animals etc.,have their own language with which it can
interact.

Hence Pali the natural common language of the humans was spoken by the Buddha in all his discourses.

Hence Pali is the mother language of all other languages which are its off shoots.

This apart, chronologically, Pāḷi is decidedly older
than modern classical Sanskrit.

It is hoped that in the age of science and technology when
language studies are becoming more and more objective, Pāḷi should be
studied widely as a discipline inseparable from other classical
languages of Prabuddha Bharath.

The Tripitaka was handed down
orally, and then written down in the third century B.C.E. According to
Buddhist tradition, the contents of the Tripitaka were determined at the
First Buddhist Council, shortly after the Buddha’s death. As many as
500 of Buddha’s disciples assembled, and at the direction of
Mahakashypa, Buddha’s
successor, the teachings of the Buddha were
recited in full. They were then verified by others who had also been
present and organized into the Tripitaka (although not written at the
time).

The Vinaya Pitaka (Discipline Basket) was recalled by a
monk named Upali. It deals with rules and regulations for the monastic
community (the sangha), including 227 rules for monks, further

regulations for nuns, and guidelines for the interaction between the
sangha and the laity. Most of these rules derive from the Buddha’s
responses to specific situations in the community.

The Sutta Pitaka (Discourse Basket) was recited by Ananda, Buddha’s cousin and closest companion. It contains the
Buddha’s teachings on doctrine and behavior, focusing especially on meditation techniques.

The Abhidharma Pitaka (Higher Knowledge or Special Teachings Basket) was recited by Mahakashyapa, the Buddha’s successor.
It is essentially a collection of miscellaneous writings, including songs,
poetry, and stories of the Buddha and his past lives. Its primary
subjects are Buddhist philosophy and psychology. Also within the
Abhidharma Pitaka is the Dhammapada a popular Buddhist text. The
Dhammapada consists of sayings of the Buddha and simple discussions of
Buddhist doctrine based on the Buddha’s
daily life.

Later Thirukural of Thiruvalluvar was written in Dravidian Language,
is the most popular, and most widely esteemed Tamil Classic of all
times. It is a Tamil book on philosophy and life in general, written by
Thiruvalluvar, a sage and philosopher, about 2000 years ago. Its appeal
is universal. It is the only Tamil literary work that has been
translated many times in almost all languages of the world.

Written by the Sage Thiruvalluvar, the Thirukkural is in the
form of couplets which convey noble thoughts.

The Thirukkural is a code of ethics. It has something noble
for the ordinary man, the administrator, the king and the ascetic. It
is global ears ago. It deals with the power of virtue, extols self
control, urges man to perform sacrifice and charity, and elucidates the
qualities that go to make perfection in all people - the married and the
ascetic.

The Thirukkural consists of Divided into three sections, the
first part called arattupaal in 38 chapters enumerates the ways to live
a morally upright life; touching on such things as the happy married life and the greatness of those who renounce.


The second part, called porutpaal tackles the conduct of those involved
in administration and socio-political life; about social
relations and citizenship.

The third part, inbatupaal, deals with love; about
physical longing, about true love and ethics.

Pandidamani Iyodhi Dass thought that the untouchables were
originally Buddhists and their salvation lay in Buddhism. He was the
great thinker and writer, he wrote Trikural apart from Thiruvalluvar
Aaraachi, Kural Kadavul Vaazhuthu etc.

He married Dhanalakshmi, the younger sister of Devan Bhadur
R. Srinivasan, who represented the Depressed Classes with Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar at the Round Table Conference.

Pandit Iyodhi Dass had four sons and two daughters. One of
his sons Shri I.Rajaram went to Natal, South Africa and tried to spread
Buddhism there. Later A.C.P. Periaswamier founded the natal
Buddhist Society in the year 1920.

Pandidamani Iyodhi Dass was the first Buddhist revivalist in
India among the untouchables. He breathed his last 5th May 1914 at the age of 69.


Early Buddhism followed aniconic tradition, which avoids direct
representation of the human figure. But wanted Dhamma to be spread all
over the world. Around the 1st century CE an iconic
period emerged lasting to this day which represents the Buddha in human form.


Buddhist art followed believers as the dharma spread, adapted, and
evolved in each new host country. It developed to the north through
Central Asia and into Eastern Asia to form the Northern branch of
Buddhist art, and to the east as far as Southeast Asia to form the
Southern branch of Buddhist art. In India, Buddhist art flourished and
even influenced the development of Hindu art

The three-layered
gilt-copper round base is engraved with treasure flowers and curling
grass patterns inlaid with turquoise, lapis lazuli and ivory. The body
of the pagoda is made of lapis lazuli, with the outer surface engraved
with gold-filled Prajna Paramita Sutra. The shoulders of the pagoda are
adorned with four gilt-silver beast faces holding strings of pearls,
turquoises and lapis lazuli stones in their mouths. These strings are
connected with the canopy.

There’s a Buddhist niche on the front
side of the pagoda, with a jade-carved flight of steps at the entrance.
The gilt-silver niche door is engraved with two dragons playing with a
pearl, and the front of the door is fitted with a glass pane bearing the
gold-traced inscriptions “wuliang shoufo zan” (meaning) “Ode to the
Amitayus Buddha”) by Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty. There’s a
gold Buddha statue enshrined inside the niche. The 13-storey finial is
decorated with lotus petal patterns and the carved gold canopy is
ringed with lapis lazuli-inlaid Sanskrit inscriptions, with tourmaline-ended strings of pearls and turquoises hanging down.


The sun, crescent moon, flames and treasure pearl at the top are inlaid
with rubies, tourmalines, turquoises and pearls respectively. Thus the
Buddhists rejoice now.

Who has seen how Buddha appeared before 2600 years age?


Thiruvalluvar did not mention even once as ‘god’ in any of 133
chapters with each containing 10 couplets composed in the kural-venba
metre, like the Buddha, who preached Compassion and loving kindness.

The Thirukkural has achieved a perfect balance between the
secular and the spiritual.

Although we can say much about the book, we cannot do the
same about the author. Very little is known about Thiruvalluvar and his life.

Indian sages have this unique quality of making themselves
unimportant and wishing only for their works to be known and useful.


They shy away from talking about themselves. This is one reason why
there is little information about many of our sages. They held the
belief that their message was more important than themselves.
Thiruvalluvar was one of these noble souls.

Thiruvalluvar’s parents names are not conclusively known.


However his wife’s name is given as Vasugi. She is described as the
embodiment of chastity with many stories about her purity being often
quoted even today.

Thiruvalluvar in his Trirukural insisted on Aadhibaghavan,
Vaalivaan, Malar Misai Yeaginaan, Veadudhal, Veeanaamaillaan,
Porivaayil Iyndhavithaan, Thanakuvamaiillaadhavan, Aravaazhi Andanan,
Yenngunathaan, Muraicheidhu Kaaptriya Iraivan which depict Buddha.

Like Buddha’s Dhamma, he Thirukkural can lead to a happy,
contented, morally upright and peaceful life. It can lead to harmonious and peaceful social relations and co-existence.


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http://yoga.org.nz/postures.htm

Main Page

Welcome to our yoga postures section. Here you will find
yoga moves that are broken down to the bare basics with colour photos
to match. We also have state of the art flash yoga animation
technology that you can use to view these moves in full screen size,
full colour and with full instruction.

Yogic exercises cater to the needs of each individual
according to his or her specific needs and physical condition. They
involve vertical, horizontal, and cyclical movements, which provide
energy to the system by directing the blood supply to the areas of the
body which need it most.

In yoga, each cell is observed, attended to, and
provided with a fresh supply of blood, allowing it to function smoothly.
The mind is naturally active and dynamic, while the innerself is
luminous. In this section we will give you plenty of yoga images and
instruction.

Breathing Pose

Arm Stretch

Kneeing Twist

Breathing Pose

The simple act of learning to control the breath
has a number of beneficial effects on your wellbeing, ranging from
increasing your energy, to improved relaxation into sleep. It purifies
the body by flushing away the gaseous by products of metabolism and will
also help you to remain calm in the face of the challenges that we
encounter in our everyday lives.

Control of the breath is an essential element in
the art of yoga. When bringing the air in to the abdomen, do not to puff
the stomach out, but pull the air into it while extending the inside
wall. By harnessing the power of the breath the mind can be stilled and
can be prepared for your Yoga practise.

Instruction Table Breathing Basics
1


Sit in a simple cross-legged position on
the floor. If you don’t feel comfortable in this position place a folded
blanket under your buttocks.

Place your right hand on the rib cage and your left hand on your abdomen

Inhale
slowly through the nose feeling the breath filling the abdomen,
bringing it slowly into the rib cage, then the upper chest.

Exhaling
softly feeling the breath leave the abdomen first, then the ribs and
lastly the upper chest. Observe the space at the end of the exhale

2

Now move hands so your forearms come to a comfortable position
resting on your knees and continue the breathing with a relaxed rhythm.

Continue with a flowing controlled breath in your own time.


Yoga breathing is also call Pranayama . Many say that Pranayama
(Rhythmic control of breath) is one of the bests medicines in the world .

Right click the link and save as to download a beginners breathing routine . Then watch in windows media player.

Click the BIG play button in the middle below. To watch a Pranayama Breathing overview .

Please visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch…

The Virasana Arm/Shoulder Stretch

Hero Pose

The purpose of this pose is to help give the entire
body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It improves
strength and endurance and helps to control your breathing in
conjunction with the movements of the body.

It eases and stimulates the joints especially the
knees, ankles and shoulders. It reduces and alleviates backache and
improves the circulation of the entire body.

Instruction Table
1

Come in to a position on your hands and your

knees with your knees together and your feet slightly wider than hip width apart. Your big

toes & little toes pressing firmly into the floor

2

Push back with your hands & sit between your
buttocks on the floor, make sure you roll your calf muscles out wards so
your not sitting on them.

3


Make sure the inner calves are touching the outer thighs and your
ankles are outside your buttocks, arms resting at the sides.

4

Inhale as you slowly raise your arms to shoulder height, shoulders down.

5

Exhale lengthen out through the fingertips & turn your palms to the roof. Inhale stretch your arms overhead.

6

Interlock the fingers. Slowly exhaling turn the palms
towards the ceiling, and with a powerful push lift up from the belly
into your chest and shoulders.

7

Exhale bring your hands down in a smooth continuance motion….

8

Now bringing your arms interlocking behind your back
with straight arms, being careful not to roll the shoulders forward,
squeezing the shoulder blades together and opening the chest on the
front of the body.

9

Inhale hands back to the side

Repeat 2-3 more times

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Kneeing Twist Pose

Regular practice of the kneeling twist pose
will aid in your ability to rotate the spine and upper torso more
effectively, while increasing the flexibility and strength in your back
and abdominal muscles. It also massages, stimulates and rejuvenates the
internal abdominal organs.

This pose is a good beginners pose and will get you ready for more advanced twists.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Sit on your heals with your knees together, the tops of the feet
pressing firmly into the ground. Your head, shoulders, and hips should
be in one straight line.

Arms relaxed by the side keep your base firm by contracting your buttocks.

2

Inhale, extending the spine upwards, exhale twist around to the
right, placing your left hand on the outside of your right thigh,
turning the head in the direction of the twist, but keeping the head and
shoulders relaxed.

Take a few breaths here, keeping the stomach soft and the eyes soft.

Repeat on the other side

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Triangle Pose
Tree
Warrior

The Triangle Pose


Triangle pose tones the leg muscles, spinal nerves and abdominal
organs; it contributes towards a strong healthy lower back.

The triangle gives an excellent and complete stretch

throughout the entire body.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Align yourself in mountain pose.

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

2

Inhale deeply and jump your feet out landing approx
1.2-1.5m apart. your feet need to be in line and pointing forward at
right angles. Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that they
are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle of
your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead.

3

Now turn your right foot out while keeping your hips to
the front, and turn your left foot in from 90 to 70 degrees, by pivoting
on your heel. Insure your right heel is in line with the instep of the
left foot.

This is important as it sets the base for this pose.

4

The kneecaps and thighs are pulling up,
simultaneously pushing downward through your feet into the floor.
Inhale, extend the spine, exhale as you bend to the right, pushing out
from the hips, through the right arm…

5

Taking your right hand to a comfortable position on your
leg, your left arm coming up to straight, moving down as far as
possible without turning the hips or torso. Keep the thighs firm and
rolling around towards the buttocks, moving the left hip back and open
the chest.

6

Inhale, extend the neck and spine, exhale, turn your head to look up at your left hand.

Keep
your head, your buttocks and your heels in one straight line,not
looking down with you body, keep opening your whole body up.

Breathe easy.

Click here to view the Triangle pose

http://www.youtube.com/watch…

The Tree Pose

This pose harnesses the powers of mental concentration, while
allowing you to calm the mind. It develops balance and stability, and
strengthens the legs and feet, also increasing flexibility in the hips
and knees.

The tree pose is a balance pose incorporating three lines of
energy, emitting from the centre outwards. One line proceeds down the
straight leg, one line extends up the spine and out the fingertips, and
the third moves outward through the bent knee.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Align yourself in mountain pose.

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

2

On your next inhale; shift the bulk of your weight onto
your left foot. Exhale bend the right knee, and assisting with your
hand, place the sole of your right foot as high as possible into the
left inner thigh, with toes pointing down, steady yourself, and

breathe easy.

3

Next raise your arms to shoulder level, be sure that
they are in line with each other. Stretch your arms out from the middle
of your back. Lift your chest and look straight ahead. Keep completely
focused on the pose.

4

Now bring your palms together in prayer
position. Keeping your eyes focused on a point in front of you, will
assist your balance.

5

Inhale as you raise your arms overhead keeping your palms together and stretching upwards through the fingertips.

Keep working your right knee back and contracting your buttocks muscles in and down.

Feel your abdomen plane and hips facing straight ahead, while lifting out of the waist.

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The Warrior Pose

Virabhadra

The Warrior pose is
named after the mythic warrior-sage, Virabhadra. This challenging pose
strengthens the entire body while improving mental capacity and self
control.

It builds, shapes and tones the entire lower body. It tones the
abdominal section and helps to prevent, reduce and eliminate back pain.
The entire upper body -front and back- is worked and doing this pose
increases the capacity of the respiratory system.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Stand in mountain pose continuing with your smooth flowing breath.

2

Jump your feet sides ways and sweep your arms out to the side so your
ankles are below your wrists. Establish your foundation, by pulling
your knees and thighs up, tucking your tailbone under, pushing your feet
firmly into the floor.

Visualise
an imaginary line running vertically down the centre of your body,
dropping your shoulders. Squeeze your arms and legs away from the
centreline.

3

Keep an awareness of this line as you turn your right
foot out to 90 degrees and turn your left foot in to 70 degrees. Ensure
the heel of your front foot aligns with arch of your back foot, hips
facing forward.


If your body wants to turn off centre, counter-act it by pushing
simultaneously in opposite directions from the centre line.

4

Inhale, an as you exhale bend your right
leg, pulling up with the outside and inside of the thigh to form a right
angle at the knee. Only go as low as you can with out turning your hips
off centre.

Ideally
you want your knee directly above your ankle with you leg coming
vertically out of the floor like pillar. Keep the power flowing through
the back leg into the floor.

5

Inhale lift the spine; exhale turn your head to look over your right arm. Take a few deep breaths through the nose.

Hold the pose and breathe smooth.

Reverse the procedure back to mountain pose and repeat back to the other side.


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Mountain Pose
Prayer Pose
Shrug

Mountain Yoga Pose

The Mountain Pose is one of the most important poses in yoga. It is the start and finish point of all standing poses.

When standing in mountain pose, the mind is quiet,
and the body strong and still, like a mountain. This is a pose you can
practise in your daily life, practising to stand correctly will have a
profound influence on your physical and mental well being.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Moutain Pose 1


Stand with your feet hip width apart, so the outsides of the feet are almost parallel edged.

Press and spread the toes into the floor. Feel the weight of your
body distributed evenly through your feet, from the toes to the heels,
keep pressing firmly into the floor.

2

Moutain Posture 2
Lift the kneecaps up by contracting the front thigh
muscles, but not locking the backs of the knees. Pull up with the back
of the thighs, and activate the hip and buttocks to level the pelvis.

3

Mountain Poses Back
Your hips should be directly over your knees, and your
knees over your ankles. This gives you a stable foundation and by
positioning the pelvis properly, keeps the spine healthy.

4

Now extend the spine, by slowly inhaling, lifting up
through the legs as you lift the ribcage, opening the chest and dropping
the shoulders down, extending the neck, keeping the jaw and eyes soft.


5

Bring the shoulder blades into the back, to support the ribcage. Breathe slowly and softly.

Keep your head directly over your shoulders, and look at eye level at a point in front of you.


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The Prayer Pose

This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a
key movement to more advanced poses. This pose will teach you how to
push from under the shoulders and out of the lats, the major muscle
group of the back. A key movement in a lot of yoga poses.

It strengthens and aligns the upper body while
releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,
which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the
abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Centre yourself in mountain pose and take a
few deep breaths here, breathing down into the abdomen, continuing the
breathing that you are now familiar with.

2

Inhale, raise your arms to shoulder height and stretch them out in the opposite direction to each other

3

Now twist your arms from the shoulder and turning your palms upwards. Keep the body in a nice strong upright position

4

Bring your arms out in front of you, pushing
your elbows firmly together and your fingers extending away from you,
while focusing on pulling your shoulder blades together..

5

Continue squeezing the elbows together as you bring your palms together

6

Now bend at the elbow and take the forearms to vertical.
Keep pressing firmly with the palms and the elbows as you breathe the
arms upwards. With each exhale moving slightly higher.
Shoulder opener Yoga Posture. This
movement will teach you how to push from under the shoulders and out of
the lats, the major muscle group of the back. A key movement in a lot of
yoga poses. This pose is simple, but very effective, and is a key
movement to more advanced poses.

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The Shoulder Shrug

The shoulder rotation is another pose which can be practiced anywhere and at any time.

It strengthens and aligns the shoulder region while
releasing tension and increasing the circulation to the shoulder joint,
which is a ball and socket joint. It also aids in strengthening the
abdominal and lumber region as you look to form a solid base.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Align yourself in mountain pose.

Continuing with your smooth

flowing breath

2

As you inhale, lift your shoulders to your ear lobes, keeping the head erect and soft.

3

As you exhale, rotate the shoulders around

by pushing up out of the chest and squeezing the shoulder blades together, rotating them

in a full circle.

4

Back down into mountain pose

Repeat 3 more times

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Lying Twist
Downward Dog
Seated Forward Bend

The Lying Basic Twist

Doing this pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

The lying twist is another pose which is very
simple yet extremely effective. This pose is soothing to the spine and
neck, and warms and frees the lower back and hips and it also improves
digestion and assists in toxin elimination.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Come to a position lying on your back and stretch your arms out to
the side and place your palms and shoulders firmly on the floor.

Move your shoulder blades under. Spread your toes apart. Feel the
back and shoulders moulding to the straight lines of the floor.

2

Bend your knees as far as they come towards the chest.

3


Inhale, keeping your knees and ankles together,
Exhale, rolling your knees to the right. Focus on keeping your arms
pressing out wards and your shoulders pushing firmly into the ground.
You may feel or hear your spine lengthening as it extends into the
correct alignment.

Knees & ankles together breathe, focus on creating length between the left lower rib and the hip,

4

Now turn your head to look over your left hand. Relax in to this pose, stomach soft, breathing soft and relaxed.

Reverse the pose back up and repeat to the other side
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The Downward Facing Dog

Adhomukha Svanasana

The downward yoga pose is
named as such as it resembles the shape of a Dog stretching itself out.
This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in the legs
while strengthening and shaping the upper body. Dog pose Yoga Posture .
One of the main yoga asanas. If you have time for only one posture try
this one.

Holding this pose for a minute or longer will
stimulate and restore energy levels if you are tired. Regular practice
of this pose rejuvenates the entire body and gently stimulates your
nervous system.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Come up onto your hands and knees with your knees hip
width apart and the hands shoulder width apart, your fingers wide
pressing firmly into the floor.

2

Inhale, arch your spine and look up as you turn your toes under.

3

As you exhale straighten your legs and pause here for a moment.

4

Now push the floor away from you hands, positioning your
body like an inverted V, achieving a straight line from your hands to
your shoulders to the hips. Straight arms and straight legs.

As you inhale press downward into your hands and lift outward out of the shoulders.

Lift your head and torso back through the line of your body.

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The Seated Forward Bend

Paschimottanasana

The purpose of this pose is to give the entire back
of your body a very complete stretch from the heels to the head. It is
excellent for posture improvement and stimulates the internal organs as
well.

It adds in improved mental concentration and
endurance and helps to control and calm the mind. It relieves
compression while increasing the elasticity of the spine, it also
strengthens and stretches the hamstrings.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Come to a sitting position with your legs together in front of you.

Move
the fleshy part of your buttocks from underneath you, so you are on the
top of your sitting bones, which are located at the very top of your
legs.
2

Roll the thighs inwards so that the kneecaps are facing directly upwards.

Activate the legs by pressing down into the floor, and out through the heels.

Spread your toes wide and pull them towards you.

Lengthen your lower back muscles down as you extend your spine up and out of the pelvis.
3

Now take your strap around both feet. The
strap`s purpose is to keep the spine straight. This is very important.
Be aware the head is an extension of the spine, so keep it aligned
accordingly.

Use the breath to create the optimum degree of intensity in the stretch.
4

On your next exhale; come down the belt further while
maintaining the extension on the front and back of the torso. Some of
you will be able to grab the sides of your feet. Breathe softly and
continuously. Don’t pull yourself forward by the strength of your upper
body.

Keep bending at the hips, maintaining a relaxed head and neck.
5

Go a little further, relax your abdomen, and inhale, as
you lengthen, exhale, and come further forward, increasing the space in
your vertebrae.

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The Locust
The Bridge
Extended Child’s Pose

The Locust Pose

Salabhasana

The locus yoga posture is
named as such as it resembles the shape of the insect known as the
Locust. This pose helps to strengthen, stretch and reduce stiffness in
the lower back while bringing flexibility to the upper back region.

When you first begin to practice this pose, your
legs may not move very far off the floor. Please continue and stay
positive as you will find your range will continue to improve the more
you practice. Learning to master this pose will hold you in good stead
for more advanced back bends.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1

Come to a position lying face down on the floor, with
your arms along side your body, palms and forehead down. Bring your
knees and ankles together. Squeeze the shoulder blades together and
down. Push your palms into the floor. Pull the abdominals inwards,
contract the buttocks, and press the hips and pubis firmly into the
floor.

2

On your next exhale; raise the legs to a height that is comfortable but challenging.

Keep the buttocks activated, lock the knees, keep the ankles together.

3

Extend the front of your body as you pull
the shoulder blades together, raising the head, the arms, and upper
torso away from the floor, looking straight ahead, opening the front of
the chest and pushing down the lines of the arms.

Keep the legs working strongly.

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The Bridge Pose

The Bridge Pose is
a simple yet very effective pose to practice. It helps to promote a
healthy flexible spine while strengthening the legs and buttock muscles.
It also helps to stretch and stimulate the abdominal muscles and
organs.

It aids in easing and stimulating the mind and is a great way to reenergize if feeling tired.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Lie on your back with your legs bent, heels close to the buttocks,
Feet pressing firmly into the floor, hip width and parallel.

Your arms should be slightly out from your sides, the palms of your hands pressing firmly into the floor.

2

Inhale, and with the exhale raise the hips up by pushing strongly
into the floor with your feet. Keep the buttocks firm, and press the
shoulders and arms into the floor. Only go to the height that you are
comfortable with.

Take a few nourishing breaths in this position, as you keep opening the chest and lengthening the torso.

3


Now bring your arms over your head to the floor behind
you. Keep lifting your buttocks away from the floor, keeping them
contracted, which will protect the lower spine, and work softly with the
breath, keeping the head and neck relaxed.

This
pose stretches the whole front of the body, and brings mobility to the
spine. Breathing is improved from the opening of the ribcage and chest
area.
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The Extended Child’s Pose / Garbhasana

The Childs Yoga pose when
practiced regularly is very beneficial to your entire mind and body. It
helps to release the pressure on the spine while providing an entire
stretch through the upper body to the fingertips. It also aids in
strengthening and stretching the insides of the legs while massaging the
internal organs.

Breathing will becomes more efficient and your mind
will become clear. It also aids in improved mental processes and helps
to rejuvenate and energize the entire being.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Bring your big toes together and your knees wide apart, inhale as you lift your spine and extend your stomach.

2

Exhale bend forward from the hips as you walk you hands
out as far in front of you as possible, extending from the hips to the
fingertips.

3


Place your forehead on the ground & buttocks
back to the heels. Work your pubis to the floor and strech the inner
thigh muscles. Focus on the breath.

4

Breathing into the abdomen as you extend it
forward in to the breastbone, creating length through the upper body.
Exhale from deep in the abdomen relaxing in the spine and continue the
slow controlled breathing.

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch…

Standing Forward Bend
The Boat (beginners)

The Standing Forward Bend

This pose aids in digestion and is restorative. It
frees the rib cage allowing for improved breathing. It aids in mental
concentration and helps to revive mental and pysichal exhaustion. The
heartbeat is slowed and the lower back is strengthened and pressure is
removed from the lumbar region.

It increases flexibility while strengthening and
developing the hamstrings. It also helps to strengthen the feet and
ankles while realigning the entire body.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Stand in mountain pose, in the centre of your mat, with your hands in prayer position. Jump your feet wide apart.

Keep the outside of your feet running parallel while lifting your
arches, pulling up with the thighs and the tail bone tucked under.

2

Place your hands on your hips and feel the extension up out of the waist.

3


Inhale, As you exhale bend at the hips extend forward,
continue lifting out of the hips keeping your legs strong and your base
nice and firm, looking forward to begin with. Keep the extension on the
stomach, which will help keep your back flat protecting it.

Take a few breaths here.

4

Now take your hands to the floor extending from the lower abdomen to
the breastbone and through the spine. Some of you maybe on the finger
tips.

If
you can’t keep your spine straight put your hands on your knees and
keep slowly working down your legs, working with your body, not against
it. Lift your sitting bones to the ceiling.

5

Draw your shoulders down your back so you can extend the neck with ease.

Remember to keep the arches high.
Please Visit:
http://www.youtube.com/watch…

The Boat Pose

Doing the boat pose will rapidly increase strength and muscle tone in your midsection.

Keep challenging yourself to stay in this pose
longer. If you find the stimulation of the midsection becoming intense,
just persist with it, knowing your mind has ultimate control over the
body.
To view in flash - click the image below

Instruction Table
1


Find yourself on your sitting bones, lifting out of the hips.

Extend your spine upwards, and press the soles of your feet into the floor, with the knees and ankles together.

2

Using your fingertips on the floor for balance, extend your abdomen as you lean back slightly.

3


Bring your lower legs up, parallel to the floor.
Breathe softly, in and out through the nose, while opening the chest and
squeezing the shoulder blades together.

Focus on a point at eye level in front of you. You may find this pose challenging to begin with

4

Now bring your arms up beside your knees, parallel to the floor,
opening the chest. Keep your focus on that point in front of you. This
will help your stability. Continue with the controlled breathing.

Feel the stimulation of the entire abdominal region, as you hold this pose for a few more breaths.
Advanced Variation of The Boat


Now bring your legs up to straight. Continue to keep your focus on that point in front of you.

Continue with the controlled breathing.

Please Visit:

http://www.youtube.com/watch…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ojHBcT5e_M8

Sutta Piṭaka-Digha Nikāya

DN 16 - (D ii 137)
Mahāparinibbāna Sutta
{excerpts}
— The last instructions —
[mahā-parinibbāna]

This
sutta gathers various instructions the Buddha gave for the sake of his
followers after his passing away, which makes it be a very important set
of instructions for us nowadays.

Note: infobubbles on all Pali words except in section with light green background color

Dhammādāsaṃ
nāma dhamma-pariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti. �
(The Mirror of the Dhamma)

I
will expound the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi.
தமிழ்
(தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு)
நான்
Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை
வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான
சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக
எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

Katamo
ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako
ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti? �
And
what, Ānanda, is that discourse on the Dhamma which is called
Dhammādāsa, possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can
declare of himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more
tiracchāna-yoni, no more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of
misfortune, of misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of
misery, certain of being destined to sambodhi?
மற்றும் என்ன,Ānanda
(ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின்
உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும் தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய
விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka (புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர்
தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக் கொண்டால்:
‘ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும்
niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம
சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya (ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்)
இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான்
sotāpanna (புனல் பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து
விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi (முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர
இருத்தல் உறுதி தானே?

Idh’ānanda, ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:

Here, Ānanda, an ariyasāvaka is endowed with Buddhe aveccappasāda:
இங்கு,ஆனந்தா,புனிதமான சீடர் Buddhe aveccappasāda (புத்தர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Itipi
so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū
anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ ti.�
Dhamme aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Dhamme aveccappasāda:
Dhamme aveccappasāda:(தம்மா இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ ti.�
Saṅghe aveccappasāda samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with Saṅghe aveccappasāda:
Saṅghe aveccappasāda (சான்றோர் இடத்தில் தன்னம்பிக்கை)யாக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

‘Suppaṭipanno
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato
sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa
bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo
anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ ti.�
Ariya-kantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti
He is endowed with a sīla which is agreeable to the ariyas,
புனிதமானவர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளத்தக்க சீலராக குணிக்கப் படுகிரார்.

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.�
Ayaṃ
kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhamma-pariyāyo, yena samannāgato
ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byā-kareyya: ‘khīṇa-nirayo-mhi
khīṇa-tiracchāna-yoni khīṇa-pettivisayo khīṇ’āpāya-duggati-vinipāto,
sotāpanno-hamasmi avinipāta-dhammo niyato sambodhi-parāyaṇo’ ti �
This,
Ānanda, is the discourse on the Dhamma which is called Dhammādāsa,
possessed of which the ariyasāvaka, if he so desires, can declare of
himself: ‘For me, there is no more niraya, no more tiracchāna-yoni, no
more pettivisaya, no more state of unhappiness, of misfortune, of
misery, I am a sotāpanna, by nature free from states of misery, certain
of being destined to sambodhi. �
இது, Ānanda (ஆனந்தா),தம்மா மீது ஆன
அந்த பிரசங்கம் Dhammādāsa (தம்மாவின் உருப்பளிங்கு) என கருதப்படும்
தம்மாவை வியாக்கியானம் பண்ண பிரசங்கம் செய்ய விரும்புகிரேன்,ariyasāvaka
(புனிதமான சீடர்)ஆக ஆட்கொண்டு,ஒருவேளை அவர் தானே விரும்பி உறுதியாக்கிக்
கொண்டால்:�’ஆக எனக்கு, இன்னும் மேலும் niraya (நரகம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
tiracchāna-yoni ( மிருகம சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும் pettivisaya
(ஆவிகள் சாம்ராஜ்யம்) இல்லை,இன்னும் மேலும்
பாக்கியவீனம்,துரதிருஷ்டம்,துக்கம், நிலை இல்லை, நான் sotāpanna (புனல்
பிரவேசி), இயற்கையாக துக்க நிலையில் இருந்து விடுவிக்கப்பட்டவன்,sambodhi
(முழுக்க தூக்கத்திலிருந்து விழிப்பு) ஆக சேர இருத்தல் உறுதி.

… �
… �
Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. �
Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
�Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,bhikkhus (பிக்குக்கள்),மேலும் sampajānos(மாறா
இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்).இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu
மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்கு, பிக்குக்கள் sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்? இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள், ஒரு பிக்கு

kāye
kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno
satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; citte cittānupassī viharati
ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ; dhammesu
dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke
abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Katha’ñca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave,
Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sato. And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno? Here, bhikkhus,

இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sato (கவனமான) இருக்கிரார்.மற்றும் எப்படி,பிக்குக்கள், பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்?
இங்கு,பிக்குக்கள்,

bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī
hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite
sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite
pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme
sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve
sampajānakārī hoti.

Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī ti. �
Thus, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu sampajāno. Sato should you remain, bhikkhus, and sampajānos. This is our intruction to you.
இப்படி,பிக்குக்கள்,பிக்கு
sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்)ஆகிரார்,Sato(கவனமான)
நீர் இருக்க வேண்டும்,பிக்குக்கள்,மற்றும்sampajānos(மாறா இயல்பு
அநித்தியத்தை பகுத்தறிதல்),இது தான் உமக்கு
எங்களுடைய போதனை.

… �


Sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa
sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya.
Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ
okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi
tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni
antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. �
– Ananda, the twin sala
trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And
the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter
and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral
flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the
body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in
worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly
instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
-ஆனந்தா,பூவா
பருவகாலமாக இருந்த போதிலும், இரட்டை sala (சாலா) மரங்கள் முழு மலர்ச்சி
அடைந்து இருக்கிறது. மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) வழிபாடு செய்தல்
போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்து, துளி சிதற,
இரத்தினப்பிரபையாகியது. மற்றும் தேவலோக பவழமலர்கள் மற்றும் சுவர்க்கத்தைச்
சேர்ந்த சந்தன மரத் தூள் வானத்தில் இருந்து மழை கீழ் நோக்கி Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பொழிந்து, மற்றும் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை)
வழிபாடு செய்தல் போல் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) உடல் மேலே பூமழை பொழிந்தது.
மற்றும் Tathagata(குறைபாடற்றவர்) போற்றுதலைக் காட்டுஞ் சமிக்கையால்
சுவர்க்கத்தைச் சேர்ந்த குரல் ஒலி மற்றும் இசைகருவிகள் காற்றுவெளியில்
வெளிப்படுத்தியது.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā Tathāgato sakkato vā
hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu
vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati
sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so Tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti
māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātih’ānanda,
dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā
anudhammacārin’oti. Evañ’hi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabba nti. �
It is not
by this, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed,
paid homage and honored. But, Ananda, any bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman
or laywoman, remaining dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna,
living in accordance with the Dhamma, that one respects, venerates,
esteems, pays homage, and honors the Tathāgata with the most excellent
homage. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘We will
remain dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, living in
accordance with the Dhamma’.
இதனால் மட்டும் அல்ல, ஆனந்தா,Tathagata
(குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது, மரியாதை செலுத்தியது, நன்குமதிக்கப் பட்டது,
மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம் செலுத்தியது. ஆனால், ஆனந்தா, எந்த ஒரு
பிக்குவோ அல்லது பிக்குனியோ, உபாசகன் அல்லது
உபாசகி,dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு பயிற்சிக்கிராரோ அவர் Tathagata (குறைபாடற்றவரை) உபசரித்தது,
மரியாதை செலுத்தி, நன்குமதித்து, மனந்திறந்த புகழுரைத்தது, கெளரவம்
செலுத்தி. மிக உயர்ந்த அளவு நேர்த்திவாய்ந்த மனந்திறந்த புகழுரையாற்றுவர்.
இதுக்காக, ஆனந்தா, நீங்கள், நீங்களாகவே பயிற்சித்தல் இதுதான்: நாங்கள்
dhamm’ānudhamma’p’paṭipanna, sāmīci’p’paṭipanna, தம்மாவிற்கு
பொருந்துமாறு வாழ்க்கை முறையில் தொடர்ந்திருப்போம்.
… �
… �

‘Siyā kho pan’ānanda, tumhākaṃ evam’assa: ‘atīta-satthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ,
natthi no satthā’ ti. Na kho pan’etaṃ, Ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo,
Ānanda, mayā Dhammo ca Vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mam’accayena
satthā. �
– ‘To some of you, Ānanda, it may occur thus: ‘The words of
the Teacher have ended, there is no longer a Teacher’. But this,
Ānanda, should not, be so considered. That, Ānanda, which I have taught
and made known to you as the Dhamma and the Vinaya, that will be your
Teacher after my passing away. �
உங்கள் சிலர்ருக்கு, ஆனந்தா,இவ்வாறு நேரிடக் கூடும்:
கற்பிப்பவர் வார்த்தைகள் தீர்ந்து விட்டது, இனி கற்பிப்பவர் இல்லை. ஆனால் இது,
ஆனந்தா, அவ்வாறு ஆலோசனை பண்ணப்படாது. அது, ஆனந்தா,எவை நான் பாடம் படிப்பிது
மற்றும் உங்களை அறிந்திருக்க செய்துமுடித்த Dhamma and Vinaya (தம்மாவும்
வினயாவும்) அது என்னுடைய இறப்புக்கு அப்பால் உங்களுடைய கற்பிப்பவராக
இருக்கும்.


Venerable Kiribathgoda Gnanananda Thero
youtube.com


Summary of the Problem with Electronic Voting
https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3FeaMu_1EQyZWVzSnVBcVY4a28/view


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Summary of the Problem with Electronic Voting


The 2000 presidential election and the consequential actions of Congress and the states are dramatically


changing the American election process. The Help America Vote Act (HAVA) passed by Congress in 2002


mandates reform of the election processes of all states. HAVA provides funding to replace obsolete voting


technologies such as punch cards and lever machines with more modern
technologies such as precinct- based optical scanners and direct
recording electronic (DRE) voting machines.


While HAVA includes a requirement that all voting systems must provide a manual audit capacity, its


definition of that requirement is ambiguous, and there are conflicting interpretations of its meaning.


Many elections officials have concluded that HAVA does not require a paper record of each ballot, verified by


the voter at the time the ballot is cast. As a result, over 100,000 paperless DRE voting machines have


already been deployed which lack the ability to produce a voter-verified paper ballot.


We are gravely concerned about the extensive reliance of voting machines that record and tally votes


exclusively through electronic means and provide no paper ballot that can be verified by the voter. We have


three major objections to entrusting our elections to these machines:


• Software errors are unavoidable


• Without a voter-verified paper ballot it is impossible to perform meaningful recounts


• The opportunities for fraud exist on a greater scale than ever before


Software Errors


No one knows how to write bug-free software. This fact is not in dispute. The more complex the software,


the more difficult it is to find and fix bugs. Election software is very complex because of the wide variety of


ballot types used across the nation, and it will contain errors, regardless of the skill and dedication of the


engineers who design it and the programmers who code it.


Computer glitches are not uncommon. All of us who use computers know this. Undoubtedly, software errors


will cause problems in future elections, just as they have in past elections. Here are three of the many


examples of computer errors reported in newspapers in recent elections:


• Cateret County, North Carolina, November 2004: software problems caused 4,438 electronic


ballots to be lost and never recovered. The vendor acknowledged responsibility for the loss.


• Fairfax County, Virginia, November 2003: testing ordered by a judge revealed the several


voting machines subtracted one in every hundred votes for the candidate who lost her seat on the


school board.


• Broward County, Florida, January 2004: 134 electronic ballots were blank in a one-race


election held on DRE voting machines in which the margin of victory was 12 votes. Florida law


required a manual recount of the ballots, but that recount was impossible because there were no


physical ballots to recount.


These and many other reports of computer problems present us with an obvious question: how many election


results were compromised by unnoticed computer errors and malfunctions? Of course, we have no way of


knowing. These reported cases were detected, but it is only reasonable to assume that were other


undetected errors, and we will never know how many.


Impossibility of Meaningful Recounts


Trusting our votes to a wholly electronic process of recording and storage leaves us completely without


recourse if that electronic process fails - and history shows that the process fails all too frequently. DRE


voting machines do allow voters to inspect and correct their choices on the touch screen’s final summary


display prior to casting their vote. But, DREs do not provide voters any method for inspecting how their vote


is stored inside the DRE’s electronic memory. Thus, the electronic ballot records stored in those memory


circuits are completely invisible to and unverified by the voter; they are also alterable. Yet it is the contents


of that invisible, impermanent, and unverified computer memory that are used to total up the votes.


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Without voter-verified paper records that accurately reflect the voters’ choices, it is simply impossible to


perform a meaningful recount. While most DRE voting machines can print a paper record of the votes cast,


this report is not generated until after the polls have closed, and is nothing more than a printout of the


electronic records. If the electronic record is inaccurate, then the printed report will also be inaccurate.


Such a printout is not voter-verified and does not provide an audit trail appropriate for a meaningful


recount.


Consider this scenario, not unlike events that have occurred in past elections: A voter marks the


appropriate locations on the voting machine’s touch screen, reviews the choices, and gives the command to


cast the ballot. Due to a software problem or malfunction, the computer records the ballot incorrectly, or


not at all. The voter leaves the booth, and at the end of the day, the poll worker prints out the ballot images.


The voter’s votes are incorrectly tallied and the printed ballot image is incorrect, but this error goes


undetected because the voter is not there to view the printed version. But because the printed version of


the ballot images all match the electronic records (as they must, since one is simply a copy of the other),


elections officials proudly report that they have successfully conducted yet another flawless election.


Opportunities for Grand-Scale Fraud


Election fraud is not unknown in previous American elections, and it is not unexpected in future elections.


However, the opportunities for fraud provided by electronic voting machines surpass all the opportunities


available previously. For example, a corrupt insider, working for one of the vendors of widely-used voting


machines, could hide malicious code in the software. That vendor could then unwittingly distribute that


malicious code to thousands of machines across the nation and alter the election results in every state


where those machines are used. Existing testing and certification procedures for DREs are voluntary and


currently insufficient to guarantee that this type of tampering will be detected. Elections officials are


usually not computer security experts and most do not fully appreciate the security vulnerabilities of DRE


voting machines.


Concerns about fraud are not simply speculation. A 2003 study by Johns Hopkins and Rice University


computer experts revealed hundreds of security flaws in the software of a leading manufacturer. Two


separate studies commissioned by Maryland (the SAIC and RABA reports) confirmed many of those findings


and identified additional vulnerabilities. An Ohio study of the four major voting machines has shown them


all to have serious security vulnerabilities. That study prompted the Ohio Secretary of State to delay the


installation of DRE voting machines in that state until after the 2004 election.


A Reasonable Solution


How each voter votes is a private matter. But how those votes are counted is everyone’s business. When


voters cast their ballots, they must be able to verify that their choices have been accurately and


permanently recorded on that ballot. They must also be ensured that their ballots cannot be altered or


deleted after they have verified them, and that their voter-verified paper ballots are available for a


meaningful recount, including manual recounts where required by law.


There are now several vendors of voting machines that provide both accessibility to voters with disabilities


and a voter-verified paper ballot. In addition, a major vendor of DRE voting machines is now supplying


printers that can be retrofit onto its previously-paperless systems; those retrofit printers were used


successfully to produce voter-verified paper ballots on the DRE voting machines used in the September


2004 primary elections in Nevada.


Accordingly, a reasonable solution to the problem with electronic voting is to pass legislation requiring all


DRE voting machines to provide a voter-verified paper ballot that is saved in a ballot box for use in recounts


and audits. Since HAVA mandates that all voting systems must (by 2006) provide equivalent accessibility


to voters with disabilities, any such voter-verified paper ballot system must also be accessible by that date.


In the last session (the 108th), several bills were introduced in the U.S. Congress that would establish such


a voter-verified paper ballot requirement for all voting systems. While these bills differed in the details of


their implementation and in their effective dates, all would have established a voter-verified paper ballot


requirement by 2006. As of October 2004, the combined cosponsorship for these bills included members of


both parties and totaled 192 members of the House and 20 members of the Senate. Of all of the VVPB bills


that were introduced into the Senate, only the Ensign amendment, S. 2437, attracted bipartisan support.


For additional information, please visit http://www.verifiedvoting.org


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